WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological dosimetry benefit

  1. Neutron dosimetry in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Smith, H.H.; Gustafsson, A.

    1965-01-01

    To study adequately the biological effects of different energy neutrons it is necessary to have high-intensity sources which are not contaminated by other radiations, the most serious of which are gamma rays. An effective dosimetry must provide an accurate measure of the absorbed dose, in biological materials, of each type of radiation at any reactor facility involved in radiobiological research. A standardized biological dosimetry, in addition to physical and chemical methods, may be desirable. The ideal data needed to achieve a fully documented dosimetry has been compiled by H. Glubrecht: (1) Energy spectrum and intensity of neutrons; (2) Angular distribution of neutrons on the whole surface of the irradiated object; (3) Additional undesired radiation accompanying the neutrons; (4) Physical state and chemical composition of the irradiated object. It is not sufficient to note only an integral dose value (e.g. in 'rad') as the biological effect depends on the above data

  2. Biological dosimetry of irradiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, V.; Chambrette, V.; Le Roy, A.; Paillole, N.; Sorokine, I.; Voisin, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biological dosimetry in radiation protection allows to evaluate the received dose by a potentially irradiated person from biological markers such chromosomal abnormalities. The technologies of Hybridization In Situ by Fluorescence (F.I.S.H) allow the detection of steady chromosomal aberrations of translocation type

  3. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Di Giorgio, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Sapienza, C.E.; Deminge, M.M.; Fernandez Rearte, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Cortina Ramirez, G.E.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. (authors)

  4. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M

    2016-09-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  6. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  7. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  8. Biological dosimetry, scopes and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the aberrations in chromosomes is an alternative to establish the exposure dose to the radiation, when the information provided by the traditional physical methods is insufficient. There are diverse causes by which it can reached to apply an alternative system, such is the case of exposures of another persons to the management of radiation sources, which not carry physical dosemeter. Contrary case is to the occupational exposure personnel (OEP), what must to utilize some system for determining the exposure dose, even so can be needed the case for more information. In any case, the cells from the affected person are the alternative without the biological system be overlap to the physical, it is complementary. (Author)

  9. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Thorleifson, E.; Lachapelle, S.; Mullins, D.; Qutob, S.; Wilkinson, D.

    2005-07-01

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  10. DRDC Ottawa working standard for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, T M; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thorleifson, E [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Lachapelle, S; Mullins, D [JERA Consulting (Canada); Qutob, S [Health Canada, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada); Wilkinson, D

    2005-07-15

    This Standard provides quality assurance, quality control, and evaluation of the performance criteria for the purpose of accreditation of the Radiation Biology laboratory at Defence Research and Development Canada - Ottawa (DRDC Ottawa) using biological dosimetry to predict radiation exposure doses. The International Standard (ISO 19238) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Technical Report Series No. 405 are used as guiding documents in preparation of this working document specific to the DRDC Ottawa Radiation Biology Laboratory. This Standard addresses: 1. The confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory; 2. The laboratory safety requirements; 3. The calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels; 4. Transportation criteria for shipping of test samples to the laboratory; 5. Preparation of samples for analysis; 6. The scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry; 7. The criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose; 8. The reporting of results; 9. The quality assurance and quality control plan for the laboratory; and 10. Informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations, a sample report and other supportive documents. (author)

  11. Dosimetry and biological effects of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on two types of cellular damage: cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations induced by irradiation with X rays, gamma rays and fast neutrons of different energies. A prerequisite for the performance of radiobiological experiments is the determination of the absorbed dose with a sufficient degree of accuracy and precision. Basic concepts of energy deposition by ionizing radiation and practical aspects of neutron dosimetry for biomedical purposes are discussed. Information on the relative neutron sensitivity of GM counters and on the effective point of measurement of ionization chambers for dosimetry of neutron and photon beams under free-in-air conditions and inside phantoms which are used to simulate the biological objects is presented. Different methods for neutron dosimetry are compared and the experimental techniques used for the investigations of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations induced by ionizing radiation of different qualities are presented. Dose-effect relations for induction cell inactivation and chromsome aberrations in three cultured cell lines for different radiation qualities are presented. (Auth.)

  12. About the factors distorting biological dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The row of chemical substances that have not mutagenic effect can strengthen ionising radiation induced cytogenetic effects. For example nitrite sodium and nitrate sodium reinforce mutagenic action of radiation and cause sensitized effect although they aren't mutagens. Presence of residual amount of herbicides in food products can have influence at level of aberration in human cells. It was investigated the influence of herbicide zencor at mutagenic action of radiation. This substance has weak mutagenic activity. In the case of combined action of zencor with irradiation antagonistic effect was observed. Mutation rate turns out to be lower than expected summary value. At the same time many foods products (tea, coffee, cacao, chocolate etc., which contain melanin) are antimutagens and can also change the frequency of radiation induced mutations. Taking of medicine distort the results of dose estimation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after acute irradiation is considered to be adequate method of biological dosimetry. In the case of chronic irradiation this analysis becomes complicated with such processes as adaptation (selection and proliferation of cells with more radioresistant genotype) and the origin of genetic un stability which leads to higher radiosensitivity. The estimation of the level of point mutations is the most precise method of biological dosimetry because their existence is less exposed to modifications

  13. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, D.A.O. de

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source [pt

  14. Cytogenetic biological dosimetry. Dose estimative in accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos; Campos, I.M.A. de.

    1988-01-01

    The methodology of cytogenetic biological dosimetry is studied. The application in estimation of dose in five cases of accidental exposure is reported. An hematological study and culture of lymphocytes is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of ionizing radiation dosimetry is the measurement of the physical and biological consequences of exposure to radiation. As these consequences are proportional to the local absorption of energy, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation is based on the measurement of this quantity. Owing to the size of the effects of ionizing radiation on materials in all of these area, dosimetry plays an essential role in the prevention and the control of radiation exposure. Its use is of great importance in two areas in particular where the employment of ionizing radiation relates to human health: radiation protection, and medical applications. Dosimetry is different for various reasons: owing to the diversity of the physical characteristics produced by different kinds of radiation according to their nature (X- and γ-photons, electrons, neutrons,...), their energy (from several keV to several MeV), the orders of magnitude of the doses being estimated (a factor of about 10 5 between diagnostic and therapeutic applications); and the temporal and spatial variation of the biological parameters entering into the calculations. On the practical level, dosimetry poses two distinct yet closely related problems: the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject exposed to radiation from a source external to his body (external dosimetry); and the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject owing to the presence within his body of some radioactive substance (internal dosimetry)

  16. Latinamerican Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET). International Biological Dosimetry intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Radl, A.; Taja, Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the International Biological Dosimetry Intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008) - developed within the framework of the IAEA regional project - RLA/9/054 (Establishment of national capabilities for response to radiological and nuclear emergency) whose general objectives are: assess reproducibility inter-laboratory; identify problems and provide the necessary modifications for collaborative work in accidental situations requiring activation of mutual assistance mechanisms which will form the basis of the Organization of LBDNET. This exercise involves the laboratories of the region: Argentina (laboratory support), Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay and the laboratory of the Autonomous University of Barcelona-Espana (Joan Francesc Barquinero and staff). Finally, these countries will meet the next time for the drafting of a final report and later publication. (author)

  17. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  18. Study on biological dosimetry of premature chromosome condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo

    2005-01-01

    The premature chromosome condensation technique has been applied for biological dosimetry purpose. Premature chromo-some condensation was induced by incubating unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of okadaic acid or calyculin A (a phosphatase inhibitor) which eliminated the need for fusion with mitotic cells. It is now possible to examine the early damage induced by radiation. It is simple, exact when it combines with fluorecence in situ hybridization. (authors)

  19. Direct biological dosimetry in Chernobyl clear-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maznik, N.A.; Vinnikov, V.A.; Rozdil'ski, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In cases of large-scale radiological accidents like Chernobyl (1986) the estimation of somatic risk to exposed populations became a problem due to lack of direct physical dosimetry data. In such conditions the necessarily information can be obtained from biological dosimetry, firstly by chromosomal aberrations analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conventional cytogenetic assay have been carried out in 130 persons recruited as clean-up workers ('liquidators') to the Chernobyl zone in 1986-87 yrs. Blood sampling was performed during 1 year post-irradiation, in 100 persons p to 0.5 year. The aberrations of choice for biological dosimetry were unstable chromosome exchanges (dicentrics and centric rings with accompanying acentric fragments). The dose calculations have been done using the linear term of the dose-response curve built with acute gamma-irradiation of blood in dose range up to 1 Gy. The distributions of biological doses were investigated in groups of liquidators with doses in documents ranging 17-140, 175-230, 250, 260-365, 440-1030 mSv and in the group of non-monitored persons. The weak correlation between monitored individual doses and biological doses was shown; the biological and physical dose distribution peculiarity in monitored groups is discussed. The distribution of individual aberration frequencies and the average yield of chromosomal exchanges in monitored and non-monitored liquidators were identical. The common cohort analysis (monitored and non-monitored persons) showed that the individual aberration yields distribution among liquidators was strictly randomised in accordance with Poissonian statistics. The cytogenetic dose estimations obtained can be of great value for somatic effects risk assessment in post-Chernobyl cohorts

  20. Role of cytogenetic techniques in biological dosimetry of absorbed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In most of the radiation accidents, physical dosimetric information is rarely available. Further, most of the accidental exposures are non-uniform involving either partial body or localized exposure to significant doses. In such situations, physical dosimetry does not provide reliable dose estimate. It has now been realized that biological dosimetric techniques can play an important role in the assessment of absorbed dose. In recent years, a number of biological indicators of radiation have been identified. These include the kinetics of onset and persistence of prodromal syndromes (radiation sickness), cytogenetic changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes, hematological changes, biochemical indicators, ESR spectroscopy of biological samples, induction of gene mutations in red blood cells, cytogenetic and physiological changes in skin and neurophysiological changes. In general, dosimetric information is derived by a combination of several different methods, as they have potential to serve as prognostic indicators. The role of cytogenetic techniques in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as biological indicators of absorbed radiation is reviewed here

  1. Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.D.; Venkatachalam, P.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Among various biological dosimetry techniques, dicentric chromosome aberration method appears to be the method of choice in analysing accidental radiation exposure in most of the laboratories. The major advantage of this method is its sensitivity as the number of dicentric chromosomes present in control population is too small and more importantly radiation induces mainly dicentric chromosome aberration among unstable aberration. This report brings out the historical development of various cytogenetic methods, the basic structure of DNA, chromosomes and different forms of chromosome aberrations. It also highlights the construction of dose-response curve for dicentric chromosome and its use in the estimation of radiation dose. (author)

  2. Biological dosimetry: chromosomal aberration analysis for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In view of the growing importance of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter, the present report provides a concise summary of the scientific background of the subject and a comprehensive source of information at the technical level. After a review of the basic principles of radiation dosimetry and radiation biology basic information on the biology of lymphocytes, the structure of chromosomes and the classification of chromosomal aberrations are presented. This is followed by a presentation of techniques for collecting blood, storing, transporting, culturing, making chromosomal preparations and scaring of aberrations. The physical and statistical parameters involved in dose assessment are discussed and examples of actual dose assessments taken from the scientific literature are given

  3. Biological dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in hematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes cytokinetic blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=c+ α D+β D 2 where. Y is the number micronuclei per cell and D the dose. the curve is compared with those produced elsewhere

  4. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ αD+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs

  5. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Castano, S.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β 1 D + β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  6. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navlet Armenta, J.M.; Gonzalez, S.; Silva, A.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haemathological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study of chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 o C has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y = α+β 1 D+β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author)

  7. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was considered as

  8. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, LDB, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was

