WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological effects caused

  1. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  2. Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: Is there a connection to diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olivera-Severo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ureases are enzymes from plants, fungi and bacteria that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomers of 90-kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two or three subunit complexes. We showed that some isoforms of jack bean urease, canatoxin and the classical urease, bind to glycoconjugates and induce platelet aggregation. Canatoxin also promotes release of histamine from mast cells, insulin from pancreatic cells and neurotransmitters from brain synaptosomes. In vivo it induces rat paw edema and neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects are independent of ureolytic activity and require activation of eicosanoid metabolism and calcium channels. Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach mucosa, causes gastric ulcers and cancer by a mechanism that is not understood. H. pylori produces factors that damage gastric epithelial cells, such as the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, and a urease (up to 10% of bacterial protein that neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. H. pylori whole cells or extracts of its water-soluble proteins promote inflammation, activate neutrophils and induce the release of cytokines. In this paper we review data from the literature suggesting that H. pylori urease displays many of the biological activities observed for jack bean ureases and show that bacterial ureases have a secretagogue effect modulated by eicosanoid metabolites through lipoxygenase pathways. These findings could be relevant to the elucidation of the role of urease in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease caused by H. pylori.

  3. Effect of Co-Existing Biologically Relevant Molecules and Ions on DNA Photocleavage Caused by Pyrene and its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic ions, coenzymes, amino acids, and saccharides could co-exist with toxic environmental chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, in the cell. The presence of these co-existing chemicals can modulate the toxicity of the PAHs. One of the genotoxic effects by PAHs is light-induced cleavage, or photocleavage, of DNA. The effect of inorganic ions I-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ and biological molecules riboflavin, histidine, mannitol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, glutathione, and glutamic acid on the DNA photocleavage by pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP, and 1-aminopyrene (1-AP, is studied. The non-transition metal ions Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, usually have very little inhibitory effects, while the transition metal ions Fe3+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ enhance, Mn2+ inhibits the DNA photocleavage. The effect by biological molecules is complex, depending on the photochemical reaction mechanisms of the compounds tested (1-AP, 1-HP and pyrene and on the chemical nature of the added biological molecules. Riboflavin, histidine, and mannitol enhance DNA photocleavage by all three compounds, except that mannitol has no effect on the photocleavage of DNA by pyrene. Glutathione inhibits the DNA photocleavage by 1-AP and 1-HP, but has no effect on that by pyrene. NAD enhances the DNA photocleavage by 1-AP, but has no effect on that by 1-HP and pyrene. Glutamic acid enhances the DNA photocleavage by 1-AP and pyrene, but inhibits that by 1-HP. These results show that the co-existing chemicals may have a profound effect on the toxicity of PAHs, or possibly on the toxicity of many other chemicals. Therefore, if one studies the toxic effects of PAHs or other toxic chemicals, the effect of the co-existing chemicals or ions needs to be considered.

  4. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  5. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  6. Geant4-DNA simulation of DNA damage caused by direct and indirect radiation effects and comparison with biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrasa, Carmen; Meylan, Sylvain; Gonon, Geraldine; Gruel, Gaëtan; Giesen, Ulrich; Bueno, Marta; Rabus, Hans

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present results obtained in the frame of the BioQuaRT project. The objective of the study was the correlation between the number of radiation-induced double strand breaks (DSB) of the DNA molecule and the probability of detecting nuclear foci after targeted microbeam irradiation of cells with protons and alpha particles of different LET. The former were obtained by simulation with new methods integrated into Geant4-DNA that permit calculating the number of DSB in a DNA target model induced by direct and indirect radiation effects. A particular focus was laid in this work on evaluating the influence of different criteria applied to the simulated results for predicting the formation of a direct SSB. Indeed, these criteria have an important impact on the predicted number of DSB per particle track and its dependence with LET. Among the criteria tested in this work, the case that a direct radiation interaction leads to a strand break if the cumulative energy deposited in the backbone part of one nucleotide exceeds a threshold of 17.5 eV leads to the best agreement with the relative LET dependence of number of radiation induced foci. Further calculations and experimental data are nevertheless needed in order to fix the simulation parameters and to help interpreting the biological experimental data observed by immunofluorescence in terms of the DSB complexity.

  7. A biological method to monitor early effects of the air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Loppi, Stefano

    2008-09-01

    The suitability of a set of ecophysiological parameters, to be used as early warning indicator to detect signs of a worsening environment around geothermal power plants, was tested by comparison with the diversity of epiphytic lichens, a well-established indicator of geothermal air pollution. Samples of the lichen Evernia prunastri were transplanted around a geothermal power plant at Larderello (Tuscany, Italy) and at a control site, and integrity of cell membranes, concentration of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, chlorophyll integrity and variations in pH of thalli were measured. The results showed that cell membrane damage, expressed by changes in electrical conductivity, could be used to detect early (exposure periods as short as 1 month) deleterious effects of geothermal air pollution.

  8. Causes of Effects and Effects of Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Judea

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual framework and simple mathematical methods of estimating the probability that one event was a necessary cause of another, as interpreted by lawmakers. We show that the fusion of observational and experimental data can yield informative bounds that, under certain circumstances, meet legal criteria of causation.…

  9. Landslides - Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  10. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  11. Causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  12. Biological effects of hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Biological effects of hyperthermia and application of hyperthermia to cancer therapy were outlined. As to independent effects of hyperthermia, heat sensitivity of cancer cells, targets of hyperthermia, thermal tolerance of cancer cells, effects of pH on hyperthermic cell survival, effects of hyperthermia on normal tissues, and possibility of clinical application of hyperthermia were described. Combined effect of hyperthermia and x-irradiation to enhance radiosensitivity of cancer cells, its mechanism, effects of oxygen on cancer cells treated with hyperthermia and irradiation, and therapeutic ratio of combined hyperthermia and irradiation were also described. Finally, sensitizers were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  14. Inference of chemicals that cause biological effects in treated pulp and paper mill effluent using gene expression in caged fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical chemistry techniques can identify chemicals present in the waters of the Great Lakes areas of concern, however it remains a challenge to identify those chemicals or classes of chemicals that actually cause adverse effects. Use of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales prome...

  15. Review of studies validating the protective efficacy of a new technology designed to compensate adverse biological effects caused by vdu and GSM cell phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Messagier, R.; Fillion-Robin, M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 13 studies were initiated and coordinated by Technolab Research Center in 6 laboratories from 3 countries (France, UK, Japan). These studies were aimed at: 1) investigating potential adverse biological effects associated with exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted by two types of communication devices, video display units and cell phones; 2) assessing the efficacy of a compensation magnetic oscillating technology designed to protect from non ionizing radiation. Five types of biological systems including chicken embryos, young chickens, healthy mice, mice suffering from cancer and humans were used. A set of 10 biological parameters were assessed, including embryonic mortality, hormones, antibodies, haematological parameters, stress, mood, ocular damage, neurogenesis, micronuclei formation and intracellular calcium. Overall endpoints were affected by irradiation, in terms of increased embryonic mortality, immune depression, depletion of hormones crucial for the regulation of the immune system, changes in haematological parameters, increased stress, mood alteration, induction of ophthalmologic disorders, inhibition of the neurogenesis in brain areas associated with memory processes, induction of symptoms of cell dysfunction, apoptosis or cancer, and disruption of trans-membrane fluxes of calcium. On the other hand, the compensation magnetic oscillation technology tested allowed significant correction of altered physiological parameters, as well as improvement or disappearance of observed pathological symptoms (author)

  16. The biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  17. Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles; Dawson, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In response to Kate Brown’s article “Chernobyl’s hidden legacy (Physics World Focus on Nuclear Energy 2017 pp9-11) in which she argues that researchers today should be looking at Soviet-era information on the medical effects of the Chernobyl disaster.

  18. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  19. Biological effects of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiu, Toshiaki; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ishida, Yuka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (JP)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  20. On the Causes of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, A. Philip; Faigman, David L.; Fienberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Professor Pearl's comment on our original article, Dawid et al. Our focus there on the distinction between the "Effects of Causes" (EoC) and the "Causes of Effects" (CoE) concerned two fundamental problems, one a theoretical challenge in statistics and the other a practical challenge for trial courts. In this…

  1. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  2. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  3. Biological Effects after Prenatal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2004-01-01

    A Task Group of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has finished a report Biological Effects after Prenatal Irradiation (Embryo and Fetus) which has been approved by the Main Commission and Will be Published. Some new important scientific data shall be discussed in this contribution. During the preimplantation period lethality of the mammalian embryo is the dominating radiation effect. However, in mouse strains with genetic predispositions it has been shown that also malformations can be caused. This effect is genetically determined and its mechanisms is different from the induction of malformations during major organogenesis. Radiation exposures during this prenatal period leads ato an increase of genomic instability of cells in the normal appearing fetuses. These radiation effects can be transmitted to the next generation. A renewed analysis of individuals with severe mental retardation after exposures during the 8th to 15th week post conception in Hiroshima and Nagasaki gives evidence that a threshold dose exists for this effect around 300 mGy. This is supported by a number of experimental animal data which have been obtained from cellular and molecular investigations during the brain development. The data show the high radiosensitivity of the developing brain but also the various compensatory mechanisms and the enormous plasticity of these processes. The radiosensitivity varies strongly during the prenatal development. The highest sensitivity is found during the early and mid fetal period which is coinciding with weeks 8-15 post conception in humans. The lowest doses causing persistent damage are in the range of 100 to 300 mGy. For intelligence quotient scores a linear dose response model provides a satisfactory fit. From the experimental data it can be concluded that the fetal stage is most sensitive to the carcinogenic effect in comparison to the other prenatal stages. Such as clear situation cannot be obtained from the

  4. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  5. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  6. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS LABORATORY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving biological material can cause diseases to the professional healthcare and also bring psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the accidents occurring with biological material with professional of clinical laboratories of Sinop-MT. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and health variables. 21 (87.5% of respondents stated that they never suffered any kind of accident. One of the injured workers reported that there was involvement in your emotional life. It is observed underreporting of occupational accidents by employees affected, making it difficult to increase research on the subject and actions about the problem.

  7. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [de

  8. Biological Control of Plant Disease Caused by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases in plants are difficult to control. The emphasis is on preventing the spread of the bacteria rather than curing the diseased plant. Integrated management measures for bacterial plant pathogens should be applied for successfull control. Biological control is one of the control measures viz. through the use of microorganisms to suppress the growth and development of bacterial plant pathogen and ultimately reduce the possibility of disease onset. The study of biological control of bacterial plant pathogen was just began compared with of fungal plant pathogen. The ecological nature of diverse bacterial plant pathogens has led scientists to apply different approach in the investigation of its biological control. The complex process of entrance to its host plant for certain soil-borne bacterial plant pathogens need special techniques and combination of more than one biological control agent. Problem and progress in controlling bacterial plant pathogens biologically will be discussed in more detail in the paper and some commercial products of biological control agents (biopesticides will be introduced.     Penyakit tumbuhan karena bakteri sulit dikendalikan. Penekanan pengendalian adalah pada pencegahan penyebaran bakteri patogen dan bukan pada penyembuhan tanaman yang sudah sakit. Untuk suksesnya pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan diperlukan cara pengelolaan yang terpadu. Pengendalian secara biologi merupakan salah satu cara pengendalian dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme untuk menekan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan bakteri patogen tumbuhan dengan tujuan akhir menurunkan kemungkinan timbulnya penyakit. Sifat ekologi bakteri patogen tumbuhan yang berbeda-beda mengharuskan pendekatan yang berbeda pula dalam pengendaliannya secara biologi. Masalah dan perkembangan dalam pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan secara biologi didiskusikan secara detail dalam makalah ini.

  9. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  10. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  11. Effectiveness of Biologic Factors in Shoulder Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Aryaei, Ashkan; Vasilakakos, Theofanis; Paschos, Nikolaos K

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder pathology can cause significant pain, discomfort, and loss of function that all interfere with activities of daily living and may lead to poor quality of life. Primary osteoarthritis and rotator cuff diseases with its sequalae are the main culprits. Management of shoulder disorders using biological factors gained an increasing interest over the last years. This interest reveals the need of effective treatments for shoulder degenerative disorders, and highlights the importance of a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the rapidly increasing knowledge in the field. This study will describe most of the available biology-based strategies that have been recently developed, focusing on their effectiveness in animal and clinical studies. Data from in vitro work will also be briefly presented; in order to further elucidate newly acquired knowledge regarding mechanisms of tissue degeneration and repair that would probably drive translational work in the next decade. The role of platelet rich-plasma, growth factors, stem cells and other alternative treatments will be described in an evidence-based approach, in an attempt to provide guidelines for their clinical application. Finally, certain challenges that biologic treatments face today will be described as an initiative for future strategies. The application of different growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells appears as promising approaches for enhancing biologic repair. However, data from clinical studies are still limited, and future studies need to improve understanding of the repair process in cellular and molecular level and evaluate the effectiveness of biologic factors in the management of shoulder disorders.

  12. Estimation of Biological Effects of Tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear fusion technology is expected to create new energy in the future. However, nuclear fusion requires a large amount of tritium as a fuel, leading to concern about the exposure of radiation workers to tritium beta radiation. Furthermore, countermeasures for tritium-polluted water produced in decommissioning of the reactor at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station may potentially cause health problems in radiation workers. Although, internal exposure to tritium at a low dose/low dose rate can be assumed, biological effect of tritium exposure is not negligible, because tritiated water (HTO) intake to the body via the mouth/inhalation/skin would lead to homogeneous distribution throughout the whole body. Furthermore, organically-bound tritium (OBT) stays in the body as parts of the molecules that comprise living organisms resulting in long-term exposure, and the chemical form of tritium should be considered. To evaluate the biological effect of tritium, the effect should be compared with that of other radiation types. Many studies have examined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium. Hence, we report the RBE, which was obtained with radiation carcinogenesis classified as a stochastic effect, and serves as a reference for cancer risk. We also introduce the outline of the tritium experiment and the principle of a recently developed animal experimental system using transgenic mouse to detect the biological influence of radiation exposure at a low dose/low dose rate.

  13. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  14. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  15. Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how far the Moon causes biological effects has continued for two millennia. Pliny the Elder argued for lunar power "penetrating all things", including plants, fish, animals and humans. He also linked the Moon with tides, confirmed mathematically by Newton. A review of modern studies of biological effects, especially from plants and animals, confirms the pervasive nature of this lunar force. However calculations from physics and other arguments refute the supposed mechanisms of gravity and light. Recent space exploration allows a new approach with evidence of electromagnetic fields associated with the Earth's magnetotail at full moon during the night, and similar, but more limited, effects from the Moon's wake on the magnetosphere at new moon during the day. The disturbance of the magnetotail is perhaps shown by measurements of electric fields of up to 16V/m compared with the usual effects on some sensitive organisms. Similar intensities found in sferics, geomagnetic storms, aurora disturbance, sensations of a 'presence' and pre-seismic electromagnetic radiation are known to affect animals and 10-20% of the human population. There is now evidence for mechanisms such as calcium flux, melatonin disruption, magnetite and cryptochromes. Both environmental and receptor variations explain confounding factors and inconsistencies in the evidence. Electromagnetic effects might also account for some evolutionary changes. Further research on lunar biological effects, such as acute myocardial infarction, could help the development of strategies to reduce adverse effects for people sensitive to geomagnetic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological effectiveness of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, M.; Silini, G.

    1980-01-01

    It has been found experimentally that fast neutron RBE values generally increase with decreasing neutron doses. This finding reflects the existence of a difference in the shape between the functional dependences of the effect on dose produced by neutrons and by the reference radiation. The most common interpretation of this difference assumes a linear dose-effect relationship for neutrons and a linear plus quadratic relationship for X - or gamma-rays. In radiation protection the assumption of linearity is taken to be valid throughout the whole dose region of interest and is essential for the validity of the extrapolation to low doses of the risk estimates obtained at higher dose levels. On the other hand, the same trend of the RBE versus neutron dose would still be observed, if the biological effect induced by neutrons would be less than proportional to the dose. However, in this latter case the risks of neutron irradiation estimated from data at higher doses would no longer be safely utilized at lower dose levels. The results of various experiments with fast neutrons on different biological systems are examined in an attempt to throw some light on this aspect of radiation protection. It appears that in some cases linear non-threshold dose-effect relationships may not fit experimental series obtained with neutrons at relatively low doses. (H.K.)

  17. Biological effects of heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, L.; Martins, B.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1991-01-01

    The usual definitions of biological dose and biological dosimetry do not fit in case of particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). The dose corresponds to an average value which is not representative of the highly localized energy transfer due to heavy ions. Fortunately, up to now, a biological dosimetry following an exposure to high LET particles is necessary only for cosmonauts. In radiotherapy applications, one exactly knows the nature and energy of incident particle beams. The quality requirements for a good biodosimeter include reliable relation between dose and effect, weak sensitivity to individual variations, reliability and stability of acquired informations against the time delay between exposure and measurements. Nothing is better than the human lymphocyte to be used for measurements that fulfil these requirements. In the case of a manned spaceship, the irradiation dose corresponds to a wide range of radiation (protons, neutrons, heavy ions), and making a dosimetry as well as defining it are of current concern. As yet, there exist two possible definitions, which reduce the dose either to a proton or to a neutron equivalent one. However, such an approximation is not a faithful representation of the irradiation effects and in particular, the long-term effects may be quite different. In the future, it is reasonable to expect an evolution towards technics that enable identifying irradiated cells and quantifying precisely their radiation damage in order to reconstruct the spectrum of particles received by a given cosmonaut in a given time. Let us emphasize that the radiation hazards due to a short stay in space are quite minor, but in the case of a travel to Mars, they cannot be neglected [fr

  18. Omeprazole impairs vascular redox biology and causes xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas C. Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are widely used drugs that may increase the cardiovascular risk by mechanisms not entirely known. While PPIs increase asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA levels and inhibit nitric oxide production, it is unknown whether impaired vascular redox biology resulting of increased xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR activity mediates PPIs-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED. We examined whether increased XOR activity impairs vascular redox biology and causes ED in rats treated with omeprazole. We also examined whether omeprazole aggravates the ED found in hypertension. Treatment with omeprazole reduced endothelium-dependent aortic responses to acetylcholine without causing hypertension. However, omeprazole did not aggravate two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertension, nor hypertension-induced ED. Omeprazole and 2K1C increased vascular oxidative stress as assessed with dihydroethidium (DHE, which reacts with superoxide, and by the lucigenin chemiluminescence assay. The selective XOR inhibitor febuxostat blunted both effects induced by omeprazole. Treatment with omeprazole increased plasma ADMA concentrations, XOR activity and systemic markers of oxidative stress. Incubation of aortic rings with ADMA increased XOR activity, DHE fluorescence and lucigenin chemiluminescence signals, and febuxostat blunted these effects. Providing functional evidence that omeprazole causes ED by XOR-mediated mechanisms, we found that febuxostat blunted the ED caused by omeprazole treatment. This study shows that treatment with omeprazole impairs the vascular redox biology by XOR-mediated mechanisms leading to ED. While omeprazole did not further impair hypertension-induced ED, further studies in less severe animal models are warranted. Our findings may have major relevance, particularly to patients with cardiovascular diseases taking PPIs.

  19. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  20. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  1. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

  2. Biological effectiveness of fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.S.; Saigusa, S.; Kimura, I.

    1992-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to the uranium fission neutrons with different energy spectra, and the effects of changing pattern of energy spectrum on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were studied by analyzing dose-response relationship of chromosome aberrations. When the contribution of contaminated gamma-rays was subtracted, the efficiency of chromosomal response to the neutron dose was found to be refractory to the difference in the energy spectrum while the mean energy ranged from 2 MeV to 27 keV. This chromosomal refractoriness to energy spectrum may be explained by the similarity of energy spectrum for kerma contribution; most of the doses being given by neutrons with energy above 50 keV. Small doses given by short tracks may be less efficient. A comparison of these observations with chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes of A-bomb survivors leads to somewhat higher estimate of neutron dose in Hiroshima than the estimate by the recently revised dosimetry system, DS86. (author)

  3. Biological effects of low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    For a long time, radiation, biological research concentrated on the diagnosis and the effect chains to be taken into consideration in the case of acute and chronic radiation effects due to intensive irradiation. Approximately at the beginning of the Thirties, the research results of the geneticist Mueller and the radiation-biologists Oliver and Timofeef-Ressovsky brought a fundamental change in the way of looking at things in radiation biology. From the results then obtained it can be deduced that even the smallest quantities of radiation can cause effects. Basically, two processes leading to different radiation reactions have to be recognized: 1) A change in the genetical code, especially by direct irradiation of the nucleus. The effects thus arising are called stochastic effects. 2) A change of the cell in total by inactivation of the cell division or by cell death. These are called non-stochastic effects. Here, a threshold dose is existent. In these cases, the degree of the effects depends on the quantity of the dose. Therefore, the stochastic effects are paid special attention when determining radiation effects with low doses. Here, the emphasis of the research was moved from the genetic effects to the generation of somatic effects, especially the generation of malign neoformations and the shortening of the life connected with them. In the generation of malign neoformations by ionising radiation, probably only the transformation of a single cell is necessary, however only then when ionising radiation is absorbed in the nucleus several times (multi-hit theory). This leads to the assumption that the induction of malignant neoformations possesses a linear quadratic function, at least in the region of medium doses. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Biological effects of prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, Christian

    1997-01-01

    After large releases of radionuclides, exposure of the embryo or fetus can take place by external irradiation or uptake of radionuclies. The embryo and fetus are radiosensitive throughout prenatal development. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend on the development stage. During the preimplantation period (one to 10 days postconception, p.c.) a radiation exposure of at least 0.2 Gy can cause the death of the embryo. Malformations are only observed in rare cases when genetic predisposition exist. Macroscopic, anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis (two to eight weeks p.c.). A radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy is a doubling dose for the malformation risks as extrapolated from experiments with rodents. The human embryo may be more radioresistant. During early fetogenesis (8-15 weeks p.c.) a high radiosensitivity exists for the developmental of the brain. Radiation doses of 1.0 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 40% of the exposed fetuses. It must be taken into account that a radiation exposure during the fetal period can also induce cancer. It is generally assumed that the risk exists at about the same level as for children. (Author)

  5. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the ...

  6. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance: (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb; (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve; and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters.

  7. The biological effectiveness of antiproton irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Agazaryan, Nzhde

    2006-01-01

    ever measurements of the biological effectiveness of antiprotons. Materials and methods: V79 cells were suspended in a semi-solid matrix and irradiated with 46.7 MeV antiprotons, 48 MeV protons, or 60Co c-rays. Clonogenic survival was determined as a function of depth along the particle beams. Dose...... has a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Conclusion: We have produced the first measurements of the biological consequences of antiproton irradiation. These data substantiate theoretical predictions of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation within the Bragg peak, and suggest...

  8. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect ...

  9. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Composite materials; electrical properties; magnetodielectric effect; magnetoelectric effect. 1. Introduction. Recently, multiferroic materials have attracted much interest for their coexistence of ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and ferroelasticity (Kimura et al 2003; Wang et al 2003; Hur et al. 2004; Spaldin and Fiebig ...

  10. The additional greenhouse effect: Causes, effects, countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, H.

    1992-01-01

    The carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide and methane influence through steam and all of them through the distribution of temperature and precipitation on earth. Since the beginning of the industrialisation, man has been destroying the composition of the atmosphere thus causing global changes in the climate. Due to the retardation of the warming up by oceans and ice regions and due to the strong natural variability, neither the heating-up observed during the measuring concentration of the above listed gases nor the rising sea level can be definitely traced back to man's activities. The results of complex climate models - supported by findings from climate history - forecast, with emissions continuing to rise, a continuing average heating-up by approximately 3 C up to the year 2100, i.e. a temperature rise in only 100 years which nearly equals to that of 10,000 years between the ice age and the warm age. (orig./KW) [de

  11. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  12. The biologically effective dose in inhalation nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ken; Schinwald, Anja; Murphy, Fiona; Cho, Wan-Seob; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Poland, Craig

    2013-03-19

    In all branches of toxicology, the biologically effective dose (BED) is the fraction of the total dose of a toxin that actually drives any toxic effect. Knowledge of the BED has a number of applications including in building structure-activity relationships, the selection of metrics, the design of safe particles, and the determination of when a nanoparticle (NP) can be considered to be "new" for regulatory purposes. In particle toxicology, we define the BED as "the entity within any dose of particles in tissue that drives a critical pathophysiogically relevant form of toxicity (e.g., oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, or proliferation) or a process that leads to it." In conventional chemical toxicology, researchers generally use the mass as the metric to describe dose (such as mass per unit tissue or cells in culture) because of its convenience. Concentration, calculated from mass, may also figure in any description of dose. In the case of a nanoparticle dose, researchers use either the mass or the surface area. The mass of nanoparticles is not the only driver of their activity: the surfaces of insoluble particles interact with biological systems, and soluble nanoparticles can release factors that interact with these systems. Nanoparticle shape can modify activity. In this Account, we describe the current knowledge of the BED as it pertains to different NP types. Soluble toxins released by NPs represent one potential indicator of BED for wholly or partially soluble NPs composed of copper or zinc. Rapid dissolution of these NPs into their toxic ions in the acidic environment of the macrophage phagolysosome causes those ions to accumulate, which leads to lysosome destabilization and inflammation. In contrast, soluble NPs that release low toxicity ions, such as magnesium oxide NPs, are not inflammogenic. For insoluble NPs, ζ potential can serve as a BED measurement because the exposure of the particle surface to the acidic milieu of the phagolysosome and

  13. Biological effects of radon in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel P, A.E.; Tavera D, L.; Cruces M, M.P.; Arceo M, C.; Rosa D, M.E. de la

    1992-04-01

    The main objective of this investigation, is to study the biological effects of the Radon-222 at low dose in 'Drosophila melanogaster'. It is necessary to mention that these effects will analyze from the genetic point of view for: 1) To evaluate in which form the Radon-222 to low dose it influences in some genetic components of the adaptation in Drosophila, such as: fecundity, viability egg-adult and sex proportion. 2) To evaluate which is the genetic effect that induces the Radon to low dose by means of the SMART technique in Drosophila melanogaster, and this way to try of to identify which is the possible mechanism that causes the genetic damage to somatic level. The carried out investigation was divided in three stages: 1. Tests to the vacuum resistance. 2. Test of somatic mutation, and 3. Determination of the presence of radon daughters on the adult of Drosophila. It is necessary to point out that all the experiments were made by triplicate and in each one of them was placed detectors in preset places. Those obtained results are presented inside the 4 charts included in the present work. (Author)

  14. Food irradiation and its biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Alok; Nanjappa, C.; Chauhan, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of foods drew attention mostly in 1960s for disinfestation of food grains, spices and sprout inhibition in mainly potato and onion. γ-irradiation at 0.25 to 1 kGy dosage levels are usually used for irradiating grains, legumes, spices and sprout-prone vegetables. Irradiation of foods with in permissible dosage levels of 0.25 to 5 kGy is usually considered fairly safe from human consumption point of view not withstanding usual health concerns about its usage in foods. Irradiation of foods, in mostly solid or semi-solid form, at 5 kGy levels of γ-irradiation can achieve radicidation or, radiation equivalent of pasteurization and, if γ-irradiation is used at 10 kGy, it can achieve radappertization or, radiation equivalent of thermal commercial sterilization. However, the food industry uses γ-irradiation at 0.25 to 2 kGy only for mostly disinfestation of food grains/legumes, spices, sprout inhibition in potato and onion and, for surface sanitation of frozen fish, poultry and meat. Exposure to irradiation creates free radicals in foods that are capable of destroying some of the spoilage and pathogenic microflora but the same can also damage vitamins and enzymes besides creating some new harmful new chemical species, called unique radiolytic products (URPs), by combining with certain chemicals that a food may be laced with (like pesticides/fungicides). Exposure to high-energy electron beams are also known to create deleterious biological effects which may even lead to detection of trace amounts of radioactivity in the food. Some possible causes delineated for such harmful biological effects of irradiation include: irradiation induced vitamin deficiencies, the inactivity of enzymes in the foods, DNA damage and toxic radiolytic products in the foods. Irradiation, a non-thermal food preservation technique, has a role in salvaging enormous post harvest losses (25-30%) in developing economies to increase the per capita availability of foods. (author)

  15. Causes And Effects Of Fast Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Al-Saad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast food affects our life in many aspects. In fact There are many reasons that have been shown why people continuing eating fast food while they knew about its negative effects on their health and family because of eating fast food. The commercial advertisements play a major role in consuming fast food. In this research I will focus on causes and effects of eating fast food.

  16. Causes And Effects Of Fast Food

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Al-Saad

    2015-01-01

    Fast food affects our life in many aspects. In fact There are many reasons that have been shown why people continuing eating fast food while they knew about its negative effects on their health and family because of eating fast food. The commercial advertisements play a major role in consuming fast food. In this research I will focus on causes and effects of eating fast food.

  17. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  18. Biological effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the proceedings of a conference organised jointly by Friends of the Earth (U.K.) and Greenpeace (International). The aim of the conference was to discuss the effects of low level radiation, particularly on man, within the terms of dose/risk relationships. The topics discussed included: sources of radiation, radiation discharges from nuclear establishments, predictive modelling of radiation hazards, radiation effects at Hiroshima, low dose effects and ICRP dose limits, variation in sensitivity to radiation, and the link between childhood cancer and nuclear power. (U.K.)

  19. Biological control of strawberry gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea using Bacillus licheniformis N1 formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Lee, Soo Hee; Kim, Choul Sung; Lim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Ki Hyuck; Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Seon-Woo; Moon, Byung Ju

    2007-03-01

    Bacillus licheniformis N1 is a biological control agent to control gray mold diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea. Various formulations of B. licheniformis N1 were generated and evaluated for the activity to control strawberry gray mold. The wettable powder type formulation N1E was selected in pot experiments with remarkable disease control activity on both strawberry leaves and flowers. The N1E formulation contained 400 g of corn starch, 50 ml of olive oil, and 50 g of sucrose per a liter of bacterial fermentation culture. Optimum dilution of N1E to appropriately control the strawberry gray mold appeared to be 100-fold dilution in plastic house artificial infection experiments. The significant reduction of symptom development in the senescent leaves was apparent by the treatment of N1E at 100-fold dilution when N1E was applied before Bo. cinerea inoculation, but not after the inoculation. Both artificial infection experiments in a plastic house and natural infection experiments in the farm plastic house under production conditions revealed that the disease severity of gray mold on strawberry leaves and flowers was significantly reduced by N1E treatment. The disease control value of N1E on strawberry leaves was 81% under production conditions, as compared with the 61.5% conferred by a chemical fungicide, iprodione. This study suggests that our previously generated formulation of B. licheniformis N1 will be effective to control strawberry gray mold by its preventive activity.

  20. Biological Effects of Low-Dose Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Komochkov, M M

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the two-protection reaction model an analysis of stochastic radiobiological effects of low-dose exposure of different biological objects has been carried out. The stochastic effects are the results published in the last decade: epidemiological studies of human cancer mortality, the yield of thymocyte apoptosis of mice and different types of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the analysis show that as dependent upon the nature of biological object, spontanous effect, exposure conditions and radiation type one or another form dose - effect relationship is realized: downwards concave, near to linear and upwards concave with the effect of hormesis included. This result testifies to the incomplete conformity of studied effects of 1990 ICRP recomendations based on the linear no-threshold hypothesis about dose - effect relationship. Because of this the methodology of radiation risk estimation recomended by ICRP needs more precisian and such quantity as collective dose ought to be classified into...

  1. Space storms and radiation causes and effects

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2010-01-01

    Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. The Sun is a magnetically variable star and for planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, planets with atmospheres, or planets like Earth with both, there are profound consequences. This 2010 volume, the second in this series of three heliophysics texts, integrates the many aspects of space storms and the energetic radiation associated with them - from causes on the Sun to effects in planetary environments. It reviews t

  2. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  3. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  4. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  5. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy

  6. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  7. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  8. The relative biological effectiveness of antiprotons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Alsner, Jan; Bassler, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of antiprotons near the end of range. We have performed the first-ever direct measurement of the RBE of antiprotons both at rest and in flight. Materials and methods: Experimental data were generated on the RBE of an antiproton beam entering a tissue-like target...

  9. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, H.

    1991-03-01

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  10. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  11. Proteomic profiling: a novel approach to understanding the biological causes of soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Doerr, Stefan H.; Urbanek, Emilia; Jones, Alun; Dudley, Ed

    2010-05-01

    Soil water repellency is a common phenomenon affecting a wide range of soil and land use types in different climates and is considered "the norm rather than the exception with its degree being variable". In all but the most severe cases, soil water repellency is transient with soils wetting eventually after prolonged wet weather and returning, when soil moisture content falls below the critical value. Despite the far-reaching environmental and (agro-)economic consequences, the fundamental biological causes of soil water repellency and its transient behaviour remain poorly understood. It is widely accepted that soil water repellency is caused by organic compounds coating soil particle surfaces. This reduces the particle's surface tension to values lower than that of water, which, as a net effect, inhibits the intrusion of liquid water into the soil pore space. Microbial as well as plant-derived substances have been implicated as sources of these organic materials, while some microbes have also been identified as degraders and/or emulsifiers of hydrophobic compounds. Common hydrophobic compounds and metabolites (e.g. alkanes and fatty acids) have been isolated from both wettable and water repellent soils in similar amounts indicating that their relevance is ambiguous. Even greater uncertainty exists about the role of soil micro-organisms in the development, reduction and temporal variability of soil water repellency. Importantly, certain filamentous fungi and actinomycete bacteria are able to render their hydrophilic cell surface hydrophobic, for example, during spore formation and hyphal foraging through air-containing pores in soil, by producing extracellular hydrophobic proteins. Beyond their own cell surface, the extracellular proteins can form highly recalcitrant hydrophobic surfaces on the hydrophilic side of amphiphilic, i.e. air-water or soil particle, interfaces. Remarkably, the proteins from fungi can also adhere to hydrophobic surfaces under drying

  12. Biological Effects of EM Radiations from Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Ali

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct health effects could result following exposure to RF by thermal (heating effects. Recent Studies have shown that there are public fears on effects that can be caused mainly by holding mobile phones close to the body, or as a result of possible non-thermal effects from both phones and base stations.  This paper offers an overview on the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation caused by mobile phones. Exposures of individuals to RF radiation from these sources will depend upon their proximity and may be above those from mobile phone base stations, although still well below guidelines. From a review of the scientific literature, it is concluded that there were no established health effects from exposure to the RF fields from mobile phones. However, there are gaps in knowledge requiring further research, but current knowledge suggests that RF exposure to levels below the guidelines were not a risk to health.

  13. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death an...

  14. Hypothyroidism and obesity: Cause or Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.; Jayaraman, M.; Kumar, Hari K.V.S.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. We conducted this retrospective, observational study in Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in March 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients (Group I) and 450 patients from obesity clinic (Group II) were analyzed. Frequency difference between the 2 groups was assessed by Chi-square test. In Group I, 278/625 (44%) had body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. Obesity was higher (46% versus 34%) in overt hypothyroidism than in subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.21). More patients were overweight in overt hypothyroidism group than in subclinical hypothyroidism group (p=0.02). In obesity patients, overt hypothyroidism was present in 33% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 11% patients. Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism. (author)

  15. Electromagnetic effects - From cell biology to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W; Monsees, Thomas; Ozkucur, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    In this review we compile and discuss the published plethora of cell biological effects which are ascribed to electric fields (EF), magnetic fields (MF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF). In recent years, a change in paradigm took place concerning the endogenously produced static EF of cells and tissues. Here, modern molecular biology could link the action of ion transporters and ion channels to the "electric" action of cells and tissues. Also, sensing of these mainly EF could be demonstrated in studies of cell migration and wound healing. The triggers exerted by ion concentrations and concomitant electric field gradients have been traced along signaling cascades till gene expression changes in the nucleus. Far more enigmatic is the way of action of static MF which come in most cases from outside (e.g. earth magnetic field). All systems in an organism from the molecular to the organ level are more or less in motion. Thus, in living tissue we mostly find alternating fields as well as combination of EF and MF normally in the range of extremely low-frequency EMF. Because a bewildering array of model systems and clinical devices exits in the EMF field we concentrate on cell biological findings and look for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action. As an outlook for future research topics, this review tries to link areas of EF, MF and EMF research to thermodynamics and quantum physics, approaches that will produce novel insights into cell biology.

  16. THz waves: biological effects, industrial and medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutaz, J.L.; Garet, F.; Le Drean, Y.; Zhadobov, M.; Veyret, B.; Mounaix, P.; Caumes, J.P.; Gallot, G.; Gian Piero, Gallerano; Mouret, G.; Guilpin, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Following the debates about body scanners installed in airports for passengers security control, the non-ionizing radiations (NIR) section of the French radiation protection society (SFR) has organized a conference day to take stock of the present day knowledge about the physical aspects and the biological effects of this frequency range as well as about their medical, and industrial applications (both civil and military). This document gathers the slides of the available presentations: 1 - introduction and general considerations about THz waves, the THz physical phenomenon among NIR (J.L. Coutaz); 2 - interaction of millimeter waves with living material: from dosimetry to biological impacts (Y. Le Drean and M. Zhadobov); 3 - Tera-Hertz: standards and recommendations (B. Veyret); 4 - THz spectro-imaging technique: status and perspectives (P. Mounaix); 5 - THz technology: seeing the invisible? (J.P. Caumes); 6 - Tera-Hertz: biological and medical applications (G. Gallot); 7 - Biological applications of THz radiation: a review of events and a glance to the future (G.P. Gallerano); 8 - Industrial and military applications - liquids and solids detection in the THz domain (F. Garet); 9 - THz radiation and its civil and military applications - gas detection and quantifying (G. Mouret); 10 - Body scanners and civil aviation security (J.C. Guilpin, presentation not available). (J.S.)

  17. POLLUTION CAUSED BY INDUSTRY AND HEALT EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    KARAAĞAÇ, Sakine Ugurlu

    2018-01-01

    Pollution is theintroduction of harmful substances or products into the environment fromdifferent sources. Increased urbanization in parallel with the rapid populationgrowth, and rapid increase in industrial organization in parallel withdevelopments in science and technology revealed the environmental pollutionproblems. Main types of pollution are water pollution, air pollution, soilpollution, biological and nuclear pollution. Water pollution; Most industriesrequire large amounts of water for...

  18. Biological effects on the source of geoneutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik Thorleif

    2013-01-01

    its bulk earth value of similar to 4; Pb isotope measurements on mantle-derived rocks yield low Th/U values, effectively averaged over geological time. The physics of the modern biological process is complicated, but the net effect is that much of the U in the mantle comes from subducted marine...... in solid clay-sized material. Overall, geoneutrino data constrain the masses of mantle chemical and isotopic domains recognized by studies of mantle-derived rocks and show the extent of recycling into the mantle over geological time....

  19. Incomplete Delivery : Description of Causes and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Willeke, Larissa; Suvander, Wiktor

    2013-01-01

    Quality defects are a common problem for producing companies, but causes and consequences are often unknown. The purpose of this thesis assignment is to develop a step-by-step analysis method for identifying the root causes of quality defects based on previously examined consequences. The first steps focus on customer recovery meanwhile the following steps concentrate on process recovery. The analysis method is process-orientated as the complete production and delivery process are scrutinized...

  20. Bystander effect: Biological endpoints and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, M. Ahmad [Department of Medical Laboratory and Radiation Sciences, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Vermont, 302 Rowell Building, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States) and DNA Microarray Facility, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)]. E-mail: mchaudhr@uvm.edu

    2006-05-11

    In cell populations exposed to ionizing radiation, the biological effects occur in a much larger proportion of cells than are estimated to be traversed by radiation. It has been suggested that irradiated cells are capable of providing signals to the neighboring unirradiated cells resulting in damage to these cells. This phenomenon is termed the bystander effect. The bystander effect induces persistent, long-term, transmissible changes that result in delayed death and neoplastic transformation. Because the bystander effect is relevant to carcinogenesis, it could have significant implications for risk estimation for radiation exposure. The nature of the bystander effect signal and how it impacts the unirradiated cells remains to be elucidated. Examination of the changes in gene expression could provide clues to understanding the bystander effect and could define the signaling pathways involved in sustaining damage to these cells. The microarray technology serves as a tool to gain insight into the molecular pathways leading to bystander effect. Using medium from irradiated normal human diploid lung fibroblasts as a model system we examined gene expression alterations in bystander cells. The microarray data revealed that the radiation-induced gene expression profile in irradiated cells is different from unirradiated bystander cells suggesting that the pathways leading to biological effects in the bystander cells are different from the directly irradiated cells. The genes known to be responsive to ionizing radiation were observed in irradiated cells. Several genes were upregulated in cells receiving media from irradiated cells. Surprisingly no genes were found to be downregulated in these cells. A number of genes belonging to extracellular signaling, growth factors and several receptors were identified in bystander cells. Interestingly 15 genes involved in the cell communication processes were found to be upregulated. The induction of receptors and the cell

  1. Bystander effect: Biological endpoints and microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M. Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    In cell populations exposed to ionizing radiation, the biological effects occur in a much larger proportion of cells than are estimated to be traversed by radiation. It has been suggested that irradiated cells are capable of providing signals to the neighboring unirradiated cells resulting in damage to these cells. This phenomenon is termed the bystander effect. The bystander effect induces persistent, long-term, transmissible changes that result in delayed death and neoplastic transformation. Because the bystander effect is relevant to carcinogenesis, it could have significant implications for risk estimation for radiation exposure. The nature of the bystander effect signal and how it impacts the unirradiated cells remains to be elucidated. Examination of the changes in gene expression could provide clues to understanding the bystander effect and could define the signaling pathways involved in sustaining damage to these cells. The microarray technology serves as a tool to gain insight into the molecular pathways leading to bystander effect. Using medium from irradiated normal human diploid lung fibroblasts as a model system we examined gene expression alterations in bystander cells. The microarray data revealed that the radiation-induced gene expression profile in irradiated cells is different from unirradiated bystander cells suggesting that the pathways leading to biological effects in the bystander cells are different from the directly irradiated cells. The genes known to be responsive to ionizing radiation were observed in irradiated cells. Several genes were upregulated in cells receiving media from irradiated cells. Surprisingly no genes were found to be downregulated in these cells. A number of genes belonging to extracellular signaling, growth factors and several receptors were identified in bystander cells. Interestingly 15 genes involved in the cell communication processes were found to be upregulated. The induction of receptors and the cell

  2. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  3. Selection of halophilic bacteria for biological control of tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane BERRADA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. is a serious threat for postharvest storage of tomatoes. Fifteen halophilic bacteria were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against B. cinerea: 11 Gram positive strains assigned to the genera Bacillus (9, Jeotgalibacillus (1 and Planococcus (1 and four Gram negative strains assigned to the genera Salinivibrio (1, Vibrio (2 and Photobacterium (1. In in vitro screening, 12 antifungal isolates secreted diffusible compounds, hydrolytic enzymes or volatile compounds. In vivo screening of the isolates, Bacillus safensis CCMM B582 and Bacillus oceanisediminis CCMM B584 showed permanent antagonistic activity on tomato fruits, with 100% inhibition of B. cinerea after 7 days. These two strains may offer potential for biological control of tomato gray mould.

  4. Differentiation of Xanthomonas spp. Causing Bacterial Spot in Bulgaria Based on Biolog System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Stoyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, the causative agents of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper have been subjected to many studies and reclassifications. According to the current data, the species are four (X. euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. gardneri, and X. perforans and cause similar symptoms in plants but possess different phenotypic properties. This work provides the full metabolic characteristics obtained by Biolog system of bacterial spot’s xanthomonads based on a large selection of strains from different vegetable-producing regions of Bulgaria with accent on their major differentiating properties which could be used for species differentiation by metabolic profiles. The results are compared to the data available in the literature in order to clarify the strong features of each species and distinguish the variable ones. Simple characteristics like amylase activity and utilization of cis-aconitate cannot serve alone for differentiation.

  5. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Sergi; Casadevall, Carme; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and/or limb muscle dysfunction, which are frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contribute to their disease prognosis irrespective of the lung function. Muscle dysfunction is caused by the interaction of local and systemic factors. The key deleterious etiologic factors are pulmonary hyperinflation for the respiratory muscles and deconditioning secondary to reduced physical activity for limb muscles. Nonetheless, cigarette smoke, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exercise, exacerbations, anabolic insufficiency, drugs and comorbidities also seem to play a relevant role. All these factors modify the phenotype of the muscles, through the induction of several biological phenomena in patients with COPD. While respiratory muscles improve their aerobic phenotype (percentage of oxidative fibers, capillarization, mitochondrial density, enzyme activity in the aerobic pathways, etc.), limb muscles exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, both muscle groups show oxidative stress, signs of damage and epigenetic changes. However, fiber atrophy, increased number of inflammatory cells, altered regenerative capacity; signs of apoptosis and autophagy, and an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown are rather characteristic features of the limb muscles, mostly in patients with reduced body weight. Despite that significant progress has been achieved in the last decades, full elucidation of the specific roles of the target biological mechanisms involved in COPD muscle dysfunction is still required. Such an achievement will be crucial to adequately tackle with this relevant clinical problem of COPD patients in the near-future. PMID:26623119

  6. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  7. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrea Dutka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm2 soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment.

  8. Causes, effects and therapy of radiophobie syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    2005-01-01

    The basic symptoms and causes of the origination of radiophobie in Germany and other developed countries are considered. The economic and ecological consequences of the ideological antinuclear politics and the struggle against NPP are analyzed. The measures on overcoming radiophobie among population of developed countries are proposed. The particular attention for this problem solving is given to the position of mass media [ru

  9. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

  10. Biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault de Boesinghe, L. de

    1979-01-01

    A review is made by the author of the literature about the biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields. A distinction is made between the observations made on man and the experience on animals. The results do not allow to reach a uniform conclusion. The used methodology is furthermore often open for discussion. One fundamental question remains: is there or not a threshold value. The question may be asked if objective modifications would not better come out in the light of systematical programs studies. This review of the literature gives results which anyway justify a systematic study of this subject. (author)

  11. Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J.; Morgan , J.B.

    1975-04-01

    The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Biological characteristics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 and suppression of ginseng root rot caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Balaraju, K; Jeon, Y H

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 (AK-0) on ginseng root rot disease caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans was investigated. From 190 ginseng rhizosphere bacteria, AK-0 was selected for further analysis; its morphological characteristics were investigated by microscopy. AK-0 was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens using the Biolog system, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and examination of morphological and biochemical characteristics. Bacterial population and media optimization were estimated by the bacterial growth curve. The number of AK-0 cells was relatively higher in brain-heart infusion (BHI) medium than in other media. The potential antifungal effect of AK-0 culture filtrate on the in vitro conidial germination of C. destructans and root rot development on root discs and 4-year-old ginseng roots were assessed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of antibiotic biosynthesis gene expression suggested that the release of antibiotic compounds is involved in the antifungal effect of AK-0 and the suppression of ginseng root rot. These results indicate that the CF of AK-0 has antifungal effects on fungal pathogens of ginseng, resulting in the suppression of root rot disease caused by C. destructans. AK-0 is a potential source of novel bioactive metabolites. AK-0 CF exhibited antifungal effects against C. destructans on ginseng roots. PCR analysis indicated that the AK-0 harbours genes involved in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Analysis of the Causes and Recommendations on Elimination of Biological Damage of Structures During the Repair and Reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  14. Determining the effectiveness of Candida guilliermondii in the biological control of Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Zambrano, Crispin; Javeriana University; Moreno Duran, Gerardo; Sequeda-Castañeda, Luis Gonzalo; García Caicedo, Andrea; Albarracín, Diana Marcela; Barreto Charry, Luz Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Post-harvest losses in tomato crops can be accredited to a number of causes, which include biological causes that produce physiological deterioration; infection caused by diseases and pests that cause rotting. In this study, we assayed, in vitro and in vivo, the yeast Candida guilliermondii to determine its effectiveness as a biocontrol to reduce the rotting produced by Rhizopus stolonifer on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The antagonistic effect was tested using a yeast biomass suspensi...

  15. Xenon preconditioning: molecular mechanisms and biological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenon is one of noble gases and has been recognized as an anesthetic for more than 50 years. Xenon possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal anesthetic, but it is not widely applied in clinical practice mainly because of its high cost. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that xenon as an anesthetic can exert neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in different models. Moreover, xenon has been applied in the preconditioning, and the neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects of xenon preconditioning have been investigated in a lot of studies in which some mechanisms related to these protections are proposed. In this review, we summarized these mechanisms and the biological effects of xenon preconditioning.

  16. Landscape of Pleiotropic Proteins Causing Human Disease: Structural and System Biology Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittisoponpisan, Sirawit; Alhuzimi, Eman; Sternberg, Michael J E; David, Alessia

    2017-03-01

    Pleiotropy is the phenomenon by which the same gene can result in multiple phenotypes. Pleiotropic proteins are emerging as important contributors to rare and common disorders. Nevertheless, little is known on the mechanisms underlying pleiotropy and the characteristic of pleiotropic proteins. We analyzed disease-causing proteins reported in UniProt and observed that 12% are pleiotropic (variants in the same protein cause more than one disease). Pleiotropic proteins were enriched in deleterious and rare variants, but not in common variants. Pleiotropic proteins were more likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of neoplasms, neurological, and circulatory diseases and congenital malformations, whereas non-pleiotropic proteins in endocrine and metabolic disorders. Pleiotropic proteins were more essential and had a higher number of interacting partners compared with non-pleiotropic proteins. Significantly more pleiotropic than non-pleiotropic proteins contained at least one intrinsically long disordered region (P human disease. They represent a biologically different class of proteins compared with non-pleiotropic proteins and a better understanding of their characteristics and genetic variants can greatly aid in the interpretation of genetic studies and drug design. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. The Monju accident. Causes and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1996-01-01

    On December 8, 1995, the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju, suffered an accident which aroused considerable national and international attention. A thermocouple in a pipe carrying sodium in the secondary plant system had broken, causing some 700 kg of non-radioactive sodium to be spilled. The safety of the reactor, of the plant crew, and of the environment was not jeopardized. However, as a consequence of some badly handled public relations, rather negative reactions of the public authorities and of the public at large were encountered. One member of the investigating committee, facing a conflict of loyalities not uncommon in Japan, even committed suicide. According to current estimates, Monju will be down for at least two years, thus causing major financial problems to the operator, PNC. On the political level, more difficulties are expected to arise in the introduction of plutonium recycling. (orig.) [de

  18. Biological radiation effects of Radon in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel P, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the effects of radon and its decay products, the aim of this investigation is to study the biological effects of radon using Drosophila melanogaster throught the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the analysis of some adaptative factors exposing larvaes to controlled radon atmosphers, considering that this insect could be used as biological monitor. Using the somatic mutation test a mutagenic effect was observed proportional to radon concentration, into an interval of 1 ± 0.3 to 111 ± 7.4 KBq/m 3 equivalent to doses under 0.0106 Gy. The correlation analysis gives a linear (r=0.80) relationship with a positive slope of 0.2217. The same happens when gamma rays are used in the interval of 1 to 20 Gy, given a linear dose-dependent effect (r=0.878) is obtained; nevetheless the slop is smaller (m=0.003) than for radon. Analysing the results of adaptative factors of the nine exposed generations, it was found that probably radon exposition induced dominant lethals during gametogenesis or/and a selection of the more component gamets of the treated individuals in larval state. It was reflected in the significant decrease on fecundity of the generation exposed. Nevertheless the laying eggs had an increase in egg-to-adult viability and the develop velocity was higher than in control for 3 KBq/m 3 , this suggest that radon concentrations used were able to induce repair mechanisms. These data agree with the Hormesis hypothesis that says: low doses have positive effects on health. It was not possible to obtain a dose-effect relationship except with the develop velocity where it was found a dose-effect inverse proportion. In conclusion, Drosophila melanogaster could be a good system to obtain in vivo damaged induction concentration dependent of radon and its decay products, as well as to study the effects in an exposed population by the analysis of adaptative factors. (Author)

  19. Radiation, waves, fields. Causes and effects on environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.

    1990-01-01

    The book discusses static electricity, alternating electric fields, magnetostatic fields, alternating magnetic fields, electromagnetic radiation, optical and ionizing radiation and their hazards and health effects. Each chapter presents basic physical and biological concepts and describes the common radiation sources and their biological effects. Each chapter also contains hints for everyday behaviour as well as in-depth information an specific scientific approaches for assessing biological effects; the latter are addressed to all expert readers working in these fields. There is a special chapter on the problem of so-called 'terrestrial radiation'. (orig.) With 88 figs., 31 tabs [de

  20. Effects of individualized assignments on biology achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    A pretest-posttest, randomized, two groups, experimental, factorial design compared effects of detailed and nondetailed assignments on biology achievement over seven and a half months. Detailed assignments (favoring field independence and induction) employed block diagrams and stepwise directions. Nondetailed assignments (favoring field dependence and deduction) virtually lacked these. The accessible population was 101 tenth grade preparatory school male students. The 95 students enrolled in first year biology constituted the sample. Two by three ANOVA was done on residualized posttest score means of the students. Totally, the detailed students achieved significantly higher than the nondetailed students. This significantly higher achievement was only true of detailed students in the middle thirds of the deviation intelligence quotient (DIQ) range and of the grade point average (G.P.A.) range after the breakdown into upper, middle, and lower thirds of intellectual capability (ability and achievement). The upper third detailed DIQ grouping indirectly achieved higher than its peers, whereas the lower detailed DIQ third achieved lower than its peers. Thus, high capability students apparently benefit from flow and block diagrams, inductions, field independence, and high structure, whereas low capability students may be hindered by these.

  1. Comparison of ballistic impact effects between biological tissue and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongxi; Mai, Ruimin; Wu, Cheng; Han, Ruiguo; Li, Bingcang

    2018-02-01

    Gelatin is commonly used in ballistic testing as substitute for biological tissue. Comparison of ballistic impact effects produced in the gelatin and living tissue is lacking. The work in this paper was aimed to compare the typical ballistic impact effects (penetration trajectory, energy transfer, temporary cavity) caused by 4.8mm steel ball penetrating the 60kg porcine hind limbs and 10wt% gelatin. The impact event in the biological tissue was recorded by high speed flash X-ray machine at different delay time, while the event in the gelatin continuously recorded by high speed video was compared to that in the biological tissue. The collected results clearly displayed that the ballistic impact effects in the muscle and gelatin were similar for the steel ball test; as for instance, the projectile trajectory in the two targets was basically similar, the process of energy transfer was highly coincident, and the expansion of temporary cavity followed the same pattern. This study fully demonstrated that choosing gelatin as muscle simulant was reasonable. However, the maximum temporary cavity diameter in the gelatin was a little larger than that in the muscle, and the expansion period of temporary cavity was longer in the gelatin. Additionally, the temporary cavity collapse process in the two targets followed different patterns, and the collapse period in the gelatin was two times as long as that in the muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement error causes scale-dependent threshold erosion of biological signals in animal movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sims, David W; Hays, Graeme C

    2007-03-01

    Recent advances in telemetry technology have created a wealth of tracking data available for many animal species moving over spatial scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers. Increasingly, such data sets are being used for quantitative movement analyses aimed at extracting fundamental biological signals such as optimal searching behavior and scale-dependent foraging decisions. We show here that the location error inherent in various tracking technologies reduces the ability to detect patterns of behavior within movements. Our analyses endeavored to set out a series of initial ground rules for ecologists to help ensure that sampling noise is not misinterpreted as a real biological signal. We simulated animal movement tracks using specialized random walks known as Lévy flights at three spatial scales of investigation: 100-km, 10-km, and 1-km maximum daily step lengths. The locations generated in the simulations were then blurred using known error distributions associated with commonly applied tracking methods: the Global Positioning System (GPS), Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and light-level geolocation. Deviations from the idealized Lévy flight pattern were assessed for each track after incrementing levels of location error were applied at each spatial scale, with additional assessments of the effect of error on scale-dependent movement patterns measured using fractal mean dimension and first-passage time (FPT) analyses. The accuracy of parameter estimation (Lévy mu, fractal mean D, and variance in FPT) declined precipitously at threshold errors relative to each spatial scale. At 100-km maximum daily step lengths, error standard deviations of > or = 10 km seriously eroded the biological patterns evident in the simulated tracks, with analogous thresholds at the 10-km and 1-km scales (error SD > or = 1.3 km and 0.07 km, respectively). Temporal subsampling of the simulated tracks maintained some elements of the biological signals depending on

  3. Honeydew honey: biological effects on skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Simona; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ranzato, Elia

    2017-11-01

    Honey is a natural product well known by humankind and now reconsidered for its use as topical agent for wound and burn treatments. Floral honey is made by honeybees from the nectar of blossoms, while honeydew honey is prepared from secretions of plants or excretions of plant-sucking insects. Chemical composition is different between blossom and honeydew honeys and there is very few information about the biological properties of honeydew honey. So, this study was specifically designed to explore the potential wound healing effects of the honeydew honey. We used in vitro scratch wound healing model consisting of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Data showed that honeydew honeys is able to increase wound closure by acting both on fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Based on our findings, honeydew honey has the potential to be useful for clinical settings.

  4. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  6. Climate change and physical disturbance cause similar community shifts in biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—communities of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface—are fundamental components of drylands worldwide, and destruction of biocrusts dramatically alters biogeochemical processes, hydrology, surface energy balance, and vegetation cover. While there has been long-standing concern over impacts of 5 physical disturbances on biocrusts (e.g., trampling by livestock, damage from vehicles), there is also increasing concern over the potential for climate change to alter biocrust community structure. Using long-term data from the Colorado Plateau, USA, we examined the effects of 10 years of experimental warming and altered precipitation (in full-factorial design) on biocrust communities, and compared the effects of altered climate with those of long-term physical 10 disturbance (>10 years of replicated human trampling). Surprisingly, altered climate and physical disturbance treatments had similar effects on biocrust community structure. Warming, altered precipitation frequency [an increase of small (1.2 mm) summer rainfall events], and physical disturbance from trampling all promoted early successional community states marked by dramatic declines in moss cover and increased cyanobacteria cover, with more variable effects 15 on lichens. While the pace of community change varied significantly among treatments, our results suggest that multiple aspects of climate change will affect biocrusts to the same degree as physical disturbance. This is particularly disconcerting in the context of warming, as temperatures for drylands are projected to increase beyond those imposed by the climate treatments used in our study.

  7. Biological control of chickpea wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, F. A.; Suliman, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to control chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, using antagonistic properties of soil microorganisms. It also aimed at avoiding problems resulting from the use of chemical fungicides. A trichoderma sp. was isolated from the rhizosphere of a resistant chickpea variety (ICCV-2) and a bacillus sp. from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of the same variety. Both microorganisms proved to be effective in controlling the disease. In addition, trichoderma harzianum, which was obtained from Giza Research Station in Egypt, was also antagonistic to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Wilt incidence was significantly reduced when chickpea was grown in posts containing soil mixed with any of the three antagonists or when chickpea seeds were initially treated with the seed-dressing fungicide vincit at 2 ml/kg seeds. Trichoderma harzianum proved to be the best bioagent as it gave the lowest disease incidence. In the field, the two trichoderma spp. were as effective as vincit in causing reduction in the wilt incidence. At the higher concentration of 140 g/m''2, the two antagonists were effective throughout the growth period, but they were less effective at the lower concentration of 70 g/m''2 particularly at the seedling stage.(Author)

  8. Peristomal skin complications: causes, effects, and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doctor K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Doctor, Dorin T Colibaseanu Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Abstract: Enterostomal formation remains a necessary part of multiple types of surgeries. Stomal difficulties can be a source of frustration for patients; however, a properly functioning stoma in a patient educated in its care can result in a highly functional individual, with a high quality of life, comparable to a person without a stoma. Correct surgical technique is vital to creating a stoma that is sufficiently everted, and in a good anatomical location. Loop ileostomies have a higher chance of complications, thus care in their formation is especially important. Systemic disease (inflammatory conditions, and autoimmune diseases especially as well as local conditions (pyoderma gangrenosum, infections, and fistulas, among others can be the causes for difficult-to-treat peristomal complications. Accurate diagnosis is essential in order to be able to address the underlying disease. Choosing the appropriate products to care for the stoma is often a process of trial and error, and is best done under the guidance of an enterostomal therapist. This is especially true for stomas in overweight individuals or stomas that have become flush with the skin with time and changing body habitus. Inattention to care can result in problems that range from simple mucocutaneous separations (separation of the bowel edge from the surrounding skin to large and difficult-to-heal ulcers. This article provides a systematic review of the most common challenges that patients with stoma are faced with, and offers solutions based on up-to-date review of the literature. Keywords: stoma care, stoma complications, stoma wound

  9. Research Review: What we have learned about the causes of eating disorders - a synthesis of sociocultural, psychological, and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L

    2015-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe psychiatric disorders with a complex etiology involving transactions among sociocultural, psychological, and biological influences. Most research and reviews, however, focus on only one level of analysis. To address this gap, we provide a qualitative review and summary using an integrative biopsychosocial approach. We selected variables for which there were available data using integrative methodologies (e.g., twin studies, gene-environment interactions) and/or data at the biological and behavioral level (e.g., neuroimaging). Factors that met these inclusion criteria were idealization of thinness, negative emotionality, perfectionism, negative urgency, inhibitory control, cognitive inflexibility, serotonin, dopamine, ovarian hormones. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed. Variables were classified as risk factors or correlates of eating disorder diagnoses and disordered eating symptoms using Kraemer et al.'s (1997) criteria. Sociocultural idealization of thinness variables (media exposure, pressures for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, thinness expectancies) and personality traits (negative emotionality, perfectionism, negative urgency) attained 'risk status' for eating disorders and/or disordered eating symptoms. Other factors were identified as correlates of eating pathology or were not classified given limited data. Effect sizes for risk factors and correlates were generally small-to-moderate in magnitude. Multiple biopsychosocial influences are implicated in eating disorders and/or disordered eating symptoms and several can now be considered established risk factors. Data suggest that psychological and environmental factors interact with and influence the expression of genetic risk to cause eating pathology. Additional studies that examine risk variables across multiple levels of analysis and that consider specific transactional processes amongst variables are needed to further elucidate the intersection of

  10. Dosimetry and biological effects of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on two types of cellular damage: cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations induced by irradiation with X rays, gamma rays and fast neutrons of different energies. A prerequisite for the performance of radiobiological experiments is the determination of the absorbed dose with a sufficient degree of accuracy and precision. Basic concepts of energy deposition by ionizing radiation and practical aspects of neutron dosimetry for biomedical purposes are discussed. Information on the relative neutron sensitivity of GM counters and on the effective point of measurement of ionization chambers for dosimetry of neutron and photon beams under free-in-air conditions and inside phantoms which are used to simulate the biological objects is presented. Different methods for neutron dosimetry are compared and the experimental techniques used for the investigations of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations induced by ionizing radiation of different qualities are presented. Dose-effect relations for induction cell inactivation and chromsome aberrations in three cultured cell lines for different radiation qualities are presented. (Auth.)

  11. Nanosilver – Harmful effects of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction. Med Pr 2014;65(6:831–845

  12. Analysis of the causes and recommendations on elimination of biological damage of structures during the repair and reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. The problems have been considered as for a complex of buildings of the State Biological Museum built in the late nineteenth century which, to the present time, has been operated almost in its original form. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  13. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise.We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors.These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, suggests that endogenous

  14. E. Biological effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report firstly summarises information on the biological hazards of radiation and their relation to radiation dose, and hence estimates the biological risks associated with nuclear power production. Secondly, it describes the basis and present status of radiation protection standards in the nuclear power industry

  15. Accounting for biological effectiveness in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) presents a practical problem to radiological protection when attempts are made to ensure that the assessed risks from different types of radiation and different modes of exposure to radiation are commensurate with one another. Unfortunately, the theoretical understanding of RBE is still in the stage of competing explanations and hypotheses. Furthermore, the division of the concept of dose equivalent into a set of concepts for risk assessment and another set for measurement and control has introduced conflicting requirements of a practical nature that are difficult to resolve. Many of those working in radiobiology and radiation protection have perceived the need to increase the quality factors for photon and neutron radiations. It may be more reasonable to change the quality factors for neutrons than for other radiations. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods for accommodating such changes within the dose-equivalent concepts are to be examined. The method of accommodating such a change that has the least practical disadvantages is to increase the quality factors for all secondary particles produced in tissue by neutron radiations by a constant factor. The only disadvantage would be the perception that the quality factors for these secondary particles were not treated in a consistent fashion for all types of ionising radiation. (author)

  16. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  17. Phenolphthalein exposure causes multiple carcinogenic effects in experimental model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, J K; Hailey, J R

    1996-11-01

    Phenolphthalein (a triphenylmethane derivative) has been commonly used as a laxative for most of the twentieth century, but little is known about its long-term carcinogenic potential in experimental studies. In our studies, phenolphthalein administered continuously in the feed for 2 years to F344 rats at doses of 0, 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm and to C57BL/6 x CH3 F1 (hereafter called B6C3F1) mice at doses of 0, 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm caused multiple carcinogenic effects. Treatment-related neoplasms occurred in the kidney and adrenal medulla in male rats, adrenal medulla in female rats, hematopoietic system in male and female mice (histiocytic sarcomas and malignant lymphomas), and ovary of female mice. Phenolphthalein has been shown to have estrogenic and clastogenic properties. Previous studies of other estrogenic chemicals (e.g., zearalenone) in the F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse have not shown the same spectrum of carcinogenic activity as that found with phenolphthalein, suggesting that phenolphthalein estrogenic activity alone is not responsible for the spectrum of tumors observed. It is more likely that the multiple biological properties of phenolphthalein, including its ability to form free radicals, its clastogenic activity, and its estrogenic activity, contributed to the carcinogenic effects observed. These studies show that phenolphthalein is a multisite/multispecies carcinogen. One of the sites for neoplasm that is of particular concern is the ovary, and epidemiology studies are under way to identify any potential effects of phenolphthalein exposure at this site in humans.

  18. Biological soil disinfestation (BSD), a new control method for potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Wenneker, M.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Blok, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD) to control potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, was investigated. BSD involves the induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing microbial respiration through incorporation of fresh organic amendments (here:

  19. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A cause of heart disease? Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including ...

  20. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.

  1. SIX2 Effects on Wilms Tumor Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janene Pierce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor (WT blastema retains gene expression profiles characteristic of the multipotent nephron progenitor pool, or cap mesenchyme (CM, in the developing kidney. As a result, WT blastema and the CM are believed to represent contextual analogues of one another. Sine oculis homeobox 2 (SIX2 is a transcription factor expressed specifically in the CM, provides a critical mechanism for CM self-renewal, and remains persistently active in WT blastema, although its purpose in this childhood malignancy remains unclear. We hypothesized that SIX2, analogous to its function in development, confers a survival pathway to blastema, the putative WT stem cell. To test its functional significance in WT biology, wild-type SIX2 was overexpressed in the human WT cell line, WiT49. After validating this model, SIX2 effects on anchorage-independent growth, proliferation, invasiveness, canonical WNT pathway signaling, and gene expression of specific WNT pathway participants were evaluated. Relative to controls, WiT49 cells overexpressing SIX2 showed significantly enhanced anchorage-independent growth and early-passage proliferation representing surrogates of cell survival. Interestingly, overexpression of SIX2 generally repressed TCF/LEF-dependent canonical WNT signaling, which activates and coordinates both differentiation and stem pathways, but significantly heightened canonical WNT signaling through the survivin promoter, a mechanism that exclusively maintains the stem state. In summary, when overexpressed in a human WT cell line, SIX2 enhances cell survival and appears to shift the balance in WNT/β-catenin signaling away from a differentiation path and toward a stem cell survival path.

  2. Lake Bacterial Assemblage Composition Is Sensitive to Biological Disturbance Caused by an Invasive Filter Feeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denef, Vincent J; Carrick, Hunter J; Cavaletto, Joann; Chiang, Edna; Johengen, Thomas H; Vanderploeg, Henry A

    2017-01-01

    One approach to improve forecasts of how global change will affect ecosystem processes is to better understand how anthropogenic disturbances alter bacterial assemblages that drive biogeochemical cycles. Species invasions are important contributors to global change, but their impacts on bacterial community ecology are rarely investigated. Here, we studied direct impacts of invasive dreissenid mussels (IDMs), one of many invasive filter feeders, on freshwater lake bacterioplankton. We demonstrated that direct effects of IDMs reduced bacterial abundance and altered assemblage composition by preferentially removing larger and particle-associated bacteria. While this increased the relative abundances of many free-living bacterial taxa, some were susceptible to filter feeding, in line with efficient removal of phytoplankton cells of <2 μm. This selective removal of particle-associated and larger bacteria by IDMs altered inferred bacterial functional group representation, defined by carbon and energy source utilization. Specifically, we inferred an increased relative abundance of chemoorganoheterotrophs predicted to be capable of rhodopsin-dependent energy generation. In contrast to the few previous studies that have focused on the longer-term combined direct and indirect effects of IDMs on bacterioplankton, our study showed that IDMs act directly as a biological disturbance to which freshwater bacterial assemblages are sensitive. The negative impacts on particle-associated bacteria, which have been shown to be more active than free-living bacteria, and the inferred shifts in functional group representation raise the possibility that IDMs may directly alter bacterially mediated ecosystem functions. IMPORTANCE Freshwater bacteria play fundamental roles in global elemental cycling and are an intrinsic part of local food webs. Human activities are altering freshwater environments, and much has been learned regarding the sensitivity of bacterial assemblages to a variety of

  3. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  4. Rectus Abdominis Muscle Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Causing a Large Abdominal Wall Defect: Reconstruction with Biological Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH is a common soft tissue sarcoma usually involving limbs and retroperitoneum. MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle is extremely rare. Surgery in similar cases leads to large abdominal wall defects needing reconstruction. Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting the formation of a neotissue. We herein report the case of an 84-year-old man with MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle which was resected and the large abdominal wall defect was successfully repaired with a biological mesh.

  5. The biological effects of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for exposure to ionising radiation range from natural background radiation (chronic) to the explosions of atomic bombs (acute), with some medical, industrial and research exposures lying between these extremes. Biological responses to radiation that predominate at high doses incurred at high dose rates are different from those that predominate at low doses and low dose rates. Single doses from bomb explosions ranged up to many thousand mGy. Acute doses greater than about 1000 mGy cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Below this threshold, radiation has a variety of potential latent health effects: Change to the incidence of cancer is the most usual subject of attention but change to longevity may be the best overall measure because decreased incidences of non-cancer mortality have been observed to coincide with increased incidence of cancer mortality. Acute doses greater than 500 mGy cause increased risks of cancer and decreased life expectancy. For doses less than 100 mGy, beneficial overall health effects ('radiation hormesis') have been observed. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic exposure to natural radiation has occurred throughout evolution and is necessary for the normal life and health of current species. Dose rates greater than the present global average of about 2 mGy per year have either no discernible health effect or beneficial health effects up to several hundred mGy per year. It is clearly not credible that a single health effects model -- such as the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of risk estimation -- could fit all latent health effects. A more realistic model is suggested.

  6. On the metabolism and the biological effect of transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, Yu.I.; Zalikin, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with the metabolic behaviour and the biological effects of 237 Np, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and 252 Cf in rats and dogs with particular emphasis being placed on the tumour and non-tumour late effects. (author)

  7. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  8. Identifying the underlying causes of biological instability in a full-scale drinking water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2018-05-15

    Changes in bacterial concentration and composition in drinking water during distribution are often attributed to biological (in)stability. Here we assessed temporal biological stability in a full-scale distribution network (DN) supplied with different types of source water: treated and chlorinated surface water and chlorinated groundwater produced at three water treatment plants (WTP). Monitoring was performed weekly during 12 months in two locations in the DN. Flow cytometric total and intact cell concentration (ICC) measurements showed considerable seasonal fluctuations, which were different for two locations. ICC varied between 0.1-3.75 × 10 5  cells mL -1 and 0.69-4.37 × 10 5  cells mL -1 at two locations respectively, with ICC increases attributed to temperature-dependent bacterial growth during distribution. Chlorinated water from the different WTP was further analysed with a modified growth potential method, identifying primary and secondary growth limiting compounds. It was observed that bacterial growth in the surface water sample after chlorination was primarily inhibited by phosphorus limitation and secondly by organic carbon limitation, while carbon was limiting in the chlorinated groundwater samples. However, the ratio of available nutrients changed during distribution, and together with disinfection residual decay, this resulted in higher bacterial growth potential detected in the DN than at the WTP. In this study, bacterial growth was found to be higher (i) at higher water temperatures, (ii) in samples with lower chlorine residuals and (iii) in samples with less nutrient (carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron) limitation, while this was significantly different between the samples of different origin. Thus drinking water microbiological quality and biological stability could change during different seasons, and the extent of these changes depends on water temperature, the water source and treatment. Furthermore, differences in primary

  9. Effects of Biological Versus Psychosocial Explanations on Stigmatization of Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Rosenthal, Jessica E; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found biological conceptualizations of psychopathology to be associated with stigmatizing attitudes and prognostic pessimism. This research investigated how biological and psychosocial explanations for a child's ADHD symptoms differ in affecting laypeople's stigmatizing attitudes and prognostic beliefs. Three experiments were conducted online with U.S. adults, using vignettes that described a child with ADHD and attributed his symptoms to either biological or psychosocial causes. Dependent measures gauged social distance and expectations about the child's prognosis. Across all three studies, the biological explanation yielded more doubt about treatability but less social distance-a result that diverges from previous research with other disorders. Differences in the amount of blame ascribed to the child mediated the social distance effect. The effects of biological explanations on laypeople's views of ADHD seem to be a "double-edged sword," reducing social rejection but exacerbating perceptions of the disorder as relatively untreatable. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Biological effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Montagu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections. The ability of A. baumannii to display various resistance mechanisms against antibiotics has transformed it into a successful nosocomial pathogen. The limited number of antibiotics in development and the disengagement of the pharmaceutical industry have prompted the development of innovative strategies. One of these strategies is the use of essential oils, especially aromatic compounds that are potent antibacterial molecules. Among them, the combination of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde has already demonstrated antibacterial efficacy against A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to determine the biological effects of these two compounds in A. baumannii, describing their effect on the rRNA and gene regulation under environmental stress conditions. Results demonstrated rRNA degradation by the carvacrol/cinnamaldehyde mixture, and this effect was due to carvacrol. Degradation was conserved after encapsulation of the mixture in lipid nanocapsules. Results showed an upregulation of the genes coding for heat shock proteins, such as groES, groEL, dnaK, clpB and the catalase katE, after exposure to carvacrol/cinnamaldehyde mixture. The catalase was upregulated after carvacrol exposure wich is related to an oxidative stress. The combination of thiourea (hydroxyl radical scavenger and carvacrol demonstrated a potent bactericidal effect. These results underline the development of defense strategies of the bacteria by synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS in response to environmental stress conditions, such as carvacrol.