  9. RENEB - Running the European Network of biological dosimetry and physical retrospective dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Ulrike; Abend, Michael; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Badie, Christophe; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Barrios, Lleonard; Beinke, Christina; Bortolin, Emanuela; Cucu, Alexandra; De Amicis, Andrea; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Fattibene, Paola; Frøvig, Anne Marie; Gregoire, Eric; Guogyte, Kamile; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Jaworska, Alicja; Kriehuber, Ralf; Lindholm, Carita; Lloyd, David; Lumniczky, Katalin; Lyng, Fiona; Meschini, Roberta; Mörtl, Simone; Della Monaca, Sara; Monteiro Gil, Octávia; Montoro, Alegria; Moquet, Jayne; Moreno, Mercedes; Oestreicher, Ursula; Palitti, Fabrizio; Pantelias, Gabriel; Patrono, Clarice; Piqueret-Stephan, Laure; Port, Matthias; Prieto, María Jesus; Quintens, Roel; Ricoul, Michelle; Romm, Horst; Roy, Laurence; Sáfrány, Géza; Sabatier, Laure; Sebastià, Natividad; Sommer, Sylwester; Terzoudi, Georgia; Testa, Antonella; Thierens, Hubert; Turai, Istvan; Trompier, François; Valente, Marco; Vaz, Pedro; Voisin, Philippe; Vral, Anne; Woda, Clemens; Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    A European network was initiated in 2012 by 23 partners from 16 European countries with the aim to significantly increase individualized dose reconstruction in case of large-scale radiological emergency scenarios. The network was built on three complementary pillars: (1) an operational basis with seven biological and physical dosimetric assays in ready-to-use mode, (2) a basis for education, training and quality assurance, and (3) a basis for further network development regarding new techniques and members. Techniques for individual dose estimation based on biological samples and/or inert personalized devices as mobile phones or smart phones were optimized to support rapid categorization of many potential victims according to the received dose to the blood or personal devices. Communication and cross-border collaboration were also standardized. To assure long-term sustainability of the network, cooperation with national and international emergency preparedness organizations was initiated and links to radiation protection and research platforms have been developed. A legal framework, based on a Memorandum of Understanding, was established and signed by 27 organizations by the end of 2015. RENEB is a European Network of biological and physical-retrospective dosimetry, with the capacity and capability to perform large-scale rapid individualized dose estimation. Specialized to handle large numbers of samples, RENEB is able to contribute to radiological emergency preparedness and wider large-scale research projects.

  10. Non-invasive biological dosimetry of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, S.; Marks, R.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations designed to identify a potential biological dosimetry technique to examine the effects of X-ray doses down to 0.1 Gy on human skin, are described. In a variety of parameters assessed, the most important changes observed were a significant depression in epidermal cell production in the basal layer after X-ray doses between 0.5 Gy and 1 Gy and a concomitant reduction in the desquamation rate of corneocytes after doses above 1 Gy. Changes in non-specific esterase (NSE) activity were also observed. Further work is described which applies these results to several non-invasive techniques which may have potential for routine application. Preliminary data from irradiated human skin are presented on the measurement of forced desquamation, the evaluation of NSE activity from hair samples and the evaluation of stratum corneum turnover time using the fluorescent dye, dansyl chloride. (author)

  11. New methodologies of biological dosimetry applied to human protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Parasacchi, P.; Conti, D.; Righi, E.

    1995-04-01

    Biological dosimetry is a diagnostic methodology for the measurement of the individual dose absorbed in the case of accidental overexposition to ionizing radiation. It is demonstrated how in vitro radiobiological and chemobiological studies using cytogenetic methods (count of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) on human lymphocytes from healthy subjects and individuals undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy, as well as on lymphocytes of mammals other than man (comparative cytogenetics), can help to increase the basic radiobiological and chemobiological scientific information. Such information gives a valid contribution to understanding of the action of ionizing radiation or of pharmaceuticals on cells and, in return, can be of value to human radioprotection and chemoprotection. Cytogenetic studies can be summerized as follows: a) biodosimetry (estimate of dose received after accidental events); b) individual radiosensitivity (level of individual response); c) clinical radiobiology and chemobiology (individual response to radiopharmaceuticals, to radiotherapy and to chemopharmaceuticals); d) comparative radiobiology (cytogenetic studies on species other than man); e) animal model in the environmental surveillance

  12. Calibration Curves for Biological Dosimetry by Fluorescence In situ Hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonati, L.; Durante, M.; Gensabella, G.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.F.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Sgura, A.; Testa, A.; Tanzarella, C.

    2001-01-01

    Dose-response curves were measured for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after acute exposure in vitro to 60 Co γ rays. Blood was obtained from four different healthy donors, and chromosomes were either observed at metaphase, following colcemid accumulation, or prematurely condensed by calyculin A. Cells were analysed in three different Italian laboratories. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were painted, and simple-type interchanges between painted and non-painted chromosomes were scored in cells exposed in the dose range 0.1-3.0 Gy. The chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation method was also used combined with chromosome painting (chromosome 4 only) to determine calibration curves for high dose exposures (up to 20 Gy X rays). Calibration curves described in this paper will be used in our laboratories for biological dosimetry by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. (author)

  13. Biological dosimetry for mixed gamma-neutron field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, J.O.C.; Santos, J.A.L.; Souza, P.L.G.; Lima, F.F.; Vilela, E.C.; Calixto, M.S.; Santos, N.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing concern about airline crew members (about one million worldwide) exposed to measurable neutrons doses. Historically, cytogenetic biodosimetry assays have been based on quantifying asymmetrical chromosome alterations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentric fragments) in mitogen-stimulated T-lymphocytes in their first mitosis after radiation exposure. Increased levels of chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes are a sensitive indicator of radiation exposure and they are routinely exploited for assessing radiation absorbed dose after accidental or occupational exposure. Since radiological accidents are not common, not all nations feel that it is economically justified to maintain biodosimetry competence. However, dependable access to biological dosimetry capabilities is completely critical in event of an accident. In this paper the dose-response curve was measured for the induction of chromosomal alterations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after chronic exposure in vitro to mixed gamma-neutron field. Blood was obtained from one healthy donor and exposed to two mixed gamma-neutron field from sources 241 AmBe (20 Ci) at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL - CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil). The evaluated absorbed doses were 0.2 Gy; 1.0 Gy and 2.5 Gy. The dicentric chromosomes were observed at metaphase, following colcemide accumulation and 1000 well-spread metaphases were analyzed for the presence of dicentrics by two experts after painted by giemsa 5%. The preliminary results showed a linear dependence between radiations absorbed dose and dicentric chromosomes frequencies. Dose-response curve described in this paper will contribute to the construction of calibration curve that will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry. (author)

  14. Developments in biological dosimetry for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, K L; Boreham, D R; Maves, S; Morrison, D P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this program is to develop methods for providing estimates of radiation exposure based on changes in the cells/tissues of exposed individuals. This work arises from the need for independent measures of exposure of workers when standard dose measurements are unavailable or questionable. The radiation-induced changes that we propose to measure have been correlated with carcinogenesis. It follows that the methods used should also provide indications of the likely biological consequences of radiation exposure for an individual. The consequences of radiation exposure lie in the resolution of the radiation effects at the cellular level. Accordingly, it is at the cellular level that our attention is directed. More precisely, since the consequences of most concern, cancer induction and the induction of inherited diseases, are the result of changes to the genetic material of cells (the DNA), it is the measurement of effects on DNA that are being investigated as possible dose meters. Individuals are unique in terms of their DNA and differ in their cellular capacities to repair the damage from an ionizing radiation dose. Because of these features, not only do biological dosimetry tools offer us a means of measuring a dose at the individual level but may also provide us with a measure of the ultimate risk associated with a given exposure. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Developments in biological dosimetry for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, K.L.; Boreham, D.R.; Maves, S.; Morrison, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop methods for providing estimates of radiation exposure based on changes in the cells/tissues of exposed individuals. This work arises from the need for independent measures of exposure of workers when standard dose measurements are unavailable or questionable. The radiation-induced changes that we propose to measure have been correlated with carcinogenesis. It follows that the methods used should also provide indications of the likely biological consequences of radiation exposure for an individual. The consequences of radiation exposure lie in the resolution of the radiation effects at the cellular level. Accordingly, it is at the cellular level that our attention is directed. More precisely, since the consequences of most concern, cancer induction and the induction of inherited diseases, are the result of changes to the genetic material of cells (the DNA), it is the measurement of effects on DNA that are being investigated as possible dose meters. Individuals are unique in terms of their DNA and differ in their cellular capacities to repair the damage from an ionizing radiation dose. Because of these features, not only do biological dosimetry tools offer us a means of measuring a dose at the individual level but may also provide us with a measure of the ultimate risk associated with a given exposure. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Statistical issues in biological radiation dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.B.; Preston, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Biological dosimeters are useful for epidemiologic risk assessment in populations exposed to catastrophic nuclear events and as a means of validating physical dosimetry in radiation workers. Application requires knowledge of the magnitude of uncertainty in the biological dose estimates and an understanding of potential statistical pitfalls arising from their use. This paper describes the statistical aspects of biological dosimetry in general and presents a detailed analysis in the specific case of dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberration frequency. Biological dose estimates may be obtained from a dose-response curve, but negative estimates can result and adjustment must be made for regression bias due to imprecise estimation when the estimates are used in regression analyses. Posterior-mean estimates, derived as the mean of the distribution of true doses compatible with a given value of the biological endpoint, have several desirable properties: they are nonnegative, less sensitive to extreme skewness in the true dose distribution, and implicitly adjusted to avoid regression bias. The methods necessitate approximating the true-dose distribution in the population in which biological dosimetry is being applied, which calls for careful consideration of this distribution through other information. An important question addressed here is to what extent the methods are robust to misspecification of this distribution, because in many applications of biological dosimetry it cannot be characterized well. The findings suggest that dosimetry based solely on stable chromosome aberration frequency may be useful for population-based risk assessment

  17. Usefulness and limits of biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.; Rueff, J.; Gerber, G. B.; Leonard, E. D.

    2005-01-01

    Damage from occupational or accidental exposure to ionising radiation is often assessed by monitoring chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and these procedures have, in several cases, assisted physicians in the management of irradiated persons. Thereby, circulating lymphocytes, which are in the G0 stage of the cell cycle are stimulated with a mitogenic agent, usually phytohaemagglutinin, to replicate in vitro their DNA and enter cell division, and are then observed for abnormalities. Comparison with dose response relationships obtained in vitro allows an estimate of exposure based on scoring: - Unstable aberrations by the conventional, well-established analysis of metaphases for chromosome abnormalities or for micronuclei; - So-called stable aberrations by the classical G-banding (Giemsa-Stain-banding) technique or by the more recently developed fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) method using fluorescent-labelled probes for centromeres and chromosomes. Three factors need to be considered in applying such biological dosimetry: (1) Radiation doses in the body are often inhomogeneous. A comparison of the distribution of the observed aberrations among with that expected from a normal poisson distribution can allow conclusions to be made with regard to the inhomogeneity of exposure by means of the so-called contaminated poisson distribution method; however, its application requires a sufficiently large number of aberrations, i.e. an exposure to a rather large dose at a high dose rate. (2) Exposure can occur at a low dose rate (e.g. from spread or lost radioactive sources) rendering a comparison with in vitro exposure hazardous. Dose-effect relationships of most aberrations that were scored, such as translocations, follow a square law. Repair intervening during exposure reduces the quadratic component with decreasing dose rate as exposure is spread over a longer period of time. No valid solution for this problem has yet been developed, although

  18. The IROC Houston Quality Assurance Program: Potential benefits of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D S; Molineu, H A; Lafratta, R; Ibbott, G S

    2017-01-01

    The IROC Houston QA Center has provided QA core support for NCI clinical trials by ensuring that radiation doses delivered to trial patients are accurate and comparable between participating institutions. Within its QA program, IROC Houston uses anthropomorphic QA phantoms to credential sites. It is these phantoms that have the highest potential to benefit from the use of 3D dosimeters. Credentialing is performed to verify that institutions that are using advanced technologies to deliver complex treatment plans that conform to targets. This makes it increasingly difficult to assure the intended calculated dose is being delivered correctly using current techniques that are 2D-based. A 3D dosimeter such as PRESAGE® is able to provide a complete 3D measured dosimetry dataset with one treatment plan delivery. In our preliminary studies, the 3D dosimeters in our H and N and spine phantoms were found to be appropriate for remote dosimetry for relative dose measurements. To implement 3D dosimetry in IROC Houston’s phantoms, the benefit of this significant change to its current infrastructure would have to be assessed and further work would be needed before bringing 3D dosimeters into the phantom dosimetry program. (paper)