  11. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  12. Biological dosimetry by the radiation effects on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessho, Yuko

    1994-01-01

    In cases of partial body over-exposure, the dose estimation with personal monitors or with reconstruction of exposed conditions is often impossible without considerable error. Clinical signs of irradiated skin, such as epilation or moist desquamation have been used as the indicators of doses in the radiological accidents, because each sign has the threshold dose. As hair growth is known to be sensitive to radiation, the dose-effect relationship of the delay of hair regrowth and the reduction in hair length of mice after irradiation were examined to investigate if they can be used as biological dosimeters. Hairs on the dorsal skin of 290 ICR mice (8 weeks old) were shaved and irradiated with a Sr-90/Y-90 β-ray source in the early anagen and the midanagen stages of the hair cycle. Skin doses were from 0.5 to 10 Gy. The time of hair regrowth and the hair length were examined with the scaling loupe. Dose-effect relationship of the delay of hair regrowth and reduction in hair length were both clearly dose dependent, fitting the L-Q or L function depending on the stage. Dose estimation functions were derived from the dose-effect relationship curves. The histological observations suggested that hair growth retardation caused by irradiation in midanagen might be due to the cell death and the depression of mitosis in the hair matrix cells. This dose estimation method was applied to the case who was over-exposed to X-ray on his hand and fingers. The findings showed that hair regrowth delay was a sensitive biological dosimeter in the case of partial body over-exposure, which could be applied as early as a few days after over-exposure. The method was simple and non-invasive to the exposed patient. (author)

  13. Biological and pharmacological effects of Delphinium elbursense

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... stress caused from imbalance between the generation and the ... armentarium of therapy is often inadequate with un- satisfactory results in ... Animals were transported from the housing room to the testing area in their own cages and allowed to adapt to the new environment for 1 h before testing. Groups of ...

  14. Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in controlling Gonometa podorcarpi in conifer ... gilvoides as a potential biological control agent for G. podocarpi. Field and laboratory studies further established that P. .... version for windows (SPSS, 2002). Results. Gonometa podocarpi was present in.

  15. Delayed biological effects of incorporated sulfur-35 in combination with IOS-4876

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusanova, O.V.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of some delayed effects of sulfur-35 single administration to mongree white rats males is carried out; modifying effect of IOS-4876 preparation on biological efficiency of incorporated sulfur-35 is also evaluated. Different radionuclide doses demonstrated identical tumor effect exceeding by 2.2-3 times the level of spontaneous tumors. Sulfur-35 incorporated in quantities of 185 and 925 kBq/g causes proved increase in rats death level during the first two years of observation. IOS-4876 preparation leads to certain decrease in the level of delayed biological effects due to internal irradiation. 11 refs

  16. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  17. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  18. Effect of corticosteroid therapy in acute pain edema caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the curative effect of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute pain, local edema, and skin lesions caused by ... Conclusion: Treatment of herpes zoster with appropriate corticosteroid isodose application can effectively relieve ..... Glueocorticoid treatment in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress ...

  19. Causes, Effects and Possible Solution of Seasonal Egg Gluts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to assess small holder poultry farmers' perspectives on the causes, effects and solution to the cyclical egg glut in Ejigbo, Nigeria using questionnaire for data collection and descriptive data analysis. Farmers interviewed agreed that government policies have a registered effect on drop of egg sales ...

  20. Is Reintroduction Biology an Effective Applied Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; Canessa, Stefano; Clarke, Rohan H; Ingwersen, Dean; Armstrong, Doug P; Seddon, Philip J; Ewen, John G

    2017-11-01

    Reintroduction biology is a field of scientific research that aims to inform translocations of endangered species. We review two decades of published literature to evaluate whether reintroduction science is evolving in its decision-support role, as called for by advocates of evidence-based conservation. Reintroduction research increasingly addresses a priori hypotheses, but remains largely focused on short-term population establishment. Similarly, studies that directly assist decisions by explicitly comparing alternative management actions remain a minority. A small set of case studies demonstrate full integration of research in the reintroduction decision process. We encourage the use of tools that embed research in decision-making, particularly the explicit consideration of multiple management alternatives because this is the crux of any management decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

    2003-01-01

    The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In ...

  2. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This extensive review discusses the topic under the following headings: ultraviolet climatology, molecular and cellular ultraviolet photobiology (absorption, photoproducts, repair), effects of solar UVR on aquatic life (phyto and zooplankton), plants and humans. The section on human effects includes tanning, photo-aging, non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers and the effects of solar UVR on the eye. (UK)

  3. On alterations in the refractive index and scattering properties of biological tissue caused by histological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Htet; DeAngelo, Bianca; Soldano, John; Kostyk, Piotr; Rodriguez, Braulio; Xu, M.

    2013-02-01

    Clinical tissue processing such as formalin fixing, paraffin-embedding and histological staining alters significantly the optical properties of the tissue. We document the alterations in the optical properties of prostate cancer tissue specimens in the 500nm to 700nm spectral range caused by histological processing with quantitative differential interference contrast (qDIC) microscopy. A simple model to explain these alterations is presented at the end.

  4. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered...... a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  5. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells ex...

  6. Placebo Effects: Biological, Clinical and Ethical Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Miller, Franklin; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    For many years, placebos have been conceptualised by their inert content and their use as controls in clinical trials and treatments in clinical practice. Recent research demonstrates that placebo effects are genuine psychobiological phenomenon attributable to the overall therapeutic context, and that placebo effects can be robust in both laboratory and clinical settings. Evidence has also emerged that placebo effects can exist in clinical practice, even if no placebo is given. Further promotion and integration of laboratory and clinical research will allow advances in the ethical harnessing of placebo mechanisms that are inherent in routine clinical care and the potential use of treatments to primarily promote placebo effects. PMID:20171404

  7. Diagnosis of water pollution caused by chemical effluents using hydro biological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeon, C.; Bonnefoy-Claudet, J.

    1965-04-01

    Industrial plants which discharge chemical effluents into rivers are faced with a double problem. 1 - To avoid excessive pollution which leads to an important modification of the medium and to a poisoning of the aquatic fauna, and in particular to the killing of fish. These disadvantages are avoided by a treatment of the effluents, by calculating the minimum fatal doses and the limiting dilutions for fish, and by carrying out biological analyses and tests on the residual waters. 2 - To avoid provoking continuous, slow and insidious pollutions which are more difficult to detect and which would result in the gradual sterilization of receptive media. In order to estimate this possible influence, the authors have listed the aquatic fauna and flora found in the canal which was the object of the experiment, and have modified the Saprobies system due to Kolwickz. They have tried to detect the presence or absence of pollution by estimating the density of the phyto-plankton formed on submerged laminae (periphyton) and the specific variations in the alga of which these populations are made up. In this report are given details of the tests and of the first results obtained. (authors) [fr

  8. Biological and Molecular Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Isolate Causing Severe Mosaic in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Singh, Lakhmir; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a wide host range causing severe damage in many important agricultural and ornamental crops. Earlier reports showed the prevalence of CMV subgroup I isolates in India. However, some recent reports point towards increasing incidence of subgroup II isolates in the country. The complete genome of a CMV isolate causing severe mosaic in cucumber was characterized and its phylogenetic analysis with other 21 CMV isolates reported worldwide clustered it with subgroup II strains. The genome comprised of RNA 1 (3,379 nucleotides), RNA 2 (3,038 nucleotides) and RNA 3 (2,206 nucleotides). The isolate showed highest homology with subgroup II isolates: 95.1-98.7, 87.7-98.0, and 85.4-97.1 % within RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3, respectively. RNA1 and RNA2 were closely related to the Japanese isolate while RNA3 clustered with an American isolate. Host range studies revealed that isolate showed severe mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana spp. and Cucumis spp. The isolate induced leaf deformation and mild filiform type symptoms in tomato. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CMV subgroup II isolate from India.

  9. Biological effects of water reservoir radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation damage to fresh water fishes at early stages of ontogenesis is revealed only during the spawn incubation in a solution with 10 -5 to 10 -3 Cu/l radioactivity and at relatively high dosages exceeding 500-1000 rad. Damaging effect of a fission product mixture of 9, 30 and 100 day age as well as of several separate radionuclides on embryogenesis of freshwater fishes depends mainly on fish species, concentration, toxicity, chemical form of radionuclides in the residence medium, on peculiarities of metabolism between the aqueous medium and an organism, stage of the embryo development by the moment of radiation effect and duration of this effect

  10. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  11. Thermal neutrons could be a cause of biological extinctions 65 Myr ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yayanos, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tabulations of the number of genera present before and after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions have revealed certain patterns. Marine organisms were much more susceptible to extinction than were freshwater or terrestrial organisms. Benthic marine organisms were affected as much as those organisms that swam or floated. However, some marine genera were unaffected whilst some terrestrial ones were severely affected. Organisms making calcium-containing skeletons were the most sensitive. Among the hypotheses proposed for the extinctions is that they were caused by ionizing radiations. The hypothesis proposed here is that the pattern of extinction in the fossil record emerged as a consequence of neutron activation of certain elements in organisms and in their environment. (author)

  12. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  13. Hypertension in Adults: Part 1. Prevalence, types, causes and effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Prevalence, types, causes and effects. Dr Muhammad Ilyas, Specialist Registrar Acute Medicine, St Mary's Hospital Isle of Wight, UK*. * muhammad_ilyas73 AT yahoo.com. Introduction. Arterial hypertension is a common and preventable cardiovascular risk factor, leading to about 1.7 million deaths/year worldwide.

  14. Effect of corticosteroid therapy in acute pain edema caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the curative effect of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute pain, local edema, and skin lesions caused by herpes zoster, and to develop some pertinent therapeutic guidelines. Methods: A total of 48 cases of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster from 2010 to 2011 in the dermatology clinic of Shan ...

  15. Advanced Level Students\\' Perceptions of the Causes and Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advanced Level Students\\' Perceptions of the Causes and Effects of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study of Masvingo Urban High Schools, Zimbabwe. Excellent Chireshe, Regis Chireshe. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research Vol.15(1) 2003: 12-28. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. climate change: causes, effects and mitigation measures-a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    The sun is known to be the source of energy for the planet's climate system. .... At the top: the contraction process, Source: WIKIPEDIA. Source. The ECONOMIST. CLIMATE CHANGE: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES-A REVIEW. 473 .... complex trade-off exists between expanding agriculture and keeping ...

  17. The biological effects of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D; Zisk, Abigail

    2014-04-01

    Trauma in childhood is a psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem with serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. This article focuses on peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and in adults with histories of childhood trauma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Food Polyphenols Fail to Cause a Biologically Relevant Reduction of COX-2 Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Willenberg

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies show a correlation between the dietary intake of food polyphenols and beneficial health effects. Several in vitro studies indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of polyphenols is, at least in part, mediated by a modulation of the enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade, such as the prostaglandin forming cyclooxygenases (COXs. Evidence that this mode of action can be transferred to the situation in vivo is scarce. This study characterized effects of a subset of polyphenols on COX-2 expression and activity in vitro and compared the potency with known drugs. Next, the in vivo relevance of the observed in vitro effects was tested. Enzyme assays and incubations of polyphenols with the cancer cell line HCA-7 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated primary monocytes support the hypothesis that polyphenols can effect COX-2 expression and activity in vitro. The effects were most pronounced in the monocyte assay for wogonin, apigenin, resveratrol and genistein with IC50 values of 1.5 μM, 2.6 μM, 2.8 μM and 7.4 μM. However, these values are 100- to 1000-fold higher in comparison to those of the known pharmaceuticals celecoxib, indomethacin and dexamethasone. In an animal model of LPS induced sepsis, pretreatment with polyphenols (i. p. 100 mg/kg bw did not result in decreased plasma or tissue prostaglandin levels, whereas the positive control celecoxib effectively attenuated LPS induced prostaglandin formation. These data suggest that despite the moderate potency in vitro, an effect of polyphenols on COX-2 during acute inflammation is unlikely, even if a high dose of polyphenols is ingested.

  19. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants...

  20. Haldane's The causes of evolution and the Modern Synthesis in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2017-11-01

    This paper argues that Haldane's The causes of evolution was the most important founding document in the emergence of the received view of evolutionary theory which is typically referred to as the Modern Synthesis. Whether or not this historical development is characterized as a synthesis (which remains controversial), this paper argues the most important component of the emergence of the received view consisted of showing how the formal rules of Mendelian inheritance are based on (or emerge from) the material basis of heredity established by classical genetics primarily through the experimental work on Drosophila genetics of the Morgan school in the 1910s and 1920s. This is one of the most important achievements of Haldane's book. Thus this paper rejects both (i) the view that the synthesis was a unification of biometry and Mendelism and (ii) the claim that it arose from work primarily done in the late 1930s and 1940s by naturalists rather than theoretical population and classical experimental geneticists.

  1. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes....... No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL...

  2. Biological and therapeutical effects of Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, P. [Institute of Physiologie and Balneologie, University of Innsbruck (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    In spas with a somewhat elevated Radon{sup 222} (Rn) activity (between 300 and 3000 Bq/l), the empirical medicine ended - in all parts of the world - with the same list of indications. It mainly includes the more painful rheumatic diseases such as deformation or degeneration of the joints and non bacterial inflammation of muscles, tendons or joints; Morbus Bechterew and other diseases of the vertebral column like spondylosis, spondylarthrosis or osteochondrosis. While informer times these effects were seldom documented in an objective manner, in recent years several prospective randomized double-blind studies proved the pain reducing efficacy of Radon therapy in patients with cervical pain syndromes, with chronic polyarthritis or with Morbus Bechterew. Studies in experimental animal models have accumulated remarkable data in organs, tissue and cultured cells that provide a rationale to explain the observed effects of Radon therapy in patients. (author)

  3. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette

    2006-02-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.

  4. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PTX is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

  5. Biological Effects of Stellar Collapse Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, J. I.

    1996-02-01

    Massive stars in their final stages of collapse radiate most of their binding energy in the form of MeV neutrinos. The recoil atoms that they produce in elastic scattering off nuclei in organic tissue create radiation damage which is highly effective in the production of irreparable DNA harm, leading to cellular mutation, neoplasia, and oncogenesis. Using a conventional model of the galaxy and of the collapse mechanism, the periodicity of nearby stellar collapses and the radiation dose are calculated. The possible contribution of this process to the paleontological record of mass extinctions is examined.

  6. Leptospira interrogans causes quantitative and morphological disturbances in adherens junctions and other biological groups of proteins in human endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Sato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1 extracellular matrix, 2 intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3 intracellular proteins, 4 cell-cell junction proteins, and 5 a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or

  7. Leptospira interrogans causes quantitative and morphological disturbances in adherens junctions and other biological groups of proteins in human endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1) extracellular matrix, 2) intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3) intracellular proteins, 4) cell-cell junction proteins, and 5) a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins) and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or pathways

  8. Biological effect of radiation on human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved

  9. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  10. Nanogold – Biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanogold has different properties and biological activity compared to metallic gold. It can be applied in many fields, such as medicine, laboratory diagnostics and electronics. Studies on laboratory animals show that nanogold can be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion. It can penetrate deep into the epidermis and dermis, but there is no evidence that it is absorbed through the skin. Gold nanoobjects accumulate mainly in the liver and spleen, but they can also reach other internal organs. Nanogold can cross the blood–brain and blood–placenta barriers. Toxicokinetics of nanogold depends on the particle size, shape and surface charge. In animals exposure to gold nanoparticles via inhalation induces slight changes in the lungs. Exposure to nanogold by the oral route does not cause adverse health effects in rodents. In animals after injection of gold nanoobjects changes in the liver and lungs were observed. Nanogold induced genotoxic effects in cells, but not in animals. No adverse effects on the fetus or reproduction were found. There are no carcinogenicity studies on gold nanoparticles. The mechanism of toxicity may be related to the interaction of gold nanoobjects with proteins and DNA, and it leads to the induction of oxidative stress and genetic material damage. The impact of nanostructures on human health has not yet been fully understood. The person, who works with nanomaterials should exercise extreme caution and apply existing recommendations on the evaluation of nanoobjects exposure. The risk assessment should be the basis for taking appropriate measures to limit potential exposure to nanometals, including nanogold. Med Pr 2017;68(4:545–556

  11. Biologic and physical fractionation effects of random geometric errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, Marcel; Witte, Marnix; van der Geer, Joris; Schneider, Christoph; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: We are developing a system to model the effect of random and systematic geometric errors on radiotherapy delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate biologic and physical fractionation effects of random geometric errors and respiration motion and compare the resulting dose

  12. Effects of Biologic Agents in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Amyloidosis Treated with Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Saeki, Takako; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine the safety and effects of therapy with biologics on the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis on hemodialysis (HD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of reactive AA amyloidosis participated in the study. The survival was calculated from the date of HD initiation until the time of death, or up to end of June 2015 for the patients who were still alive. HD initiation was according to the program of HD initiation for systemic amyloidosis patients associated with RA. Results Ten patients had been treated with biologics before HD initiation for a mean of 28.2 months (biologic group), while 18 had not (non-biologic group). HD was initiated in patients with similar characteristics except for the tender joint count, swollen joint count, and disease activity score (DAS)28-C-reactive protein (CRP). History of biologics showed that etanercept was frequently used for 8 patients as the first biologic. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.939) and or associated risk of death in an age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (p=0.758) between both groups. Infections were significantly more frequent causes of death in the biologic group than in the non-biologic group (p=0.021). However, treatment with biologics improved the DAS28-CRP score (p=0.004). Conclusion Under the limited conditions of AA amyloidosis treated with HD, the use of biologics might affect infection and thus may not improve the prognosis. Strict infection control is necessary for the use of biologics with HD to improve the prognosis. PMID:27725536

  13. The biologic effects of cigarette smoke on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobus, Samantha L; Warren, Graham W

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is one of the largest preventable risk factors for developing cancer, and continued smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased toxicity, recurrence, risk of second primary cancer, and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains thousands of chemicals, including many known carcinogens. The carcinogenic effects of CS are well established, but relatively little work has been done to evaluate the effects of CS on cancer cells. In this review of the literature, the authors demonstrate that CS induces a more malignant tumor phenotype by increasing proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and by activating prosurvival cellular pathways. Significant work is needed to understand the biologic effect of CS on cancer biology, including the development of model systems and the identification of critical biologic mediators of CS-induced changes in cancer cell physiology. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  14. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  15. Revisiting the Effect of Anthropomorphizing a Social Cause Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Williams

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that anthropomorphism can be harnessed as a tool to boost intentions to comply with social cause campaigns. Drawing on the human tendency to extend moral concern to entities portrayed as humanlike, it has been argued that adding personified features to a social campaign elevates anticipated guilt at failing to comply, and this subsequently boosts intentions to comply with that campaign. The present research aimed to extend extant research by disentangling the effects of emotional and non-emotional anthropomorphism, and differentiating amongst other emotional mechanisms of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect (namely, anticipated pride and anticipated regret. Experiment 1 (N = 294 compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and emotionally-neutral anthropomorphized campaign posters for boosting campaign compliance intentions against non-anthropomorphized posters. We also measured potential mechanisms including anticipated guilt, regret, and pride. Results failed to support the anthropomorphism-compliance effect, and no changes in anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. Experiments 2 (N = 150 and 3 (N = 196 represented further tests of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect. Despite high statistical power and efforts to closely replicate the conditions under which the anthropomorphism-compliance effect had been previously observed, no differences in compliance intention or anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. A meta-analysis of the effects of anthropomorphism on compliance and anticipated emotion across the three experiments revealed effect size estimates that did not differ significantly from zero. The results of these three experiments suggest that the anthropomorphism-compliance effect is fragile and perhaps subject to contextual and idiographic influences. Thus, this research provides important insight and impetus for future research on the applied and theoretical

  16. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  17. A Framework on Causes and Effects of Design Iterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Purva; Matsagar, Vasant

    2017-06-01

    Design is an evolutionary process that involves several teams collaborating with each other to achieve the final design solution. Due to an intrinsic association of teams participating during design stages, frequent exchanges of information take place among them to execute various design activities. These information exchanges occur in cycles/loops where the design is improved/refined at each information exchange. This process is referred as design iteration. Iteration is one of the most complex and unavoidable phenomenon of a design process and they last until the specifications and design requirements are met. Hence, design teams need to acquire a thorough understanding of the factors that cause iterations. As the causes of iterations have not been identified in a classified manner, a causes and effects framework of design iteration is presented in this paper. The methodology adopted to develop this framework was detailed literature review and interactions done with industry experts. This framework guides project planners to identify the possible causes of iterations and enables them to plan their design projects efficiently.

  18. The relative biological effectiveness of out-of-field dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderson, Michael; Koger, Brandon; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: using simulations and models derived from existing literature, this work investigates relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for out-of-field radiation and attempts to quantify the relative magnitudes of different contributing phenomena (spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects). Specific attention is paid to external beam radiotherapy treatments for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: using different biological models that account for spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects, the RBE was calculated for different points moving radially out from isocentre for a typical single arc VMAT prostate case. The RBE was found by taking the ratio of the equivalent dose with the physical dose. Equivalent doses were calculated by determining what physical dose would be necessary to produce the same overall biological effect as that predicted using the different biological models. Results: spectral effects changed the RBE out-of-field less than 2%, whereas response models incorporating low dose hypersensitivity and bystander effects resulted in a much more profound change of the RBE for out-of-field doses. The bystander effect had the largest RBE for points located just outside the edge of the primary radiation beam in the cranial caudal (z-direction) compared to low dose hypersensitivity and spectral effects. In the coplanar direction, bystander effect played the largest role in enhancing the RBE for points up to 8.75 cm from isocentre. Conclusions: spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects can all increase the RBE for out-of-field radiation doses. In most cases, bystander effects seem to play the largest role followed by low dose hypersensitivity. Spectral effects were unlikely to be of any clinical significance. Bystander, low dose hypersensitivity, and spectral effect increased the RBE much more in the cranial caudal direction (z-direction) compared with the coplanar directions.

  19. Biological isotopy. Introduction to the isotopic effects and to their applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherkez, G.

    2010-01-01

    Since their discovery in the beginning of the 20. century, the study of stable isotopes has considerably developed. This domain, which remained limited in its applications until the 1990's, has become particularly important thereafter thanks to its practical applications and in particular to its economical impacts. Many techniques used in fraud control, in drugs use control, in selection of high-yield plants etc are based on isotopic abundance measurements. This reference book gives a synthesis of our actual knowledge on the use of stable isotopes and of isotope fractionation in biology. It presents the basic notions of isotopic biochemistry and explains the origin of the isotopic effects. The application principles of these effects to metabolism, to organisms physiology, to environmental biology etc are explained and detailed using examples and exercises. The first chapters present the basic knowledge which defines, from a mathematical point-of-view, the isotopic effects of chemical reactions or of physical processes taking place in biology. The measurements principle of natural isotopes abundance is then synthesised. Finally, all these notions are applied at different scales: enzymes, physiology, metabolism, environment, ecosystems and fraud crackdown. (J.S.)

  20. Long-term biological effects induced by ionizing radiation--implications for dose mediated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, S D; Astărăstoae, V

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are considered to be risk agents that are responsible for the effects on interaction with living matter. The occurring biological effects are due to various factors such as: dose, type of radiation, exposure time, type of biological tissue, health condition and the age of the person exposed. The mechanisms involved in the direct modifications of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA are reviewed. Classical target theory of energy deposition in the nucleus that causes DNA damages, in particular DNA double-strand breaks and that explanation of the biological consequences of ionizing radiation exposure is a paradigm in radiobiology. Recent experimental evidences have demonstrated the existence of a molecular mechanism that explains the non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Among these novel data, genomic instability and a variety of bystander effects are discussed here. Those bystander effects of ionizing radiation are fulfilled by cellular communication systems that give rise to non-targeted effects in the neighboring non irradiated cells. This paper provides also a commentary on the synergistic effects induced by the co-exposures to ionizing radiation and various physical agents such as electromagnetic fields and the co-exposures to ionizing radiation and chemical environmental contaminants such as metals. The biological effects of multiple stressors on genomic instability and bystander effects are also discussed. Moreover, a brief presentation of the methods used to characterize cyto- and genotoxic damages is offered.

  1. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  2. The greenhouse effect: Its causes, possible impacts, and associated uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.H.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth's climate changes. The climatic effects of having polluted the atmosphere with gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) may already be felt. There is no doubt that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been rising. CO2 tends to trap heat near the Earth's surface. This is known as the greenhouse effect, and its existence and basic mechanisms are not questioned by atmospheric scientists. What is questioned is the precise amount of warming and the regional pattern of climatic change that can be expected on the Earth from the anthropogenic increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. It is the regional patterns of changes in temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture that will determine what impact the greenhouse effect will have on natural ecosystems, agriculture, and water supplies. These possible effects are discussed in detail. It is concluded, however, that a detailed assessment of the climatic, biological, and societal changes that are evolving and should continue to occur into the next century cannot reliably be made with available scientific capabilities. Nevertheless, enough is known to suggest a range of plausible futures with attendant impacts, both positive and negative, on natural resources and human well being

  3. Long-lived radicals (LLR) which cause genotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Kodama, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kumagai, J.; Miyazaki, T.

    2003-01-01

    Many researcher studying in area of radiation biology believed that active short life-time radicals such as OH and H radicals, play an important role to express genotoxic effects of radiations in cells, such as mutation and transformation induction. However, in 1993 we found a new type of radicals with long life-time in gamma- or X- irradiated golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells (T1/2>20hr) at room temperature by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy . It may be more important in mutation induction rather than the active short-live radicals. When Vitamin C (AsA) is added to the gamma- or X- irradiated cells at 20 min or 6 hr after the irradiation, respectively, LLR are scavenged by it simultaneously with the drastic suppression of genotoxicity such as mutation and transformation. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) disappear within microsecond after the irradiation, AsA do not scavenge the ROS but LLR. Therefore, we have proposed that LLR must be responsible radicals for inducing mutation, and probably important for the genotoxicity in the irradiated mammalian cells. Addition of AsA to the cells before or after irradiation does not have any effects on reducing cell death and chromosomal aberration. For these ten years, we have pointed out the importance of LLR, rather than short life-time radicals, produced in gamma- or X-ray irradiated mammalian cells which can induce mutation in the irradiated mammalian cells. By the studies using Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy, we found that LLR probably locate in interior of biopolymers where few water molecules exist. By further analysis of the ESR spectra of LLR and comparison of the yields of radicals in proteins and DNA, we reached to the conclusion that LLR are produced in protein and assigned as sulfinyl radicals as oxidized cysteine groups. LLR are not produced in DNA or in lipids. Our result show that the LLR produced in protein is responsible for the gene mutation in irradiated

  4. Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam

  5. [Molluscicidal effects of nano-silver biological molluscicide and niclosamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Xiao-yuan; Wang, Jiang-jie; He, Zong-gui; Chen, Geng-xin; Ding, Lei; Dai, Jian-jun; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of a novel nano-silver biological molluscicide in the field and its toxicity to other aquatic organisms. A marshland of the Qiupu River was selected as the study site. Four 1 m3 pools were excavated. Four groups, including 300 g/m3 and 600 g/m3 nano-silver biological molluscicide groups, a 2 g/m3 50% niclosamide group, and a natural water (control) group were assigned to the four pools which had 100 Oncomelania hupensis snails and 100 crucian seedlings. The molluscicidal effects and toxicity to the aquatic organisms were observed. The snail death rates were 100% and crucian seedling death rates were 6% in the 600 g/m3 nano-silver biological molluscicide group and 300 g/m3 nano-silver biological molluscicide group in 7 days and 14 days. The snail death rate was 100% in the niclosamide group in 7 days, and the crucian seedling death rate was 100% in the niclosamide group in 3 days. The snail death rates were 7% and 14% in the control group in 7 and 14 days respectively, and the crucian seedling death rate was 22% in the control group. The novel nano-silver biological molluscicide possesses an excellent molluscicidal capability and non-toxicity to the other aquatic organisms. Therefore, it may become a new, efficient and environment-friendly bio-molluscicide for extensive application.

  6. Effects of marine reserves on the reproductive biology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested the effects of marine reserve status on the reproductive biology and recruitment rates of two commonly exploited (Helcion concolor, Scutellastra longicosta) and two rarely exploited (Cellana capensis, Scutellastra granularis) limpet species using two reserve and two non-reserve sites on the south coast of South ...

  7. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed. © 2013 The Authors.Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nutrigenetic Effect of Moringa oleifera Seed Meal on the Biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrigenetic Effect of Moringa oleifera Seed Meal on the Biological Growth Programme of Young Broiler Chickens. ... Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  9. Biological effects in intramuscular 239Pu administration during chelatotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyakov, E.G.; Nifatov, A.P.; Bazhin, A.G.; Lyubchanskij, Eh.R.

    1988-01-01

    Durable (up to 64 days) application of complexones (Ca and Zn DTPA) in the case of intramuscular administration of 239 Pu large amounts in rats is studied. The results of studying the biological effect proving considerable decrease of the average lifespan of rats are given

  10. Comparative SPR study on the effect of nanomaterials on the biological activity of adsorbed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Q.; Chen, Y.; Hong, J.; Chen, H.; Ding, X.; Yin, Y.; Koh, K.; Lee, J.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactivity of proteins is evaluated to test the adverse effects of nanoparticles interjected into biological systems. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy detects binding affinity that is normally related to biological activity. Utilizing SPR spectroscopy, a concise testing matrix is established by investigating the adsorption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA on the surface covered with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA); magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), respectively. The immunoactivity of BSA on MNPs and SWCNT decreased by 18 % and 5 %, respectively, compared to that on the gold film modified with MUA. This indicates that MNPs cause a considerable loss of biological activity of adsorbed protein. This effect can be utilized for practical applications on detailed biophysical research and nanotoxicity studies. (author)

  11. Examining the nature of retrocausal effects in biology and psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Multiple laboratories have reported physiological and psychological changes associated with future events that are designed to be unpredictable by normal sensory means. Such phenomena seem to be examples of retrocausality at the macroscopic level. Here I will discuss the characteristics of seemingly retrocausal effects in biology and psychology, specifically examining a biological and a psychological form of precognition, predictive anticipatory activity (PAA) and implicit precognition. The aim of this examination is to offer an analysis of the constraints posed by the characteristics of macroscopic retrocausal effects. Such constraints are critical to assessing any physical theory that purports to explain these effects. Following a brief introduction to recent research on PAA and implicit precognition, I will describe what I believe we have learned so far about the nature of these effects, and conclude with a testable, yet embryonic, model of macroscopic retrocausal phenomena.

  12. Effectiveness and versatility of biological prosthesis in transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Mascianà, Gianluca; De Werra, Edoardo; Sandri, Giovanni Battista Levi; Ferraro, Daniele; Burocchi, Mirco; Tortorelli, Giovanni; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2017-02-24

    To emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of prosthesis, and good tolerance by patients with incisional hernia (IH). From December 2001 to February 2016, 270 liver transplantations were performed at San Camillo Hospital. IH occurred in 78 patients (28.8%). IH usually appeared early within the first year post-orthotopic liver transplantation. In the first era, fascial defect was repaired by primary closure for defects smaller than 2.5 cm or with synthetic mesh for greater defects. Recently, we started using biological mesh (Permacol™, Covidien). We present a series of five transplanted patients submitted to surgery for abdominal wall defect correction repaired with biological mesh (Permacol™, Covidien). In our cases, the use of biological prosthesis (Permacol™, Covidien) have proven to be effective and versatile in repairing hernia defects of different kinds; patients did not suffer infections of the prosthesis and no recurrence was observed. Furthermore, the prosthesis remains intact even in the years after surgery. The cases that we presented show that the use of biological mesh (Permacol™, Covidien) in transplanted patients may be safe and effective, being careful in the management of perioperative immunosuppression and renal and graft function, although the cost of the product itself has been the main limiting factor and there is need for prospective studies for further evaluations.

  13. Wound duration and healing rates: cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanquet, David C; Harding, Keith G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors affect the likelihood of a wound healing. One of these factors, wound duration, is well known to be related to healing rates, with numerous publications showing that older wounds are less likely to heal. However, disentangling the effect of this factor on wound healing rates is complex. Is this simply an observation of the obvious; wounds of longer duration will by definition be harder to heal? Or does time represent an independent factor, implying that should treatments be given earlier in the disease process, better outcomes may result? This review summarizes the available evidence of the effects of wound duration on healing rates and examines potential biological aberrations identified in chronic wounds, which may be significant in making chronic wounds difficult to heal. Wounds of longer duration are associated with excessive inflammation, fibroblast senescence, and alterations in wound bed flora, which appears to have a temporal relationship. Early and aggressive treatment of ulcers that fail to respond to standard care may well aid in reducing the burden of wounds that become chronic. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Study of the effects of radon in three biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Brena, M.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Villalobos P, R.

    2002-01-01

    The radon and its decay products are responsible of the 3/4 parts of the exposure of the persons to the environmental radiation. The discovery at the end of XIX Century of the illnesses, mainly of cancer, which appeared in the presence of radon, lead to an accelerated growing of the radon studies: monitoring, dosimetry, effects on the persons, etc. Several epidemiological studies of radon in miners and population in general have been realized; advancing in the knowledge about the concentration-lung cancer risk relationship, but with discrepancies in the results depending on the concentration levels. Therefor, studies which consuming time, efforts and money go on doing. The research of the radon effects in biological systems different to human, allows to realize studies in less time, in controlled conditions and generally at lower cost, generating information about the alpha radiation effects in the cellular field. Therefor it was decided to study the response of three biological systems exposed to radon: an unicellular bacteria Escherichia Coli which was exposed directly to alpha particles from an electrodeposited source for determining the sensitivity limit of the chose technique. A plant, Tradescantia, for studying the cytogenetic effect of the system exposed to controlled concentrations of radon. An insect, Drosophila Melanogaster, for studying the genetic effects and the accumulated effects in several generations exposed to radon. In this work the experimental settlements are presented for the expositions of the systems and the biological results commenting the importance of these. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of radiobiological effects in 3 distinct biological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, J.; Costa, P.; Cunha, L.; Metello, L.F.; Carvalho, A.P.; Vasconcelos, V.; Genesio, P.; Ponte, F.; Costa, P.S.; Crespo, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The present work aims at sharing the process of development of advanced biological models to study radiobiological effects. Recognizing several known limitations and difficulties of the current monolayer cellular models, as well as the increasing difficulties to use advanced biological models, our group has been developing advanced biological alternative models, namely three-dimensional cell cultures and a less explored animal model (the Zebra fish - Danio rerio - which allows the access to inter-generational data, while characterized by a great genetic homology towards the humans). These 3 models (monolayer cellular model, three-dimensional cell cultures and zebra fish) were externally irradiated with 100 mGy, 500 mGy or 1 Gy. The consequences of that irradiation were studied using cellular and molecular tests. Our previous experimental studies with 100 mGy external gamma irradiation of HepG2 monolayer cells showed a slight increase in the proliferation rate 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post irradiation. These results also pointed into the presence of certain bystander effects 72 h post irradiation, constituting the starting point for the need of a more accurate analysis realized with this work. At this stage, we continue focused on the acute biological effects. Obtained results, namely MTT and clonogenic assays for evaluating cellular metabolic activity and proliferation in the in vitro models, as well as proteomics for the evaluation of in vivo effects will be presented, discussed and explained. Several hypotheses will be presented and defended based on the facts previously demonstrated. This work aims at sharing the actual state and the results already available from this medium-term project, building the proof of the added value on applying these advanced models, while demonstrating the strongest and weakest points from all of them (so allowing the comparison between them and to base the subsequent choice for research groups starting

  16. Biological effects of transuranium elements in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from life span studies of the biological effects of the transuranium elements ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 242 Cm) on laboratory animals following inhalation, skin absorption, or injection in various chemical forms. The dose levels at which major biological effects have been observed in experimental animals are discussed relative to the maximum permissible lung burden of 0.016 μCi for occupational exposures. Lung cancer has been observed at dose levels equivalent to about 100 times the maximum permissible lung burden. Current experiments directed towards determining whether health effects will occur at lower levels and the mechanisms by which α emitters induce cancer are reviewed. (U.S.)

  17. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14 C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  18. Uncertainty in multispectral lidar signals caused by incidence angle effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Åkerblom, Markku; Nevalainen, Olli; Hakala, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2018-04-06

    Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an emerging technology. Several manufacturers already offer commercial dual or three wavelength airborne laser scanners, while multispectral TLS is still carried out mainly with research instruments. Many of these research efforts have focused on the study of vegetation. The aim of this paper is to study the uncertainty of the measurement of spectral indices of vegetation with multispectral lidar. Using two spectral indices as examples, we find that the uncertainty is due to systematic errors caused by the wavelength dependency of laser incidence angle effects. This finding is empirical, and the error cannot be removed by modelling or instrument modification. The discovery and study of these effects has been enabled by hyperspectral and multispectral TLS, and it has become a subject of active research within the past few years. We summarize the most recent studies on multi-wavelength incidence angle effects and present new results on the effect of specular reflection from the leaf surface, and the surface structure, which have been suggested to play a key role. We also discuss the consequences to the measurement of spectral indices with multispectral TLS, and a possible correction scheme using a synthetic laser footprint.

  19. A Study Assessing the Potential of Negative Effects in Interdisciplinary Math–Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the development of broader but shallower skills or the possibility that math anxiety causes some students to disengage in the classroom, or, paradoxically, to focus so much on the mathematics that they lose sight of its application for the biological concepts in the center of the unit at hand. We have developed and assessed an integrative learning module and found disciplinary learning gains to be equally strong in first-year students who actively engaged in embedded quantitative calculations as in those students who were merely presented with quantitative data in the context of interpreting biological and biostatistical results. When presented to advanced biology students, our quantitative learning tool increased test performance significantly. We conclude from our study that the addition of mathematical calculations to the first year and advanced biology curricula did not hinder overall student learning, and may increase disciplinary learning and data interpretation skills in advanced students. PMID:21364099

  20. A study assessing the potential of negative effects in interdisciplinary math-biology instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the development of broader but shallower skills or the possibility that math anxiety causes some students to disengage in the classroom, or, paradoxically, to focus so much on the mathematics that they lose sight of its application for the biological concepts in the center of the unit at hand. We have developed and assessed an integrative learning module and found disciplinary learning gains to be equally strong in first-year students who actively engaged in embedded quantitative calculations as in those students who were merely presented with quantitative data in the context of interpreting biological and biostatistical results. When presented to advanced biology students, our quantitative learning tool increased test performance significantly. We conclude from our study that the addition of mathematical calculations to the first year and advanced biology curricula did not hinder overall student learning, and may increase disciplinary learning and data interpretation skills in advanced students.

  1. Vascular pathology: Cause or effect in Alzheimer disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Pérez, S; Tormos, A M; Pérez, S; Taléns-Visconti, R

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the main cortical neurodegenerative disease. The incidence of this disease increases with age, causing significant medical, social and economic problems, especially in countries with ageing populations. This review aims to highlight existing evidence of how vascular dysfunction may contribute to cognitive impairment in AD, as well as the therapeutic possibilities that might arise from this evidence. The vascular hypothesis emerged as an alternative to the amyloid cascade hypothesis as an explanation for the pathophysiology of AD. This hypothesis locates blood vessels as the origin for a variety of pathogenic pathways that lead to neuronal damage and dementia. Destruction of the organisation of the blood brain barrier, decreased cerebral blood flow, and the establishment of an inflammatory context would thus be responsible for any subsequent neuronal damage since these factors promote aggregation of β-amyloid peptide in the brain. The link between neurodegeneration and vascular dysfunction pathways has provided new drug targets and therapeutic approaches that will add to the treatments for AD. It is difficult to determine whether the vascular component in AD is the cause or the effect of the disease, but there is no doubt that vascular pathology has an important relationship with AD. Vascular dysfunction is likely to act synergistically with neurodegenerative changes in a cycle that exacerbates the cognitive impairment found in AD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, A; Steciwko, A

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's, when Adey discovered that extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) may affect the calcium ions efflux from various cells, bioeffects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) have become the subject of growing interest and numerous research projects. At present, the fact that NIR exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on different physiological cellular parameters is rather unquestionable. At the same time, some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to EMF is potentially harmful even if its intensity is very low. It has been proved that thermal factors are not responsible for these effects, therefore nowadays, they are called 'non-thermal effects'. Our paper deals with three different aspects of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation, bioelectromagnetism, electromagnetobiology and electromagnetic bioinformation. Firstly, we describe how EMF and photons can be produced within a living cell, how biological cycles are controlled, and what are the features of endogenous electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, we discuss various facets of external EMF interactions with living matter, focusing on extremely-low-frequencies, radio- and microwaves. Possible mechanisms of these interactions are also mentioned. Finally, we present a short overview of current theories which explain how electromagnetic couplings may control an open and dissipative structure, namely the living organism. The theory of electromagnetic bioinformation seems to explain how different physiological processes are triggered and controlled, as well as how long-range interactions may possibly occur within the complex biological system. The review points out that the presented research data must be assessed very carefully since its evaluation is crucial to set the proper limits of EMF exposure, both occupational and environmental. The study of biological effects of non-ioinizing radiation may also contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic

  3. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formica Domenico

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited.

  4. Oxygen effect in radiation biology: caffeine and serendipity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The 'hit theory' developed in 1920s to explain the actions of ionizing radiation on cells and organisms was purely physical, and its limitation was its inadequacy to address the contemporary findings such as the oxygen enhancement of radiobiological damage, and the increased radio- sensitivity of dividing compared to non-dividing cells. The textbooks written prior to 1970s did not either refer at all to oxygen as a radiosensitizer, or had mentioned it only in a passing manner; yet 'oxygen effect' was emerging as the central dogma in radiation biology. The oxygen effect in radiation biology is highly interdisciplinary encompassing atomic physics (i.e. interaction of photon with matter), radiation chemistry (formation of reactive oxygen species), molecular signalling, gene expression and genetic alterations in cells (mutation, cancer) or the cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic catastrophe, etc.). Cell death in higher organisms is now recognized as the precursor of possible error-free cell replacement repair. (author)

  5. Effects of UV and microwave radiation on biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielitz, J.; Boegl, W.; Stockhausen, K.; Kossel, F.

    1977-01-01

    For the present study, ten publications on the effect of UV radiation were analyzed. In vitro tests were carried out with one biological substance and seven different human or animal organs and biocytocultures. In vivo, three bacterial strains were irradiated and four irradiation experiments were carried out on mice. As to the effect of microwave radiation, eleven publications were analyzed. In vitro tests were carried out with one biological substance and three animal organs. In vivo, one bacterial strain was irradiated and eight irradiation experiments were carried out on different types of animals. The study's aim was to obtain a survey on biochemical changes of the organisms. Phenomenological changes were given only when the corresponding articles contained further investigation results. Behavioral changes were not taken into account. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary. All relevant data are listed in a defined order. (orig.) [de

  6. Biological effect of nitrogen ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang; Shu Shizhen

    1997-10-01

    Dry seed of stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ions with various doses. The biological effect in M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam energy and dose added, but there was on significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The results indicated the seedling height reduced with the increasing of dose for ion beam. The biological effect of nitrogen ion beam on M 1 stevia was lower than that of γ-rays. (6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  7. Some experiments upon the biological effects of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.H.; Mottram, J.C.; Read, J.; Spear, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper: ''Some experiments upon the biological effects of fast neutrons'', was written by four renowned scientists of their time only 8 years after the discovery of neutrons by Chadwick. The paper describes the methods of measurement of neutron dose and a series of radiobiology experiments on chick embryo fibroblasts and the inhibition of mitosis in the bean root. The results are interesting to compare with current thinking on the radiobiology of neutrons. (UK)

  8. Dosimetric characteristics of biological effect of sulfur-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental materials related to evaluation of dosimetric characteristics of sulfur-35 are presented. Hemogenic organs are subjected to greatest influence especially in the first hours after radionuclide entry into the organism. Comparison is made of absorbed doses in blood with observed blastomogen effect of hemogenic organs. It is noted, that quantitative evaluation of relative biological efficiency of low energy beta-emitters should be performed with account of dosimetric peculiarities of the nuclides mentioned above. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  9. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury-Herard, A.; Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Toledano, M.

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  10. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabella eGariboldi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1 surface topography, (2 pore size and geometry, (3 porous networks and (4 macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way, as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  11. Biological effective dose studies in carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Poonam; Ramasubramanian, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer of cervix is the second most common cancer worldwide among women. Several treatments related protocols of radiotherapy have been followed over few decades in its treatment for evaluating the response. These physical doses varying on the basics of fractionation size, dose rate and total dose needed to be indicated as biological effective dose (BED) to rationalize these treatments. The curative potential of radiation therapy in the management of carcinoma of the cervix is greatly enhanced by the use of intracavitary brachytherapy. Successful brachytherapy requires the high radiation dose to be delivered to the tumor where as minimum radiation dose reach to surrounding normal tissue. Present study is aimed to evaluate biologically effective dose in patients receiving high dose-rate brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy based on tumor cell proliferation values in cancer of the cervix patients. The study includes 30 patients' data as a retrospective analysis. In addition determine extent of a dose-response relationship existing between the biological effective dose at Point A and the bladder and rectum and the clinical outcomes

  12. The effect of biological cohesion on current ripple development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments examining the role of biological cohesion, associated with Extra Polymeric Substances, on the development of current ripples. The results demonstrate the importance of biological cohesion compared to the effect of physical cohesion associated with clays in an otherwise sandy bed. FURTHER INFORMATION In fluvial and marine environments sediment transport is mainly dependent on the nature of the bed surface (rippled or flat) and the nature of cohesion in the bed. Cohesion can be either physical, as a result of the presence of clays, or biological as a result of the presence of organisms. In the case of the latter, biological cohesion occurs as a result of the presence of Extra Polymeric Substances (EPS) secreted by microorganisms. While it is known that EPS can dramatically increase the threshold of motion (Grant and Gust, 1987), comparatively little is known about the effect of EPS on ripple formation and development. The experiments described here seek to fill this gap. They also allow the effect of biological cohesion to be compared with that of physical cohesion from previous experiments (Baas et al., 2013). The experiments, which were conducted in a 10m flume at Bangor University, involved a current over a bed made of fine sand, with a median diameter of 0.148mm, and various amounts of xanthan gum, a proxy for naturally occurring EPS (Vardy et al., 2007). The hydrodynamic experimental conditions were matched very closely to those of Baas et al. (2013). The ripple dimensions were recorded through the glass side wall of the tank using time lapse photography. In the physical cohesion experiments of Baas et al. (2013) for clay contents up to 12%, the clay was very quickly winnowed out of the bed, leaving essentially clay-free ripples that developed at more or less the same rate as clean sand ripples. The resulting equilibrium ripples were essentially the same length as the clean sand ripples but reduced in height. By

  13. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-06-09

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biological effects. Extrapolating the biological effects of dietary compounds from in vitro and in vivo animal experiments to humans may lead to over- or under-estimation of the effect and role of these compounds. The present paper will discuss a few of these challenges and suggest directions for future research. Questions we address include: (1) Is the combinatorial effect of resveratrol and other compounds real? (2) What are the real and relevant doses of resveratrol after administration? and (3) Is it possible to estimate the preventive effect of resveratrol by clinical trials using standard experimental designs? The examples concerning resveratrol taken from the scientific literature are mainly from 2010 and later. The challenges pointed out in this review are similar to most naturally occurring bioactive compounds.

  14. Biological effects of ionizing radiation - changing worker attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.; Schenley, C.

    1989-01-01

    Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) Radiation Protection Training Special Interest Group has taken an innovative approach to providing DOE contractors with radiation worker training material information. Newly-hired radiation workers may be afraid to work near radiation and long-term radiation workers may become indifferent to the biological hazard of radiation. Commercially available training material is often presented at an inappropriate technical level or in an uninteresting style. These training problems have been addressed in the DOE system through development of a training videotape and supporting material package entitled Understanding Ionizing Radiation and its Biological Effects. The training package, developed and distributed by TRADE specifically to meet the needs of DOE contractor facilities, contains the videotape and accompanying paper supporting materials designed to assist the instructor. Learning objectives, presentation suggestion for the instructor, trainee worksheets, guided discussion questions, and trainee self-evaluation sheets are included in the training package. DOE contractors have agreed that incorporating this training module into radiation worker training programs enhances the quality of the training and increase worker understanding of the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  15. Correlation between biological activity and electron transferring of bovine liver catalase: Osmolytes effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, H. Sepasi; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Ghourchian, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proline increases ET in Bovine Liver Catalase (BLC) whereas histidine decreases it. • Proline also increased the biological activity, whereas histidine decreased it. • Electron transferring and biological activity for BLC are directly correlated. • Proline causes favorable ET for BLC shown by positive E 1/2 (E°′) and negative ΔG. • Histidine makes ET unfavorable for BLC, manifested by E 1/2 (E°′) 0. -- Abstract: Catalase is a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects life against detrimental effects of H 2 O 2 by disproportionating it into water and molecular oxygen. Effect of proline as a compatible and histidine as a non compatible osmolyte on the electron transferring and midpoint potential of catalase has been investigated. Proline increases the midpoint potential (ΔE m > 0), therefore causing the ΔG ET to be less positive and making the electron transfer reaction more facile whereas histidine decreases the E m (ΔE m ET , thereby rendering the electron transfer reaction less efficient. These results indicate the inhibitory effect of histidine evident by a −37% decrease in the cathodic peak current compared to 16% increase in the case of proline indicative of activation. The insight paves the tedious way towards our ultimate goal of elucidating a correlation between biological activity and electron transferring

  16. Diverse biological effects of electromagnetic-treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Chumseng, Suchintana; Yoohat, Kirana; Srila, Witsanu

    2014-07-01

    The effects of water treated with an electromagnetic field (EMF) were investigated on two biological systems, humans and plants. Purified de-ionised water was treated by (1) boiling, (2) exposure to microwave radiation, and (3) low frequency electromagnetic oscillation molecular resonance effect technology (MRET), before being used to prepare media for culturing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from three healthy females. Our results indicated that PBMC culture in MRET-activated medium showed significantly less oxidative metabolism when compared to media prepared from other types of water. As for the effects on soybean, our results indicated that both MRET- and microwave-treated water greatly enhanced the length of the root. These results suggested that electromagnetic-treated water can have diverse biological effects on both animal and plant cells. Since these effects are related to the 'Memory of Water', hypothesis which has been suggested as an explanation of the action of high homeopathic dilutions, our finding warrant a further investigation on the mechanisms of various types of physically conditioned water on specific cellular activities. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects Of Physical And Biological Cohesion On Bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Schindler, R.; Baas, J.; Hope, J. A.; Malarkey, J.; Paterson, D. M.; Peakall, J.; Manning, A. J.; Ye, L.; Aspden, R.; Alan, D.; Bass, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Most coastal sediments consist of complex mixtures of cohesionless sands, physically-cohesive clays and extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS) that impart biological cohesion. Yet, our ability to predict bedform dimensions in these substrates is reliant on predictions based exclusively on cohesionless sand. We present findings from the COHBED project - which explicitly examines how bedform dynamics are modified by natural cohesion. Our experimental results show that for ripples, height and length are inversely proportional to initial clay content and bedforms take longer to appear, with no ripples when clay content exceeds 18%. When clay is replaced by EPS the development time and time of first appearance of ripples both increase by two orders of magnitude, with no bedforms above 0.125% EPS. For dunes, height and length are also inversely proportional to initial substrate clay content, resulting in a transition from dunes to ripples normally associated with velocity decreases. Addition of low EPS concentrations into the substrate results in yet smaller bedforms at the same clay contents and at high EPS concentrations, biological cohesion supersedes all electrostatic bonding, and bedform size is no longer related to mud content. The contrast in physical and biological cohesion effects on bedform development result from the disparity between inter-particle electrostatic bonding of clay particles and EPS grain coating and strands that physically link sediments together, which effects winnowing rates as bedforms evolve. These findings have wide ranging implications for bedform predictions in both modern and ancient environments. Coupling of biological and morphological processes not only requires an understanding of how bedform dimensions influence biota and habitat, but also how benthic species can modify bedform dimensions. Consideration of both aspects provides a means in which fluid dynamics, sediment transport and ecosystem energetics can be linked to yield

  18. Design of a comprehensive biochemistry and molecular biology experiment: phase variation caused by recombinational regulation of bacterial gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation, antibody agglutination test, and PCR analysis. Phase variation was observed by baterial motility assay and identified by antibody agglutination test and PCR analysis. This comprehensive experiment can be performed to help students improve their ability to use the knowledge acquired in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Copyright © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on ligno celluloses and their biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulose material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulose materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  20. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  1. Assessment of the biological effects of 'strange' radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryakhin, E.A.; Tryapitsina, G.A.; Urutskoyev, L.I.; Akleyev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The results from studies of the effects produced by electrical explosions of foils made from super pure materials in water point to the emergence of new chemical elements. An additional finding was the discharge of 'strange' radiation accompanying the transformation of chemical elements. However, currently, the mechanism involved in the interaction between 'strange' radiation and a substance or a biological entity remains obscure. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to investigate the biological effects of the 'strange' radiation. Pilot studies were performed at the RECOM RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in April-May of 2004. The animals used in the experiment were female mice of C57Bl/6 line aged 80 days with body weight 16-18 g. The animals were exposed to radiation discharged during explosions of Ti foils in water and aqueous solutions. The cages with animals were placed at 1 m from the epicenter of the explosion. Explosions were carried out on the 19. (3 explosions), 20. (4 explosions) and 22. (3 explosions) of April, 2004 (explosions No1373 - No1382, respectively). The animals were assigned to 4 experimental groups comprised of 17-20 mice per group. The animals received experimental exposure within 1, 2 and 3 days of the experiment. In total, the experimental groups were exposed to 3, 7 and 10 explosions, respectively. In order to identify the biological reactions, the following parameters were estimated: number of nucleated cells in the bone marrow, number of CFU in the spleen after additional gamma-irradiation (6 Gy), cell composition of the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the different level of maturation in the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the micronuclei in the bone marrow, the reaction of bone marrow cells to additional gamma-irradiation (2 Gy), number of leucocytes in the peripheral blood, and cell composition of the peripheral blood. The following conclusions were drawn from these studies: 1. 'strange' radiation resulting

  2. Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Widespread defoliation of plantation forests by insect pests causes economic losses worldwide. Successful pest outbreak management requires knowledge of effective pest management options. Currently, such knowledge is inadequate for Gonometa podocarpi an indigenous pest that has devastated conifer plantations in ...

  3. Distinguishing Cause from Effect Using Observational Data: Methods and Benchmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, J.M.; Peters, J.; Janzing, D.; Zscheischler, J.; Schölkopf, B.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of causal relationships from purely observational data is a fundamental problem in science. The most elementary form of such a causal discovery problem is to decide whether X causes Y or, alternatively, Y causes X, given joint observations of two variables X,Y. An example is to decide

  4. Violence Against Women: Causes, Effects and Challenges to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the types of violence against women such as physical, sexual and emotional abuse. It is argued that the causes of violence against women are multifarious but sex-ratio, male chauvinism, change of values, economic harship and legal protection are the major causes. The violence affects the social, ...

  5. Hypertension in Adults: Part 1. Prevalence, types, causes and effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Hyper / Hypothyroidism. ▫ Acromegaly. ▫ Hyperparathyroidism. ▫ Exogenous hormones, e.g. contraceptive pills, glucocorticoids. 2. Renal causes: ▫ Glomerulonephritis. ▫ Diabetic nephropathy. ▫ Polycystic kidney disease. ▫ Renal artery stenosis. 3. Other causes: ▫ Coarctation of the aorta. ▫ Pregnancy associated hypertension.

  6. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  7. Biological effects of 137Cs, incorporated into organism of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, A.S.; Strekalov, S.A.; Sokolov, A.V.; Aver'yanova, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigating mutagenous and hemotoxic effects of 137 Cs on blood lymphocytes of rats are presented. 137 Cs was orally administrated into organism of rats as 270 kBq/g chloride solution. 137 Cs mutagenous effect was studied on metaphase plates of rat blood lymphocytes in course of rats lifetime experiment. It is stated that 137 Cs inducing severe disturbances of genetic material in a great quantity of blood lymphocytes, causes their total killing

  8. Cause Related Marketing and its Effects on Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Quiñones

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Research is lacking concerning the perspectives professional accountants and the administrative staffs working for a global firm strongly involved in social causes have concerning cause-related (CRM. This paper discusses internal customers’ (employees feelings towards cause-related marketing activities sponsored by their employer at an important accounting firm located in Puerto Rico. The results show that internal customers strongly favor the firms’ involvement in cause-related activities and that such activities not only increases the public perception of the firm, but in addition, the way the firm is perceived as an employer, by both the business and non-business communities. The main driving force supporting internal customers responses appear to be an increased awareness of worthy causes throughout our society, as well as employees urge in making significant contributions to their surrounding environment or community of which they are also part of.

  9. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  10. Biologic effects of orally administered deuterium oxide on rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, K C; Verma, R

    1977-01-01

    Rats were made to drink D2O mixed water (30: 70) for 6 weeks in order to study the biological effects of orally administered D2O on the liver. Heavy water administration results in gradual decrease in the body weight whereas the liver showed marginal increase in weight throughout the experimental period. Phosphatases and dehydrogenases were analyzed biochemically. Acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase registered fall in contrast to alkaline phosphatase, SDH and LDH, all of which showed a definite increase. Lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, estimated biochemically, gradually decreased throughout the experimental period in response to D2O feeding.

  11. Uranium: properties and biological effects after internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, M.; Tissandie, E.; Racine, R.; Ben Soussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Grignard, E.; Dublineau, I.; Gourmelon, P.; Lestaevel, P.; Gueguen, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium is a radionuclide present in the environment since the origin of the Earth. In addition to natural uranium, recent deposits from industrial or military activities are acknowledged. Uranium's toxicity is due to a combination of its chemical (heavy metal) and radiological properties (emission of ionizing radiations). Acute toxicity induces an important weight loss and signs of renal and cerebral impairment. Alterations of bone growth, modifications of the reproductive system and carcinogenic effects are also often seen. On the contrary, the biological effects of a chronic exposure to low doses are unwell known. However, results from different recent studies suggest that a chronic contamination with low levels of uranium induces subtle but significant levels. Indeed, an internal contamination of rats for several weeks leads to detection of uranium in many cerebral structures, in association with an alteration of short-term memory and an increase of anxiety level. Biological effects of uranium on the metabolisms of xenobiotics, steroid hormones and vitamin D were described in the liver, testis and kidneys. These recent scientific data suggest that uranium could participate to increase of health risks linked to environmental pollution. (authors)

  12. Review: Bioenergetic Fields and Their Biologic Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Movaffaghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As interests in complementary and alternative medicine grows, the scientists are looking forward in researches which determine the mechanisms in which they exert their effectiveness. Some of these modalities like Yoga, Acupuncture, and especially other bio-field therapies such as none contact therapeutic touch, affects the bio-field which spreads throughout the body and into the space around it. According to physic’s law, when electricity flows throw the living tissues, like what happens in our heart and brain, biomagnetic fields are being induced in the surrounding space. Beside that moving charges like ions and free radicals which finally produce electromagnetic fields. Using very sensitive magnetometers, biomagnetic fields have been detected and get amplified up to 1000 times by meditation. This phenomenon could be the basis for most of most complementaty therapeutic approaches like therapeutic touch. On the other hand the electrical, magnetic and bio-magnetic fields have a well known application in conventional medicine. Modern research about bio-magnetism and magneto-biology suggests that in term of both aspects, the effects and the mechanisms for all the different looking modalities used in conventional medicine and complementary medicine which have commons in their fundamentals. This article reviews some of the recent works on biological effects of natural or artificial electromagnetic fields.

  13. [Placebo effect: clinical, biological and therapeutical involvements in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, D; Mouchabac, S

    2016-02-01

    The placebo effect is an excellent model for understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction between a subjective and complex mental activity (beliefs, expectations, hopes, learning, patient-physician relationship, socio-cultural context .) with different neural and biological systems. Initially, research on the placebo effect has focused on the mechanisms of pain and analgesia. The cognitive processes of conditioning and reward anticipation (hope of a relief) were highlighted. The involvement of different neurobiological pathways has been clearly shown: endogenous opioids, CCK, dopaminergic pathways, endocannabinoids, immunological factors... More recently, the field has open towards new perspectives: depression and anxiety, motor disorders, immune system, endocrine system. Intensive research in the field emerges because of its fundamental implications in neuroscience research but also because of the ethical, clinical and therapeutical issues. Moreover, the placebo effect is considered as a main methodological mean issue in clinical trials that allows the demonstration of the efficacy and tolerance of new drugs. In the field of psychiatry, depression is a placebo highly-sensitive disorder: placebo response rates in clinical trials are of the order of 30 % to 40 %. The identification of biological markers of placebo response, such as neuroimaging and quantitative electroencephalography may lead to develop more efficient models in clinical research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of industrial chemicals and radioactive materials in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Chatterjee, S.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been written on the effects of radiation and toxic chemicals on biological systems. In this communication general considerations regarding these topics will be discussed very briefly; the major emphasis will be focused on the effects of chemicals, namely ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) on Amoeba, Advantages to the use of amoeba for studying the effects of radiation and chemicals include the following: large mononucleate unicellular organisms having a long generation time; opportunity to study cellular organelles and biochemical and genetic alterations in a single cell system; and a long cell cycle, the stages of which can be synchronized without resorting to chemical treatment or temperature shock and thereby readily permitting study at defined stages of the cell's life cycle. This, in turn, is discussed in light of current disposal methods for this type of waste and how it might be safely disposed of

  16. Motion-induced blindness and microsaccades: cause and effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneh, Y.S.; Donner, T.H.; Sagi, D.; Fried, M.; Heeger, D.J.; Arieli, A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that subjective disappearance of visual stimuli results from a spontaneous reduction of microsaccade rate causing image stabilization, enhanced adaptation, and a consequent fading. In motion-induced blindness (MIB), salient visual targets disappear intermittently when

  17. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    Residues from crops left on the soil surface have an impact on the microclimate, primarily temperature, within the soil and the atmosphere; but, the impact on the biological system is largely unknown. Residue is assumed to have a positive impact on the biological system in the soil and a negative impact on crop growth. This report investigates the effect of standing residue on the microclimate surrounding a cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in a semi-arid environment and the effect of flat residue on the seasonal soil temperature and soil water regimes in a humid climate with a corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system. A study was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in a semi-arid climate at Lubbock, Texas using standing wheat stubble to shelter cotton from wind. In this study soil water, microclimatic variables, and plant growth were measured within standing stubble and bare soil during the early vegetative growth period. Air temperatures were warmer at night within the standing residue and the air more humid throughout the day. This led to a reduction in the soil water evaporation rate and an increase in the water use efficiency of the cotton plant within the stubble. Studies on corn residue with continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations with no-till, chiselplow, and moldboard plow tillage practices in central Iowa showed that the average soil temperatures in the upper soil profile were not affected by the presence of flat residue after tillage. Diurnal temperature ranges were most affected by the residue throughout the year. The largest effect of the residue on soil temperature was in the fall after harvest when no-till fields cooled more slowly than tilled fields. In the spring, surface residue decreased the soil water evaporation rate and increased the soil water storage within the soil profile covered with residue. In years with below normal rainfall, the additional stored soil water due to the surface residue was used by the

  18. Biological effect of paramecium in diffused ultrasonic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiuh-Kuang; Huang, Yi-Cheng

    2002-04-01

    Since the cell structure or biophysical reaction includes in the interaction between ultrasound and living matter. When multi-cell creature is exposed to ultrasound, this reaction will lead the biological effect becomes complex. Therefore, in this paper, a single cell creature is chosen to study the biological effects induced by ultrasound exposure. The paramecium, which possesses many features typical of higher-order animal cells, was considered an appropriate choice for this study. The ability shown by ultrasound in promoting and/or accelerating many reactions has been shown to be a useful field. The growth phase of paramecium by using the ultrasound irradiation is an important parameter in this study. In our experiment, the exponential and stationary phases were employed. Three important factors must be taken into account when an ultrasonic biological reaction is investigated: the medium system, the bubbles' field, and the acoustic field. The medium system involves the physical parameters of the medium field. The bubbles' field includes the reacting bubble size of the liquid and the resonance frequency of the reaction bubbles. The oscillation of the cells in response to the ultrasound radiation is simulated using Rayleigh-Plesset's bubble activation theory. The resonance frequency of the unicellular creature is then calculated. The acoustic field is about using the diffuse field theory of Sabine to create a uniform sound field for the radiation experiment. The resonance frequency of the paramecium vacuole is among 0.54-1.09 MHz. When the 0.25 and 0.5 MHz frequencies of ultrasound was irradiated in the stationary phase of the paramecium, the relative growth rate was about 20% lower than that of unexposed sample. Therefore, the phenomenon of inhibition and destruction appeared during irradiation. The exponential phase of the paramecium samples appear to be different when irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound. As can be seen in the results, the maximum relative growth

  19. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. ALTERED IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND THE MECHANISM OF BIOLOGIC EFFECT BY PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several features of the clinical presentation and changes in physiology and pathology following exposure to many diverse ambient air pollution particles are comparable, suggesting a common mechanism for their biological effect. We propose that a mechanism of biological effect com...

  1. Matrix effects in biological mass spectrometry imaging: identification and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Stevens, Susan L; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Laskin, Julia

    2014-07-21

    Matrix effects in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) may affect the observed molecular distribution in chemical and biological systems. In this study, we use mouse brain tissue of a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model to examine matrix effects in nanospray desorption electrospray ionization MSI (nano-DESI MSI). This is achieved by normalizing the intensity of the sodium and potassium adducts of endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) species to the intensity of the corresponding adduct of the PC standard supplied at a constant rate with the nano-DESI solvent. The use of MCAO model with an ischemic region localized to one hemisphere of the brain enables immediate comparison of matrix effects within one ion image. Furthermore, significant differences in sodium and potassium concentrations in the ischemic region in comparison with the healthy tissue allowed us to distinguish between two types of matrix effects. Specifically, we discuss matrix effects originating from variations in alkali metal concentrations and matrix effects originating from variations in the molecular composition of the tissue. Compensation for both types of matrix effects was achieved by normalizing the signals corresponding to endogenous PC to the signals of the standards. This approach, which does not introduce any complexity in sample preparation, efficiently compensates for signal variations resulting from differences in the local concentrations of sodium and potassium in tissue sections and from the complexity of the extracted analyte mixture derived from local variations in molecular composition.

  2. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  3. Hafnium oxide nanoparticles: toward an in vitro predictive biological effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Julie; Anesary, Naeemunnisa Mohamed; Zhang, Ping; Vivet, Sonia; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent; Pottier, Agnes

    2014-06-30

    Hafnium oxide, NBTXR3 nanoparticles were designed for high dose energy deposition within cancer cells when exposed to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of predicting in vitro the biological effect of NBTXR3 nanoparticles when exposed to ionizing radiation. Cellular uptake of NBTXR3 nanoparticles was assessed in a panel of human cancer cell lines (radioresistant and radiosensitive) by transmission electron microscopy. The radioenhancement of NBTXR3 nanoparticles was measured by the clonogenic survival assay. NBTXR3 nanoparticles were taken up by cells in a concentration dependent manner, forming clusters in the cytoplasm. Differential nanoparticle uptake was observed between epithelial and mesenchymal or glioblastoma cell lines. The dose enhancement factor increased with increase NBTXR3 nanoparticle concentration and radiation dose. Beyond a minimum number of clusters per cell, the radioenhancement of NBTXR3 nanoparticles could be estimated from the radiation dose delivered and the radiosensitivity of the cancer cell lines. Our preliminary results suggest a predictable in vitro biological effect of NBTXR3 nanoparticles exposed to ionizing radiation.

  4. Arsenic in the aquatic environment - speciation and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The present report is a contribution to EC Commission`s undertaking to review existing EC provisions on the substances for which Sweden has been granted transitional provisions. The provisions imply that Sweden may maintain more stringent regulations on four substances until the end of 1998. The present report deals with speciation and biological effects of arsenic in three types of aquatic environments - marine water, estuarine or brackish water and freshwater. The similarity between arsenate and phosphate and the interference in phosphorylation reactions is discussed. It is clear that in Scandinavian inland waters the concentration of phosphorous is on average lower than in most inland waters in continental Europe. However, in most inland waters phosphorus is the limiting factor for phytoplankton development and eutrophication, which means that there is a clear risk for detrimental effects in the great majority of inland waters, also eutrophic waters 167 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs. Exemption Substances Project (Directive 89/677/EEC)

  5. The effect of cosmic rays on biological systems - an investigation during GLE events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisheva, N. K.; Lammer, H.; Biernat, H. K.; Vashenuyk, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, first direct and circumstantial evidences of the effects of cosmic rays (CR) on biological systems are presented. A direct evidence of biological effects of CR is demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the neutron count rate detected by ground-based neutron monitor in October 1989. Various phenomena associated with DNA lesion on the cellular level demonstrate coherent dynamics of radiation effects in all cellular lines coincident with the time of arrival of high-energy solar particles to the near-Earth space and with the main peak in GLE. These results were obtained in the course of six separate experiments, with partial overlapping of the time of previous and subsequent experiments, which started and finished in the quiet period of solar activity (SA). A significant difference between the values of multinuclear cells in all cellular lines in the quiet period and during GLE events indicates that the cause of radiation effects in the cell cultures is an exposure of cells to the secondary solar CR near the Earth's surface. The circumstantial evidence was obtained by statistical analysis of cases of congenital malformations (CM) at two sites in the Murmansk region. The number of cases of all classes of CM reveals a significant correlation with the number of GLE events. The number of cases of CM with pronounced chromosomal abnormalities clearly correlates with the GLE events that occurred a year before the birth of a child. We have found a significant correlation between modulations of the water properties and daily background variations of CR intensity. We believe that the effects of CR on biological systems can be also mediated by fluctuations in water properties, considered as one of possible mechanisms controlling the effects of CRs on biological systems.

  6. Late biological effects from internal and external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Information on late biological effects of radiation was obtained from the long-term medical followup of a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954. Endocrine data are compatible with a sequence of nonstochastic radiation effects. The ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine produced clinical thyroid hypofunction in children, biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction in some adults, thyroid adenomatous module formation, and, as a possible indirect effect of thyroid damage, at least two cases of pituitary adenoma. In contrast, the only evidence of a stochastic effect has been a real increase in thyroid cancers among the more highly exposed people of Rongelap, none of whom have evidence of residual disease. While three nonthyroidal cancers which are known to be inducible in humans by external irradiation have been documented in the exposed population, three similar cancers have occurred in an unexposed comparison population of Marshallese. Nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure may be common but subtle. In the Marshallese experience the morbidity of delayed nonstochastic effects far exceeds that of the stochastic. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Internal Security Crisis in Nigeria: Causes, Types, Effects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research is to show that the causes of internal security are inevitable and it is part of the fabrics of the society. What the society showed strive for is regulation of crisis or its amicable settlement whenever it arises. Since the extinction of security crisis seems impossible, all the society needs is a ...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF RECIDIVISM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Abstract. The Nigerian prison system is witnessing an enormous increase in people relapsing into crime and criminality, recidivists. This development has challenged the practicality and feasibility of rehabilitation programmes in. Nigerian prisons. Thus, the paper sets out to achieve the following three (3) objectives: causes ...

  9. Causes And Effects Of Industrial Conflicts In The Teaching Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the major causes of industrial conflicts included: poor conditions of service (28.23%) breach of agreement by government (25%); Unlawful retirement and retrenchment of teachers (23.54%) and poor remuneration (21.13%). Industrial conflicts had affected the performance of public secondary ...

  10. Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Children are dependent on parents/care givers for the quality of health care services received and in developing countries, where they are not protected against child abuse; many die as a result of denial of appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the causes, ...

  11. Climate change: Causes, effects and mitigation measures- A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These various causes have resulted in rising sea levels, melting of ice at the world's poles and on its mountains and violent downpours resulting in over flooding and submerging of coastal areas and consequent migration of animal species; heat waves leading to desertification, depletion of water availability, reduced animal ...