  19. An improved in vitro micronucleus assay to biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, Ivette Z.; Okazaki, Kayo; Vieira, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    The biological dosimetry is widely used to estimate the absorbed dose in people occupationally or accidentally exposed to the radiation for a better medical treatment, minimizing the harmful effects. Many techniques and methods have been proposed to detect and quantify the radioinduced lesions in genetic material, among them, the micronucleus (MN) assay. In the present study, we proposed an improved in vitro micronucleus technique that is rapid, sensitive and with minor cell manipulations. Assays were carried out with human tumor cells (MCF-7) seeded (3x10 4 cells) in slides placed into Petri dishes. Adherent cells were maintained with RPMI medium, supplemented with fetal calf serum, 1 % antibiotics, cytochalasin B (2 μg/mL), and incubated at 37 deg C in the presence of 5% CO2 for 72h. Cells were pre-treated for 24h with aminoguanidine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Nitric oxide is an intracellular free-radical, involved in DNA double-strand break repair mechanisms. After incubation, adherent cells on slides were briefly fixed with paraformaldehyde and stained with acridine orange (100 μg/mL) for analysis through fluorescence microscopy. Dye fluorescence permitted accurate discrimination between nuclei and micronuclei (bright green) and cytoplasm (red), and made possible a faster counting of binucleated cells. Aminoguanidine (2 mM) induced significant increase (p< 0.05) in frequencies of binucleated cells with micronuclei and in the number of micronuclei per binucleated cell. Data showed that proposed modifications permit to understand an early aspect of NO inhibition and suggested an improved protocol to MN assays. (author)

  20. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes a five year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective dosimetry methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities. This research program has focused on validation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a dosimetry tool and on optimization of the technique by reducing the lower limits of detection, simplifying the process of sample preparation and analysis and speeding analysis to allow greater throughput in routine measurement situations. The authors have investigated the dosimetric signal of hard tissues in enamel, deorganified dentin, synthetic carbonated apatites and synthetic hydroxyapatite. This research has resulted in a total of 27 manuscripts which have been published, are in press, or have been submitted for publication. Of these manuscripts, 14 are included in this report and were indexed separately for inclusion in the data base

  1. Canadian Cytogenetic Emergency network (CEN) for biological dosimetry following radiological/nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Ferrarotto, Catherine L; Vlahovich, Slavica; Wilkins, Ruth C; Boreham, Douglas R; Dolling, Jo-Anna

    2007-07-01

    To test the ability of the cytogenetic emergency network (CEN) of laboratories, currently under development across Canada, to provide rapid biological dosimetry using the dicentric assay for triage assessment, that could be implemented in the event of a large-scale radiation/nuclear emergency. A workshop was held in May 2004 in Toronto, Canada, to introduce the concept of CEN and recruit clinical cytogenetic laboratories at hospitals across the country. Slides were prepared for dicentric assay analysis following in vitro irradiation of blood to a range of gamma-ray doses. A minimum of 50 metaphases per slide were analyzed by 41 people at 22 different laboratories to estimate the exposure level. Dose estimates were calculated based on a dose response curve generated at Health Canada. There were a total of 104 dose estimates and 96 (92.3%) of them fell within the expected range using triage scoring criteria. Half of the laboratories analyzed 50 metaphases in biological dosimetry. When this network is fully operational, it will be the first of its kind in Canada able to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies by providing triage quality biological dosimetry for a large number of samples. This network represents an alternate expansion of existing international emergency biological dosimetry cytogenetic networks.

  2. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, gamma) process in Na sup 2 sup 3 , giving rise to Na sup 2 sup 4 , which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na sup 2 sup 4 , is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na sup 2 sup 3 in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na sup 2 sup 4 /Na sup 2 sup 3 in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R sub B reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given

  3. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-01

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, {gamma}) process in Na{sup 23}, giving rise to Na{sup 24}, which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na{sup 24}, is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na{sup 23} in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na{sup 24}/Na{sup 23} in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R{sub B} reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzman transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given. A summary of the 4{pi

  4. Biological dosimetry studies for boron neutron capture therapy at the RA-1 research reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Castillo, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminescent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Biological dosimetry was performed employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model previously validated for BNCT studies by our group. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates for BNCT studies but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications. (author)

  5. Biological and clinical dosimetry, July 1, 1964 to December 31, 1984. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Zeitz, L.

    1986-01-01

    The goal was to develop systems for the determination of absorbed dose in biological research and clinical applications. The primary method under study is the local absorbed dose calorimeter. In addition, secondary dosimetric systems such as ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) are being developed and applied to provide an absolute basis for the evaluation and comparison of experiments, treatments and other procedures using radiation. In keeping with these objectives this project has accomplished significant advances in the following areas: (1) local absorbed dose calorimetry; (2) neutron dosimetry; (3) dosimetry of ultra-high intensity radiation sources; (4) solid state detector and germanium gamma camera program; (5) dosimetry for brachytherapy; and (6) ''non-isolated sensor'' calorimeters

  6. Latin-American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) Intercomparison Exercise. Evaluation through triage and conventional scoring criteria. Development of a new approach for statistical data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.

    2011-01-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for National Radiation Protection Programs and Emergency Response Schemes. A Latin-American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) has been constituted by the biological dosimetry laboratories from: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay (IAEA Regional Project RLA9/054, 2007). The biological dosimetry laboratory of Argentina organized an international biological dosimetry intercomparison for the analysis of some relevant parameters involved in dose assessment, to reinforce the response capability in accidental situations requiring the activation of mutual assistance mechanisms and thus, constituting the bases of the LBDNET organization. (authors)

  7. Biological dosimetry study in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients treated with 131Iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, Maria Belen

    2008-11-01

    Biological Dosimetry allows individual dose assessments based on the effect produced by ionizing radiation on a given biological parameter. The current biological endpoint being scored is chromosomal aberrations, relying on a lymphocytes culture from the patient's blood. The measured yield of chromosome aberrations is referred to a calibration curve obtaining the whole body dose. Different scenarios of overexposure can be taken into account by modifying the calculations leading to the dose estimate. Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma patients undergo thyroidectomy followed by internal radiotherapy with 131 I. The treatment's success entails the delivery of a lethal dose to the tumour within the maximum tolerable dose to a critical organ (blood doses over 2 Gy could lead to bone marrow depression). Currently, there is no established agreement for the selection of radioiodine dosage. Historically, the empiric approach, based on clinical and biochemical data, has been recommended. Nevertheless, this method may not be associated with optimal outcomes. On the other hand, the dosimetric approach attempts to determine the maximum allowable activity to be administered, establishing its biokinetics by a diagnostic 131 I study. The methodology may be modified to further individualized treatment, however it requires validation. Biological dosimetry provides an independent measure of radiotherapy effect, as such it might aid in the validation process. Nonetheless, biological dosimetry has traditionally been applied in cases of external and accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation. Accordingly, it is mandatory to assess its value in medical internal incorporations (main objective of the present study). The applied treatment strategy comprises whole body dose assessment by biological and internal dosimetry in order to administer a personalized therapeutic activity. Overall, 20 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included in the study. For biological dosimetry

  8. Activities developed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radl, A.; Sapienza, C.E.; Taja, M.R.; Bubniak, R.; Deminge, M.; Di Giorgio, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biological dosimetry (DB) allows to estimate doses absorbed in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation through the quantification of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (SCA and UCA). The frequency of these aberrations is referred to a calibration dose response curve (in vitro) to determine the doses of the individual to the whole body. The DB is a necessary support for programs of national radiation protection and response systems in nuclear or radiological emergencies in the event of accidental or incidental, single overexposure or large scale. In this context the Laboratory of Dosimetry Biological (LDB) of the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN) Argentina develops and applies different dosimeters cytogenetic from four decades ago. These dosimeters provide a fact more within the whole of the information necessary for an accidental, complementing the physical and clinical dosimetry exposure assessment. The most widely used in the DB biodosimetric method is the quantification of SCA (dicentrics and rings Central) from a sample of venous blood. The LDB is accredited for the trial, under rules IRAM 301: 2005 (ISO / IEC 17025: 2005) and ISO 19238:2004. Test applies to the immediate dosimetry evaluation of acute exposures, all or a large part of the body in the range 0,1-5 Gy. In this context the LDB is part of the Latin American network of DB (LBDNet), BioDoseNet-who and response system in radiological emergencies and nuclear IAEA-RANET, being enabled to summon the LBDNet if necessary

  9. The use of the dicentric assay for biological dosimetry for radiation accidents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hristova, Rositsa; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Atanasova, Petya; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena

    2010-02-01

    This paper details the construction of a 137Cs gamma calibration curve that has been established for dicentric assay and the testing and validation of the curve through biological dosimetry in three situations of suspected workplace overexposure that arose accidentally or through negligence or lack of appropriate safety measures. The three situations were: (1) suspected 137Cs contamination in a factory air supply; (2) suspected exposure to an industrial 192Ir source; and (3) accidental exposure of construction workers to radiation from a 60Co radiotherapy source in a hospital medical physics department. From a total of 24 potentially-exposed subjects, only one worker was found to have a statistically significant dose (0.16 Gy, 95% confidence intervals 0.02-0.43 Gy). In all other cases, the main function of the biological dosimetry was to reassure the subjects that any dose received was low.

  10. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This International Standard provides criteria for quality assurance and quality control, evaluation of the performance and the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories. This International Standard addresses: a) the confidentiality of personal information, for the customer and the service laboratory, b) the laboratory safety requirements, c) the calibration sources and calibration dose ranges useful for establishing the reference dose-effect curves allowing the dose estimation from chromosome aberration frequency, and the minimum detection levels, d) the scoring procedure for unstable chromosome aberrations used for biological dosimetry, e) the criteria for converting a measured aberration frequency into an estimate of absorbed dose, f) the reporting of results, g) the quality assurance and quality control, h) informative annexes containing examples of a questionnaire, instructions for customers, a data sheet for recording aberrations and a sample report

  11. Mammalian spermatogenesis as a new system for biologic dosimetry of ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, U.; Schumann, J.; Goehde, W.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation induced reduction of the number of DNA synthesizing cells (spermatogonia) is described using the fast-working flow cytophotometer. Since there is no shoulder in the initial part of the dose response curve this model of biologic dosimetry is very sensitive. The D 50 value is 0.25 Gy; a radiation exposure of only 0.1 Gy can be detected. (Auth.)

  12. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429 BNP CABA (Argentina); Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J. [Universidad Nacionald de La Plata, Av. 7 No. 1776, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stuck O, M. [Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valdivia, P., E-mail: lbdnet@googlegroups.co [Comision Chilena de Energia, Amutanegui 95, Santiago Centro, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-10-15

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  13. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Stuck O, M.; Valdivia, P.

    2010-10-01

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  14. Main activities of the Latin American Network of Biological Dosimetry (LBDNet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Garcia Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; Gonzalez Mesa, J.E.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Guerrero Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Martinez Lopez, W.; Di Tomasso, M.; Barquinero, F.; Roy, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET) was constituted in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of a radiation emergency in the region supported by IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/054 and RLA/9/061. The main objectives are: a) to strengthen the technical capacities of Biological Dosimetry Services belonging to laboratories existing in the region (Argentine, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) integrated in National Radiological Emergency Plans to provide a rapid biodosimetric response in a coordinated manner between countries and with RANET-IAEA/BioDoseNet-WHO, b) to provide support to other countries in the region lacking Biological Dosimetry laboratories, c) to consolidate the organization of the Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network for mutual assistance. The activities developed include technical meetings for protocols and chromosomal aberration scoring criteria unification, blood samples cultures exercises, chromosomal aberrations analysis at microscope, discussion of statistical methods and specialized software for dose calculation, the intercomparison between laboratory data after the analysis of slides with irradiated material and the intercomparison of the analysis of captured images distributed electronically in the WEB. The last exercise was the transportation of an irradiated human blood sample to countries inside and outside of the region. At the moment the exercises are concluded and they are pending to be published in reference journals. Results obtained show the capacity in the region for a biodosimetric response to a radiological accident. In the future the network will integrate techniques for high dose exposure evaluation and will enhance the interaction with other emergency systems in the region. (authors) [es

  15. Mammalian spermatogenesis as a new system for biologic dosimetry of ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, U; Schumann, J; Goehde, W [Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik

    1982-01-01

    The radiation induced reduction of the number of DNA synthesizing cells (spermatogonia) is described using the fast-working flow cytophotometer. Since there is no shoulder in the initial part of the dose response curve this model of biologic dosimetry is very sensitive. The D/sub 50/ value is 0.25 Gy; a radiation exposure of only 0.1 Gy can be detected.