  12. Determining the effectiveness of Candida guilliermondii in the biological control of Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Celis Zambrano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest losses in tomato crops can be accredited to a number of causes, which include biological causes that produce physiological deterioration; infection caused by diseases and pests that cause rotting. In this study, we assayed, in vitro and in vivo, the yeast Candida guilliermondii to determine its effectiveness as a biocontrol to reduce the rotting produced by Rhizopus stolonifer on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum. The antagonistic effect was tested using a yeast biomass suspension; gas chromatography and a mass selective detector were used to identify its metabolites. According to the in vitro test, the only phase with an antagonistic response against Rhizopus stolonifer was the unfiltered water phase. In the in vivo tests, the biomass of Candida guilliermondii presented the highest percentage of protection of the tomato (87 % compared with the unfiltered aqueous phase and the unconcentrated organic phase, which reached only 77 and 80 % respectively. These results are essential to avoid economic losses caused by fungi and to increase the shelf life of tomatoes improving the distribution of the product and preventing postharvest losses in this time of food crises, especially in developing countries.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Biological Crusts on Some Biological Properties of Soil (Case Study: Qare Qir Rangelands of Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kakeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and biological soil crusts are the principal types of soil crusts. Physical and biological soil crusts are distributed in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid regions which constitute over 40% of the earth terrestrial surface. Biological soil crusts (BSCs result from an intimate association between soil particles and cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens and mosses in different proportions which live on the surface, or in the immediately uppermost millimeters of soil. Some of the functions that BSCs influences include: water absorption and retention, nutrient retention, Carbon and nitrogen fixation, biological activate and hydrologic Status. BSCs are important from the ecological view point and their effects on the environment, especially in rangeland, and desert ecosystems and this caused which researchers have a special attention to this component of the ecosystems more than before. Materials and Methods: This study carried out in the Qara Qir rangelands of Golestan province, northeast of Iran (37º15′ - 37º23′ N &54º33′ -54º39′ E, to investigate the effects of BSCs on some of soil biological properties. Four sites including with and without BSCs cover were selected. Soil biological properties such as microbial populations, soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, as well as, other effective properties such asorganic carbon percent, total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, and available water content were measured in depths of 0-5 and 5-15 cm of soil with four replications. The gathered data were analyzed by nested plot, and the mean values were compared by Duncan test. Results and Discussion: The results showed that organic carbon and water content were higher at the surface under BSCs, followed by 5-15 cm soils under BSCs. Both soil depths of uncrusted soils showed substantially lower organic carbon and water content than the BSC-covered soils. Total nitrogen was far higher in BSC-encrusted surface

  14. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal : Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison

  15. Disturb or stabilise? Effects of different molecules on biological membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwko, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    The properties of biological membranes are often regulated by special molecules produced by organisms. Knowledge about the mechanisms by which these molecules affect biological membranes is a key issue in understanding living organisms. The interactions between phospholipid membranes and different

  16. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Stunder, Dominik; Dechent, Dagmar; Kraus, Thomas; Bailey, William H; Driessen, Sarah

    2017-04-17

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40). There is good evidence that humans and animals are able to perceive the presence of static EF at sufficiently high levels. Hair movements caused by electrostatic forces may play a major role in this perception. A large number of studies reported responses of animals (e.g., altered metabolic, immunologic or developmental parameters) to a broad range of static EF strengths as well, but these responses are likely secondary physiological responses to sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the quality of many of the studies reporting physiological responses is poor, which raises concerns about confounding. The weight of the evidence from the literature reviewed did not indicate that static EF have adverse biological effects in humans or animals. The evidence strongly supported the role of superficial sensory stimulation of hair and skin as the basis for perception of the field, as well as reported indirect behavioral and physiological responses. Physical considerations also preclude any direct effect of static EF on internal physiology, and reports that some physiological processes are affected in minor ways may be explained by other factors. While this literature does not support a level of concern about biological effects of exposure to static EF, the conditions

  17. Biological and medical effects of UV radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazena, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effecsts of UV radiation on human health are discussed. UV radiation is taken up through the skin and eyes. In the case of the eyes, the only known effects are damaging ones (e.g. cataracts). Irradiation of the skin, on the other hand, may either have a prophylactic and therapeutic effect or cause health problems if the exposure is too frequent and/or the dose too high. Positive effects are: Stimulation of the vitamin-D-3 synthesis and the autoimmune system, economisation of blood circulation, higher fitness, and the development of a UV protection system in the skin. Negative effects are: UV erythema, disturbances of the unspecific resistance and the immune system, and photocarcinogenesis. (orig.) [de

  18. Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    2000-02-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

  19. Meta-analysis Reveals That the Genus Pseudomonas Can Be a Better Choice of Biological Control Agent against Bacterial Wilt Disease Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control agents (BCAs from different microbial taxa are increasingly used to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. However, a quantitative research synthesis has not been conducted on the role of BCAs in disease suppression. Therefore, the present study aimed to meta-analyze the impacts of BCAs on both Ralstonia wilt disease suppression and plant (host growth promotion. The analysis showed that the extent of disease suppression by BCAs varied widely among studies, with effect size (log response ratio ranging from −2.84 to 2.13. The disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased on average by 53.7% and 49.3%, respectively. BCAs inoculation also significantly increased fresh and dry weight by 34.4% and 36.1%, respectively on average. Also, BCAs inoculation significantly increased plant yield by 66%. Mean effect sizes for genus Pseudomonas sp. as BCAs were higher than for genus Bacillus spp. Among antagonists tested, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. cereus, B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens were found to be more effective in general for disease reduction. Across studies, highest disease control was found for P. fluorescens, annual plants, co-inoculation with more than one BCA, soil drench and greenhouse condition were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to R. solanacearum. Our results suggest that more efforts should be devoted to harnessing the potential beneficial effects of these antagonists, not just for plant growth promoting traits but also in mode of applications, BCAs formulations and their field studies should be considered in the future for R. solanacearum wilt disease suppression.

  20. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Süleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biolog......The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety...... research. Questions we address include: (1) Is the combinatorial effect of resveratrol and other compounds real? (2) What are the real and relevant doses of resveratrol after administration? and (3) Is it possible to estimate the preventive effect of resveratrol by clinical trials using standard...... experimental designs? The examples concerning resveratrol taken from the scientific literature are mainly from 2010 and later. The challenges pointed out in this review are similar to most naturally occurring bioactive compounds...

  1. “The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma”

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; A.B., Abigail Zisk

    2014-01-01

    I. Synopsis Trauma in childhood is a grave psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem that has serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. Despite the widespread prevalence of childhood trauma, less is known about trauma's biological effects in children as compared to adults with child trauma histories; and even less is known about how these pediatric mechanisms underlie trauma's short-term and long-term medical and mental health consequences. This article focuses primarily on the peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and adults with histories of childhood trauma. We also review relevant studies of animal models of stress to help us better understand the psychobiological effects of trauma during development. Next, we review the neurobiology of trauma, its clinical applications and the biomarkers that may provide important tools for clinicians and researchers, both as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms and as useful tools to monitor treatment response. Finally, we offer suggestions for future researchers. PMID:24656576

  2. Research program on the biological effects of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.T.

    1991-12-01

    A national research program on the biological effects of oil pollution (FOBO) was initiated by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment in October 1983 in the light of the increasing oil exploration and production activity in the North Sea and northern Norwegian waters. Ambitions were high and five main fields of research were suggested: Seabirds, fish (incl. salmon), marine mammals, the littoral zone and plankton. However, due to the lack of interest on the part of other potential financers, e.g. the Ministry of Fisheries and the oil companies, to participate, the four-year programme had to be limited to the following three topics: Seabirds around bruding colonies and at sea; Higher plants along the shoreline; The littoral zone. The program ran from the autumn of 1985 to the end of 1989 and this report summarizes the main results and conclusions of each project. 95 refs., 52 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  4. The relative biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the literature relevant to the selection of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for use in arriving at values of the quality factor (Q). Emphasis is placed on response to small ( M . In a wide variety of systems, the RBE M for fast (fission) neutrons, with low doses and dose rates, appears to be of the order of 20 or more compared to moderately filtered 250 kVp x rays and 40 or more compared to higher energy gamma rays. These values, which are much larger than those observed with large doses delivered at high dose rates, are due mainly, but not entirely, to a decrease in the slope of the curve for the ow-LET reference radiation at low dose

  5. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    exposure to PM(2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and benzene has been measured in groups of 40-50 subjects. Measured biomarkers included 1-hydroxypyrene, benzene metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) and trans-trans-muconic acid (ttMA)), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine, DNA strand....... With respect to exposure to PM, biomarkers of oxidative damage showed significant positive association with the individual exposure. Thus, 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA and markers of oxidative damage to lipids and protein in plasma associated with PM(2.5) exposure. Several types of DNA damage showed seasonal......, biological effects of air pollutants appear mainly related to oxidative stress via personal exposure and not to urban background levels. Future developments include personal time-resolved monitors for exposure to ultrafine PM and PM(2.5,) use of GPS, as well as genomics and proteomics based biomarkers....

  6. Effects of Common Cause Failure on Electrical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The essential electrical systems of reactor designs have developed progressively with an increased focus on the use of redundant, segregated and independent safety system equipment 'trains'. In this arrangement, essential safety functions associated with safe shutdown and cooling of the reactor are replicated on near identical electrical systems with each of the trains of safety system equipment supported by a fully rated standby generator. Development in designs has seen the number of trains increased to enable maintenance to be undertaken with reactors at power, improving the economics of the units whilst maintaining nuclear safety. This paper provides a background to common cause failure and provides examples where supporting guidance and international experience is available. It also highlights the regulatory guidance available to UK licensees. Recent examples of common cause failures on plant in the UK are presented together with an issue identified during the recent Generic Design Assessment review of new reactor designs within the UK. It was identified that one design was claiming a very low probability of failure associated with the loss of a single break and no-break voltage level, orders of magnitude below the target figure within ONR's Safety Assessment Principles. On closer scrutiny it was established that a significant safety function provided from identical low voltage switchboards would be lost in the event of a common cause failure affecting these boards. The paper will explain the action that has been taken by the requesting party to improve the resilience of the design and how this impacts on the ONR reliability targets for reactor designs within the UK. (authors)

  7. Effective training based on the cause analysis of operation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Eimitsu; Noji, Kunio; Kobayashi, Akira.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have investigated typical error types through our training experience, and analyzed the causes of them. Error types which are observed in simulator training are: (1) lack of knowledge or lack of its applying ability to actual operation; (2) defective mastery of skillbase operation; (3) rote operation or stereotyped manner; (4) mind-setting or lack of redundant verification; (5) lack of team work; (6) misjudgement for the plant overall conditions by operation chief, who directs a reactor operator and a turbine operator in the training. The paper describes training methods used in Japan for BWR utilities to overcome these error types

  8. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, M.; Tadano, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.; Chen, X. [Regional Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, 305-0083 Ibaraki (Japan); Asanuma, S. [Japan Institute of Rural Medicine, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, T. [Matsumoto Dental College, Shiojiri, Nagano (Japan); Sakurai, S. [Otsuma Women' s University, Tama, Tokyo (Japan); Ji, R.; Liang, C.; Cao, S. [Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China); Hong, Z. [Shanxi Maternity and Children' s Hospital, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  9. Causes and effects of a hole. [in Antarctic ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margitan, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary results from the U.S. National Ozone Expedition (NOZE) to Antarctica are reviewed. The NOZE ozonesonde measurements showed significant vertical structure in the hole, with 80 percent depletion in some of the 1 km layers but only 20 percent in adjacent layers. The depletion was confined to the 12-20 km region, beginning first at higher altitude and progressing downward. This is strong evidence against the theory that the ozone hole is due to solar activity producing odd nitrogen at high altitudes which is transported downwards, leading to enhanced odd-nitrogen catalytic cycles that destroy ozone. Nitrous oxide data show unusually low concentrations within the polar vortex, which is evidence against the theory that the hole is caused by a purely dynamical mechanism in which rising air motions within the polar vortex lead to reduced column densities of ozone. It is tentatively concluded that a chemical mechanism involving man-made chlorofluorocarbons is the likely cause of ozone depletion in the hole.

  10. Description of Causes and Treatment Types Made in Teeth with Biological Space Invasion and/or in Need of Pre-Prosthetic Surgery: Case series

    OpenAIRE

    Machón, Lourdes; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hernández, Morena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Hidalgo de Andrade, Laura Elena; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador; Andrade Acevedo, Roberto Antonio; Universidad Evangélica de El Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Background: The decision to rehabilitate or extract a tooth is determined by the knowledge of the causes of dental destruction affecting treatment plan and prognosis. Aim: Describe indications, surgical periodontal therapy prior to dental restoration, most affected teeth and age of the patients with invasion of biological space (IBS) and/or pre-prosthetic surgery. Methods: This is a case series report of 162 patients, male and female, who were treated at the predoctoral dental program of Univ...

  11. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  12. Effects of biological explanations for mental disorders on clinicians’ empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are increasingly understood in terms of biological mechanisms. We examined how such biological explanations of patients’ symptoms would affect mental health clinicians’ empathy—a crucial component of the relationship between treatment-providers and patients—as well as their clinical judgments and recommendations. In a series of studies, US clinicians read descriptions of potential patients whose symptoms were explained using either biological or psychosocial information. Biological explanations have been thought to make patients appear less accountable for their disorders, which could increase clinicians’ empathy. To the contrary, biological explanations evoked significantly less empathy. These results are consistent with other research and theory that has suggested that biological accounts of psychopathology can exacerbate perceptions of patients as abnormal, distinct from the rest of the population, meriting social exclusion, and even less than fully human. Although the ongoing shift toward biomedical conceptualizations has many benefits, our results reveal unintended negative consequences. PMID:25453068

  13. Suicide and exposure to organophosphate insecticides: cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L; Flisher, A J; Wesseling, C; Mergler, D; Kromhout, H

    2005-04-01

    Suicide using pesticides as agent is recognized as a major cause of pesticide poisoning. A literature review of mortality and morbidity studies related to suicide among pesticide-exposed populations, and of human and animal studies of central nervous system toxicity related to organophosphate (OP) pesticides was performed. Suicide rates are high in farming populations. Animal studies link OP exposure to serotonin disturbances in the central nervous system, which are implicated in depression and suicide in humans. Epidemiological studies conclude that acute and chronic OP exposure is associated with affective disorders. Case series and ecological studies also support a causal association between OP use and suicide. OPs are not only agents for suicide. They may be part of the causal pathway. Emphasizing OPs solely as agents for suicide shifts responsibility for prevention to the individual, reducing corporate responsibility and limiting policy options available for control. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Environmental chemicals and autoimmune disease: cause and effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Evelyn V.

    2002-01-01

    Many important clues have been provided by the relationship of certain medications to lupus and other autoimmune syndromes. These are temporary conditions that resolve when the medication is removed. There are now over 70 such medications which have been reported related to these autoimmune conditions. Interest continues to grow in the potential for environmental substances to cause these syndromes. Among those under suspicion are hydrazines, tartrazines, hair dyes, trichloroethylene, industrial emissions and hazardous wastes. Other possible associations include silica, mercury, cadmium, gold and L canavanine. Two recognised outbreaks include 'toxic oil syndrome' related to contaminated rape seed oil in Spain in 1981 and exposure to a contaminated environmental substance associated with an autoimmune attack on muscle tissue in 1989. Recently, there have been proposals made for the definition and identification of environmentally associated immune disorders. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has also provided recent publications for other environmentally related problems. All these aspects will be presented and reviewed in detail

  15. Modeling and analysis of the survival of a biological species in a polluted environment: Effect of environmental tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear dynamical model is proposed and analyzed to study the survival of biological species in a polluted environment considering the effect of environmental tax which can be used further to improve environmental quality. The environmental tax is imposed to control the emission of pollutants/toxicants only when the equilibrium concentration of pollutants go beyond its threshold level causing harm to the biological species and its ecosystem under consideration. Local and nonlinear stability conditions are obtained by considering suitable Liapunov function. Numerical simulation of the dynamical system is performed in order to illustrate the analytical findings. It is shown that the density of biological species decreases as the concentration of pollutants increases and may even become extinct if the concentration is very high. It has also been shown that the environmental tax plays an important role to control the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere and maintaining the density of biological species at a desired level.

  16. In vivo biological effects of stereotactic radiosurgery: A primate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, L.D.; Altschuler, E.M.; Flickinger, J.C.; Wu, A.; Martinez, A.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Single-fraction, closed skull, small-volume irradiation (radiosurgery) of intact intracranial structures requires accurate knowledge of radiation tolerance. We have developed a baboon model to assess the in vivo destructive radiobiological effects of stereotactic radiosurgery. Three baboons received a single-fraction, 150-Gy lesion of the caudate nucleus, the thalamus, or the pons using the 8-mm diameter collimator of the gamma unit. Serial standard neurodiagnostic tests (neurological examination, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging, stable xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scan of cerebral blood flow, somatosensory and brain stem evoked potentials, and myelin basic protein levels of cerebrospinal fluid) were compared with preoperative studies. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the development of a lesion at the target site between 45 and 60 days after irradiation. Deterioration of the brain stem evoked potentials preceded imaging changes when the lesion encroached on auditory pathways. Myelin basic protein levels increased subsequent to imaging changes. Postmortem neuropathological examination confirmed a well-demarcated radionecrosis of the target volume. The baboon model appears to be an excellent method to study the in vivo biological effects of radiosurgery.

  17. Triclosan: A Widespread Environmental Toxicant with Many Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Mei-Fei; Tukey, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been added to personal care products, including hand soaps and cosmetics, and impregnated in numerous different materials ranging from athletic clothing to food packaging. The constant disposal of TCS into the sewage system is creating a major environmental and public health hazard. Owing to its chemical properties of bioaccumulation and resistance to degradation, TCS is widely detected in various environmental compartments in concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per liter. Epidemiology studies indicate that significant levels of TCS are detected in body fluids in all human age groups. We document here the emerging evidence—from in vitro and in vivo animal studies and environmental toxicology studies—demonstrating that TCS exerts adverse effects on different biological systems through various modes of action. Considering the fact that humans are simultaneously exposed to TCS and many TCS-like chemicals, we speculate that TCS-induced adverse effects may be relevant to human health. PMID:26738475

  18. Scientific projection paper on biologic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.

    1980-01-01

    There is widespread knowledge about the effects of radiation in human populations but the studies have had some limitations which have left gaps in our knowledge. Most populations have had exposure to high doses with little information on the effect of dose rate. The characteristics of the populations have been restricted by the location of the disaster, the occupational limitations, or the basic risks associated with the under-lying disease for which radiation was given. All doses have been estimated and such values are subject to marked variability particularly when they rely on sources of data such as hospital records. The biological data although extensive have several deficits in information. Which are the sites in which cancer is produced by irradiation and what are the cell types which are produced. The sensitivity of various tissues and organs are not similar and it is important to rank them according to susceptibility. This has been done in the past but the results are not complete for all cell types and organs. The temporal patterns for tumor development, the latent period, the period of expressed excess, the life-time risks need to be defined more precisely for the cancers. Many populations have not been followed long enough to express the complete risk

  19. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides: summary of ICRP report 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The ICRP Task Group charged with evaluating the hazards associated with inhalation of plutonium and other radionuclides, enumerated the biological responses to inhaled radionuclides, identified tissues and cells at risk, derived risk coefficients for inhaled radionuclides from animal experiments for comparison with human data, and determined an equal effectiveness ratio of alpha emitters relative to beta-gamma emitters. High lung burdens of inhaled radionuclides result in profound structural and functional changes in which the pulmonary capillary endothelial cells are the most prominent cells at risk. Linear and nonlinear models used to evaluate lung cancer data from animal experiments project to risk coefficients between 0.84 and 1600 cases/10 6 animals/rad. The report concludes that the animal data support the current ICRP lung cancer risk of 2 x 10 -3 Sv -1 (400 x 10+H-+H6 rad -1 ). Comparison of risk coefficients for beta-gamma emitters with those for alpha emitters, obtained using the same models, gave an Equal Effectiveness Ratio of 30 for inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides. Thus, the experimental data support the ICRP decision to change the quality factor from 10 to 20 for alpha radiation. (H.K.)

  20. Biological and sanitary effects of non ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugere, H.; Hours, M.; Seze, R. de; Bernier, M.; Letertre, Th.; Aurengo, A.; Burais, N.; Bedja, M.; Merckel, O.; Decat, G.; Lagroye, I.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier de Gannes, F.; Aurengo, A.; Souques, M.; Cesarini, J.P.; Lagroye, I.; Aurengo, A.; Cesarini, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this day was to encourage the collaborations, especially multidisciplinary, on the biological, clinical, epidemiological and dosimetry aspects. The different presentations are as follow: the magneto reception among animals; the health and radio frequencies foundation; expo-metry to radio frequency fields: dosemeters evaluation; the electro-optical probes as tool of hyper frequency dosimetry; characterisation of emissions produced by the low consumption fluo-compact lamps in the perspective of persons exposure; strong and weak points of epidemiology; numerical dosimetry in low frequency magnetic and/or electric field; exposure of the French population to the 50 Hz magnetic field: first results for the Ile-de-france and Rhone alpes areas; characterisation of the exposure to the very low frequency magnetic fields in the town of Champlan; measurement of the residential exposure of children to the extremely low frequency, very low frequency and radiofrequency (E.L.F., V.L.F. and R.F.) fields and modeling of the high voltage magnetic field face to the child leukemia; effects of radiofrequency signals of wireless communications on the young animals; study of combined effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves and a known mutagen on DNA by two different approaches; effects on the oxidizing stress of nervous cells exposure to an (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) E.D.G.E. signal; is environmental epidemiology still a science; cardiac implants and exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields in occupational environment; the tanning by artificial UV radiation: norms and legislation; mobiles phones, Wi Fi and other wireless communications; effects on health of 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields; natural and artificial ultraviolet radiations: a proved risk. (N.C.)

  1. Measurement of reactivity effect caused by nonuniform fuel distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Nishina, Kojiro; Shiroya, Seiji

    1991-01-01

    A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem in a reprocessing plant. To estimate this reactivity effect theoretically, the ''Goertzel's necessary condition, and th Fuel Importance'' theory have been proposed. In order to verify these theories, we have performed systematic measurements of reactivity effect due to the nonuniformity in the fuel distribution within the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. Neutron flux distribution and Fuel Importance distribution were also determined. A nonuniform assembly whose fuel concentration in the center region was 40% higher than the uniform one was found to have an excess reactivity of 0.3%Δk/k, with the same total uranium mass for which the uniform assembly was just critical. Moreover, its spatial distribution of thermal neutron flux and of Fuel Importance were more flat than those of the uniform assembly, as expected by the Goertzel's condition and the Fuel Importance theory. (Author)

  2. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation\\/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis--cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, L J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis are two distinct diseases encountered commonly in small animal practice. Whilst the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are usually unmistakeable, a firm diagnosis of pancreatitis can prove more elusive, as clinical signs are often variable. Over the past 10 to 15 years, despite the fact that the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are remarkably consistent, it has become more apparent that the underlying pathology of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats is heterogeneous, with exocrine pancreatic inflammation accompanying diabetes mellitus in a number of cases. However, the question remains as to whether the diabetes mellitus causes the pancreatitis or whether, conversely, the pancreatitis leads to diabetes mellitus--as there is evidence to support both scenarios. The concurrence of diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis has clinical implications for case management as such cases may follow a more difficult clinical course, with their glycaemic control being "brittle" as a result of variation in the degree of pancreatic inflammation. Problems may also arise if abdominal pain or vomiting lead to anorexia. In addition, diabetic cases with pancreatitis are at risk of developing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the following months to years, which can complicate their management further. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Hypoxemia in patients with COPD: cause, effects, and disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brian D Kent1,2, Patrick D Mitchell1, Walter T McNicholas1,21Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin; 2Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of death and disability internationally. Alveolar hypoxia and consequent hypoxemia increase in prevalence as disease severity increases. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch resulting from progressive airflow limitation and emphysema is the key driver of this hypoxia, which may be exacerbated by sleep and exercise. Uncorrected chronic hypoxemia is associated with the development of adverse sequelae of COPD, including pulmonary hypertension, secondary polycythemia, systemic inflammation, and skeletal muscle dysfunction. A combination of these factors leads to diminished quality of life, reduced exercise tolerance, increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity, and greater risk of death. Concomitant sleep-disordered breathing may place a small but significant subset of COPD patients at increased risk of these complications. Long-term oxygen therapy has been shown to improve pulmonary hemodynamics, reduce erythrocytosis, and improve survival in selected patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, the optimal treatment for patients with exertional oxyhemoglobin desaturation, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, or mild-to-moderate resting daytime hypoxemia remains uncertain.Keywords: COPD, hypoxia, sleep, inflammation, pulmonary hypertension

  5. Eutrophication of an Urban Forest Ecosystem: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednova, O. V.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Tarasova, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    The combined use of methods of passive dosimetry of the status of atmospheric air, phytoindication, and cartographic visualization of data made it possible to elaborate and substantiate approaches to evaluation of the effect of atmospheric air contamination on the eutrophication of forest ecosystems under urban conditions.

  6. Effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A Hicke; Morris C. Johnson; Jane L. Hayes; Haiganoush K. Preisler

    2012-01-01

    Millions of trees killed by bark beetles in western North America have raised concerns about subsequent wildfire, but studies have reported a range of conclusions, often seemingly contradictory, about effects on fuels and wildfire. In this study, we reviewed and synthesized the published literature on modifications to fuels and fire characteristics following beetle-...

  7. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  8. Biological effects of radiation human health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    The biological hazards of nuclear energy usage are a growing source of public concern. The medical profession may well be expected to contribute to public debate on the issue. This document, therefore, attempts a balanced review of the known and suspected human biological consequences of exposure to different types of ionizing radiation, emphasizing in particular the nuclear industry

  9. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    1 School of Biology, University Park, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK. 2 St Katherine ... the world‟s greatest places, with enormous religious, cultural and biological significance (see. Grainger & Gilbert .... The arrows indicate years of floods, but rainfall is very patchy in these deserts and floods can occur ...

  10. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  11. May disordered protein cause serious drug side effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Weng Ieong; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia is a self-reported disease where patients lose their ability to initiate and maintain sleep, leading to daytime performance impairment. Several drug targets to ameliorate insomnia symptoms have been discovered; however, these drug targets lead to serious side effects. Thus, we characterize the structural properties of these sleep-related receptors and the clock complex and discuss a possible drug design that will reduce side effects. Computational prediction shows that disordered property is shared. Over 30% of the structure of CLOCK, PER1/2/3, BMAL-1, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-M1, melatonin receptor and casein kinase I are structurally disordered (the remaining proteins represent insomnia drugs might be closely related to the protein architecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced effectiveness of selection caused by a lack of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Andrea J; Welch, John J; Charlesworth, Brian

    2009-04-28

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction is expected to have important consequences for the effectiveness of natural selection. These effects may be evident within genomes, in the form of contrasting patterns of molecular variation and evolution in regions with different levels of recombination. Previous work reveals patterns that are consistent with a benefit of recombination for adaptation at the level of protein sequence: both positive selection for adaptive variants and purifying selection against deleterious ones appear to be compromised in regions of low recombination [1-11]. Here, we re-examine these patterns by using polymorphism and divergence data from the Drosophila dot chromosome, which has a long history of reduced recombination. To avoid confounding selection and demographic effects, we collected these data from a species with an apparently stable demographic history, Drosophila americana. We find that D. americana dot loci show several signatures of ineffective purifying and positive selection, including an increase in the rate of protein evolution, an increase in protein polymorphism, and a reduction in the proportion of amino acid substitutions attributable to positive selection.

  13. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  14. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  15. Biological effect of ultrasoft x-ray, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Noboru

    1985-01-01

    Biological effect on Escherichia coli by ultrasoft X-ray have been studied by comparing with that by uv light (2537 A) and by soft X-ray (40 kVp, 5 mA). Ultrasoft X-ray is aluminium characteristic X-ray (about 1.5 keV) produced by low energy electron collision on aluminium foil target and is obtained from Lea-type transmission target discharge tube. Escherichia coli used here are AB1157, AB1886 (uvrA6), JC1569 (recA), AB2470 (recB) and AB2480 (uvr rec) for inactivation experiment and WP2, WP2uvrA, WP2pKM101 and WP2uvrApKM101 for mutation induction experiment. These strains are all irradiated in buffer. Results obtained are summerized as follows : (i) inactivation by ultrasoft X-ray is located between ones by uv light and by soft X-ray, or ultrasoft X-ray gives a lethal damage that uvrA6 gene seems to contribute, and (ii) ultrasoft X-ray does not show the remarkable mutation induction like that induced by low dose irradiation of uv light or soft X-ray. (author)

  16. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, 252 Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by 60 Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use

  17. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  18. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Hajdukovic, D; Knudsen, H; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  19. Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Audrey; Prawitt, Janne; Fabien Soulé, Véronique; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2017-06-13

    Osteoporosis is a chronic and asymptomatic disease characterized by low bone mass and skeletal microarchitectural deterioration, increased risk of fracture, and associated comorbidities most prevalent in the elderly. Due to an increasingly aging population, osteoporosis has become a major health issue requiring innovative disease management. Proteins are important for bone by providing building blocks and by exerting specific regulatory function. This is why adequate protein intake plays a considerable role in both bone development and bone maintenance. More specifically, since an increase in the overall metabolism of collagen can lead to severe dysfunctions and a more fragile bone matrix and because orally administered collagen can be digested in the gut, cross the intestinal barrier, enter the circulation, and become available for metabolic processes in the target tissues, one may speculate that a collagen-enriched diet provides benefits for the skeleton. Collagen-derived products such as gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) are well acknowledged for their safety from a nutritional point of view; however, what is their impact on bone biology? In this manuscript, we critically review the evidence from literature for an effect of HC on bone tissues in order to determine whether HC may represent a relevant alternative in the design of future nutritional approaches to manage osteoporosis prevention.

  20. Protective effect of rutin on cognitive impairment caused by phenytoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the co-administration of phenytoin (PHT) and rutin in comparison with PHT and piracetam (PIM) on seizure control, cognitive, and motor functions in mice. Materials and Methods: Increasing current electroshock seizure (ICES) test was used to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of PHT and PIM on convulsions. Cognitive functions in mice were assessed by a spontaneous alternation in behavior on a plus maze while motor functions were screened using rolling roller apparatus and by counting the number of arms entries on a plus maze. Brain acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity was also estimated. Statistical Analysis: The expression of data was done as mean ± standard error of the mean. The normally distributed data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study showed that rutin when co-administered with PHT, significantly reversed PHT-induced reduction in spontaneous alternation without altering the efficacy of PHT against ICES, in both acute and chronic studies. Further, it also reversed PHT-induced increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: Rutin alleviated the PHT-induced cognitive impairment without compromising its antiepileptic efficacy. PMID:26729954

  1. Effectiveness of biological control of Phytophthora capsici in pepper by Trichoderma asperellum strain T34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem SEGARRA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., one of the most widely grown vegetables worldwide, is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Many biocides have recently been banned in Europe because of human health and environmental concerns. Integrated pest management is a European priority, where biological control together with other agronomic practices should replace pesticide management of plant diseases in the future. Application of different concentrations of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 (the in T34 Biocontrol® on incidence of disease caused by P. capsici in pepper was studied. Different methods of application of the microbial control agent and inoculation of the pathogen were examined. T34 and etridiazole (Terrazole® were compared for their ability to suppress P. capsici. T34 reduced disease in most of the assayed situations (up to 71% disease reduction, while etridiazole was effective only when applied at the same time as the pathogen. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the different modes of action of T34 and etridiazole. T34 is a useful biological alternative to chemicals for the control of P. capsici in pepper.

  2. A modified microdosimetric kinetic model for relative biological effectiveness calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizheng; Li, Junli; Li, Chunyan; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    In the heavy ion therapy, not only the distribution of physical absorbed dose, but also the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) weighted dose needs to be taken into account. The microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) can predict the RBE value of heavy ions with saturation-corrected dose-mean specific energy, which has been used in clinical treatment planning at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. In the theoretical assumption of the MKM, the yield of the primary lesion is independent of the radiation quality, while the experimental data shows that DNA double strand break (DSB) yield, considered as the main primary lesion, depends on the LET of the particle. Besides, the β parameter of the MKM is constant with LET resulting from this assumption, which also differs from the experimental conclusion. In this study, a modified MKM was developed, named MMKM. Based on the experimental DSB yield of mammalian cells under the irradiation of ions with different LETs, a RBEDSB (RBE for the induction of DSB)-LET curve was fitted as the correction factor to modify the primary lesion yield in the MKM, and the variation of the primary lesion yield with LET is considered in the MMKM. Compared with the present the MKM, not only the α parameter of the MMKM for mono-energetic ions agree with the experimental data, but also the β parameter varies with LET and the variation trend of the experimental result can be reproduced on the whole. Then a spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) distribution of physical dose was simulated with Geant4 Monte Carlo code, and the biological and clinical dose distributions were calculated, under the irradiation of carbon ions. The results show that the distribution of clinical dose calculated with the MMKM is closed to the distribution with the MKM in the SOBP, while the discrepancy before and after the SOBP are both within 10%. Moreover, the MKM might overestimate the clinical dose at the distal end of the SOBP more than 5% because of its

  3. Research of biological isotope effect of deuterium in Anabaena azollae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbo; Wang Wenqing; Shi Dingji; Luo Shanggeng

    1996-01-01

    Anabaena azollae is cultured in BG-11 medium whose mass fraction of heavy water is 0%, 10%, 30%, 60% and 90%, respectively. During different time, activities of photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogenase are measured. In addition, growth-curve, absorption spectrum and low temperature fluorescence spectrum are given. The change of cellular morphology is observed with scanning electron microscope. The results show that the addition of heavy water causes lagging of the exponential period of growth, and inhibits the activities of photosynthesis respiration and nitrogenase markedly. Absorption spectrum shows that the ratio of phycobilins to carotenoid decreases with increasing percentage of heavy water. Low temperature fluorescence spectrum indicates that the ratio of F 733 /F 695 decreases and photo-energy distributed to system II is more than to system I. According to the maximum of net photosynthesis, the isotope effect is also discussed

  4. The effect of network biology on drug toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The high failure rate of drug candidates due to toxicity, during clinical trials, is a critical issue in drug discovery. Network biology has become a promising approach, in this regard, using the increasingly large amount of biological and chemical data available and combining...... biology has the opportunity to contribute to a better understanding of a drug's safety profile. The authors believe that considering a drug action and protein's function in a global physiological environment may benefit our understanding of the impact some chemicals have on human health and toxicity...

  5. Presence and biological effects of emerging contaminants in Llobregat River basin: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Susana; López-Roldán, Ramón; Cortina, Jose-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Llobregat River (North-East Spain) is the most important drinking water source for Barcelona and its surrounding area. As one of the only water sources in the area the river water have been overexploited and effluents from more than 30 urban wastewater treatment plants, industries and agriculture runoffs have been discharged into the river. This article reviews the presence of emerging contaminants published during the last decades, emphasizing on the observed effects on ecosystems caused by the contamination. Pesticides, surfactants, estrogens, pharmaceuticals and personal care products and even abuse drugs are the main groups detected in different studies, reporting alterations in species composition, abundance or biomass and endocrine disruption measured by alterations in enzymatic activity or specific protein production. The information available provides an overview of the river status according to the Water Framework Directive. - The presence of different pollutants (mainly pesticides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants and estrogens) and their biological effects in the Llobregat River are reviewed.

  6. Thorotrast: A Bibliography of its Diagnostic Use and Biological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This bibliography has been compiled primarily to support a study of Thorotrast toxicity which is being conducted in the Medical Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The limited resources of staff and time available for its compilation have dictated a practical compromise between completeness and freedom from error on the one hand and effort on the other. While neither complete nor free of error, it has been stencilled so as to be available to other groups with similar interests. Additions and corrections would be gratefully received. The chief concern of the bibliography is with the toxic effects of Thorotrast. Papers on the diagnostic use of Thorotrast have also been included, both because of their relevance to the subsequent toxic effects and because of the light they shed on the possible numbers and location of Thorotrast cases. Papers on various related topics such as ThX (Ra-224) and MsTh (Ra-228) have been included when found, but no special search for them has been made. Papers are classified under the topics shown in the Table of Contents. In many cases papers have been listed under two or more categories, but a unique classification is obviously impossible. Since a rather abrupt change in outlook on the biological significance of ionizing radiation took place with the advent of nuclear energy, papers are given separately under each topic according to publication dates 1945 and earlier, 1946 and later. Original titles (if available) are given along with their English translations. Authors' addresses are listed for papers of which reprints have been obtained by the Agency.

  7. Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Inger

    Full Text Available Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered.

  8. A Systematic Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Biologics for Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawowczyk, Ewa; Kawalec, Paweł

    2018-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic autoimmune inflammation of the colon. The condition significantly decreases quality of life and generates a substantial economic burden for healthcare payers, patients and the society in which they live. Some patients require chronic pharmacotherapy, and access to novel biologic drugs might be crucial for long-term remission. The analyses of cost-effectiveness for biologic drugs are necessary to assess their efficiency and provide the best available drugs to patients. Our aim was to collect and assess the quality of economic analyses carried out for biologic agents used in the treatment of UC, as well as to summarize evidence on the drivers of cost-effectiveness and evaluate the transferability and generalizability of conclusions. A systematic database review was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and CRD0. Both authors independently reviewed the identified articles to determine their eligibility for final review. Hand searching of references in collected papers was also performed to find any relevant articles. The reporting quality of economic analyses included was evaluated by two reviewers using the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement checklist. We reviewed the sensitivity analyses in cost-effectiveness analyses to identify the variables that may have changed the conclusions of the study. Key drivers of cost-effectiveness were selected by identifying uncertain parameters that caused the highest change of the results of the analyses compared with base-case results. Of the 576 identified records, 87 were excluded as duplicates and 16 studies were included in the final review; evaluations for Canada, the UK and Poland were mostly performed. The majority of the evaluations revealed were performed for infliximab (approximately 75% of total volume); however, some

  9. Study of energetic-particle-irradiation induced biological effect on Rhizopus oryzae through synchrotron-FTIR micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Qi, Zeming; Huang, Qing; Wei, Xiaoli; Ke, Zhigang; Fang, Yusheng; Tian, Yangchao; Yu, Zengliang

    2013-01-01

    Energetic particles exist ubiquitously and cause varied biological effects such as DNA strand breaks, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, cell apoptosis or death. An emerging biotechnology based on ion-beam technique has been developed to serve as an effective tool for mutation breeding of crops and microbes. In order to improve the effectiveness of ion-beam biotechnology for mutation breeding, it is indispensible to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems which is still elusive. A new trend is to conduct more comprehensive research which is based on micro-scaled observation of the changes of the cellular structures and compositions under the interactions. For this purpose, advanced synchrotron FTIR (s-FTIR) microscopy was employed to monitor the cellular changes of single fungal hyphae under irradiation of α-particles from 241Am. Intracellular contents of ROS, MDA, GSSG/GSH and activities of CAT and SOD were measured via biochemical assay. Ion-irradiation on Rhizopus oryzae causes localized vacuolation, autolysis of cell wall and membrane, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and conformational changes of proteins, which have been clearly revealed by the s-FTIR microspectroscopy. The different changes of cell viability, SOD and CAT activities can be explained by the ROS-involved chemical reactions. Evidently, the elevated level of ROS in hyphal cells upon irradiation plays the key role in the caused biological effect. This study demonstrates that s-FTIR microspectroscopy is an effective tool to study the damage of fungal hyphae caused by ionizing radiation and it facilitates the exploit of the mechanism for the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems.

  10. A literature survey of the biological effects and mechanics of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeh, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The following report discusses the very controversial subject of electromagnetic interaction with the human body. The project was undertaken in the form of a literature survey to investigate the biological mechanisms responsible for the interaction, the theoretical models and associated mathematical techniques required to model the human body, the resulting energy deposition in the human and the factors which effect this. It was established that at present the most realistic model of man can be obtained using a block model and moment method technique with improved methods such as conjugate gradients or band approximation for the necessary matrix inversion. The impedance method of modelling could be very promising for future research. From the literature studied on biological effects no scientific evidence was found which definitely proves or disproves hazardous effects exist at low field intensities ( -2 ). The testes and the lens of the eye can be harmed, however, if the intensity is sufficient to cause a temperature rise of 1 degree Celsius in these organs

  11. Teaching Cause-Effect Text Structure through Social Studies Content to At-Risk Second Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P.; Nubla-Kung, Abigail M.; Pollini, Simonne; Stafford, K. Brooke; Garcia, Amaya; Snyder, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehension program integrated with social studies instruction designed for at-risk second graders. The program included instruction in cause-effect text structure, emphasizing clue words, generic questions, graphic organizers, and the close analysis of specially constructed cause-effect target…

  12. Biological effect of magnetic field on the fermentation of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Dobšinský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the transformation process of matter is produced energy, which afterwards interacts with matter itself, and other forms of energy. Energy induced electromagnetic appliances may affect the processes occurring in biological systems. In our study we have evaluated the wine fermentation process of the magnetic field with different amplitudes of electromagnetic induction, the constant exposure of 30 minutes a day for 10 days. The device for inducing magnetism was constructed at the Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Enology at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra for research purposes. Essence of the device lies in the way of the management of direct current, which flows through the coil. Volume of direct current is regulated by network auto-transformer. Output of network autotransformer is rectified by two-way bridge rectifier. The coil is powered by a direct current voltage pulse. This device has a maximum value of the magnetic induction at 150 mT. At full power it must be supplied from three-phase socket with a rated current of 32 A. For our experiment, we chose wine grape variety of Hibernal, from Nitra wine region. The magnetic field induced by the electromagnetic device has an impact on the process of fermentation and sensory characteristics of a young wine. As part of the sensory profile, we noticed higher levels of residual sugar and speed up of the fermentation process and the process of purifying of the young wine. The influence of magnetic field on grape juice during the entire fermentation process and production of wine is a convenient way to improve the quality of wine without side effects or any chemical additives.

  13. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  14. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  16. Restricted Inter-ocean Exchange and Attenuated Biological Export Caused Enhanced Carbonate Preservation in the PETM Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Boudreau, B. P.; Dickens, G. R.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) release during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.8 Myr BP) acidified the oceans, causing a decrease in calcium carbonate (CaCO3) preservation. During the subsequent recovery from this acidification, the sediment CaCO3 content came to exceed pre-PETM values, known as over-deepening or over-shooting. Past studies claim to explain these trends, but have failed to reproduce quantitatively the time series of CaCO3 preservation. We employ a simple biogeochemical model to recreate the CaCO3 records preserved at Walvis Ridge of the Atlantic Ocean. Replication of the observed changes, both shallowing and the subsequent over-deepening, requires two conditions not previously considered: (1) limited deep-water exchange between the Indo-Atlantic and Pacific oceans and (2) a ~50% reduction in the export of CaCO3 to the deep sea during acidification. Contrary to past theories that attributed over-deepening to increased riverine alkalinity input, we find that over-deepening is an emergent property, generated at constant riverine input when attenuation of CaCO3 export causes an unbalanced alkalinity input to the deep oceans (alkalinization) and the development of deep super-saturation. Restoration of CaCO3 export, particularly in the super-saturated deep Indo-Atlantic ocean, later in the PETM leads to greater accumulation of carbonates, ergo over-shooting, which returns the ocean to pre-PETM conditions over a time scale greater than 200 kyr. While this feedback between carbonate export and the riverine input has not previously been considered, it appears to constitute an important modification of the classic carbonate compensation concept used to explain oceanic response to acidification.

  17. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Janhunen

    Full Text Available Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma. While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  18. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  19. Biological effectiveness and application of heavy ions in radiation therapy described by a physical and biological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.J.; Hansen, J.W.

    1982-12-01

    A description is given of the physical basis for applying track structure theory in the determination of the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation of single- and multi-hit target systems. It will be shown that for applying the theory to biological systems the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation is inadequately described by an RBE-factor, whereas the complete formulation of the probability of survival must be used, as survival depends on both radiation quality and dose. The theoretical model of track structure can be used in dose-effect calculations for neutron-, high-LET, and low-LET radiation applied simultaneously in therapy. (author)

  20. Effects of demographic stochasticity on biological community assembly on evolutionary time scales

    KAUST Repository

    Murase, Yohsuke

    2010-04-13

    We study the effects of demographic stochasticity on the long-term dynamics of biological coevolution models of community assembly. The noise is induced in order to check the validity of deterministic population dynamics. While mutualistic communities show little dependence on the stochastic population fluctuations, predator-prey models show strong dependence on the stochasticity, indicating the relevance of the finiteness of the populations. For a predator-prey model, the noise causes drastic decreases in diversity and total population size. The communities that emerge under influence of the noise consist of species strongly coupled with each other and have stronger linear stability around the fixed-point populations than the corresponding noiseless model. The dynamics on evolutionary time scales for the predator-prey model are also altered by the noise. Approximate 1/f fluctuations are observed with noise, while 1/ f2 fluctuations are found for the model without demographic noise. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  1. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure; Biologische Wirkungen niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  2. Effect of lysozyme on "flor" velum yeasts in the biological aging of sherry wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Ana; Lasanta, Cristina; Caro, Ildefonso; Palacios, Víctor

    2012-05-01

    Biological aging is a key step in the production of Sherry wine classified as "fine". During this stage, a film of yeast referred to as "flor velum" covers the surface of the wine and substantially alters its characteristics. Other microorganisms may coexist with flor yeasts, such as lactic acid bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, whose growth may be favored under certain conditions, causing organoleptic deviations and deterioration of the wine. To prevent the development of lactic bacteria, lysozyme usage has been introduced. Lysozyme is a hydrolytic enzyme with muramidase activity that can lyse gram-positive bacteria; its use in winemaking was approved by the OIV in 1997 (resolution OENO 10/97). Thus far, the use of lysozyme during the production of Sherry wines is not widespread despite its effectiveness in controlling lactic acid bacteria. However, there have been no studies on the effect of lysozyme on flor velum. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of lysozyme on yeast growth and the formation, development and metabolism of flor velum during the biological aging process of Sherry wine. The results indicate that lysozyme does not affect the flor yeast during the fermentative stage or biofilm stage. However, if yeast inoculation is carried out under submerged culture conditions during biological aging, low doses of lysozyme (≥12.5 g/hL) affect cell multiplication and the membrane hydrophobicity of the yeast, inhibiting their aggregation and flotation and the subsequent development of flor velum. Thus, the yeast inoculation protocol and the methodology used for the addition of lysozyme influence velum development, its metabolism and the wine characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cause-Effect Analysis: Improvement of a First Year Engineering Students' Calculus Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoff, Quay; Harding, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the mathematics department at a South African university and in particular on teaching of calculus to first year engineering students. The paper reports on a cause-effect analysis, often used for business improvement. The cause-effect analysis indicates that there are many factors that impact on secondary school teaching of…

  4. Effect of Grouping of Evidence Types on Learning about Interactions between Observed and Unobserved Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2011-01-01

    When a cause interacts with unobserved factors to produce an effect, the contingency between the observed cause and effect cannot be taken at face value to infer causality. Yet it would be computationally intractable to consider all possible unobserved, interacting factors. Nonetheless, 6 experiments found that people can learn about an unobserved…

  5. The Problem of Biological Destruction of Façades of Insulated Buildings - Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanaszek-Tomal, Elżbieta

    2017-10-01

    The Regulation of the Minister of Infrastructure concerning the technical conditions of buildings and their location required new designed buildings to have reduced amount of heat that is transmitted through the barrier. This involves the use of thermal insulation, of adequate thickness to meet the relevant requirements. As the environment conditions are favourable, the façades may deteriorate. Major aggressors include algae fungi or lichens, i.e. the formation of symbiotic growth of algae and fungi. Their construction, metabolic processes are the basis of knowledge about action to prevent corrosion.

  6. The biological effectiveness of targeted radionuclide therapy based on a whole-body pharmacokinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzinski, Joseph J; Tomé, Wolfgang; Weichert, Jamey P; Jeraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Biologically effective dose (BED) may be more of a relevant quantity than absorbed dose for establishing tumour response relationships. By taking into account the dose rate and tissue-specific parameters such as repair and radiosensitivity, it is possible to compare the relative biological effects of different targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) agents. The aim of this work was to develop an analytical tumour BED calculation for TRT that could predict a relative biological effect based on normal body and tumour pharmacokinetics. This work represents a step in the direction of establishing relative pharmacokinetic criteria of when the BED formalism is more applicable than absorbed dose for TRT. A previously established pharmacokinetic (PK) model for TRT was used and adapted into the BED formalism. An analytical equation for the protraction factor, which incorporates dose rate and repair rate, was derived. Dose rates within the normal body and tumour were related to the slopes of their time–activity curves which were determined by the ratios of their respective PK parameters. The relationships between the tumour influx-to-efflux ratio (k34:k43), central compartment efflux-to-influx ratio (k12:k21), central elimination (kel), and tumour repair rate (μ), and tumour BED were investigated. As the k34:k43 ratio increases and the k12:k21 ratio decreases, the difference between tumour BED and D increases. In contrast, as the k34:k43 ratios decrease and the k12:k21 ratios increase, the tumour BED approaches D. At large k34:k43 ratios, the difference between tumour BED and D increases to a maximum as kel increases. At small k34:k43 ratios, the tumour BED approaches D at very small kel. At small μ and small k34:k43 ratios, the tumour BED approaches D. For large k34:k43 ratios, large μ values cause tumour BED to approach D. This work represents a step in the direction of establishing relative PK criteria of when the BED formalism is more applicable than absorbed dose for

  7. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    diversification, supplementation with capsules or syrups, molecular biology and industrial food fortification still require ... It is better to increase the Zn content in cereals, the staple food in many developing countries, through Zn ..... plant and human nutrition in Turkey: a NATO science for stability project. Field Crops Research ...

  8. Effect of sulphide on enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Rincon, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (EBPR) is a popular process due to high removal efficiency, low operational costs, and the possibility of phosphorus recovery. Nevertheless, the stability of the EBPR depends on different factors such as: temperature, pH, and the presence of toxic

  9. Controlling the Biological Effects of Spermine Using a Synthetic Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R. Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-01-01

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to

  10. Filter media expansion during backwash: The effect of biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provided by the designer or that the mechanical behaviour of the media gradually changes after being placed in the filters. A number of media tests confirmed that the biological fraction of the specific deposit on the filter media (after backwashing) is relatively high – about 50% of the total specific deposit. This led to the ...

  11. Effects of hypervitaminosis of vitamin B3 on silkworm biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The supplementary leaves were fed to silkworms from 4th to 5th instar, once a day. Therefore the silkworm larvae were fed supplementary leaves just seven times (3 times in 4th instar and 4 times in 5th instar). 2.3 Biological parameters. Post-treatment, the larval and cocoon parameters were observed. The weights of larvae ...

  12. Effects Of Advance Organizers On Students\\' Achievement In Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science Education is emphasized in school curriculum in order to meet the country\\'s socioeconomic needs by producing a scientifically literate populace and professionals in science and technology based careers. Biology as a science subject is expected to make a contribution towards these objective. However, the ...

  13. Biological Effects of Nuclear Explosions (BENE) Domain Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Operation TEAPOT , 1955 .......................................................................................... 11  Table 1.14 Operation PLUMBBOB...hazards to humans that would be in the contaminated area post shot. Operation TEAPOT (Table 1.13) was intended to test nuclear devices for possible...several test series to determine biological availability of radioactive materials over time 11 Table 1.13 Operation TEAPOT , 1955 Report

  14. BIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FROM MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao TAKI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication devices are sources of radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic field (EMF that are common in daily life and can cause strong exposure to the head. Possible adverse health effects, especially on brain functions, have been of great concern among the general public since the explosive penetration of this technology began in the 1990's. The exposure complies with current safety guidelines. The established knowledge of biological effects of RF does not provide any evidence for anecdotally reported effects such as memory loss or causing brain tumors. However, there is no way to prove the absolute absence of such effects. The enormous efforts have been made to search for such unknown effects and ascertain the safety of this technology. Recent research on the possible effects of RF-EMF on the brain is briefly summarized here to show what is known and what remains unknown. The evidence reported so far indicates few effects that could possibly damage human health seriously. Only slight changes in physiological function in the brain may exist, but variation of the data is too great to believe that the exposure actually has the potential to affect function. The health risk, if any, at an individual level, would be very low in consideration of the available evidence. However, if mobile phone fields were actually hazardous, the very large number of mobile phone users could mean that, even if the individual risk were very low, the impact on public health could be considerable. This is the most important reason why so many efforts are being made in this issue.

  15. Involvement of Nitric Oxide on Bothropoides insularis Venom Biological Effects on Murine Macrophages In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon R P P B de Menezes

    Full Text Available Viperidae venom has several local and systemic effects, such as pain, edema, inflammation, kidney failure and coagulopathy. Additionally, bothropic venom and its isolated components directly interfere on cellular metabolism, causing alterations such as cell death and proliferation. Inflammatory cells are particularly involved in pathological envenomation mechanisms due to their capacity of releasing many mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO. NO has many effects on cell viability and it is associated to the development of inflammation and tissue damage caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides venom. Bothropoides insularis is a snake found only in Queimada Grande Island, which has markedly toxic venom. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biological effects of Bothropoides insularis venom (BiV on RAW 264.7 cells and assess NO involvement. The venom was submitted to colorimetric assays to identify the presence of some enzymatic components. We observed that BiV induced H2O2 production and showed proteolytic and phospholipasic activities. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of BiV and then cell viability was assessed by MTT reduction assay after 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours of incubation. A time- and concentration-dependent effect was observed, with a tendency to cell proliferation at lower BiV concentrations and cell death at higher concentrations. The cytotoxic effect was confirmed after lactate dehydrogenase (LDH measurement in the supernatant from the experimental groups. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that necrosis is the main cell death pathway caused by BiV. Also, BiV induced NO release. The inhibition of both proliferative and cytotoxic effects with L-NAME were demonstrated, indicating that NO is important for these effects. Finally, BiV induced an increase in iNOS expression. Altogether, these results demonstrate that B. insularis venom have proliferative and cytotoxic effects on macrophages, with

  16. Analysis of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze and scientifically substantiate peculiarities of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children. Material and Methods: analysis and systematization of scientific and methodological literature, medical histories, anamneses, interviews and questionings. Results: it is specified that failure to timely identify and eliminate the symptoms of hip dysplasia in pre-school children leads to negative consequences, namely limited amplitude of hip joint movements; lower limp muscle weakness; valgus and varus deformations of lower limp; increasing of L-lordosis; skewness of hip bones; scoliosis; claudication. Conclusions: the modern state of the problem of hip dysplasia in pre-school children is analyzed. The cause-effect relationship is defined, their mutual transition is projected. All cause-effect relationships are in direct proportion and in constant interaction: the cause the forms effect and the effect influences the cause

  17. Biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    Results are reported for a Danish project on biological effects from discharge of cooling water from thermal power plants. The purpose of the project was to provide an up-to-date knowledge of biological effects of cooling water discharge and of organization and evaluation of recipient investigations in planned and established areas. (BP)

  18. Radioprotection, biological effects of the radiations and security in the handling of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Teran, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of the philosophy of the radioprotection is dependent on the understanding of the effects of the radiation in the man. Behind the fact that the radiation is able to produce biological damages there are certain factors with regard to the biological effects of the radiations that determine the boarding of the radioprotection topics.

  19. Effects of microwave heating on the thermal states of biological tissues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    calculated by using finite difference method to predict the effects of thermal physical properties on the transient temperature of biological tissues. This prediction of the temperature evolution in biological bodies can be used as an effective tool for thermal diagnostics in medical practices. Key words: Microwave heating, ...

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

  1. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  2. Relative biological effectiveness of 160 MeV protons. II. Biological data and their interpretation in terms of microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Kellerer, A.M.; Rossi, H.H.; Lam, Y.M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The radiobiological effectiveness of 160 MeV protons was measured relative to 60 Co γ rays using Chinese hamster cells cultured in vitro. Separate experiments were performed with cells irradiated in suspension, or attached to plastic tissue culture flasks. Proton irradiations were performed in the incident plateau of the depth dose profile and with the Bragg peak spread out to cover 10 cm. In all cases the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for protons relative to gamma rays was 1.2 for doses in excess of about 200 rad. The attached cell experiments indicate an increasing RBE at low doses, which is consistent with the microdosimetric measurements

  3. Biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnstroem, G.

    1992-10-01

    The biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields are reviewed with the objective of summarizing effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people

  4. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering, and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0–72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg TCC in the soap used. The TCC N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC′s major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study however failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  5. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Urano, Kaoru; Delrot, Serge; Pezzotti, Mario; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2011-11-17

    The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) of an organism and attempts to fit them into functional networks or models designed to describe and predict the dynamic activities of that organism in different environments. In this review, research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses is summarized from the physiological level to the molecular level. New insights obtained from the integration of omics datasets are highlighted. Gaps in our knowledge are identified, providing additional focus areas for crop improvement research in the future.

  6. Essay writing in biology: An example of effective student learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Petrus; Giles, Lynne

    1996-12-01

    The views of first-year biology students ( N=337) on an essay writing assignment were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The students were asked to reflect on the strategies they employed, the number and type of resources used, their areas of difficulty and to evaluate their own performance. The data were used to elucidate possible areas of discrepancy between the approach taken by the students and that suggested by the Biology Department via information in student manuals and evaluation criteria. The data were also compared to similar studies on student writing previously reported for students of psychology and history. Finally a series of recommendations is made to help staff to allow their students to develop improved writing strategies, minimise the possible difficulties encountered and allow the writing exercise to fulfil its desired outcome, that of being an integral part of the process of learning.

  7. Biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cell culture studies have shown that low-frequency electromagnetic fields may affect cell behaviour. The fact that the corresponding field strengths are too weak to affect membrane potential, suggests that these fields trigger enzymatic reactions at the outer face of the membrane, i.e. cell-intrinsic reaction cascades and a biological modification of the affected biological system take place. These are working models and hypotheses which need to substantiated by further studies in this field. Epidemiological studies suggest that electromagnetic fields influence cancer development in man. However there is no action model indicating exposure to fields to be a genotoxic agent possible triggering a direct genetic modification which precludesr any initialization. (orig.) [de

  8. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Egyptian Journal of Biology, 2014, Vol. 16, pp 1- 16 ... oviposit in response to a particular food item early in her search if (1) this item is very suitable for her larvae, (2) ..... Vicia faba L. 42 1 0 0 0 4 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 26 0. Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis Scopoli. Cirsium vulgare Ten. 7 18 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 0 0 0.

  9. Effects of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on biological and artificial lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Valant, Janez; Boljte, Sabina; Otrin, Lado; Rappolt, Michael; Sartori, Barbara; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Šuštar, Vid; Makovec, Darko; Gyergyek, Sašo; Hočevar, Matej; Godec, Matjaž; Zupanc, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work is to provide experimental evidence on the interactions of suspended nanoparticles with artificial or biological membranes and to assess the possibility of suspended nanoparticles interacting with the lipid component of biological membranes. Methods 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid vesicles and human red blood cells were incubated in suspensions of magnetic bare cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) or citric acid (CA)-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate-buffered saline and glucose solution. The stability of POPC giant unilamellar vesicles after incubation in the tested nanoparticle suspensions was assessed by phase-contrast light microscopy and analyzed with computer-aided imaging. Structural changes in the POPC multilamellar vesicles were assessed by small angle X-ray scattering, and the shape transformation of red blood cells after incubation in tested suspensions of nanoparticles was observed using scanning electron microscopy and sedimentation, agglutination, and hemolysis assays. Results Artificial lipid membranes were disturbed more by CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions than by bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions. CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4-CA nanoparticles caused more significant shape transformation in red blood cells than bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Conclusion Consistent with their smaller sized agglomerates, CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles demonstrate more pronounced effects on artificial and biological membranes. Larger agglomerates of nanoparticles were confirmed to be reactive against lipid membranes and thus not acceptable for use with red blood cells. This finding is significant with respect to the efficient and safe application of nanoparticles as medicinal agents. PMID:24741305

  10. Effects of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on biological and artificial lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Valant, Janez; Boljte, Sabina; Otrin, Lado; Rappolt, Michael; Sartori, Barbara; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Šuštar, Vid; Makovec, Darko; Gyergyek, Sašo; Hočevar, Matej; Godec, Matjaž; Zupanc, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide experimental evidence on the interactions of suspended nanoparticles with artificial or biological membranes and to assess the possibility of suspended nanoparticles interacting with the lipid component of biological membranes. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid vesicles and human red blood cells were incubated in suspensions of magnetic bare cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) or citric acid (CA)-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate-buffered saline and glucose solution. The stability of POPC giant unilamellar vesicles after incubation in the tested nanoparticle suspensions was assessed by phase-contrast light microscopy and analyzed with computer-aided imaging. Structural changes in the POPC multilamellar vesicles were assessed by small angle X-ray scattering, and the shape transformation of red blood cells after incubation in tested suspensions of nanoparticles was observed using scanning electron microscopy and sedimentation, agglutination, and hemolysis assays. Artificial lipid membranes were disturbed more by CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions than by bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions. CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4-CA nanoparticles caused more significant shape transformation in red blood cells than bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Consistent with their smaller sized agglomerates, CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles demonstrate more pronounced effects on artificial and biological membranes. Larger agglomerates of nanoparticles were confirmed to be reactive against lipid membranes and thus not acceptable for use with red blood cells. This finding is significant with respect to the efficient and safe application of nanoparticles as medicinal agents.

  11. Exposures at low doses and biological effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to radiation from natural, man-made and medical sources, and world-wide average annual exposure can be set at about 3.5 mSv. Exposure to natural sources is characterised by very large fluctuations, not excluding a range covering two orders of magnitude. Millions of inhabitants are continuously exposed to external doses as high as 10 mSv per year, delivered at low dose rates, very few workers are exposed above the legal limit of 50 mSv/year, and referring to accidental exposures, only 5% of the 116 000 people evacuated following the Chernobyl disaster encountered doses above 100 mSv. Epidemiological survey of accidentally, occupationally or medically exposed groups have revealed radio-induced cancers, mostly following high dose-rate exposure levels, only above 100 mSv. Risk coefficients were derived from these studies and projected into linear models of risk (linear non-threshold hypothesis: LNT), for the purpose of risk management following exposures at low doses and low dose-rates. The legitimacy of this approach has been questioned, by the Academy of sciences and the Academy of medicine in France, arguing: that LNT was not supported by Hiroshima and Nagasaki studies when neutron dose was revisited; that linear modelling failed to explain why so many site-related cancers were obviously nonlinearly related to the dose, and especially when theory predicted they ought to be; that no evidence could be found of radio-induced cancers related to natural exposures or to low exposures at the work place; and that no evidence of genetic disease could be shown from any of the exposed groups. Arguments were provided from cellular and molecular biology helping to solve this issue, all resulting in dismissing the LNT hypothesis. These arguments included: different mechanisms of DNA repair at high and low dose rate; influence of inducible stress responses modifying mutagenesis and lethality; bystander effects allowing it to be considered that individual

  12. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Parshad, Rana D.; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a...

  13. Biological effects of petroleum hydrocarbons: Predictions of long-term effects and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuzzo, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Biological effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms and ecosystems are dependent on the persistence and bioavailability of specific hydrocarbons, the ability of organisms to accumulate and metabolize various hydrocarbons, the fate of metabolized products, and the interference of specific hydrocarbons with normal metabolic processes that may alter an organism's chances for survival and reproduction in the environment. In considering the long-term effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine ecosystems it is important to ascertain what biological effects may result in subtle ecological changes, changes in community structure and function, and possible impairment of fisheries resources. It is also important to understand which hydrocarbons persist in benthic environments and the sublethal effects that lead to reduced growth, delayed development and reduced reproductive effort, population decline and the loss of that population's function in marine communities. Only through a multi-disciplinary approach to the study of the fate, transport and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine ecosystems will there be a significant improvement in the ability to predict the long-term effects of oil spills and to elucidate the mechanisms of recovery

  14. Acoustic Effects Accurately Predict an Extreme Case of Biological Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Truong, Son Nguyen; Müller, Rolf

    2009-07-01

    The biosonar system of bats utilizes physical baffle shapes around the sites of ultrasound emission for diffraction-based beam forming. Among these shapes, some extreme cases have evolved that include a long noseleaf protrusion (sella) in a species of horseshoe bat. We have evaluated the acoustic cost function associated with sella length with a computational physics approach and found that the extreme length can be predicted accurately from a fiducial point on this function. This suggests that some extreme cases of biological morphology can be explained from their physical function alone.

  15. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  16. The Anthropogenic "Greenhouse Effect": Greek Prospective Primary Teachers' Ideas about Causes, Consequences and Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Simos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Melas, Dimitris; Avgoloupis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the ideas of Greek prospective primary teachers about the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, particularly about its causes, consequences and cures. For this purpose, a survey was conducted: 265 prospective teachers completed a closed-form questionnaire. The results showed serious misconceptions in all areas (causes, consequences…

  17. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p group may have scored higher on the posttest (M = 8.830 +/- .477 vs. M = 7.330 +/- .330; z =-1.729, p = .084) and the traditional group may have scored higher on the pretest than the posttest (M = 8.333 +/- .333 vs M = 7.333 +/- .333; z = -1.650 , p = .099). Two themes emerged after the interviews and instructor reflections: 1) After instruction students had a more extensive understanding of classification in three areas: vocabulary terms, physical characteristics, and types of evidence used to classify. Both groups extended their understanding, but only POGIL students could explain how molecular evidence is used in classification. 2) The challenges preventing students from understanding classification were: familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to

  18. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population.

  19. The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…

  20. Gender Inequality in Biology Classes in China and Its Effects on Students' Short-Term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated gender inequality in biology lessons and analysed the effects of the observed inequality on students' short-term knowledge achievement, situational interest and students' evaluation of teaching (SET). Twenty-two biology teachers and 803 7th-grade students from rural and urban classrooms in China participated in the study.…

  1. Floral biology and the effects of plant-pollinator interaction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology and patterns of plant-pollinator interaction are fundamental to gene flow, diversity and evolutionary success of plants. Consequently, we examined the magnitude of insect-plant interaction based on the dynamics of breeding systems and floral biology and their effects on pollination intensity, fruit and ...

  2. Relative extents of hydrogen-deuterium exchange of nitrosamines: relevance to biological isotope effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, G.M.; Lijinsky, W.

    1979-01-01

    Relative extents of base-catalyzed, hydrogen-deuterium exchange have been determined for a number of nitrosamines. Observed trends in the exchanges are discussed in terms of substitution, ring size and conformation. The relevance of the exchanges to deuterium isotope effects in carcinogenesis tests is discussed. Those compounds which give pronounced biological isotope effects undergo exchange only to a small extent. No biological isotope effect is found for compounds which undergo extensive exchange. (author)

  3. The effects of question types in textual reading upon retention of biology concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; Lowery, Lawrence F.

    Do instructional questions to students enhance learning? If so, do certain types of questions cause greater learning outcomes than others? The area of instructional questions and questioning strategies has generated much research over the past two decades. A number of studies have found instructional questions to account for a large fraction of teaching time (Bellack et al., 1963; Schreiber, 1967; Moyer, 1967). Teacher use of oral questions in instruction, especially higher level cognitive questions, has consistently shown positive effects on student achievement (Redfield & Rousseau, 1981). Questions asked after oral prose presentations in psychology have been found to enhance recall of factual information (Sefkow & Meyers, 1980). Some large teacher training programs have specific instruction in questioning strategies (Lanier & Davis, 1972; Lowery, 1974). Questioning in textual reading has also been investigated, especially in the social sciences and languages, with respect to both the presence of questions in a text and the position and type of such questions. Although there are conflicting results, in general, questions placed within text materials have appeared to cause significantly higher performance than reading the materials without questions (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Rothkopf & Bloom, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971; Quellmalz, 1972; Reynolds, Standiford, & Anderson, 1979; Corrozi, 1971). Questions placed after the reading have been found to be significantly more productive than prequestions, or questions placed immediately before the reading passages (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Frase, Patrick, & Schumer, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971). In one study, placing questions before the associated information reduced paragraph reading time from the time required when questions followed the information passage (Morasky & Wilcox, 1970). Finally, higher level cognitive post- and prequestions (comprehensive and application) have consistently produced more learning than

  4. Biological effects of radon in Drosophila; Efectos biologicos del radon en Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel P, A.E.; Tavera D, L.; Cruces M, M.P.; Arceo M, C.; Rosa D, M.E. de la

    1992-04-15

    The main objective of this investigation, is to study the biological effects of the Radon-222 at low dose in 'Drosophila melanogaster'. It is necessary to mention that these effects will analyze from the genetic point of view for: 1) To evaluate in which form the Radon-222 to low dose it influences in some genetic components of the adaptation in Drosophila, such as: fecundity, viability egg-adult and sex proportion. 2) To evaluate which is the genetic effect that induces the Radon to low dose by means of the SMART technique in Drosophila melanogaster, and this way to try of to identify which is the possible mechanism that causes the genetic damage to somatic level. The carried out investigation was divided in three stages: 1. Tests to the vacuum resistance. 2. Test of somatic mutation, and 3. Determination of the presence of radon daughters on the adult of Drosophila. It is necessary to point out that all the experiments were made by triplicate and in each one of them was placed detectors in preset places. Those obtained results are presented inside the 4 charts included in the present work. (Author)

  5. Toxicological effects of the different substances in tobacco smoke on human embryonic development by a systems chemo-biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Feltes

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular effects of tobacco smoke in adult humans and the development of cancer have been well described. In contrast, how tobacco smoke affects embryonic development remains poorly understood. Morphological studies of the fetuses of smoking pregnant women have shown various physical deformities induced by constant fetal exposure to tobacco components, especially nicotine. In addition, nicotine exposure decreases fetal body weight and bone/cartilage growth in addition to decreasing cranial diameter and tibia length. Unfortunately, the molecular pathways leading to these morphological anomalies are not completely understood. In this study, we applied interactome data mining tools and small compound interaction networks to elucidate possible molecular pathways associated with the effects of tobacco smoke components during embryonic development in pregnant female smokers. Our analysis showed a relationship between nicotine and 50 additional harmful substances involved in a variety of biological process that can cause abnormal proliferation, impaired cell differentiation, and increased oxidative stress. We also describe how nicotine can negatively affect retinoic acid signaling and cell differentiation through inhibition of retinoic acid receptors. In addition, nicotine causes a stress reaction and/or a pro-inflammatory response that inhibits the agonistic action of retinoic acid. Moreover, we show that the effect of cigarette smoke on the developing fetus could represent systemic and aggressive impacts in the short term, causing malformations during certain stages of development. Our work provides the first approach describing how different tobacco constituents affect a broad range of biological process in human embryonic development.

  6. Biological methanogenesis and the CO2 greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well established that plants tend to increase net photosynthesis under increased carbon dioxide. It is also well established that a large fraction of atmospheric methane is produced by microbial metabolism of organic sediments in paddies and freshwater wetlands, where a major source of organic debris is local plant growth. As CO2 increases, it may lead to increased methane production and a resulting enhancement of the expected greenhouse warming. A rough estimate of the present rate of this biologically mediated feedback on the climate system indicates that it might account for as much as 30 percent of the observed methane increase and speed up the greenhouse forcing by as much as 15 percent.

  7. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines ( 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on alterations in physiological functions

  8. [Inflammatory reaction caused by acupuncture is one of the initial factors of acupuncture effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Pan, Ping; Guo, Yi; Guo, Yang-Ming; Wu, Li-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The modern studies indicate that there is a close relationship between mast cells and the acupuncture effect, and acupuncture can activate mast cells to induce a series of vascular reaction and immunological effect. The authors hold that acupuncture is a kind of nociceptive stimulus, which can cause inflammatory reaction in the sites of acupuncture, and then further activate the nerve-endocrine-immune network to cause the cascade amplification of the acupuncture effect. The inflammatory reaction induced by acupuncture is one of the initial factors of acupuncture effect.

  9. Effect of biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould, fruit yield and fruit quality in organic strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PROKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases, especially grey mould (Botrytis cinerea, may cause severe losses in organic strawberry production. In a two-year period, 2001–2002, the effects of different biological sprays on grey mould, the fruit yield and fruit quality of organically grown strawberry ‘Jonsok’ were studied in field trials at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki and Mikkeli. In Experiment 1 the biological sprays were seaweed, garlic and compost extracts, silicon and Trichoderma spp. on both trial sites. In Experiment 2, compost extract, Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium catenulatum sprays were studied in Ruukki. The treatment time was chosen to control grey mould. The effect of different biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould and total and marketable yield was insignificant compared to the untreated control. In both years and in all trials the incidence of grey mould was low and rot occurred mainly in the latter part of the harvesting period, which may partly explain the small differences between treatments. Anyhow, despite of feasible biological control cultural control methods will be important to manage the fungus in organic strawberry production.;

  10. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES) calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network) was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes and side effects in an

  11. An integrated strategy for biological effects monitoring in Scottish coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.A.; Dobson, J.; Richardson, L.; Hill, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarises SEPA's current programme of water quality and biological effects monitoring and, using recent examples, discusses the current environmental issues affecting the condition of our coastal waters. (author)

  12. Biological assessment of effects of combined sewer overflows and storm water discharges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijklema, L.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The biological effects of discharges from combined or separated sewer systems are difficult to assess or to predict due to variahilities in concentrations, environmental conditions, morphometry, susceptibility of organisms, seasonality and other factors. A general discussion of the problem results

  13. Demonstrating a lack of brand/cause effects on point of sale donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Joshua T.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Point of sale cause-related marketing has raised over $2 billion for charities over the past 30 years, yet the subject remains largely unexplored in academic literature. The subject of brand/cause fit, however, is prolific throughout extant research, with many studies showing that high congruence between a company and a charity is necessary to achieve philanthropic success. This paper challenges current marketing thinking both conceptually and empirically. Employing tests of no-effect hypotheses following the guidelines set out by Cortina and Folger (1998, it is established that, in the point of sale cause-related marketing context, the traditional effects of brand/cause fits do not apply. Across three studies involving experimental designs and over 500 respondents, the results of one-way ANOVA analyses consistently demonstrate that a low brand/cause fit can be just as effective as a high/brand cause fit. These findings contribute to a profound understanding of social efforts such as cause-related marketing may not be as simple or easily understood as was once thought.

  14. Analysis of biological effects in human endothelial cells after stimulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing; Xu, Dan

    Space environment is characterized by strong radiation, ultra-high vacuum, weak magnetic field and microgravity. Among them, microgravity (10-4-10-6g) in space is different from gravity (1g) on earth, possibly causing visual disorders, muscle alterations, bone loss and dysfunction of cardiovascular systems. To study about microgravity environment, the most advanced rotary cell culture system (RCCS-1) was used to do stimulated microgravity (SMG) experiments in the ground. Up to now, most of studies focus on the biological effects under stimulated microgravity, but it is less known about the cellular response after stimulated microgravity. In the present study, we explored the subsequent effects of stimulated microgravity on human endothelial cells (HUVEC-C) after these cells were cultured on RCCS-1 for 48 hours. We co-cultured HUVEC-C cells with Hillex-microcarriers in 60-mm culture dishes for 24h, followed by transferring them to RCCS-1 so that cells remain to be the state of SMG. In parallel, HUVEC-C cells were co-cultured with microcarriers in the ground condition. We found that stimulated microgravity induced cytoskeleton remodeling, cell cycle G2/M arrest and cellular senescence, consistent with previous reports. To study the subsequent effects of stimulated microgravity, we make cells detach from microcarriers and observed various effects including cell growth, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence. The results showed that those cells undergoing stimulated microgravity appeared obvious growth inhibition, a transition from the decrease in cell adhesion ability and cytoskeleton remodeling within 24h to induction of apoptosis and senescence-like phenotype in the later time with slight changes in cell cycle. Analysis of protein expression in western blot demonstrated that apoptosis-related protein PTEN was up-regulated on the time-dependent pattern after stimulated microgravity, indicating that PTEN-PI3K-Akt pathway might play an

  15. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  16. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SRT). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT), microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and minibeam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  17. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  18. Integrating fluid dynamic and biologic effects on staphylococci bacteria biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Erica; Endres, Jennifer; Bayles, Kenneth; Wei, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are able to form biofilms and distinctive tower structures that facilitate their ability to tolerate treatment and to spread within the human body. The formation of towers, which break off, get carried downstream and serve to initiate biofilms in other parts of the body are of particular interest here. In previous work on biofilm growth and evolution in steady, laminar microchannel flows, it has been established that tower formation occurs around a very limited range of applied shear stresses centered on 0.6 dynes/cm2. Quantifying cell density characteristics as a function of time during biofilm formation reveals indicators of tower development hours before towers actually form and become visible. The next step in this research is to explore biological factors that might explain why this specific shear is so important. Additional studies with mutants, e.g. ica-A, that have been tied to tower formation have been conducted. The shear dependence of these mutants and their correlation to the behavior of wild type S. aureus is examined.