  16. Towards Establishing Capacity for Biological Dosimetry at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achel, Daniel Gyingiri; Achoribo, Elom; Agbenyegah, Sandra; Adaboro, Rudolph M; Donkor, Shadrack; Adu-Bobi, Nana A K; Agyekum, Akwasi A; Akuamoa, Felicia; Tagoe, Samuel N; Kyei, Kofi A; Yarney, Joel; Serafin, Antonio; Akudugu, John M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was not only to obtain basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) but also to stimulate interest in biological dosimetry research in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. Peripheral blood from four healthy donors was exposed to different doses (0-6 Gy) of gamma rays from a radiotherapy machine and lymphocytes were subsequently stimulated, cultured, and processed according to standard protocols for 48-50 h. Processed cells were analyzed for the frequencies of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes. Radiation dose delivered to the experimental model was verified using GafChromic® EBT films in parallel experiments. Basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry in the GAEC have been realized and expertise in the dicentric chromosome assay consolidated. We successfully obtained preliminary cytogenetic data for a dose-response relationship of the irradiated blood lymphocytes. The data strongly indicate the existence of significant linear (α) and quadratic (β) components and are consistent with those published for the production of chromosome aberrations in comparable absorbed dose ranges.

  17. General guidelines for safe and expeditious international transport of samples subjected to biological dosimetry assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Radl, Analía; Taja, María R; Bubniak, Ruth; Deminge, Mayra; Sapienza, Carla; Vázquez, Marina; Baciu, Florian; Kenny, Pat

    2014-06-01

    It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have biodosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective biodosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Role of accelerator mass spectrometry in biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Frantz, C.; Vogel, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding risks from exposures to carcinogens and other chemicals depends upon measurement of their dose to target tissues and their reactivity with critical macromolecules. The authors have used AMS detection of radio-isotopes to assess doses and reactivities at low, environmentally relevant doses. Several biomedical investigations show the effectiveness of quantification of biologically important events at extremely high sensitivity with AMS. Specifically, they have measured the addition of environmental carcinogens such as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoaxaline (MelQx), a chemical found in cooked food, to DNA at concentrations relevant to human exposure. Other low level detection problems in biology, such as immunoassay assessment of small environmental chemicals, is being developed with attomole sensitivity. AMS also aids the assessment of genotoxic risks from chemicals by quantifying the binding of labeled chemicals to DNA. The very toxic and potent carcinogen, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was assessed for DNA binding, but no detectable radiocarbon-labeled TCDD was found associated with mouse liver DNA at less than systematically toxic levels. The data indicate that a mutation mechanism does not mediate TCDD carcinogenesis

  19. Development of radiological emergency preparedness and biological dosimetry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil; Shim, Hae Won; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Kang Suk

    1999-04-01

    Large-scale field tracer experiments have been conducted on Ulchin and Wolsung nuclear sites for the purpose of validating FADAS and of analyzing the environmental characteristics around the nuclear site. The most influential factor in atmospheric dispersion is the meteorological condition. During the experiment, meteorological data were measured on the release point and the selected positions among sampling points. Once radioactive materials are released to the atmosphere, members of public may be exposed through the environmental media such as air, soil and foods. Therefore, to protect the public, adequate countermeasures should be taken at due time for those exposure pathways. Both processes of justification and optimization are applied to a countermeasure simultaneously for decision-making. The work scope of biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for the assessment of health effect by radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human t-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods by usage of reverse transcriptase had been developed to analyze of gene product by {gamma} - radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and investigate the point mutation in hprt gene locus of T-lymphocytes. (author)

  20. Development of radiological emergency preparedness and biological dosimetry technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil; Shim, Hae Won; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Kang Suk

    1999-04-01

    Large-scale field tracer experiments have been conducted on Ulchin and Wolsung nuclear sites for the purpose of validating FADAS and of analyzing the environmental characteristics around the nuclear site. The most influential factor in atmospheric dispersion is the meteorological condition. During the experiment, meteorological data were measured on the release point and the selected positions among sampling points. Once radioactive materials are released to the atmosphere, members of public may be exposed through the environmental media such as air, soil and foods. Therefore, to protect the public, adequate countermeasures should be taken at due time for those exposure pathways. Both processes of justification and optimization are applied to a countermeasure simultaneously for decision-making. The work scope of biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for the assessment of health effect by radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human t-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods by usage of reverse transcriptase had been developed to analyze of gene product by γ - radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and investigate the point mutation in hprt gene locus of T-lymphocytes. (author)

  1. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  2. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  3. Biological dosimetry, scopes and limitations; Dosimetria biologica, alcances y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. [Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of the aberrations in chromosomes is an alternative to establish the exposure dose to the radiation, when the information provided by the traditional physical methods is insufficient. There are diverse causes by which it can reached to apply an alternative system, such is the case of exposures of another persons to the management of radiation sources, which not carry physical dosemeter. Contrary case is to the occupational exposure personnel (OEP), what must to utilize some system for determining the exposure dose, even so can be needed the case for more information. In any case, the cells from the affected person are the alternative without the biological system be overlap to the physical, it is complementary. (Author)

  4. Transient impedance changes in venous endothelial monolayers as a biological radiation dosimetry response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Fossum Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March of 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent 14 m-high tsunami caused major damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.  While cancer incidence in the radiation-exposed population is a logical concern, the complex effects of radiation on the heart and cardiovascular system are also of interest.  Immediate and early vascular radiation effects could be exploited as a dosimetry modality.  To test whether non-coronary vasculature exhibited transient perturbation in barrier function, video microscopy studies and Electric Cell Substrate Impedance Sensing technology were used to probe very subtle changes in primary human vascular endothelium.  Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers exhibit a transient, statistically significant decrease (P = 0.017 in monolayer resistance 3 h after irradiation with 5.0 Gy of g rays.  Radiation induced perturbations in HUVEC monolayer permeability are similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in coronary arterial endothelium.  Therefore, at least two types of vasculature respond to radiation on ECIS arrays with an early transient disruption in permeability.  The finding supports the use of early passage HUVECs for use in bioelectric dosimetry studies of vasculature and suggests that permeability of vessels could potentially serve as a biological dosimetry tool.

  5. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.

    1998-01-01

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  6. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S. [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, Cx. P. 37750, Rio de Janeiro 22.780-160 (Brazil)

    1998-08-03

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  7. Development of technology for biological dosimetry -A study on the radiation and environmental safety-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Suk; Cheon, Ki Jeong; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Sang Bok; Kim, In Kyu; Park, Hyo Kook

    1994-07-01

    α-amylase showed a significant increase in its activity when exposed to radiation of 0.1 Gy. However it had no relationship with radiation dose. Enzyme activities in liver tissue showed similar changes to those in serum. Among others, changes in acid phosphatase activity were highly related to radiation dose. Of acute phase proteins in serum, CRP, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin positively responded to radiation while albumin did negatively. ELISA proved to be an efficient method to detect changes in serum protein level. Finally the measurements of changes in APRs using ELISA could provide an useful tools for biological dosimetry. (Author)

  8. Studies with encapsulated 125I sources: dosimetry for determination of relative biological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.; Freeman, M.L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    During the past year, members of this laboratory have measured the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of photons from encapsulated 125 I sources (mean energy = 28.33 keV) using 661.6 keV 137 Cs gamma rays as a standard for comparison. These experiments were performed at clinically relevant dose rates and used reduction of the reproductive viability of mammalian cells as an endpoint. This section will discuss how dosimetry problems special to 125 I influence the design of the apparatus and will describe the ionization chamber to be used for measuring dose rates from both 125 I and 137 Cs photons

  9. Metabolomics in Radiation-Induced Biological Dosimetry: A Mini-Review and a Polyamine Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we elucidate that polyamine metabolite is a powerful biomarker to study post-radiation changes. Metabolomics in radiation biodosimetry, the application of a metabolomics analysis to the field of radiobiology, promises to increase the understanding of biological responses by ionizing radiation (IR. Radiation exposure triggers a complex network of molecular and cellular responses that impacts metabolic processes and alters the levels of metabolites. Such metabolites have potential as biomarkers for radiation dosimetry. Among metabolites, polyamine is one of many potential biomarkers to estimate radiation response. In addition, this review provides an opportunity for the understanding of a radiation metabolomics in biodosimetry and a polyamine case study.

  10. Chromosomal analysis and application of biological dosimetry in two cases of apparent over exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M.

    2002-01-01

    The gamma radiation calibration curve of 60 Co is used which was generated in the ININ Laboratory of Biology to calculate the exposure dose of two workers whose dosemeters marked values above of the limit allowed. The analysis indicates that in a first case, the aberrations frequency corresponded to the basal value, therefore there is not over exposure. The aberrations frequency of the second case is lightly above to the basal value and therefore the probability favors to what the physical dosimetry indicates. (Author)

  11. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  12. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-01-01

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  13. Effect of contrast agent administration on consequences of dosimetry and biology in radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Ching-Jung; Yang, Pei-Ying; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Tu, Shu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment planning of radiation therapy, patients may be administrated with contrast media in CT scanning to assist physicians for accurate delineation of the target or organs. However, contrast media are not used in patients during the treatment delivery. In particular, contrast media contain materials with high atomic numbers and dosimetric variations may occur between scenarios where contrast media are present in treatment planning and absent in treatment delivery. In this study we evaluate the effect of contrast media on the dosimetry and biological consequence. An analytical phantom based on AAPM TG 119 and five sets of CT images from clinical patients are included. Different techniques of treatment planning are considered, including 1-field AP, 2-field AP+PA, 4-field box, 7-field IMRT, and RapidArc. RapidArc is a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy and is used in our study of contrast media in clinical scenarios. The effect of RapidArc on dosimetry and biological consequence for administration of contrast media in radiotherapy is not discussed previously in literature. It is shown that dose difference is reduced as the number of external beams is increased, suggesting RapidArc may be favored to be used in the treatment planning enhanced by contrast media. Linear trend lines are fitted for assessment of percent dose differences in the planning target volume versus concentrations of contrast media between plans where contrast media are present and absent, respectively

  14. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry by drug-induced prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C. M.; Chung, H. C.; Cho, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    To develop the cytogenetic tool to detect chromosome damages after high dose exposure with 60 Coγ- rays, dose-response curves were measured for induction of prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) in peripheral lymphocytes. Blood was obtained from 10 different healthy donors, and given okadaic acid (OA) 500nM in cultured lymphocytes 1h after radiation exposure. Cells were analyzed by the frequencies of OA-induced PCC rings because it is difficult to obtain mitotic chromosomes using a conventional chromosome aberration (CA). PCC-rings were scored in cells exposed in the dose range of 0.2-16Gy. The frequency of the cells with PCC and the dose-response relationship for the yield of PCC rings were examined in the irradiated lymphocytes. The yield of PCC-rings increased with dose dependent-manner up to 16Gy. The observed dose-effect relationship for the percentage of cells with PCC-rings was calculated by linear-quadratic model. This technique can be applied to biological dosimetry of radiation exposures involving whole body irradiation to allow damaged chromosomes to be detected with great sensitivity. Detection of okadaic acid-induced PCC rings is a useful method up to 16Gy or more doses in estimating the absorbed doses of victims after high dose exposure. Calibration curves described in this paper will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry by PCC-ring after a high dose exposure

  15. Biological dosimetry in case of combined radiation injuries. Biologicheskaya dozimetriya pri kombinirovannykh radiatsionnykh porazheniyakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, V G; Teslenko, V M

    1990-11-01

    The state of biological dosimetry methods and prospects for their development are considered. Attention is paid to biological indicators of radiation injuries caused by nuclear weapons. It is noted, that determination of the number of lymphocytes in the blood in case of combined radiation injuries should be concerned with great care and in each case the analysis results should reffered to critically and supported by the data from other investigations. Promissing are the methods related to dermination of reticulocyte number in the peripheral blood within the irradiation dose range, causing bone marrow form of radiation syndrome, method of leukocyte adhesion and some other methods based on the change of biophysical caracteristics of cell membranes. To increase the information efficiency it is necessary to combine these methods with the methods, based on genetic change registration, and to develop a combined method.

  16. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1990-09-01

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  17. Biological dosimetry after criticality accidents. Intercomparison exercise in the Silene Reactor - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN) organized an international biological dosimetry intercomparison, at the SILENE experimental reactor (Valduc, France), simulating different criticality scenarios: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield source 1 and 2 Gy and gamma pure 60 Co source 2 Gy. Fifteen laboratories were involved in this exercise, including the Argentine Biological Dosimetry Laboratory. The purposes of the intercomparison were: 1) To compare the unstable chromosome aberration (UCA) frequency observed by the different laboratories; and 2) To compare the dose estimation for gamma rays and neutrons. The objects of the present work were: I) To compare the mean frequency of UCA observed by the Argentine laboratory with the mean frequency observed by the participant laboratories as a whole. II) To compare the dose estimates performed by the Argentine lab with those estimated by the other laboratories involved in the second stage of the intercomparison. Overall, the mean frequencies of UCA and the correspondent 95% confidence limits obtained by the Argentine lab were consistent with the results obtained by the laboratories as a whole. For the gamma pure scenario, smaller variations were observed among laboratories in terms of dose (CV=18,2%) than in terms of frequency (CV=30,1%). For the mixed field scenarios, only four laboratories, including the Argentine lab, estimated gamma and neutron components of the total dose and just two (Argentine lab and lab 12) were in agreement with the given physical doses. The 1 Gy experiment presented lesser variations both in terms of frequency and dose than the other two scenarios. For the 4 and 2 Gy experiments, variations in neutron dose were more significant than variations in gamma dose, related to the magnitude of the dose. The results suggest that intercomparison exercises jointly with the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories, in compliance with ISO

  18. Biological dosimetry of patients with differenced carcinoma of thyroid treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, M. B.; Rojo, A.M.; Taja, M.R.; Deluca, G.; Di Giorgio, M.; Fadel, A.; Cabrejas, M.; Valdivieso, C.

    2006-01-01

    The administration of I-131 to patient with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (CaDiT) it is used inside the therapeutic outline as later step to the thyroidectomy. However, the good activity to give is of difficult determination due to factors such as, the variability in the capacity of tumoral reception of the I-131, distribution of the pharmaceutical, physiologic status, other associate pathologies, grade of advance of the illness, and previous treatments. Additionally, the activity to administer is dependent of the dose of tolerance in the healthy tissues; superior dose to 2 Gy in bone marrow, its could drive to myelotoxicity. At the moment, the form more extended of administration it is the empiric prescription that considers clinical parameters and of laboratory for their determination. Presently work, the protocol of applied treatment incorporates the evaluation for internal dosimetry and biological dosimetry to estimate absorbed dose in bone marrow. The biological estimate of the dose of these patients is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations whose frequency is referred to a curve-dose response in which the lymphocytes is irradiated in vitro with I-131, allowing to determine the in vivo dose to the patient's circulating lymphocytes. The objective of the present work is to determine the applicability of different cytogenetic essays in the estimate of the absorbed dose to the whole body or specific organs. Three patients were evaluated with CaDiT. Their treatment protocol consisted on a tracer administration of radioactive iodine of 74 - 111 MBq (2 - 3 mCi) and a therapy 7,4 - 11,1 GBq (200 - 300 mCi). Previous to the tracer administration and 8 days post-therapeutic administration took samples of veined blood that were evaluated by biological dosimetry by means of the application of the techniques: conventional cytogenetic Micronucleus and FISH (Hybridization in situ by Fluorescence). Starting from the frequencies of observed chromosomal

  19. Biological dosimetry in cases gives occupational high exposition to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A.

    1998-01-01

    From 1983 the cytogenetics dosimetry method it has been used as routine in the IRD laboratory in the period 1983 at 1997 but a high exposition occupational case the physical dosimeters happened in Brazil they were investigated through the cytogenetics dosimetry technique. This technique is employ when the dosimetry personal marks a high dose to 100 mSv (0,1 Gy) that is the cut-off minimum detected in the dosimetry cytogenetics

  20. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry; Curvas de calibracion para dosimetria biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of {sup 60} Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  1. Techniques for radiation measurements: Micro-dosimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Micro-dosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nano-meter, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental Micro-dosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with Micro-dosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using Micro-dosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. (authors)

  2. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, David J., E-mail: davideaton@nhs.net [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Warry, Alison J. [Department of Radiotherapy Physics, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  3. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, David J.; Warry, Alison J.; Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources

  4. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Dicello, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/μm. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used

  5. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Barquinero, J.F.; Rodriguez, P.; Barrios, L.; Verdu, G.; Ramos, M.

    2006-01-01

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  6. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.I. [Hospital Univ. la Fe de Valen cian, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F.; Rodriguez, P. [Universitat Autonom a de Barcelona, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia., Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular, Barcelona (Spain); Verdu, G.; Ramos, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Valencia, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  7. Biological dosimetry in radiological protection: dose response curves elaboration for 60Co and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcia Augusta da

    1997-01-01

    Ionizing radiation sources for pacific uses are being extensively utilized by modern society and the applications of these sources have raised the probability of the occurrence of accidents. The accidental exposition to radiation creates a necessity of the development of methods to evaluate dose quantity. This data could be obtained by the measurement of damage caused by radiation in the exposed person. The radiation dose can be estimated in exposed persons through physical methods (physical dosimetry) but the biological methods can't be dispensed, and among them, the cytogenetic one that makes use of chromosome aberrations (dicentric and centric ring) formed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) exposed to ionizing radiation. This method correlates the frequency of radioinduced aberrations with the estimated absorbed dose, as in vitro as in vivo, which is called cytogenetic dosimetry. By the introduction of improved new techniques in culture, in the interpretation of aberrations in the different analysers of slides and by the adoption of different statistical programs to analyse the data, significant differences are observed among laboratories in dose-response curves (calibration curves). The estimation of absorbed dose utilizing other laboratory calibration curves may introduce some uncertainties, so the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) advises that each laboratory elaborates your own dose-response curve for cytogenetic dosimetry. The results were obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of the healthy and no-smoking donors exposed to 60 Co and 137 Cs radiation, with dose rate of 5 cGy.min. -1 . Six points of dose were determined 20,50,100,200,300,400 cGy and the control not irradiated. The analysed aberrations were of chromosomic type, dicentric and centric ring. The dose response curve for dicentrics were obtained by frequencies weighted in liner-quadratic mathematic model and the equation resulted were for 60 Co: Y = (3 46 +- 2.14)10 -4 cGy -1 + (3

  8. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay - Further validation of international networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ruth C., E-mail: Ruth.Wilkins@hc-sc.gc.ca [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Romm, Horst; Oestreicher, Ursula [Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Marro, Leonora [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (Canada); Yoshida, Mitsuaki A. [Biological Dosimetry Section, Dept. of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, NIRS, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department Radiation Biology, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Suto, Y. [Biological Dosimetry Section, Dept. of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, NIRS, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Prasanna, Pataje G.S. [National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Radiation Research Program, 6130 Executive Blvd., MSC 7440, Bethesda, MD 20892-7440 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation doses received to personnel when physical dosimetry is not available or inadequate. The current preferred biodosimetry method is based on the measurement of radiation-specific dicentric chromosomes in exposed individuals' peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, this method is labor-, time- and expertise-demanding. Consequently, for mass casualty applications, strategies have been developed to increase its throughput. One such strategy is to develop validated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory networks, both national and international. In a previous study, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) was validated in our cytogenetic biodosimetry network involving five geographically dispersed laboratories. A complementary strategy to further enhance the throughput of the DCA among inter-laboratory networks is to use a triage DCA where dose assessments are made by truncating the labor-demanding and time-consuming metaphase spread analysis to 20 - 50 metaphase spreads instead of routine 500 - 1000 metaphase spread analysis. Our laboratory network also validated this triage DCA, however, these dose estimates were made using calibration curves generated in each laboratory from the blood samples irradiated in a single laboratory. In an emergency situation, dose estimates made using pre-existing calibration curves which may vary according to radiation type and dose rate and therefore influence the assessed dose. Here, we analyze the effect of using a pre-existing calibration curve on assessed dose among our network laboratories. The dose estimates were made by analyzing 1000 metaphase spreads as well as triage quality scoring and compared to actual physical doses applied to the samples for validation. The dose estimates in the laboratory partners were in good agreement with the applied physical doses and determined to be adequate for guidance in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.

  9. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    excess radio-induced risk of leukemia in the group under study. Finally, the maximum radiological detriment in the group, evaluated as the total number of radio-induced cancers using physical dosimetry, has been of 2.18/1000 person-year (skin and leukemia), and using biological dosimetry of 9.20/1000 PY (leukemia). As a conclusion, this study has provided an assessment of the non-deterministic effects (rate of radio-induced cancer incidence) attributable to the group under study due to their professional activity.

  10. Biological dosimetry in patients with differenced thyroid carcinoma treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, M.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, A.; Rojo, Ana M.; Deluca, G.; Di Giogio, Marina; Fadel, A.; Chebel, G.; Oneto, A.; Cabrejas, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    The differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), constitutes the 90 % of the thyroid gland cancers. 80% of patients are cured after the initial therapy and 12% remained disease-free after successive treatments. The 24 patients included in this study represent a sample of the aforementioned 12% and 8%, with recurrence in the first decade post-treatment (local disease and/or recurrence at distance). The internal radiotherapy with 131 I in patients with DTC is used within the therapeutic schema as a step post-thyroidectomy. The success of the therapy is to get a lethal dose in the tumor tissue, which depends on the therapeutic activity and the retention of 131 I, without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues. The most widespread way of administration is the empirical prescription which considers the clinical and laboratory parameters for its determination. In this work, the treatment protocol applied incorporates assessment by biological (DB) and internal (DI) dosimetry for estimating absorbed dose to the whole body and bone marrow to manage a personalized therapeutic dose for each patient. The biological dose estimation is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations, which is often referred to a dose-response curve in which lymphocytes are irradiated in vitro with 131 I, allowing to determine the dose in vivo of circulating lymphocytes patients [es

  11. Biological dosimetry: the potential use of radiation-induced apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, R.; Andres, R.; Larsson, B.; Ozsahin, M.; Crompton, N.E.A.; Trott, K.

    1997-01-01

    An assay for biological dosimetry based on the induction of apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes is described. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric identification of cells displaying apoptosis-associated DNA condensation. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes were analysed. They were recognized on the basis of their cell-surface antigens. Four parameters were measured for both cell types: cell size, granularity, antigen immunofluorescence and DNA content. Apoptosis was quantified as the fraction of CD4-, or CD8-positive cells with a characteristic reduction of cell size and DNA content. At doses below 1 Gy, levels of radiation-induced apoptosis increased for up to 5 days after irradiation. Optimal dose discrimination was observed 4 days after irradiation, at which time the dose-response curves were linear, with a slope of 8% ± 0.5% per 0.1 Gy. In controlled, dose-response experiments the lowest dose level at which the radiation-induced apoptosis frequency was still significantly above control was 0.05 Gy. After 5 days post-irradiation incubation, intra- and interdonor variations were measured and found to be similar; thus, apoptotic levels depend more on the dose than on the donor. The results demonstrate the potential of this assay as a biological dosimeter. (orig.)