  19. Carbon Heavy-ion Radiation Induced Biological effects on Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Gong, Ning; Meng, Qingmei; Liu, Jiawei; Wang, Ting

    2016-07-01

    Large number of researches on rice after spaceflights indicated that rice was a favorable model organism to study biological effects induced by space radiation. The stimulative effect could often be found on rice seedlings after irradiation by low-dose energetic heavy-ion radiation. Spaceflight also could induce stimulative effect on kinds of seeds. To further understand the mechanism of low-dose radiation biological effects and the dose range, the germinated rice seeds which were irradiated by different doses of carbon heavy-ion (0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy, LET=27.3keV/µm) were used as materials to study. By investigating the variation of rice phenotype under different doses, we found that 2Gy radiation dose was a dividing point of the phenotypic variation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the variation of mitochondria, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome and nucleus in mesophyll cell of rice apical meristem at 24 hours after radiation with different doses. The cells were not apparently physiologically damaged when the dose of radiation was less than 2Gy. The number of chloroplast did not change significantly, but the number of mitochondria was significantly increased, and gathered around in the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum; the obvious lesion of chloroplast and mitochondria were found at the mesophyll cells when radiation dose was higher than 2Gy. The mitochondria were swelling and appearing blurred crest. The chloroplast and mitochondrial mutation rate increased significantly (p<0.01). These phenomena showed that cell biological changes may be the reasons of the stimulation and inhibition effects with the boundary of 2Gy. Since mitochondrial was an important organelle involved in the antioxidative systems, its dysfunction could result in the increase of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. We found that the growth stimulation induced by low-dose radiation mainly occurred at three-leaf stage along

  20. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  1. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanetti, Anna; Fesenko, Sergey; Cozzella, Maria L.; Asencio, Lisbet D.; Sansone, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg -1 . Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  2. Biological effects under combined action of radiation and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper considers the manifoild factors of environmental pollution effect upon living organisms and their possible response manifested in additivity, synergism and anthogonism. Consideration is also given to the possible practical measures for improving ecological situation and decreasing the risk of anthropogenesis negative after-effects

  3. Risk of ocular exposure to biologically effective UV radiation in different geographical directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Hu, Liwen; Gao, Qian; Gao, Yanyan; Liu, Guangcong; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To quantify ocular exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to assess the risk of eye damage in different geographical directions due to UVR exposure, we used a spectrometer and a manikin to measure horizontal ambient and ocular exposure UVR in different geographical directions at four different locations at the Northern Hemisphere. Describing the relationship of exposure to risk of eye damage requires the availability of UV hazard weighting function. So, we used the UV hazard weighting function (ICNIRP) proposed by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection to determine the biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBEeye ) and then cumulative effective radiant exposure (Heye ) to shown the risk of eye. We found that in different geographical directions, distributions of ocular exposure to UVR were markedly different from those of horizontal ambient UVR. When the midday maximum SEA > 50°, eye received more UVR from the east and west directions during the morning and evening hours, respectively. However, when the midday maximum SEA eye received more UVR from the south direction at noon. The results of this research indicate that the higher risk of eye caused by UVR varies according to the midday maximum SEA corresponding to different geographical direction. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. Study of Effects of Sorghum Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Indicators at Different Zinc Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element for plant growth which its high concentrations can cause pollution and toxicity in plant. In this study, the effects of sorghum cultivation on some indicators of microbial activity and its association with increased zinc concentrations in two soils with relatively similar physical and chemical properties, but different in concentration of heavy metals were investigated. In both soils zinc levels were added to obtain 250, 375 and 500 mg kg-1 (based on the initial nitric acid extractable content. Using plastic boxes containing 8 kg of soil, growth boxes (Rhizobox were prepared. The box interior was divided into three sections S1 (the rhizosphere, S2 (adjacent to the rhizosphere and S3 (bulk soil using nylon net plates. The results showed that at all levels of zinc in both soil types, BCF were bigger than units, so using this indicator, sorghum can be considered as a plant for accumulation of zinc. Microbial respiration and dehydrogenase activity was reduced in all sections adjacent to root in the polluted soil. It is generally understood that substrates and inhibitors (heavy metals compete in the formation of substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, but the effects of sorghum cultivation in increasing biological and enzyme activity indexes in soil 1 (non-polluted was higher than soil 2 (polluted, perhaps due to improvements in microbial activity in the vicinity of the roots, even in concentration higher than stress condition levels for zinc in soil.

  5. Medical-biological aspects of radiation effects in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapultseva, E; Ustenko, K; Uskalova, D; Savina, N

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that γ-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna . These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of transgenerational effects in Daphnia . We have also shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia . Our data demonstrated that multicellular crustacean D. magna represent a very useful experimental model for analyse of long-term effects of ionising radiation at the organismal level. (paper)

  6. Medical-biological aspects of radiation effects in Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultseva, E.; Uskalova, D.; Savina, N.; Ustenko, K.

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that γ-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna. These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of transgenerational effects in Daphnia. We have also shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia. Our data demonstrated that multicellular crustacean D. magna represent a very useful experimental model for analyse of long-term effects of ionising radiation at the organismal level.

  7. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calugaru, V.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment planning in proton therapy uses a generic value for the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) of 1.1 relative to 60 Co gamma-rays throughout the Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). We have studied the variation of the RBE at three positions in the SOBP of the 76 and 201 MeV proton beams used for cancer treatment at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy in Orsay (ICPO) in two human tumor cell lines using clonogenic cell death and the incidence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) as measured by pulse-field gel electrophoresis without and with endonuclease treatment to reveal clustered lesions as endpoints.The RBE for induced cell killing by the 76 MeV beam increased with depth in the SOBP. However for the 201 MeV protons it was close to that for 137 Cs gamma-rays and did not vary significantly. The incidence of DSBs and clustered lesions was higher for protons than for 137 Cs g-rays, but did not depend on the proton energy or the position in the SOBP. In the second part of our work, we have shown using cell clones made deficient for known repair genes by stable or transient shRNA transfection, that the D-NHEJ pathway determine the response to protons. The response of DNA damages created in the distal part of the 76 MeV SOBP suggests that those damages belong to the class of DNA 'complex lesions' (LMDS). It also appears that the particle fluence is a major determinant of the outcome of treatment in the distal part of the SOBP. (author)

  8. The Joint Effect of Sleep Duration and Disturbed Sleep on Cause-Specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kumari, Meena; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Both sleep duration and sleep quality are related to future health, but their combined effects on mortality are unsettled. We aimed to examine the individual and joint effects of sleep duration and sleep disturbances on cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort study....

  9. Effects of low power microwave radiation on biological activity of Collagenase enzyme and growth rate of S. Cerevisiae yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaim, Hamad S.; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, microwave radiation, a type/subset of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been widely used in industry, medicine, as well as food technology and mobile communication. Use of mobile phones is rapidly growing. Four years from now, 5.1 billion people will be mobile phone users around the globe - almost 1 billion more mobile users than the 4.3 billion people worldwide using them now. Consequently, exposure to weak radiofrequency/microwave radiation generated by these devices is markedly increasing. Accordingly, public concern about potential hazards on human health is mounting [1]. Thermal effects of radiofrequency/microwave radiation are very well-known and extensively studied. Of particular interest are non-thermal effects of microwave exposures on biological systems. Nonthermal effects are described as changes in cellular metabolism caused by both resonance absorption and induced EMR and are often accompanied by a specific biological response. Non-thermal biological effects are measurable changes in biological systems that may or may not be associated with adverse health effects. In this study we studied non-thermal effects of low power microwave exposures on kinetics of L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and growth rate of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae strains type II. The selected model systems were continuously exposed to microwave radiation at the frequency of 968MHz and power of 10dBm using the designed and constructed (custom made) Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) cell [2]. The findings reveal that microwave radiation at 968MHz and power of 10dBm inhibits L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity by 26% and increases significantly (15%) the proliferation rate of yeast cells.

  10. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency...... of application, however, was more important regarding biological effects than the number of applications both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the field, berry yield, the most important biological response variable, was reduced 26% by the first out of four sequential applications of glyphosate at 64 g a....... In this study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after...

  11. Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

    2002-12-01

    Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes.

  12. Decomposing the effects of ocean warming on chlorophyll a concentrations into physically and biologically driven contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olonscheck, D; Hofmann, M; Schellnhuber, H J; Worm, B

    2013-01-01

    Recently compiled observational data suggest a substantial decline in the global median chlorophyll a concentration over the 20th century, a trend that appears to be linked to ocean warming. Several modelling studies have considered changes in the ocean’s physical structure as a possible cause, while experimental work supports a biological mechanism, namely an observed increase in zooplankton grazing rate that outpaces phytoplankton production at higher temperatures. Here, we present transient simulations derived from a coupled ocean general circulation and carbon cycle model forced by atmospheric fields under unabated anthropogenic global warming (IPCC SRES A1FI scenario). The simulations account for both physical and biological mechanisms, and can reproduce about one quarter of the observed chlorophyll a decline during the 20th century, when using realistically parameterized temperature sensitivity of zooplankton metabolism (Q 10 between 2 and 4) and phytoplankton growth (Q 10 ∼ 1.9). Therefore, we have employed and re-calibrated the standard ecosystem model which assumes a lower temperature sensitivity of zooplankton grazing (Q 10 = 1.1049) by re-scaling phytoplankton growth rates and zooplankton grazing rates. Our model projects a global chlorophyll a decline of >50% by the end of the 21st century. While phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll a experience pronounced negative effects, primary production and zooplankton concentrations are less sensitive to ocean warming. Although changes in physical structure play an important role, much of the simulated change in chlorophyll a and productivity is related to the uneven temperature sensitivity of the marine ecosystem. (letter)

  13. Microwave system for research biological effects on laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kruglik, Olga; Khlebopros, Rem

    2014-01-01

    This research is concerned with development of the microwave system for research the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals. The frequency was 1 GHz. The results obtained demonstrate the metabolic changes in mice under the electromagnetic field influence.

  14. Investigation of the Biological Effects of Pulsed Electrical Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-30

    breakdown in artificial membranes, on the one hand , and permeability alterations in erythrocyte amebranes, the two phenomena may be related mechnistically...mechanism for the effects on osmotic fragility and hemoglobin release. Sale and Hamilton (22) considered the effect of uniform healing of the cell membranes...apply quite well to the experiments of Riemann et al. (23) ir, - hch the cell concentrations were 1% - i0%. for a step charge of Eo we have r(t) - V t

  15. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  16. Aging of biological matrices and its effect on bioanalytical method performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Merbel, Nico C.; de Vries, R.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from the well-known matrix effects that can occur in ESI LC-MS, biological matrices may have other effects influencing the quantitative reliability of bioanalytical methods. In this paper, six case studies are presented that show the effect that aging, that is the change in properties and

  17. Examining the effects of students' classroom expectations on undergraduate biology course reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristi Lyn

    In this dissertation, I perform and compare three studies of introductory biology students' classroom expectations -- what students expect to be the nature of the knowledge that they are learning, what they think they should be (or are) doing in order to learn, and what they think they should be (or are) doing in order to be successful. Previous work has shown that expectations can impact how students approach learning, yet biology education researchers have been reluctant to acknowledge or address the effects of student expectations on curricular reform (NRC, 2012). Most research in biology education reform has focused on students' conceptual understandings of biology and the efficacy of specific changes to content and pedagogy. The current research is lacking a deeper understanding of how students perceive the classroom environment and how those perceptions can shape students' interactions with the content and pedagogy. For present and future reforms in biology to reach their full potential, I argue that biology education should actively address the different ways students think about and approach learning in biology classes. The first study uses a Likert-scale instrument, adapted from the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (Redish, Saul, & Steinberg, 1998). This new survey, the Maryland Biology Expectations Survey (MBEX) documents two critical results in biology classrooms: (i) certain student-centered pedagogical contexts can produce favorable changes in students' expectations, and (ii) more traditional classroom contexts appear to produce negative epistemological effects. The second study utilizes a modified version of the MBEX and focuses on students' interdisciplinary views. This study documents that: (i) biology students have both discipline-specific and context-specific classroom expectations, (ii) students respond more favorably to interdisciplinary content in the biology courses we surveyed (as opposed to biology content introduced into the physics

  18. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  19. Some features of irradiated chitosan and its biological effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Luan, Le Quang; Hanh, Truong Thi; Man, Nguyen Tan; Ha, Pham Thi Le; Thuy, Tran Thi [Nuclear Research Institute, VAEC, Dalat (Viet Nam); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Preparation of chitosan oligomer by radiation degradation was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The radiation degradation yield (G{sub d}) of the chitosan was found to be of 1.03. The oligochitosan with 50% of dp>8 fraction was obtained by irradiating the 10% (w/v) chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid at 45 kGy for the chitosan having the initial viscometric average molecular weight, Mv=60,000. Irradiated chitosan showed higher antifungal effect than that of unirradiated one. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan also showed the growth-promotion effect for plants. (author)

  20. Some features of irradiated chitosan and its biological effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Luan, Le Quang; Hanh, Truong Thi; Man, Nguyen Tan; Ha, Pham Thi Le; Thuy, Tran Thi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of chitosan oligomer by radiation degradation was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The radiation degradation yield (G d ) of the chitosan was found to be of 1.03. The oligochitosan with 50% of dp>8 fraction was obtained by irradiating the 10% (w/v) chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid at 45 kGy for the chitosan having the initial viscometric average molecular weight, Mv=60,000. Irradiated chitosan showed higher antifungal effect than that of unirradiated one. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan also showed the growth-promotion effect for plants. (author)

  1. Laboratory studies of biological effects of sulfur oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Selected results from exposures of laboratory animals to airborne sulfur oxides were briefly summarized. The main observation during acute exposures was reflex bronchoconstriction and a resultant increase in pulmonary resistance. The increase in resistance due to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was potentiated by simultaneous exposure to aerosols under conditions which would increase the transfer of sulfur oxides into the respiratory tract and promote transformation to a higher oxidation state, especially one that is acid. Sulfate aerosols, particularly sulfuric acid aerosols, were more potent than SO/sub 2/ in causing bronchoconstriction. Chronic exposure to high concentrations (400 to 650 ppM) of SO/sub 2/ resulted in experimental bronchitis in several species. Longterm exposure to more realistic concentrations of SO/sub 2/ produced little or no changes in respiratory function or morphology. Significant alterations in both pulmonary function and morphology have been reported after chronic exposure to sulfuric acid aerosols. Recent data indicate that changes in the lung may progress after cessation of such exposures.

  2. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Maharashtra state of India. In order to manage this obnoxious weed in an ecologically safe and effective manner, therefore, we are searching for plants with an antagonistic potential via the mechanism of allelopathy. Here we evaluate the allelopathic potential of shoot leachates of selected plant species in order to assess ...

  3. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    2007). They induce shoot regeneration from Passiflora leaves, cotyledonary explants of Brassica campestris and shoot tip explants of Cucumis sativus. Polyamines have stimulatory effects on phytohormonal signalling, endogenous growth and synergism (Jang et al. 2002). They are essential factors for cell viability, protein.

  4. Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...

  5. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    plants were toxic to adult moths and also prevent hatching of the eggs of S. cerealella.. Keywords: mortality ... These plants have been reported to be effective in protecting cowpea seeds from infestation by cowpea ... eggs of S. cerealella were introduced into 10g of treated wheat grains using the above concentrations.

  6. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological effects of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Data on biological effects in humans exposed briefly to high levels of external X or gamma irradiation provide the foundation of protection guidelines for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Unfortunately, the extrapolation of the risk of these biological effects to humans exposed to internally deposited radionuclides is complicated by the protracted exposure and differences in local doses to organs and tissues that result from internal irradiation. Therefore, data from humans exposed to external radiation may not provide all of the information necessary to understand the long-term health effects of internally deposited, beta-particle-emitting radionuclides. Because of these uncertainties, it is important to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides such as radiocerium in the body and the relationship of their distribution to biological effects that result from acute inhalation exposure. The radiation effects of inhaled cerium 144 were studied in beagles

  8. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious...... results We included 163 RCTs with 50,010 participants and 46 extension studies with 11,954 participants. The median duration of RCTs was six months and 13 months for OLEs. Data were limited for tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, lymphoma, and congestive heart failure. Adjusted for dose, biologics as a group...

  9. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of heparin on insulin binding and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriauciunas, K.M.; Grigorescu, F.; Kahn, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of heparin, a polyanionic glycosaminoglycan known to alter the function of many proteins, on insulin binding and bioactivity was studied. Cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9) were incubated with varying concentrations of heparin, then extensively washed, and 125 I-labeled insulin binding was measured. Heparin at concentrations used clinically for anticoagulation (1-50 U/ml) inhibited binding in a dose-dependent manner; 50% inhibition of binding occurred with 5-10 U/ml. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in binding was due to a decrease in both the affinity and the apparent number of available insulin receptors. The effect occurred within 10 min at 22 degrees C and persisted even after the cells were extensively washed. Inhibition of insulin binding also occurred when cells were preincubated with heparinized plasma or heparinized serum but not when cells were incubated with normal serum or plasma from blood anticoagulated with EDTA. By contrast, other polyanions and polycations, e.g., poly-L-glutamic acid, poly-L-lysine, succinylated poly-L-lysine, and histone, did not inhibit binding. Heparin also inhibited insulin binding in Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-transformed lymphocytes but had no effect on insulin binding to isolated adipocytes, human erythrocytes, or intact hepatoma cells. When isolated adipocytes were incubated with heparin, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and, to a lesser extent, of basal glucose oxidation. Although heparin has no effect on insulin binding to intact hepatoma cells, heparin inhibited both insulin binding and insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation in receptors solubilized from these cells

  11. Effectiveness and versatility of biological prosthesis in transplanted patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Mascian?, Gianluca; De Werra, Edoardo; Sandri, Giovanni Battista Levi; Ferraro, Daniele; Burocchi, Mirco; Tortorelli, Giovanni; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM To emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of prosthesis, and good tolerance by patients with incisional hernia (IH). METHODS From December 2001 to February 2016, 270 liver transplantations were performed at San Camillo Hospital. IH occurred in 78 patients (28.8%). IH usually appeared early within the first year post-orthotopic liver transplantation. In the first era, fascial defect was repaired by primary closure for defects smaller than 2.5 cm or with synthetic mesh for greater defe...

  12. Biologic Effects of Dopamine on Tumor Vasculature in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrthala Moreno-Smith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sympathetic nervous system activation results in increased angiogenesis and tumor growth in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian carcinoma. However, the mechanistic effects of such activation on the tumor vasculature are not well understood. Dopamine (DA, an inhibitory catecholamine, regulates the functions of normal and abnormal blood vessels. Here, we examined whether DA, an inhibitory catecholamine, could block the effects of chronic stress on tumor vasculature and tumor growth. Exogenous administration of DA not only decreased tumor microvessel density but also increased pericyte coverage of tumor vessels following daily restraint stress in mice. Daily restraint stress resulted in significantly increased tumor growth in the SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8 ovarian cancer models. DA treatment blocked stress-mediated increases in tumor growth and increased pericyte coverage of tumor endothelial cells. Whereas the antiangiogenic effect of DA is mediated by dopamine receptor 2 (DR2, our data indicate that DA, through DR1, stimulates vessel stabilization by increasing pericyte recruitment to tumor endothelial cells. DA significantly stimulated migration of mouse 10T1/2 pericyte-like cells in vitro and increased cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP levels in these cells. Moreover, DA or the DR1 agonist SKF 82958 increased platinum concentration in SKOV3ip1 tumor xenografts following cisplatin administration. In conclusion, DA stabilizes tumor blood vessels through activation of pericyte cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway by DR1. These findings could have implications for blocking the stimulatory effects of chronic stress on tumor growth.

  13. Biological effects of pesticides on rats treated with carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of repeated oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticide, cytrolane on normal and pretreated rate with different oral doses of carbon tetrachloride. For that purpose the effect of cytrolane, CCl 4 and their potential interaction had been studied on brain and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (Ache), plasma cholinesterase (Ch E), liver succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), liver succinic dehydrogenas (SDH), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), glutamic oxaloacetic (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic (GPT) transaminases. It also investigates the effect of an acute oral dose of cytrolane at short time intervals (1/2-24 hours) on brain and blood ache of normal and pretreated rate with a single oral dose of CCl 4 . The distribution and excretion of 1 4cc1 4 at different time intervals (2,6 and 24 hours) in normal rats and in rats pretreated with o.89 mg cytrolane/kg/day for a week had been determined in different organs, expired air, urine and faeces

  14. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  15. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment

  16. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological Activities and Cell Proliferation effects of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeoun Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS are continuously produced at a high rate as a by-product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical, ROS such as hydrogen peroxide(H2O2, nitric oxide(NO increases with age. Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. In this study, we have conducted to investigate the pharmacological effects of red ginseng for the development possibility to pharmacopuncture drug sources or healthy aid foods. Methods: For our aims, it was investigated the biological activities of Red Ginseng ethanol extracts (RGEE by measuring total polyphenol contents, total flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and cell viability of MCF 10A and SK-MEL-2 in vitro with MTT assay method. Results: The total polyphenol contents of RGEE was 3.060.11mg/g in 10mg/ml, the total flavonoid contents of RGEE was 1.350.01mg/g in same concentration. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was about 80% and that of DPPH activity was 65% in 50mg/ml of RGEE. The cell viability of SKMEL-2, skin cancer cell line was decreased and that of MCF 10A, skin normal cell line was increased. Conclusions: We conclude that RGEE may be useful as potential functional foods or pharmacopuncture drug sources on the diseases induced by oxidant stress.

  18. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  19. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  20. Neutron exposures in human cells: bystander effect and relative biological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Isheeta; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Stewart, Robert D; Emery, Robert; Joiner, Michael C; Tucker, James D

    2014-01-01

    Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy), and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM) was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (pneutrons do not induce a bystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0 ± 0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8 ± 2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety.

  1. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume V, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    EFFECTS ON VIABILITY established by competition between internal AND HEREDITY OF MAMMALIAN CELL hydrogen bonding and bonding to solvent LINES (MEETING...Delayed hypersensitivity to en Josas. France. p. 22:1980 (no refs). sheep red blood antigen was analyzed in 40 exposed and 40 control mice by the food pad...beginning to the 15th day of 40-60 mW/cml. 2 hr/day for 4. 7, 10. or 14 days. One after the end of irradiation. Delayed hypersensitivity day after

  2. Biological effect of non-ionizing radiations on microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Osaka Univ., Radioisotope Research Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Nakaoka, Yasuo [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Engineering Science, Department of Biophysical Engineering, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    We studied the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of 60-Hz and 500 mT on the growth and the mutation frequency of the budding yeast S.cerevisiae and on the behavior of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum. The growth rate and mutation frequencies of several strains of S.cerevisiae (wild type and radiation sensitive mutants, rad or rev) were examined but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, the behavior of P.multimicronucleatum under the ELF-MF was examined. When exposed to a vertical field of 0.6 T, the cells accumulated at the upper end of the cuvette. (author)

  3. Biological effect of non-ionizing radiations on microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Nakaoka, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of 60-Hz and 500 mT on the growth and the mutation frequency of the budding yeast S.cerevisiae and on the behavior of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum. The growth rate and mutation frequencies of several strains of S.cerevisiae (wild type and radiation sensitive mutants, rad or rev) were examined but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, the behavior of P.multimicronucleatum under the ELF-MF was examined. When exposed to a vertical field of 0.6 T, the cells accumulated at the upper end of the cuvette. (author)

  4. Working group 6: Health. 2. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the increasing development of nuclear energy have been evaluated for the Belgian population. Nuclear industry has been shown to be safer than conventional industry, epidemiological and toxicological data connected with the nuclear energy being more complete than those related to the conventional energy. Somatic and genetic effects of small and high doses of ionizing radiations on the Belgian population have been estimated. Small doses of ionizing radiations are expected to promote only carcinogenic effects. The latent period of cancers, the plateau region (period of high risk) and the absolute and relative risk expressed per rem per 10 6 people per year for leukaemia (having the highest risk) and for the ''other cancers'' have been also estimated. These estimations were obtained by linear extrapolation to the 1 rem level from observations made after irradiation at relatively high dose levels and much higher dose rates. Strict protective regulations have been recommended in order to reduce to a minimum the exposure of population to ionizing radiations as well as to get more information on the radioactive genetic and somatic consequences on population. (G.C.)

  5. [Magnetic resonance imaging : Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high‑frequency electromagnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophof, B; Brix, G

    2017-07-01

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pophof, B.; Brix, G.

    2017-01-01

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  7. Mindmapping: Its effects on student achievement in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glennis Edge

    The primary goal of schools is to promote the highest degree of learning possible. Yet teachers spend the majority of their time engaged in lecturing while students spend the majority of their time passively present (Cawelti, 1997, Grinder, 1991; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Jenkins, 1996). Helping students develop proficiency in learning, which translates into using that expertise to construct knowledge in subject domains, is a crucial goal of education. Students need exposure to teaching and learning practices that prepare them for both the classroom and their places in the future workforce (Ettinger, 1998; Longley, Goodchild, Maguire, & Rhind, 2001; NRC, 1996; Texley & Wild, 1996). The purpose of this study was to determine if achievement in high school science courses could be enhanced utilizing mindmapping. The subjects were primarily 9th and 10th graders (n = 147) at a suburban South Texas high school. A pretest-posttest control group design was selected to determine the effects of mindmapping on student achievement as measured by a teacher-developed, panel-validated instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with the teacher and a purposive sample of students (n = 7) to determine their perceptions of mindmapping and its effects on teaching and learning. Mindmapping is a strategy for visually displaying large amounts of conceptual, hierarchical information in a concise, organized, and accessible format. Mindmaps arrange information similar to that found on the traditional topic outline into colorful spatial displays that offer the user a view of the "forest" as well as the "trees" (Hyerle, 1996; Wandersee, 1990b). An independent samples t-test and a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) determined no significant difference in achievement between the groups. The experimental group improved in achievement at least as much as the control group. Several factors may have played a role in the lack of statistically significant results. These factors include the

  8. The biological bases of the dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    2001-01-01

    In radiation protection, the recent data in epidemiology, in animal experimentation and on the base researches are no more compatible with a linear dose-effect relationship without threshold and do not account for the radiological risks at low doses. The cancers should be accelerated by radiations as any pathology linked to the ageing and for which threshold exit. Relative to the genetic risk it is known today that the natural exposure that lasts for several generations has not lead excess of hereditary illness as it was to be feared in 1959 for several countries. Considering that for populations the exposure levels induced by human activities have already been, under these ones of average natural exposures the genetic risk can be negligible and it is the somatic risk alone, with its thresholds that has to be into account. (N.C.)

  9. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh-Nguyen, Nguyen; Vincent, J.

    1976-01-01

    The antifungal activity of some perdeuterated fatty acids with a normal chain of 11 to 18 carbon atoms was investigated on common dermatophytes Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum under in vitro conditions. A perdeuterated compound is one in which most of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by deuterium. These studies were performed by the dilution technique with respiratory measurements. Perdeuteration of of some fatty acids increases their inhibitory effect on the dermatophyte growth. Perdeuterated n-hendecanoic acid proved to be the most active of the substances tested. Possible mechanisms behind the enhanced antifungal activity due to the perdeuteration of fatty acids are discussed. The present study investigates the antifungal properties of some perdeuterated fatty acids on dermatophytes in vitro

  10. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  11. Iodine Oxide Thermite Reactions: Physical and Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rod; Pantoya, Michelle; Bless, Stephan; Clark, William

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the potential for some thermite-like material reactions to kill bacteria spores. Iodine oxides and silver oxides react vigorously with metals like aluminum, tantalum, and neodymium. These reactions theoretically produce temperatures as high as 8000K, leading to vaporization of the reactants, producing very hot iodine and/or silver gases. We performed a series of computations and experiments to characterize these reactions under both quasi-static and ballistic impact conditions. Criteria for impact reaction were established. Measurements of temperature and pressure changes and chemical evolution will be reported. Basic combustion characterizations of these reactions, such as thermal equilibrium analysis and reaction propagation rates as well as ignition sensitivity, will be discussed. Additionally, testing protocols were developed to characterize the biocidal effects of these reactive materials on B. subtilis spores. The evidence from these tests indicates that these reactions produce heat, pressure, and highly biocidal gases.

  12. Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: calculation and optimization of biologically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.; Scholz, M.

    2000-09-01

    We describe a novel approach to treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy based on the local effect model (LEM) which allows to calculate the biologically effective dose not only for the target region but for the entire irradiation volume. LEM is ideally suited to be used as an integral part of treatment planning code systems for active dose shaping devices like the GSI raster scan system. Thus, it has been incorporated into our standard treatment planning system for ion therapy (TRiP). Single intensity modulated fields can be optimized with respect to homogeneous biologically effective dose. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is calculated separately for each voxel of the patient CT. Our radiobiologically oriented code system is in use since 1995 for the planning of irradiation experiments with cell cultures and animals such as rats and minipigs. Since 1997 it is in regular and successful use for patient treatment planning. (orig.)

  13. Primary and complex stressors in polluted mediterranean rivers: Pesticide effects on biological communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricart, Marta; Guasch, Helena; Barceló, Damià; Brix, Rikke; Conceição, Maria H.; Geiszinger, Anita; José López de Alda, Maria; López-Doval, Julio C.; Muñoz, Isabel; Postigo, Cristina; Romaní, Anna M.; Villagrasa, Marta; Sabater, Sergi

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWe examined the presence of pesticides in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain) and their effects on benthic biological communities (invertebrates and diatoms). The Llobregat river is one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. It has been highly polluted by industrial, agricultural, and urban wastewaters, and—as a typical Mediterranean river—is regularly subjected to periodic floods and droughts. Water scarcity periods result in reduced water flow and dilution capacity, increasing the potential environmental risk of pollutants. Seven sites were selected, where we analysed the occurrence of 22 pesticides (belonging to the classes of triazines, organophosphates, phenylureas, anilides, chloroacetanilides, acidic herbicides and thiocarbamates) in the water and sediment, and the benthic community structure. Biofilm samples were taken to measure several metrics related to both the algal and bacterial components of fluvial biofilms. Multivariate analyses revealed a potential relationship between triazine-type herbicides and the distribution of the diatom community, although no evidence of disruption in the invertebrate community distribution was found. Biofilm metrics were used as response variables rather than abundances of individual species to identify possible cause-effect relationships between pesticide pollution and biotic responses. Certain effects of organophosphates and phenylureas in both structural and functional aspects of the biofilm community were suggested, but the sensitivity of each metric to particular stressors must be assessed before we can confidently assign causality. Complemented with laboratory experiments, which are needed to confirm causality, this approach could be successfully incorporated into environmental risk assessments to better summarise biotic integrity and improve the ecological management.

  14. Recent advances in biological effect and molecular mechanism of arabidopsis thaliana irradiated by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dali; Hou Suiwen; Li Wenjian

    2008-01-01

    Newly research progresses were summarized in effect of ion beams on seed surface, biological effect, growth, development, gravitropism and so on. Furthermore, mutation molecular mechanism of Arabidopsis thaliana was discussed, for example, alteration of DNA bases, DNA damage, chromosomal recombination, characteristics of mutant transmissibility, etc. Meanwhile, the achievements of transfer- ring extraneous gene to Arabidopsis thaliana by ion beams were reviewed in the paper. At last, the future prospective are also discussed here in mutation molecular mechanism and the potential application of biological effect of heavy ion beams. (authors)

  15. Biological effects of electromagnetic radiations - 7. International Conference, La Valette, Malta, 8-12 October 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaret, P.

    2013-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of a conference on the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations. With reference to epidemiological studies, different issues have been addressed: pathological effects (either of static fields, or of extremely low frequencies, or of radio-frequencies), biological effects (methodological issues, case of extremely low frequencies and of radio-frequencies), medical applications of electromagnetic fields (tumour removal, neurological disorders, consolidation, wound healing and recovery), assessment of electromagnetic fields (existing directives and regulations, case of electric lines and of radio-frequencies), exposure to electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure in medical or industrial applications, specific devices such as telephones, regulation)

  16. Effect of biologic therapy on radiological progression in rheumatoid arthritis: what does it add to methotrexate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Graeme Jones, Erica Darian-Smith, Michael Kwok, Tania WinzenbergMenzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: There have been substantial advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in recent years. Traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs have been shown to have small effects on the progression of radiographic damage. This quantitative overview summarizes the evidence for biologic DMARDS and radiographic damage either alone or in combination with methotrexate. Two outcomes were used (standardized mean difference and odds of progression. A total of 21 trials were identified of which 18 had useable data. For biologic monotherapy, tocilizumab, adalimumab, and etanercept were significantly better than methotrexate, with tocilizumab ranking first in both outcomes while golimumab was ineffective in both outcomes. For a biologic in combination with methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone, most therapies studied (etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, certolizumab, tocilizumab, and rituximab were effective at slowing X-ray progression using either outcome, with infliximab ranking first in both outcomes. The exceptions to this were golimumab (no effect on standardized mean difference and abatacept (no effect on odds of progression. This effect was additional to methotrexate; thus, the overall benefit is moderate to large in magnitude, which is clearly of major clinical significance for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and supports the use of biologic DMARDs in those with a poor disease prognosis.Keywords: rheumatoid, trials, meta-analysis, radiographs, biologic, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, DMARDs

  17. EFFECTS OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups, sex (male and female, repeated testing (Pre,Post and follow-up tests, and six weeks of experience. The samples of the study included six senior secondary schools, 112science students, and 12 biology and chemistry teachers. The instruments used for this study were: teacher’s questionnaireon knowledge and use of learning cycle (KULC; and Biology and Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT. The data collected wereanalyzed with simple percentage, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and student t-test statistics. The major findings of thestudy included that only 30.43% and 26.31% of biology and chemistry teachers have the knowledge that learning cycle is aninstructional method; all the biology and chemistry teachers sampled have never used learning cycle as an instructionalmethod; learning cycle had a significant effect on students achievement in biology and chemistry; students taught withlearning cycle significantly achieved better in biology/chemistry Post-test than those taught with lecture method; the posttestscores of students in the learning cycle group increased over the period of experience; non-significant difference in Posttestscores between males and females taught with learning cycle; non-significant interaction effect between method andsex on achievement; and a significant higher retention of biology and chemistry knowledge by students taught with learningcycle than those taught with lecture method. It was concluded that the method seems an appropriate instructional modelthat could be used to solve the problems of

  18. Action at an Attentional Distance: A Study of Children's Reasoning about Causes and Effects Involving Spatial and Attentional Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2015-01-01

    Spatial discontinuity between causes and effects is a feature of many scientific concepts, particularly those in the environmental and ecological sciences. Causes can be spatially separated from their effects by great distances. Action at a distance, the idea that causes and effects can be separated in physical space, is a well-studied concept in…

  19. Recent progress on our understanding of the biological effects of mercury in fish and wildlife in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, Anton; Braune, Birgit; Chan, Hing Man; Frouin, Héloïse; Krey, Anke; Letcher, Robert; Loseto, Lisa; Noël, Marie; Ostertag, Sonja; Ross, Peter; Wayland, Mark

    2015-03-15

    This review summarizes our current state of knowledge regarding the potential biological effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on fish and wildlife in the Canadian Arctic. Although Hg in most freshwater fish from northern Canada was not sufficiently elevated to be of concern, a few lakes in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut contained fish of certain species (e.g. northern pike, Arctic char) whose muscle Hg concentrations exceeded an estimated threshold range (0.5-1.0 μg g(-1) wet weight) within which adverse biological effects begin to occur. Marine fish species generally had substantially lower Hg concentrations than freshwater fish; but the Greenland shark, a long-lived predatory species, had mean muscle Hg concentrations exceeding the threshold range for possible effects on health or reproduction. An examination of recent egg Hg concentrations for marine birds from the Canadian Arctic indicated that mean Hg concentration in ivory gulls from Seymour Island fell within the threshold range associated with adverse effects on reproduction in birds. Mercury concentrations in brain tissue of beluga whales and polar bears were generally lower than levels associated with neurotoxicity in mammals, but were sometimes high enough to cause subtle neurochemical changes that can precede overt neurotoxicity. Harbour seals from western Hudson Bay had elevated mean liver Hg concentrations along with comparatively high muscle Hg concentrations indicating potential health effects from methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on this subpopulation. Because current information is generally insufficient to determine with confidence whether Hg exposure is impacting the health of specific fish or wildlife populations in the Canadian Arctic, biological effects studies should comprise a major focus of future Hg research in the Canadian Arctic. Additionally, studies on cellular interactions between Hg and selenium (Se) are required to better account for potential protective effects of Se on Hg

  20. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  1. The biology behind the atherothrombotic effects of cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csordas, Adam; Bernhard, David

    2013-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is an aerosol that contains >4,000 chemicals, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, and oxidant compounds. Exposure to cigarette smoke induces multiple pathological effects in the endothelium, several of which are the result of oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and other oxidant constituents of cigarette smoke. Cigarette-smoke exposure interferes adversely with the control of all stages of plaque formation and development and pathological thrombus formation. The reactive oxygen species in cigarette smoke contribute to oxidative stress, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction, by reducing the bioavailability of nitric oxide. Plaque formation and the development of vulnerable plaques also result from exposure to cigarette smoke via the enhancement of inflammatory processes and the activation of matrix metalloproteases. Moreover, exposure to cigarette smoke results in platelet activation, stimulation of the coagulation cascade, and impairment of anticoagulative fibrinolysis. Many cigarette-smoke-mediated prothrombotic changes are quickly reversible upon smoking cessation. Public health efforts should urgently promote our understanding of current cigarette-smoke-induced cardiovascular pathology to encourage individuals to reduce their exposure to cigarette smoke and, therefore, the detrimental consequences of associated atherothrombotic disease.