  12. Challenges of analysing suspected over exposed subjects using biological dosimetry at Sri Ramachandra University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshimi, J.; Venkatachalam, P.; Solomon, F.D. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Biological dosimetry based on the analysis of dicentric chromosomes has become a routine component of the radiological protection programmes and has a valuable role to contribute in suspected over exposed subjects who perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, has been involved in the standardization of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter for investigating accidental ionising radiation exposure since 1998. Our laboratory has been accredited since 2007 by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The initial process was to establish the in vitro dose response curve for various type of low LET ionizing radiation. Since accreditation, a total of 61 subjects have been referred to Sri Ramachandra University from SRRC, Kalpakkam. Brief social/medical history and informed consent are being obtained prior to blood samplings. The dose estimates expressed in sievert (Sv) measured by Thermoluminescence badges was in the range of 0.05-2779.05 mSv. Chromosomal aberration assay was used for analysis which allows direct detection of aberration in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The test was performed as per the standard operating protocol on peripheral blood lymphocyte. Currently the dose response curve for the automated scoring process in under way and we hope to improve upon quality and turnaround time using the automation available. Future challenge would be to establish an in vitro dose response curve with automated scoring technique and developing inter-laboratory comparison of dose response generated using automation

  13. Preliminary study on biological dosimetry using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis of human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Lu Xue; Feng Jiangbing; Chen Deqing; Chen Xiaosui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) in biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Methods: Normal peripheral blood samples from two healthy males were exposed to different doses coblat-60 gamma-rays, ranged from 0 to 5 Gy, and the tail length (TL) and Oliver tail moment (TM) of the lymphocytes were analyzed with SCGE. The dose-effect curves of TL and TM were fitted respectively. The TL and TM of lymphocytes for eight radiation workers were analyzed with SCGE, cumulative doses were estimated using the fitted TL and TM equations, and then compared with the recorded monitoring doses. Results: The TLs or TMs of normal human lymphocytes were increased with the irradiation doses, and its relationship can be fitted with a linear-quadratic equations: Y=13.59 + 20.87X - 2.27 X 2 for TL, and Y = 8.50 + 15.04X - 1.43X 2 for TM, respectively (Y denotes TL or TM value, X is radiation dose). The doses estimated with TM equation were closer to the recorded monitoring doses than that with TL equation. Conclusions: The TM in lymphocytes analyzed with SCGE is a promising radiation biological dosimeter. (authors)

  14. Use of FISH-translocations analyses for retrospective biological dosimetry: How stable are stable chromosome aberrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations, in particular dicentrics, in peripheral blood lymphocytes are used to estimate the absorbed dose immediately following a radiation accident. However, difficulties for dose estimation arise with old exposures, due to a decline of cells containing unstable dicentric aberrations. The fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique employing chromosome specific DNA libraries to 'paint' individual human chromosomes has opened new perspectives for rapid and reliable detection of stable chromosome aberrations such as translocations. The inherent stability of translocations over cell generations has enabled them to be used as a biodosemeter. However, due to the limited life of circulating T-lymphocytes, a level of uncertainty exists on the long-term persistence of stable translocations. The objectives of the present work are to present the current state of knowledge on the stability of translocations detected by FISH. The following aspects have been considered; (1) experience so far of retrospective biological dosimetry in humans following accidental and occupational over-exposure, (2) animal studies using mice and monkeys, (3) the influence of subsequent cell divisions on the yield and persistence of translocations following in vitro irradiation of human lymphocytes, and (4) the needs for further work to standardise and validate the use of FISH as a biological dosemeter, and to investigate the influence of various parameters such as radiation quality, dose rate and the discrimination of sub-types of translocations on persistence. (author)

  15. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  16. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-03-15

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  17. Biological Dosimetry of In Vitro Irradiation with Radionuclides : Comparison of Whole Blood, Lymphocyte and Buffy Coat Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Lee, Dong Soo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Kim, Chong Soon; Kim, Hee Geun; Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish mononuclear cell cultures such as lymphocytes or buffy coat for the biological dosimetry of in vitro irradiation of the radionuclide Tc-99m in order to exclude the effect of residual doses seen in the cultures of whole blood. Biological dosimetry of Tc-99m on cultured mononuclear cells at doses ranging from 0.05 to 6.00 Gy, by scoring unstable chromosomal aberrations(Ydr) observed in cultured lymphocytes, were performed using peripheral venous blood of healthy normal person. The results showed that; (1) In vitro irradiation of radioisotope in separated lymphocyte or buffy coat showed trace amount af residual doses of isotope after washing. Residual doses of isotopes are increased in proportion tn exposed time and irradiated dose without difference between I-131 anct Tc-99m. (2) We obtained these linear-quadratic dose response equations in lymphocyte and buffy coat culture after in vitro irradiation of Tc-99m, respectively (Ydr = 0,001949 D 2 +0,006279D+ 0.000185; Ydr= 0.002531 D 2 -0.003274 D+0.003488). In conclusion, the linear quadrstic dose response equation from in vitro irradiation of Tc-99m with lymphocyte and buffy coat culture was thought to be useful for assessing Tc-99m indueed biological effects. And mononuclear cell cultures seem to be the most appropriate experimental model for the assessment of biological dosimetry of internal irradiation of radionuclides.

  18. Supporting Treatment Decisions in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (DTC) under Radioiodine-131 Therapy: Role of Biological Dosimetry Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.M.; Chebel, G.M.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Taja, M.R.; Radl, A.; Bubniak, R.V.; Oneto, A.

    2010-01-01

    Radioiodine-131 therapy is applied in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), within the therapeutic scheme following thyroidectomy, for the ablation of thyroid remnants and treatment of metastatic disease. Several approaches for the selection of a therapeutic dose were applied. The aim of this therapy is to achieve a lethal dose in the tumor tissue, without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues (doses greater than 2 Gy in bone marrow could lead to myelotoxicity). In this work, the treatment protocol used incorporates the assessment by biological dosimetry (BD) for estimating doses to whole body and bone marrow, to tailor patient's treatment. Biological Dosimetry prospective studies conducted on samples from patients with cumulative activities, before and after each therapeutic administration, allows to evaluate DNA damage and repair capacity in peripheral blood lymphocytes. (authors)

  19. The use of apoptosis in human lymphocytes peripheral as alternative methods in biological dosimetry of radiation effects from cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemes, Marisa

    1997-01-01

    Gamma rays affect cells in dose-response manner, resulting in cell death, as in cancer radiotherapy. The ionizing radiation acts by transferring energy, mainly by free radicals from water radiolysis that result in nucleic acid damage and other effects in lipids and proteins, The level of exposure is indirectly estimated by physical dosimetry, but the biological dosimetry can measure the direct radiation effect, mainly in post-dividing cells by classical cytogenetic approach. Recently, it was reported that irradiated cells develop an induced programmed death or apoptosis. With a biological dosimetric technique, we measured apoptotic cell fraction in 60 Co in vitro irradiated blood cells from voluntary healthy donors. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed a low sensitivity, because cell DNA presented the characteristic pattern only when the cells were exposed to 100 c Gy or more. Using a terminal DNA labeling technique we observed that the apoptotic cell fraction proportionally increases with irradiation. Similar sensitivity was observed when compared to classical cytogenetics (3 c Gy minimum detection level). These techniques are easier to perform, do not need cell culture and all cells, including interphase ones, can be analyzed, providing a good tool in biological dosimetry. (author)

  20. Neutron dosimetry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W

    1955-03-29

    This review summarizes information on the following subjects: (1) physical processes of importance in neutron dosimetry; (2) biological effects of neutrons; (3) neutron sources; and (4) instruments and methods used in neutron dosimetry. Also, possible improvements in dosimetry instrumentation are outlined and discussed. (author)

  1. A contribution to the study of the biological dosimetry in clinical radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eston, T.E. de.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of total body irradiation with different radiation doses from a 4MeV linear accelerator on organs and tissues of adult male rabbits were studied. Doses of 0.50, 2.00, 6.00 and 8.00 Gy were applied. Different organic parameters were evaluated before and after various periods of the post-irradiation time. Mortality did not occured for 0.50 or 2.00 Gy, but morbility was greater in comparison with the control; sexual potency was maintained. 'Impotentia colundi' occured with 6 Gy. A small loss of weight occured with 2.00 Gy and a higher loss for 6.00 Gy, with later recovery. Blood parameters varied even for lowest dose. Alterations were evident in the bone marrow activity for 2.00 and 6.00 Gy. Spermatides, spermatocytes and mature spermatozoids were affect even by low doses, the laters loosing motility. Significant difference was observed in the relation DNA/RNA for irradiated-and control animals. The results showed that T3 asssay could serve as 'biological indicator' of irradiation in a period of at least 7 hours and for doses of 4Gy or more. Using the kinetic method, an increase of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) seric levels was observed for 6.00 Gy after 7 hours and a decrease for the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). Fasting glycemy and catecolamines urinary extraction were not statiscally significants. The study of chromosomal aberrations that occur in lymphocytes after 'in vitro' irradiation showed that this is at the present moment the most efficient method for biological dosimetry. (M.A.) [pt

  2. SU-E-T-54: Benefits of Biological Cost Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirag, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the benefits of the biological cost functions. Methods: TG166 patients were used for the test case scenarios. Patients were planned using Monaco V5.0 (CMS/Elekta, St.Louis, MO) Monaco has 3 biological and 8 physical CFs. In this study the plans were optimized using 3 different scenarios. 1- Biological CFs only 2-Physical CFs only 3- Combination of Physical and Biological CFsMonaco has 3 biological CFs. Target EUD used for the targets, derived from the poisson cell kill model, has an α value that controls the cold spots inside the target. α values used in the optimization were 0.5 and 0.8. if cold spots needs to be penalized α value increased. Serial CF: it's called serial to mimic the behaviour of the serial organs, if a high k value like 12 or 14 is used it controls the maximum dose. Serial CF has a k parameter that is used to shape the whole dvh curve. K value ranges between 1–20. k:1 is used to control the mean dose, lower k value controls the mean dose, higher k value controls the higher dose, using 2 serial CFs with different k values controls the whole DVH. Paralel CF controls the percentage of the volume that tolerates higher doses than the reference dose to mimic the behaviour of the paralel organs. Results: It was possible to achive clinically accepted plans in all 3 scenarios. The benefit of the biological cost functions were to control the mean dose for target and OAR, to shape the DVH curve using one EUD value and one k value simplifies the optimization process. Using the biological CFs alone, it was hard to control the dose at a point. Conclusion: Biological CFs in Monaco doesn't require the ntcp/tcp values from the labs and useful to shape the whole dvh curve. I work as an applications support specialist for Elekta and I am a Ph.D. Student in Istanbul University for radiation therapy physics

  3. Biological in vivo dosimetry with an external measuring technique under application of a labelled DNA-precursor (iodine-125-desoxyuridine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porschen, W.; Zamboglou, N.; Muehlensiepen, H.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    The depression of the incorporation rate of IDU in the whole body or in the bone marrow is a sensitive indicator for a whole-body irradiation. It was found that the maximum effect is observed some 4 hours after irradiation. For this reason, bone marrow cells were labelled in vitro with IDU 4 hours after whole-body irradiation. This method proved to be extraordinarily sensitive and resulted in reproducible effects which occurred already at doses below 5 rad. All the other biological methods of dosimetry known so far are less sensitive. Although the theory explaining these results is not yet fully clarified, this method of dosimetry appears to offer practical possibilities of application. (orig.) [de

  4. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  5. Light scattering by irradiated cells as a method of biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostashevsky, J.

    1984-01-01

    Light scattering (LS) parameters between 350-500 nm wavelength have been studied for 2 groups of cells: 1) blood (BL) and thymus (TL) lymphocytes of rats and mice, and 2) Ehrlich ascite tumor (EAT) cells. LS measurements of freshly prepared cell suspensions have been made 24 hrs after x-ray irradiation of rodents (250 Kev, HVL = 2 mm Cu) at doses of 50-900 cGy. A steep (30% per Gy) linear (50-800 cGy for TL and 50-400 cGy for BL) dose-dependence was obtained for the increase in 90 0 -angle LS intensity. Increase in absorption (low-angle LS) was also linear (50-800 cGy for TL and BL) but less steep (9% per Gy). Irradiated cells were the same size as unirradiated. Changes in LS for TL and BL appear to follow the appearance of additional vacuoles which may become new internal smaller-size centers of LS. This suggestion is supported by direct observations of cells with dark-field microscopy. For EAT cells, both 90 0 and low angle LS had the same slope. This slope (4% per Gy) is much shallower than that for BL and TL, and quantitatively coincides with enlargement of area of EAT cells, which could explain LS changes. The difference in LS behavior of the two cellular groups reflects a difference in their early response to irradiation: interphase death for TL and BL, vs division delay for EAT cells. The above data suggest the fast and simple method of biological dosimetry

  6. The Relevance of Chromosome Aberration Yields for Biological Dosimetry After Low-Level Occupational Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Hug, O. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, Institut fuer Biologie, Neuherberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Strahlenbiologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1971-06-15

    The usefulness of chromosome analysis for biological dosimetry has been tested in two groups of persons occupationally exposed to radiation: (I) in nurses employed in gynaecological radiology, exposed especially when handling radium inserts; and (II) in nuclear industry workers, all of which were exposed to external gamma irradiation and some of them also to internal radiation after incorporation of various radionuclides. The total dose registered with personal dosimeters ranged in Group 1 from 0.1 to 91.1 rem accumulated over working periods of 0.1 to 13 years, and in Group II from 1.0 to 18.2 rem accumulated over 1 to 9 years. Compared with unexposed controls, both groups exhibit a significant increase of cells with chromosome aberrations as well as larger numbers of breaks per cell. Dicentrics and rings could be observed in some cells, providing good evidence for previous radiation exposure, since these types of aberrations are extremely rare events in unexposed individuals. No correlation between the aberration yields and the film badge values could be demonstrated in Group II. Also, in Group I the fluctuations from individual to individual are rather high. Nevertheless, a positive correlation to the ''dose'' was obtained. Even a sub-group of the nurses that had only been exposed to 20 rem showed significantly more aberrations than control persons. From the results obtained, type and frequency of chromosome aberrations may be considered an indicator of radiation exposure even at the low doses. The reasons for lack of correspondence of chromosome aberration yields and the results of personal monitoring procedures are discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation: Evaluation of the dose with cytogenetic methodologies by the construction of calibration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Facco, E.; Sarchiapone, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    In case of a radiation accident, it is well known that in the absence of physical dosimetry biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods is a unique tool to estimate individual absorbed dose. Moreover, even when physical dosimetry indicates an overexposure, scoring chromosome aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) at metaphase is presently the most widely used method to confirm dose assessment. The analysis of dicentrics and rings in PBLs after Giemsa staining of metaphase cells is considered the most valid assay for radiation injury. This work shows that applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using telomeric/centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in metaphase chromosomes for radiation dosimetry, could become a fast scoring, reliable and precise method for biological dosimetry after accidental radiation exposures. In both in vitro methods described above, lymphocyte stimulation is needed, and this limits the application in radiation emergency medicine where speed is considered to be a high priority. Using premature chromosome condensation (PCC), irradiated human PBLs (non-stimulated) were fused with mitotic CHO cells, and the yield of excess PCC fragments in Giemsa stained cells was scored. To score dicentrics and rings under PCC conditions, the necessary centromere and telomere detection of the chromosomes was obtained using FISH and specific PNA probes. Of course, a prerequisite for dose assessment in all cases is a dose-effect calibration curve. This work illustrates the various methods used; dose response calibration curves, with 95% confidence limits used to estimate dose uncertainties, have been constructed for conventional metaphase analysis and FISH. We also compare the dose-response curve constructed after scoring of dicentrics and rings using PCC combined with FISH and PNA probes. Also reported are dose response curves showing scored dicentrics and rings per cell, combining

  9. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint; John K. Hartwell; Elisa M. Heber; Veronica Trivillin; Jorge Castillo; Luis Wentzeis; Patrick Sloan; Charles A. Wemple

    2004-10-01

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  10. Collaborative Physical and Biological Dosimetry Studies for Neutron Capture Therapy at the RA-1 Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Hartwell, J.K.; Heber, E.M.; Trivillin, V.; Castillo, J.; Wentzeis, L.; Sloan, P.; Wemple, C.A.

    2004-10-04

    Initial physical dosimetry measurements have been completed using activation spectrometry and thermoluminiscent dosimeters to characterize the BNCT irradiation facility developed at the RA-1 research reactor operated by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission in Buenos Aires. Some biological scoping irradiations have also been completed using a small-animal (hamster) oral mucosa tumor model. Results indicate that the RA-1 neutron source produces useful dose rates but that some improvements in the initial configuration will be needed to optimize the spectrum for thermal-neutron BNCT research applications.

  11. Biological dosimetry intercomparison exercise: an evaluation of Triage and routine mode results by robust methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Barquinero, J.F.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Guerrero Carvajal, Y.C.; Stuck Oliveira, M.S.; Valdivia, P.; García Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; González Mesa, J.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.E.; Martínez López, W.; Lloyd, D.C.; Méndez Acuña, L.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Roy, L.; Lindholm, C.; Romm, H.; Güçlü, I.

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined protocols and quality management standards are indispensable for biological dosimetry laboratories. Participation in periodic proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons is also required. This harmonization is essential if a cooperative network is used to respond to a mass casualty event. Here we present an international intercomparison based on dicentric chromosome analysis for dose assessment performed in the framework of the IAEA Regional Latin American RLA/9/054 Project. The exercise involved 14 laboratories, 8 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The performance of each laboratory and the reproducibility of the exercise were evaluated using robust methods described in ISO standards. The study was based on the analysis of slides from samples irradiated with 0.75 (DI) and 2.5 Gy (DII). Laboratories were required to score the frequency of dicentrics and convert them to estimated doses, using their own dose-effect curves, after the analysis of 50 or 100 cells (triage mode) and after conventional scoring of 500 cells or 100 dicentrics. In the conventional scoring, at both doses, all reported frequencies were considered as satisfactory, and two reported doses were considered as questionable. The analysis of the data dispersion among the dicentric frequencies and among doses indicated a better reproducibility for estimated doses (15.6% for DI and 8.8% for DII) than for frequencies (24.4% for DI and 11.4% for DII), expressed by the coefficient of variation. In the two triage modes, although robust analysis classified some reported frequencies or doses as unsatisfactory or questionable, all estimated doses were in agreement with the accepted error of ±0.5 Gy. However, at the DI dose and for 50 scored cells, 5 out of the 14 reported confidence intervals that included zero dose and could be interpreted as false negatives. This improved with 100 cells, where only one confidence interval included zero dose. At the DII dose, all estimations fell within

  12. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  13. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study; Dosimetria Biologica de rayos-X mediante el estudio de micronucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-07-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ {alpha}D+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study; Dosimetria Biologica de rayos-X mediante el estudio de micronucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, E; Silva, A; Navlet, J

    1991-07-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ {alpha}D+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs.

  15. Extension of the biological effective dose to the MIRD schema and possible implications in radionuclide therapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Prideaux, Andrew R.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2008-01-01

    In dosimetry-based treatment planning protocols, patients with rapid clearance of the radiopharmaceutical require a larger amount of initial activity than those with slow clearance to match the absorbed dose to the critical organ. As a result, the dose-rate to the critical organ is higher in patients with rapid clearance and may cause unexpected toxicity compared to patients with slow clearance. In order to account for the biological impact of different dose-rates, radiobiological modeling is beginning to be applied to the analysis of radionuclide therapy patient data. To date, the formalism used for these analyses is based on kinetics derived from activity in a single organ, the target. This does not include the influence of other source organs to the dose and dose-rate to the target organ. As a result, only self-dose irradiation in the target organ contributes to the dose-rate. In this work, the biological effective dose (BED) formalism has been extended to include the effect of multiple source organ contributions to the net dose-rate in a target organ. The generalized BED derivation has been based on the Medical Internal Radionuclide Dose Committee (MIRD) schema assuming multiple source organs following exponential effective clearance of the radionuclide. A BED-based approach to determine the largest safe dose to critical organs has also been developed. The extended BED formalism is applied to red marrow dosimetry, as well as kidney dosimetry considering the cortex and the medulla separately, since both those organs are commonly dose limiting in radionuclide therapy. The analysis shows that because the red marrow is an early responding tissue (high α/β), it is less susceptible to unexpected toxicity arising from rapid clearance of high levels of administered activity in the marrow or in the remainder of the body. In kidney dosimetry, the study demonstrates a complex interplay between clearance of activity in the cortex and the medulla, as well as the initial

  16. Biological dosimetry of heavy ion induced chromosome lesions in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of different healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groesser, T.; Rydberg, B.; Ritter, S.; Hessel, P.; Kraft, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the presented work the effect of sparsely ionizing X-rays or densely ionizing carbon ions on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from healthy donors regarding the fluctuations in radiosensitivity within the same donor and between different donors was examined. This is not only of special interest for physicians and radiation biologists but also plays an important role in space flights because such fluctuations in the radiation response would reduce the accuracy of the biological dosimetry. In this context, biological changes in the aberration rate of metaphase cells as well as in cell proliferation and the mitotic index were measured. Since chromosome analyses are presently the most powerful biological method to quantify radiation exposure, the study focused on the measurements of chromosome aberrations in first-metaphase cells. The investigations showed that the aberration yield after 400 MeV/u carbon ion exposure (LET = 11 keV/micrometer) was higher than after X-irradiation. The aberration yield in first mitotic cells as well as the proportion of damaged cells was stable over the examined period up to 72h after exposure to X-rays or carbon ions. Furthermore, the results of the presented work revealed pronounced fluctuations in the measured parameters in the same donor as well as between different donors. If the dose effect curves of such parameters were used as calibration curves for radiation dose assessment these fluctuations will decrease their potential of use for dose estimation. This demonstrates that a general calibration curve for dose assessment might not be sufficiently precise and individual calibration curves might improve the accuracy of the biological dosimetry

  17. Biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (CaDT) treated with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, Ana M.; Chebel, G.; Oneto, A.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, A.; Rojo, Ana M.; Deluca, G.; Levi de Cabrejas, Mariana; Cabrejas, Raul C.

    2009-01-01

    The internal 131 I radiotherapy in patients with CaDT is used within the therapeutic scheme as a step post-thyroidectomy. The success of therapy is to achieve a lethal dose in the tumor tissue without exceeding the dose of tolerance in healthy tissues (doses greater than 2 Gy in bone marrow could lead to myelotoxicity). In this work, the treatment protocol applied incorporates assessment by biological (DB) and internal dosimetry (DI) for estimating doses to the whole body and bone marrow to administer a therapeutic personalized for each patient. The estimate biological dose is based in the quantification of chromosomal aberrations, which is referred to a dose-response curve. Objectives: 1) To estimate the absorbed dose to the whole body and bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I therapy in patients with CaDT, by applying three different cytogenetic tests: conventional cytogenetics, micronuclei (MN) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); 2) Assess the correlation of the results obtained by DB and DI for personalization of treatment. Materials and methods: We evaluated 24 patients with CaDiT by applying the cytogenetic tests mentioned and internal dosimetry (methodology Mird-Olinda). Internal dosimetry: We administered a tracer dose 74 to 111 MBq. Measurements were made of activity in whole body and blood. By adjusting the scheme was estimated MIRD dose in bone marrow and the maximum therapeutic activity to manage and secure. Through software Olinda was determined absorbed dose to the whole body for each patient. We considered patient-specific data (physical frame size, weight, hematocrit) to adjust the methodology in each particular case. It is assumed that the tracer activity administered has a kinetic in the body similar to the 131 I to be administered in therapeutic amounts. Biology Dosimetry : We performed for each patient taking 2 sequential venous blood samples to estimate the dose due to therapeutic activity in review: the first shows, pre

  18. Cytogenetic techniques for biological indications and dosimetry of of radiation damages in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetic methods present a proved way for bio-monitoring and bio-dosimetry for persons, submitted to ionising radiation in occupational and emergency conditions. Their application complement and assist the evaluation of the physical dosimetry and takes in account the individual radiosensitivity of the organism. A comparative assessment is made of the cytogenetic markers for radiation damage of humans applied in Bulgaria. It is discussed the sensitivity of the methods and their development in the last years, as well as the basic concept for their application - the causal relationship between the frequency of the observation of cytogenetic markers in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the risk of oncological disease. The conventional analysis of dicentrics is recognised as a 'golden standard' for the quantitative assessment of the radiation damage. The long term persisting translocations reflect properly the cumulative dose burden from chronic exposure. The micronucleus test allows a quick screening of large groups of persons, working in ionising radiation environment. The combined application with centromeric DNA probe improves the sensitivity and presents a modern alternative of the bio-monitoring and bio-dosimetry. It is discussed the advantages of the different cytogenetic techniques and their optimised application for the assessment of the radiation impact on humans

  19. Reconstruction of absorbed dose by methods biological dosimetry inhabitans living in Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abildinova, G.