  2. Biological effects of fractionated administration of radioactive phosphorus in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Shoichi; Ohtsuka, Shoichiro; Morii, Kazuyo; Hirose, Fumio

    1978-01-01

    Female rats were given 1 μCi per g body weight of 32 P intraperitoneally four or eight times at intervals of two weeks, and half the rats received ovariectomy after two weeks. Various damages in the rats which received ovariectomy were compared with those in rats which did not receive ovariectomy. As to a change of body weight, an increase of body weight observed through the whole observation term after desexualization (for 11 months after the administration) was inhibited, and there was not any difference between ovariectomized and not-ovariectomized rats. The number of leukocytes decreased just after the administration. It took one month and a half in 4 times administration and three months and a half in 8 times administration to recover the number of leukocytes to normal values. There was no effect of desexualization. On the group administered 32 P 8 times the number of erythrocytes tended to decrease markely, but it recovered to a normal condition rapidly after the finish of the administration. As to onset of tumors, osteosarcoma occurred with high incidence (63%) regardless of presence of desexualization and frequency of the administration. The incidence of leukemia was about 15%. One case of breast tumor was recognized in nonovariectomized rats. Malignant tumors were not recognized in cases with normal sexual cycle for 8 to 10 months after the beginning of the administration. (Kanao, N.)

  3. The Anthropogenic `Greenhouse Effect': Greek Prospective Primary Teachers' Ideas About Causes, Consequences and Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Simos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Melas, Dimitris; Avgoloupis, Stavros

    2012-12-01

    This study explores the ideas of Greek prospective primary teachers about the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, particularly about its causes, consequences and cures. For this purpose, a survey was conducted: 265 prospective teachers completed a closed-form questionnaire. The results showed serious misconceptions in all areas (causes, consequences and cures). The most prominent misconception found by this survey is the conflation between the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer depletion, which is widely reported in the literature. There is also the notion that `good things' (like clean beaches) can help ameliorate the greenhouse effect, whereas `bad things' (like insecticides) can enhance it. One of the secondary results of the survey is that prospective teachers' main source of information about the greenhouse effect is school. This calls for educational interventions to fight misconceptions at the source. Some suggestions are presented in this paper. The results of this study are compared with the results of two similar studies conducted in the UK and in Turkey.

  4. The Nature, Causes and Effects of School Violence in South African High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncontsa, Vusumzi Nelson; Shumba, Almon

    2013-01-01

    We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design…

  5. Causal Mechanism Graph - A new notation for capturing cause-effect knowledge in software dependability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Fuqun; Smidts, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cause-effect relations between concepts in software dependability engineering is fundamental to various research or industrial activities. Cognitive maps are traditionally used to elicit and represent such knowledge; however they seem incapable of accurately representing complex causal mechanisms in dependability engineering. This paper proposes a new notation called Causal Mechanism Graph (CMG) to elicit and represent the cause-effect domain knowledge embedded in experts’ minds or described in the literature. CMG contains a new set of symbols elicited from domain experts to capture the recurring interaction mechanisms between multiple concepts in software dependability engineering. Furthermore, compared to major existing graphic methods, CMG is particularly robust and suitable for mental knowledge elicitation: it allows one to represent the full range of cause-effect knowledge, accurately or fuzzily as one sees fit depending on the depth of knowledge he/she has. This feature combined with excellent reliability and validity poses CMG as a promising method that has the potential to be used in various areas, such as software dependability requirement elicitation, software dependability assessment and dependability risk control. - Highlights: • A new notation CMG for capturing cause-effect conceptual knowledge in software dependability. • CMG is particularly robust and suitable for mental knowledge representation. • CMG is a visual representation that bridges mental knowledge, natural and mathematical language. • CMG possesses excellent representation capability, validity and inter-coder reliability. • CMG is a fundamental method for various areas in dependability engineering.

  6. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  7. Expanded DEMATEL for determining cause and effect group in bidirectional relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatoonitoosi, Elham; Ahmed, Shamsuddin; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2014-01-01

    Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methodology has been proposed to solve complex and intertwined problem groups in many situations such as developing the capabilities, complex group decision making, security problems, marketing approaches, global managers, and control systems. DEMATEL is able to realize casual relationships by dividing important issues into cause and effect group as well as making it possible to visualize the casual relationships of subcriteria and systems in the course of casual diagram that it may demonstrate communication network or a little control relationships between individuals. Despite of its ability to visualize cause and effect inside a network, the original DEMATEL has not been able to find the cause and effect group between different networks. Therefore, the aim of this study is proposing the expanded DEMATEL to cover this deficiency by new formulations to determine cause and effect factors between separate networks that have bidirectional direct impact on each other. At the end, the feasibility of new extra formulations is validated by case study in three numerical examples of green supply chain networks for an automotive company.

  8. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollu...

  9. Ionospheric storm effects in the nighttime E region caused by neutralized ring current particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bauske

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available During magnetic storms an anomalous increase in the ionization density of the nighttime E region is observed at low and middle latitudes. It has been suggested that this effect is caused by the precipitation of neutralized ring current particles. Here a coupled ring current decay-ionosphere model is used to confirm the validity of this explanation.

  10. Chinese University EFL Learners' Foreign Language Writing Anxiety: Pattern, Effect and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…

  11. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference

  12. Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in osprey chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Wilson, L K; Henny, C J; Trudeau, S F; Leighton, F A; Kennedy, S W; Cheng, K M

    2001-04-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected during 1995 and 1996 at seven sites along the Fraser and Columbia River systems of British Columbia, Canada, and Washington and Oregon, USA. Fifty-four eggs were placed into a laboratory incubator. Thirty-eight of the hatched chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success did not differ among sites and therefore between treatment and reference areas. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected downstream of the large bleached-kraft pulp mill at Castlegar contained greater mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 2,930 ng/kg lipid) compared with reference sites such as the Nechako River, an upper tributary of the Fraser system (33.7 ng/kg). Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in yolk sacs were also higher at Castlegar and in samples from the Columbia River downstream of Portland, Oregon, compared with those from the Nechako River. Concentrations of measured chemicals, including TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), total PCBs, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (p,p'-DDE), and other organochlorines were not different in eggs that failed to hatch compared with calculated whole-egg values for hatched eggs. There were significant biochemical responses; a hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in all samples tested and correlated positively with ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD) activity and yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and total PCBs. Tissue concentrations of vitamin A compounds varied among sites and correlated positively with yolk sac concentrations of TEQs and PCBs. Morphological, histological, and other physiological parameters, including chick growth, edema, deformities, and hepatic and renal porphyrin concentrations, neither varied among sites nor showed concentration-related effects.

  13. Air pollution causes health effects and net national product of a country decreases: a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with green accounting and accounts the health effects of air pollution. It shows that due to air pollution human capital can not be utilized properly and net national product of a country decreases. The willing to pay system among workers is beneficial to the government, factory owners and workers of a country. The marginal cost-benefit rule for an optimal level of air pollution creates negative health effects. The air pollution cause both direct disutility and indirect welfar...

  14. Aquatic biota as potential biological indicators of the contamination, bioaccumulation and health risks caused by organochlorine pesticides in a large, shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yan; He, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic biota have long been recognized as bioindicators of the contamination caused by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. The primary purpose of the present study is to identify which species of aquatic biota are the most sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs...... to OCPs and may serve as the most effective bioindicators for monitoring OCP contamination in the water and suspended solids of Lake Chaohu. Megalobrama amblycephala, which contained the highest wet weight mean OCP concentration, is the most sensitive OCP indicator and can be used to assess the human...

  15. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and distal edge effects of proton radiation on early damage in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Bassler, Niels; Nielsen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to examine the RBE for early damage in an in vivo mouse model, and the effect of the increased linear energy transfer (LET) towards the distal edge of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). METHOD: The lower part of the right hind limb of CDF1 mice......, where LETd,z =1 was 3.3 keV/μm. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is a need to expand the current study to be able to calculate an exact enhancement ratio, an enhanced biological effect in vivo for early skin damage in the distal edge was demonstrated....... was irradiated with single fractions of either 6 MV photons, 240 kV photons or scanning beam protons and graded doses were applied. For the proton irradiation, the leg was either placed in the middle of a 30-mm SOBP, or to assess the effect in different positions, irradiated in 4 mm intervals from the middle...

  16. Effect-directed analysis of environmental water : combined approach of chemistry, biology, and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hug, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anthropogenic micropollutants were detected in surface water in the last years. Though, little is known about cause-effect relationships between chemical pollution and adverse effects on the ecosystem.Therefore, this thesis aimed to develop, apply, and evaluate methods to characterize the chemical composition of surface water and to detect adverse effects of surface water on organism. In order to promote the establishment of cause-effect relationships between chemical exposure and ad...

  17. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  18. Effective Permittivity of Biological Tissue: Comparison of Theoretical Model and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Permittivity of biological tissue is a critical issue for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic fields. Many theories and experiments were performed to measure or explain the permittivity characteristics in biological tissue. In this paper, we investigate the permittivity parameter in biological tissues via theoretical and experimental analysis. Firstly, we analyze the permittivity characteristic in tissue by using theories on composite material. Secondly, typical biological tissues, such as blood, fat, liver, and brain, are measured by HP4275A Multi-Frequency LCR Meter within 10 kHz to 10 MHz. Thirdly, experimental results are compared with the Bottcher-Bordewijk model, the Skipetrov equation, and the Maxwell-Gannett theory. From the theoretical perspective, blood and fat are regarded as the composition of liver and brain because of the high permittivity in blood and the opposite in fat. Volume fraction of blood in liver and brain is analyzed theoretically, and the applicability and the limitation of the models are also discussed. These results benefit further study on local biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

  19. Content and effects of news stories about uncertain cancer causes and preventive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lee, Theodore; Robbins, Rebecca; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kresovich, Alex; Kirshenblat, Danielle; Standridge, Kimberly; Clarke, Christopher E; Jensen, Jakob; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from two studies that describe news portrayals of cancer causes and prevention in local TV and test the effects of typical aspects of this coverage on cancer-related fatalism and overload. Study 1 analyzed the content of stories focused on cancer causes and prevention from an October 2002 national sample of local TV and newspaper cancer coverage (n = 122 television stations; n = 60 newspapers). Informed by results from the content analysis, Study 2 describes results from a randomized experiment testing effects of the volume and content of news stories about cancer causes and prevention (n = 601). Study 1 indicates that local TV news stories describe cancer causes and prevention as comparatively more certain than newspapers but include less information about how to reduce cancer risk. Study 2 reveals that the combination of stories conveying an emerging cancer cause and prevention behavior as moderately certain leads to an increased sense of overload, while a short summary of well-established preventive behaviors mitigates these potentially harmful beliefs. We conclude with a series of recommendations for health communication and health journalism practice.

  20. Sonochemical degradation of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine: Effect of parameters, organic and inorganic additives and combination with a biological system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna-Galvis, Efraím A.; Silva-Agredo, Javier [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L. [Grupo de Diseño y Formulación de Medicamentos, Cosméticos y Afines (DYFOMECO), Facultad de Química Farmacéutica, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: ricardo.torres@udea.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-08-15

    Fluoxetine (FLX), one of the most widely used antidepressants in the world, is an emergent pollutant found in natural waters that causes disrupting effects on the endocrine systems of some aquatic species. This work explores the total elimination of FLX by sonochemical treatment coupled to a biological system. The biological process acting alone was shown to be unable to remove the pollutant, even under favourable conditions of pH and temperature. However, sonochemical treatment (600 kHz) was shown to be able to remove the pharmaceutical. Several parameters were evaluated for the ultrasound application: the applied power (20–60 W), dissolved gas (air, Ar and He), pH (3–11) and initial concentration of fluoxetine (2.9–162.0 μmol L{sup −1}). Additionally, the presence of organic (1-hexanol and 2-propanol) and inorganic (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds in the water matrix and the degradation of FLX in a natural mineral water were evaluated. The sonochemical treatment readily eliminates FLX following a kinetic Langmuir. After 360 min of ultrasonic irradiation, 15% mineralization was achieved. Analysis of the biodegradability provided evidence that the sonochemical process transforms the pollutant into biodegradable substances, which can then be mineralized in a subsequent biological treatment. - Highlights: • The pharmaceutical fluoxetine was effectively eliminated upon ultrasonic action. • Ultrasonic power, dissolved gas, pH and concentration of fluoxetine were evaluated. • Fe{sup 2+}, sodium nitrate or nitric acid had a positive effect on the FLX degradation. • More hydrophobic or volatile compounds than fluoxetine diminished the efficiency. • A sonochemical-biological combined process led to the total mineralization of FLX.

  1. Sonochemical degradation of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine: Effect of parameters, organic and inorganic additives and combination with a biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna-Galvis, Efraím A.; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L.; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX), one of the most widely used antidepressants in the world, is an emergent pollutant found in natural waters that causes disrupting effects on the endocrine systems of some aquatic species. This work explores the total elimination of FLX by sonochemical treatment coupled to a biological system. The biological process acting alone was shown to be unable to remove the pollutant, even under favourable conditions of pH and temperature. However, sonochemical treatment (600 kHz) was shown to be able to remove the pharmaceutical. Several parameters were evaluated for the ultrasound application: the applied power (20–60 W), dissolved gas (air, Ar and He), pH (3–11) and initial concentration of fluoxetine (2.9–162.0 μmol L −1 ). Additionally, the presence of organic (1-hexanol and 2-propanol) and inorganic (Fe 2+ ) compounds in the water matrix and the degradation of FLX in a natural mineral water were evaluated. The sonochemical treatment readily eliminates FLX following a kinetic Langmuir. After 360 min of ultrasonic irradiation, 15% mineralization was achieved. Analysis of the biodegradability provided evidence that the sonochemical process transforms the pollutant into biodegradable substances, which can then be mineralized in a subsequent biological treatment. - Highlights: • The pharmaceutical fluoxetine was effectively eliminated upon ultrasonic action. • Ultrasonic power, dissolved gas, pH and concentration of fluoxetine were evaluated. • Fe 2+ , sodium nitrate or nitric acid had a positive effect on the FLX degradation. • More hydrophobic or volatile compounds than fluoxetine diminished the efficiency. • A sonochemical-biological combined process led to the total mineralization of FLX

  2. Neutralization effects of Iranian Vipera lebetina biological properties by Razi institute antivenom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Seyedian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemotoxic and neurotoxic factors of snake venoms is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas in all provinces of Iran caused by snake species which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile in case of hemotoxic venom. In this study some in vivo and in vitro properties (Hemorrhagic, edematogenic and coagualant of Iranian Vipera lebetina venom in addition to neutralizing capacity of pepsin derived Razi Institute polyvalent antivenin were assayed. Material and Methods: Escalating doses of Vipera lebetina venom dissolved in Normal saline (2.5-50 µg/ml were injected (100µl subcutaneously to dorsal area of rats (n=3 to investigate mean hemorrhagic amount after 24 hours.Groups of three mice were injected subcutaneously in the right foodpad with various amounts of venom (10-150µg.The left foodpad received the same amount (100µl ofnormal saline alone (negative control to evaluate the edematogenic property of this venom. To determine the coagulant activity, various amounts of venom dissolved in normal saline (50µl were added to human plasma (200µl and coagulation time was measured. Razi Institute antivenom was used for neutralization of all three measured biological parameters. Results: Mean hemorrhagic, procoagulant and edematous amounts (increasing 30% in hind paw edema were 8.5, 1.1 and 70 microgram, respectively. Preincubation with polyvalent antibody (30 and 200 microliter decreased hemorrhagic and procoagulant activity. Edematogenic property of this venom decreased significantly by incubation with antivenom (78% to 38% by incubation with 1000 microliter of polyvalent antivenom. Intra peritoneal injection of this remedy following envenomation had no effect in relieving symptoms. Myonecrotic effects were seen by intramuscular injection of Vipera lebetina venom in rats. Conclusion: Our study shows that Iranian antivenom could neutralize some in vivo

  3. Biological effects of anthropogenic chemical stress: Tools for the assessment of ecosystem health (BEAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari K.; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas

    of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Gdansk and the Belt Sea, most of which are characterised by scarce data on biological effects of hazardous substances. The data acquired will be combined with previous data (e.g. national monitoring activities, case studies, EU BEEP project) to reach the goals of WP2 and WP3......In the Baltic Sea Action Plan the urgent need to develop biological effects monitoring of hazardous substances and the assessment of ecosystem health has been clearly indicated. These goals will be tackled in the newly launched BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress...... and experiments in selected sub-regions of the Baltic Sea, WP2 - Application and validation of methods in monitoring and assessment in the Baltic Sea, and WP3 - Developing tools for ecosystem health assessment in the Baltic Sea. BEAST research activities are focused in the sub-regions of Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf...

  4. Are biological effects of desert shrubs more important than physical effects on soil microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Naama; Steinberger, Yosef

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation cover plays a major role in providing organic matter and in acting as a physical barrier, with both together contributing to the formation of "fertile islands," which play an active role in prolonging biological activity in desert ecosystems. By undertaking this study, a longterm research, we designed an experiment to separate the two components-the physical and biotic parts of the perennial plants-and to identify the factor that contributes the most to the ecosystem. The study site was located in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, where 50 Hammada scoparia shrubs and 50 artificial plants were randomly marked. Soil samples were collected monthly over 3 years of research at three locations: under the canopy of H. scoparia shrubs, in the vicinity of the artificial plants, and between the shrubs (control). The contribution to microbial activity was measured by evaluation of the microbial community functions in soil. The functional aspects of the microbial community that were measured were CO2 evolution, microbial biomass, microbial functional diversity, and the physiological profile of the community. The results of this study are presented in two ways: (1) according to the three locations/treatments; and (2) according to the phenological situation of the vegetation (annual and perennial plants) in the research field: the growing phase, the drying process, and the absence of annual plants. The only parameters that were found to affect microbial activity were the contribution of the organic matter of perennial shrubs and the growth of vegetation (annual and perennial) during the growing seasons. The physical component was found to have no effect on soil microbial functional diversity, which elucidates the important contribution of the desert shrub in enhancing biological multiplicity and activity.

  5. Beryllium uptake and related biological effects studied in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Lin, Lin; Hang, Wei; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-11-01

    Investigation of cellular uptake of metal compounds is important in understanding metal-related toxicity and diseases. Inhalation of beryllium aerosols can cause chronic beryllium disease, a progressive, granulomatous fibrosis of the lung. Studies in laboratory animals and cultured animal cells indicate that alveolar macrophages take up beryllium compounds and participate in a hypersensitivity immune response to a beryllium-containing antigen. In the present work, human monocyte cell line THP-1 was induced with phorbol myristate acetate to differentiate into a macrophage. This cell with characteristics of human alveolar macrophages was employed to study cellular beryllium uptake and related biological effects. Morphological changes, phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads, and cell surface CD14 expression were used to verify the successful differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages. An improved mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of intracellular beryllium as opposed to the traditional radioisotopic approach was developed using ICP-MS. The influence of the solubility of beryllium compounds, exposure duration, and beryllium concentration on the incorporation of beryllium was studied. Our data indicated that the uptake of particulate BeO was much more significant than that of soluble BeSO(4), suggesting the major cellular uptake pathway is phagocytosis. Nevertheless, subsequent DAPI nuclear staining and PARP cleavage study indicated that beryllium uptake had a negligible effect on the apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages compared to the unstimulated macrophage control. Meanwhile, no substantial variation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha production was observed for THP-1 macrophages upon beryllium exposure. These data imply alveolar macrophages could have some level of tolerance to beryllium and this may explain why most Be-exposed individuals remain healthy throughout life.

  6. Book review: The relative biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Relative Biological Effectiveness of Radiations of Different Quality is a survey of the literature relevant to the selection of relative biological effectiveness values for use in arriving at values of Q for neutrons and other particles with a high rate of linear energy transfer. Except for internal emitters, there is no data on which RBE for high-LET radiations can be estimated for humans. The focus of this report is on RBE data from plant and animal studies to the almost total exclusion of RBE data from human studies

  7. The effect of biologically active feed additives of humilid substances on the antioxidant system in liver mitochondria of gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyomshina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are organelles that are most sensitive to the action of stressors on any cell of the entire organism and exposure to chemicals which can cause its dysfunction and cell death in general. Especially sensitive to adverse conditions are liver mitochondria, where the processes of biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous metabolites are formed, not only in the liver, but also in other organs and tissues. Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause instant hepatic cytolysis and steatosis. Therefore, early detection of mitochondrial toxicity is important during preclinical studies of new pharmacological agents, as this will help avoid remote negative effects. The biologically active feed additive Humilid, a complex of humic acids known for their antidiarrheal, analgesic, immune-stimulating, and antimicrobial properties; shows a corrective effect on the activity of the lysosomal cathepsin; enhances the positive effect of hematopoiesis on hemoglobin and its quality indicators consisting of red blood cells; and activates the synthesis and accumulation of fibronectin expression that takes part in the formation of immunological protection of animals. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of complex biologically active feed additives based on humic substances on the biochemical indicators of the liver mitochondrial antioxidant system of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867. The experiment was conducted on mature (6 months Mongolian gerbils. The data obtained showing the influence of the biologically active feed additives Humilid, alone or in combination with ascorbate and Eco-impulse Animal, on the antioxidant defense system of liver mitochondria of gerbils are presented in this article. The proven antioxidant effect of humic substances in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver which inhibits the accumulation of oxidized products in the cells is shown, confirmed by the decrease in the number of TBA

  8. Study of complex matrix effect on solid phase microextraction for biological sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruifen; Xu, Jianqiao; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Zeng, Feng; Shen, Yong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-09-11

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has become a useful tool for in vivo monitoring the behavior of environmental organic pollutants in biological species due to its simplicity, relatively non-invasive, and cost-effective manner. However, the complex matrices in biological samples could significantly influence the extraction kinetic, and bias the quantification result. In this study, we investigated the effect of complex matrix on the extraction kinetic of SPME for biological sample analysis. Two sample matrices, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agarose gel with BSA were used to simulate the biological fluid and tissue. Results showed that the addition of BSA significantly enhanced the mass transfer of organic compounds onto SPME fiber in both PBS buffer and gel sample. Enhancement factors ranging from 1.3 to 27, and 2.0 to 80 were found for all selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PBS buffer and agarose gel with BSA concentration of 0.1-5%, respectively. Then, an improved theoretical model was applied to quantify the observed enhancement effect, and the result showed that the predicted sampling time constant agreed well with the experimental one in complex matrix. Furthermore, a simplified equation was proposed for the real biological sample analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutron exposures in human cells: bystander effect and relative biological effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isheeta Seth

    Full Text Available Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy, and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (p<0.0001. These data indicate that neutrons do not induce a bystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0 ± 0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8 ± 2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety.

  10. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  11. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  12. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health. PMID:25774609

  13. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Carmo, Bruno C M; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on children's performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Methods for studying and criteria for evaluating the biological effects of electric fields of industrial frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, B.M.; Shandala, M.G.; Nikonova, K.V.; Morozov, Yu.A.

    1978-10-01

    Data are reviewed from a number of USSR research studies on the biological effects of electric power transmission lines of 1150 Kv and above. Effects on man, plants, animals, and terrestrial ecosystems are reported. Existing health standards in the USSR for the exposure of personnel working in electric fields are included. It is concluded that high-voltage electric fields have a harmful effect on man and his environment.

  15. 'K' contribution to the biological effect of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissiere, Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the importance of 'K' ionizations on DNA as critical physical events initiating the biological effects of ionizing radiation, in particular in human cells. Ultra-soft X-rays are used as a probe of core ionization events. A decisive test consists in comparing the biological effects at 250 eV and 350 eV (before and after the carbon K - threshold). The results show a sharp increase of the biological efficiency for both cellular inactivation and chromosomal exchange aberration above the carbon K-threshold, correlated with the one of core events occurring in DNA atoms. The heavy ion irradiation displays again the paradoxical behaviour of cellular inactivation cross sections as a function of LET. Finally, the 'K' event contribution to cellular inactivation of usual low LET radiation is estimated to be about 75%. (author) [fr

  16. Ocular tracking of biological and nonbiological motion: the effect of instructed agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickel, Jan; Hegele, Mathias; Grosjean, Marc

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings suggest that visuomotor performance is modulated by people's beliefs about the agency (e.g., animate vs. inanimate) behind the events they perceive. This study investigated the effect of instructed agency on ocular tracking of point-light motions with biological and nonbiological velocity profiles. The motions followed either a relatively simple (ellipse) or a more complex (scribble) trajectory, and agency was manipulated by informing the participants that the motions they saw were either human or computer generated. In line with previous findings, tracking performance was better for biological than for nonbiological motions, and this effect was particularly pronounced for the simpler (elliptical) motions. The biological advantage was also larger for the human than for the computer instruction condition, but only for a measure that captured the predictive component of smooth pursuit. These results suggest that ocular tracking is influenced by the internal forward model people choose to adopt.

  17. Demographic, social, and economic effects on Mexican causes of death in 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, J B; Butler, E W

    1998-01-01

    This study examined spatial geographic patterns of cause of death and 28 demographic and socioeconomic influences on causes of death for 31 Mexican states plus the Federal District for 1990. Mortality data were obtained from the state death registration system and are age standardized. The 28 socioeconomic variables were obtained from Census records. Analysis included 2 submodels: one with all 28 socioeconomic variables in a stepwise regression, and one with each of the 4 groups of factors. The conceptual model is based on epidemiological transition theory and empirical findings. There are 4 stages in mortality decline. Effects are grouped as demographic, sociocultural, economic prosperity, and housing, health, and crime factors. Findings indicate that cancer and cardiovascular disease were strongly correlated and consistently high in border areas as well as the Federal District and Jalisco. Respiratory mortality had higher values in the Federal District, Puebla, and surrounding states, as well as Jalisco. The standardized total mortality rate was only in simple correlations associated inversely with underemployment. All cause specific mortality was associated with individual factors. Respiratory mortality was linked with manufacturing work force. Cardiovascular and cancer mortality were associated with socioeconomic factors. In submodel I, cause specific mortality was predicted by crowding, housing characteristics, marriage and divorce, and manufacturing work force. In submodel II, economic group factors had the strongest model fits explaining 33-60% of the "r" square. Hypothesized effects were only partially validated.

  18. Random safety auditing, root cause analysis, failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, Robert; Gray, James

    2010-03-01

    Improving quality and safety in health care is a major concern for health care providers, the general public, and policy makers. Errors and quality issues are leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the health care industry. There is evidence that patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at high risk for serious medical errors. To facilitate compliance with safe practices, many institutions have established quality-assurance monitoring procedures. Three techniques that have been found useful in the health care setting are failure mode and effects analysis, root cause analysis, and random safety auditing. When used together, these techniques are effective tools for system analysis and redesign focused on providing safe delivery of care in the complex NICU system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cause and effect analysis by fuzzy relational equations and a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotshtein, Alexander P.; Posner, Morton; Rakytyanska, Hanna B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes using a genetic algorithm as a tool to solve the fault diagnosis problem. The fault diagnosis problem is based on a cause and effect analysis which is formally described by fuzzy relations. Fuzzy relations are formed on the basis of expert assessments. Application of expert fuzzy relations to restore and identify the causes through the observed effects requires the solution to a system of fuzzy relational equations. In this study this search for a solution amounts to solving a corresponding optimization problem. An optimization algorithm is based on the application of genetic operations of crossover, mutation and selection. The genetic algorithm suggested here represents an application in expert systems of fault diagnosis and quality control

  20. Biological control of strawberry Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae using Bacillus velezensis BS87 and RK1 formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hong Gi; Yoo, Sung Joon

    2009-05-01

    Two isolates, Bacillus sp. BS87 and RK1, selected from soil in strawberry fields in Korea, showed high levels of antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. The isolates were identified as B. velezensis based on the homology of their gyrA sequences to reference strains. BS87 and RK1 were evaluated for control of Fusarium wilt in strawberries in pot trials and field trials conducted in Nonsan, Korea. In the pot trials, the optimum applied concentration of BS87 and RK1 for pre-plant root-dip application to control Fusarium wilt was 10(5) and 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, in the 2003 and 2005 field trials, the biological control efficacies of formulations of RK1 were similar to that of a conventional fungicide (copper hydroxide) when compared with a non-treated control. The RK1 formulation was also more effective than BS87 in suppressing Fusarium wilt under field conditions. Therefore, the results indicated that formulation of B.velezensis BS87 and RK1 may have potential to control Fusarium wilt in strawberries.

  1. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  2. Industrial PM2.5cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM 2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM 2.5 , including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM 2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM 2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM 2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM 2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracting Biological Meaning From Global Proteomic Data on Circulating-Blood Platelets: Effects of Diabetes and Storage Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H.; Suleiman, Atef; Daly, Don S.; Springer, David L.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P.

    2008-11-25

    Transfusion of platelets into patients suffering from trauma and a variety of disease is a common medical practice that involves millions of units per year. Partial activation of platelets can result in the release of bioactive proteins and lipid mediators that increase the risk of adverse post-transfusion effects. Type-2 diabetes and storage are two factors known to cause partial activation of platelets. A global proteomic study was undertaken to investigate these effects. In this paper we discuss the methods used to interpret these data in terms of biological processes affected by diabetes and storage. The main emphasis is on the processing of proteomic data for gene ontology enrichment analysis by techniques originally designed for microarray data.

  4. The physical effect of biological and chemical treatments on water repellent soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary-Anne; Mathes, Falko; McGrath, Gavan; Loke, Meng Heng; Murphy, Daniel; Leopold, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Water repellence in soils is a naturally occurring phenomenon caused by long-chain hydrophobic organic molecules that affect millions of hectares of agricultural land in Australia. Breakdown of the hydrophobicity in soils has been attributed to both biological and chemical interactions, it being unclear which is the primary contributor. We employed a novel approach investigating the ability of bio-chemical treatments to breakdown the physical effects of water repellence using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The experiment consisted of sterile soil with a hydrophilic, heat treated outer section that framed a 4 cm3 severely hydrophobic inclusion. Treatments included wax-degrading microbes, a surfactant, the combination of the two, as well as controls, all on sterile and non-sterile hydrophobic soil. The experiment used 3D, borehole ERT to measure the electric resistivity in the soil after wetting. Electric resistivities were converted to volumetric water contents allowing determination of in-situ time-lapse water contents. On all treatments, over time, there was a visible decrease in the definition of the boundary between the water repellent core and the wetting soil, with the treatment defining the pattern and speed of wetting. We observed the wetting of the surfactant treated soil with a fast, stable wetting front. Return of repellence after drying had varied outcomes for the controls, both sterile and non-sterile, with some tests returning with severe water repellence while others with no repellence, the repellence more likely to return at the lower depth. The drying of soils with the surfactant treatment showed that there was a return of repellence on all depths of excavation and these ranged from low to severe repellence. The aim of this experiment is to a better understand the hydrological impacts of the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of water-repellent soils through how they affect the pattern and longevity of the breakdown.

  5. The peak of thermoregulation effectiveness: Thermal biology of the Pyrenean rock lizard, Iberolacerta bonnali (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-02-01

    We studied, at 2200m altitude, the thermal biology of the Pyrenean rock lizard, Iberolacerta bonnali, in the glacial cirque of Cotatuero (National Park of Ordesa, Huesca, Spain). The preferred thermal range (PTR) of I. bonnali indicates that it is a cold-adapted ectotherm with a narrow PTR (29.20-32.77°C). However, its PTR (3.57°C) is twice as wide as other Iberolacerta lizards, which may be explained by its broader historical distribution. The studied area is formed by a mosaic of microhabitats which offer different operative temperatures, so that lizards have, throughout their entire daily period of activity, the opportunity to choose the most thermally suitable substrates. I. bonnali achieves an effectiveness of thermoregulation of 0.95, which makes it the highest value found to date among the Lacertidae, and one of the highest among lizards. Their relatively wide distribution, their wider PTR, and their excellent ability of thermoregulation, would make I. bonnali lizards less vulnerable to climate change than other species of Iberolacerta. Thanks to its difficult access, the studied area is not visited by a large number of tourists, as are other areas of the National Park. Thus, it is a key area for the conservation of the Pyrenean rock lizard. By shuttling between suitable microhabitats, lizards achieve suitable body temperatures during all day. However, such thermally suitable microhabitats should vary in other traits than thermal quality, such as prey availability or predation risk. Hence, it seems that these not-thermal traits are not constraining habitat selection and thermoregulation in this population. Therefore, future research in this population may study the causes that would lead lizards to prioritize thermoregulation to such extent in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of radiosynovectomy in patients with inflammatory joint disorders not caused by rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, S.; Klutmann, S.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Clausen, M.; Sawula, J.A.; Brenner, W.; Henze, E.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Effect of radiosynovectomy (RS) should be evaluated both by subjective and objective parameters in patients with osteoarthritis and in patients with inflammatory joint disorders not caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A total of 98 joints in 61 patients were investigated. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group included 35 patients with therapy-resistant effusions caused by severe osteoarthritis (46 joints). The second group consisted of 26 patients (52 joints) with ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondylarthropathy, psoriatic arthritis, pigmented villo-nodular synovitis, and recurrent synovitis following surgery. Effect of RS was evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and quantified by T/B-ratios derived from blood pool images prior to and after RS. Results: Within the first patient group suffering from osteoarthritis, 40% showed a good or excellent improvement of clinical symptoms, 51% were unchanged, and in 9% symptoms worsened. Similar results were found in the second patient group. The majority of unchanged results were small finger joints. In contrast, wrist and knee joints showed a better improvement. Good correlation between results of bone scan and patients subjective impression was found in 38% and 67% in the first and the second patient group, respectively. Conclusion: Radiosynovectomy might be an effective treatment in osteoarthritis and inflammatory joint disorders not caused by rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.) [de

  7. Effect of the Mode of Admission on the Performance of NCE Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the mode of admission on the level of performance of students in NCE Biology was investigated in this study. The study made use of seven years records between 1997 and 2004 when students could be admitted through preliminary studies or by direct entry through JAMB if qualified. The results of the students ...

  8. Biological effects from electric fields associated with high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Efforts during the past year by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute-funded laboratories to investigate the biological effects from electric fields are described in resume form. Investigations generally have been summarized with objectives, accomplishments of the past year, and some indication of projected studies.

  9. Using biological effects tools to define Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, B.P.; Thain, J.E.; Hylland, K.; Davis, I.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status

  10. Pesticides; resource recovery; hazardous substances and oil spill responses; waste disposal; biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the category of pesticides this volume features close to sixty standard test method, practices, and guides for evaluating the properties and efficacy of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Also covered are standards for hazardous substances, oil spell responses, waste disposal, and biological effects of these materials

  11. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  12. Fertility among HIV-infected Indian women Indian women : the biological effect and its implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Janssen, Fanny; Hutter, Inge

    In India, nearly one million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV. This study sought to examine the biological effect of HIV on the fertility of HIV-infected Indian women. This is relevant for the provision of pregnancy-related counselling and care to the infected women, and for

  13. The effect on biological and moisture resistance of epichlorohydrin chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Beom-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks...

  14. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the ...

  15. The Effectiveness of the New 9th Grade Biology Curriculum on Students' Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Gulcan; Nisanci, Seda Hilal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new 9th grade biology curriculum on students' environmental awareness. Participants included 91 ninth grade students in a high school in Balikesir during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. Two classrooms, including 22 and 24 students respectively, were randomly assigned…

  16. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  17. Effects of biological control agents and exotic plant invasion on deer mouse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2004-01-01

    Exotic insects are commonly introduced as biological control agents to reduce densities of invasive exotic plants. Although current biocontrol programs for weeds take precautions to minimize ecological risks, little attention is paid to the potential nontarget effects of introduced food subsidies on native consumers. Previous research demonstrated that two gall flies (...

  18. Attenuation of biologically effective UV radiation in tropical Atlantic waters measured with a biochemical DNA dosimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, P.; Obernosterer, I; Vink, A.A; Buma, A.G.J.

    A biochemical dosimeter was developed to study the attenuation of biologically effective UV radiation in marine tropical waters. Small quartz vials were used containing a solution of DNA molecules; the vials were incubated at discrete water depths. Subsequently, DNA damage was determined in these

  19. Wood smoke particle sequesters cell iron to impact a biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological effect of an inorganic particle (i.e., silica) can be associated with a disruption in cell iron homeostasis. Organic compounds included in particles originating from combustion processes can also complex sources of host cell iron to disrupt metal homeostasis. We te...

  20. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…