    2010-01-01

    As a result perennial overland and atmospheric test the nucleus weapon on Semipalatinsk nucler test site (NTS) about 1,2 ml person were subjected to frequentative sharp and chronic irradiation in different range of doses. Besides a significant number of battle radioactive matters tests with radionuclei dispersion on soil surface and an atmosphere was realized also. All this activity has caused the significant radioactive contamination and damage to an environment, and the local population has received extra exposure to radiation. These circumstances have essentially complicated the economy development of the given region. Aim: Reconstruction of absorbed dose by modern methods biological dosimetry beside inhabitants living in region of influence Semipalatinsk NTS. The cytogenetically examination of population Semipalatinsk region, living in different zones radiation risk: s. Dolon, s. Sarzhal, s. Mostik. Installed that total frequency of chromosome aberrations forms 4,8/100; 2,1/100; 2,5/100 cells, accordingly. High level of chromosome aberrations is conditioned to account radiations markers - acentric fragments (2,1/100 cells in s. Dolon; 1,09/100 cells in s. Sarzhal; 0,79/100 cells in s. Mostik); dysenteric and ring chromosomes (0,6; 0,2; 0,11) and stable type chromosome aberrations (1,02; 0,3; 1,0, accordingly). Frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations are indicative of significant mutation action ionizing radiations on chromosome device of somatic cells. Studied dependency an cytogenetically of effects from dose of irradiation within before 0,5 Gr in vitro for calibrated curve standard when undertaking reconstruction efficient dose at the time of irradiations examined group of population. Dependency is described the model a*cos(x) 1 + sin (x), where x - correlation a dysenteric and ring chromosomes to acentric fragments. Dependence of cytogenetic parameters upon ESR-doses had been studied. Had been received dependences: for the total frequency of

  20. Biological effects of radiation and dosimetry in X-ray diagnostics of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Durdica; Beck, Natko; Kovac, Kornelija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Gajski, Goran

    2008-01-01

    The chest radiograms represent the basic radiological examinations of thorax. The basis for radiation protection especially in pediatrics is the exact determination of doses. The risk estimation of genome damages can be received in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline version of Comet Assay. The aim of this work was assessment and quantification of the level of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children during airways X-ray examinations of chest and to compare data to the dose of exposure. Doses were determined using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry and radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass dosimetry system. Twenty children with pulmonary diseases, ages between 5 and 14 years were assessed. Dose measurements were conducted for poster-anterior (PA) projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest and back. We used a 150 kV Shimadzu CH-200 M X-ray unit. Peripheral blood samples were taken from children after and prior to X-ray exposure and were examined with the alkaline Comet Assay. Comet Assay is one of the standard techniques for assessing genome damage with variety applications in genotoxicity testing as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. As a measure of DNA damage tail length was used, calculated from the centre of the head and presented in micrometers (μm). Mean value of group after irradiation was 14.04 ± 1.74 as opposed to mean value of group before irradiation that was 13.15 ± 1.33. Differences between mean tail lengths were statistically significant (P<0.05, ANOVA). In addition, correlation was found between doses in primary beam (measured on the back) and the ratio of tail length (DNA damage) before and after irradiation. Doses measured with TL and RPL dosimeters showed satisfactory agreement and both dosimetry methods are suitable for dosimetric measurements in X-ray diagnostics. (author)

  1. Use of unstable chromosome aberrations for biological dosimetry after the first postirradiation mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloy, M.T.; Malarbet, J.L.; Guedeney, G.; Bourguignon, M.; Leroy, A.; Reillaudou, M.; Masse, R.

    1991-01-01

    The loss of unstable chromosome aberrations after the first postirradiation mitosis makes their use difficult in radiation dosimetry. We describe here a method which, in a cell population observed at this stage, allows retrospective estimation of the frequencies of the unstable aberrations induced at the time of irradiation, and their use as a dosimeter. The laws controlling the behavior of unstable aberrations during mitosis were defined from a large-scale experiment on irradiated human lymphocytes. For cells undergoing the first, second, or third mitosis after irradiation, relationships were determined between the frequency, at irradiation time, of acentric fragments not arising from formation of dicentrics or rings, and the ratio of dicentrics and centric rings appearing without acentric fragments to the total number of dicentrics plus rings. On the basis of this ratio, the method described here provides an assessment of the postirradiation mitotic activity in a cell population. This assessment permitted estimation of the cell distribution and frequency of dicentrics plus centric rings, and of the frequency of acentric fragments at the time of irradiation. The use of this method for retrospective dosimetry after whole-body irradiation under various conditions of exposure is illustrated

  2. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  3. Applications, dosimetry and biological interactions of static and time-varying magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1988-08-01

    The primary topics of this presentation include: (1) the applications of magnetic fields in research, industry, and medical technologies; (2) mechanisms of interaction of static and time-varying magnetic fields with living systems; (3) human health effects of exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields in occupational, medical, and residential settings; and (4) recent advances in the dosimetry of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields. The discussion of these topics is centered about two issues of considerable contemporary interest: (1) potential health effects of the fields used in magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo spectroscopy, and (2) the controversial issue of whether exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in the home and workplace leads to an elevated risk of cancer. 11 refs

  4. MIRD Commentary: Proposed Name for a Dosimetry Unit Applicable to Deterministic Biological Effects-The Barendsen (Bd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouros, George; Howell, R. W.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental physical quantity for relating all biologic effects to radiation exposure is the absorbed dose, the energy imparted per unit mass of tissue. Absorbed dose is expressed in units of joules per kilogram (J/kg) and is given the special name gray (Gy). Exposure to ionizing radiation may cause both deterministic and stochastic biologic effects. To account for the relative effect per unit absorbed dose that has been observed for different types of radiation, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established radiation weighting factors for stochastic effects. The product of absorbed dose in Gy and the radiation weighting factor is defined as the equivalent dose. Equivalent dose values are designated by a special named unit, the sievert (Sv). Unlike the situation for stochastic effects, no well-defined formalism and associated special named quantities have been widely adopted for deterministic effects. The therapeutic application of radionuclides and, specifically, -particle emitters in nuclear medicine has brought to the forefront the need for a well-defined dosimetry formalism applicable to deterministic effects that is accompanied by corresponding special named quantities. This commentary reviews recent proposals related to this issue and concludes with a recommendation to establish a new named quantity

  5. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  6. Contribution of new cytogenetic techniques in the estimations of old irradiations in retrospective biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouzoulet, F.

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: if the translocations are steady: the results have shown that the translocations even if they are not obligatory steady can be used in retrospective dosimetry. Furthermore, it appeared important to consider the complex translocations in view of their relative stability and complementary information they bring ( quality of radiation, received dose). The second question is what contribution of the M-F.I.S.H. in the translocations analysis in comparison with the F.I.S.H.-3: we have shown that the M-F.I.S.H. would allow to raise the whole of doubt due to a partial genome observation. that has for effect to increase the precision of the analysis and that what ever be the received dose. The third question is if there are differences between the chromosomal aberrations generated by x radiation of 50 keV and by gamma radiation from cobalt-60: yes, the low energy photons generate more translocations than the photons coming from cobalt-60. But they generate less dicentrics. this difference comes from the way the energy is deposited that leads to a more important formation of complex and multiple translocations with the low energy photons. this could constitute a problem in the use of low energy photons in radiotherapy. it would seem that the simple translocations rate is not influenced by the photons energy. (N.C.)

  7. Can quantum approaches benefit biology of decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2017-11-01

    Human decision making has recently been focused in the emerging fields of quantum decision theory and neuroeconomics. The former discipline utilizes mathematical formulations developed in quantum theory, while the latter combines behavioral economics and neurobiology. In this paper, the author speculates on possible future directions unifying the two approaches, by contrasting the roles of quantum theory in the birth of molecular biology of the gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In-situ fluorescence hybridization applied to biological dosimetry: contribution of automation to the counting of radio-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain Thomas Roy, Laurence

    1999-01-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations on peripheral blood lymphocytes is a dose indicator in the case of ionizing radiations over-exposure. Stable chromosome aberrations (translocations, insertions) are visualized after labelling of some chromosomes using the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). The study of the use of the FISH technique in biological dosimetry is done with dose-effect curves. It seems that a bias is introduced during the observation of chromosome aberrations involving only 3 pairs of chromosomes. In order to avoid this bias, it would be useful to test the feasibility of using the multi-FISH technique in biological dosimetry. Moreover, this type of chromosome aberration changes with the type of irradiation. It is thus important to define the aberrations to be considered when the FISH technique is used. In order to reduce the time of image analysis, the CYTOGEN system, developed by IMSTAR company (Paris, France) has been adapted to the needs of biological dosimetry. This system allows to localize automatically the metaphases on the slide, which reduces the observation time by 2 or 4. An automatic detection protocol for chromosome aberrations has been implemented. It comprises the image capture, the contours detection and the classification of some chromosome aberrations. The different steps of this protocol have been tested in order to check that no bias is introduced by the automation. However, because radio-induced aberrations are rare events, it seems that a totally automatic system is not foreseeable. A semi-automatic analysis is more suitable. The use of the Slit-Scan technology (Laboratory of applied physics, Heidelberg, Germany) in biological dosimetry has been studied too. This technique allows to analyze rapidly a huge number of chromosomes. A good correlation has been observed between the dicentric frequency measured automatically and by manual counting. The system is under development and should be adapted to the detection of

  9. Activities of Project 'Cooperation and development with Latin America and Iberian in Biological Dosimetry of Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, Nora B.; Taja, Maria R.; Giorgio, Marina di; Garcia Lima, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Olivares, Pilar; Moreno, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria J.; Espinosa, Marco

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 the GRIAPRA Group (Latin American and Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies) was established with the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain. In 1998 began the biennial Collaborative Working Project 'Cooperation and Development with Latin America in Biological Dosimetry', partially supported by the Extremadura Government, Spain, initially involving five countries: Argentina, Cuba, Peru, Portugal and Spain. The general aim of the project is to create an Latin American and Iberian Biological Dosimetry Laboratories Coordinated Group in order to: give mutual cooperation and to other countries if required, in the case of radiological accident; contribute to enhance the technical capabilities of the participant laboratories; promote the installment of laboratories on this field in countries that does not have it yet through the training of human resources and providing the necessary equipment and, finally, perform jointly research activities in biological dosimetry. The activities designed in order to accomplish the project specific aims for the 1998-2000 period have been achieved. Description and results are presented. (author)

  10. The Utility of Lymphocyte Premature Chromosome Condensation Analysis for Biological Dosimetry Following Accidental Overexposure to Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambrette, V.; Laval, F.; Voisin, P.

    1999-01-01

    Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) appears to have a possible utility for biological dosimetry purposes. The PCC technique may be adapted for cases of suspicion of overexposure where sampling is performed at least one day after an accident. For this purpose, human blood samples were exposed in vitro to 60 Co (0.5 Gy.min -1 ) up to 4 Gy and the PCC technique was performed after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of DNA repair at 37 deg. C. Analysis of excess PCC fragments distribution showed an overdispersion and the dose-effect relationship was best characterised by linear regression. Radiation-induced damage was reduced to 32% between the first and the second day of repair and to 42% the following day. Statistical precision of the dose was found to be dependent on the irradiation dose and on the number of cells examined. The necessity to establish dose-response relationships after different periods of DNA repair is demonstrated, and the use of PCC excess fragments yield as a bioindicator should take this fact into account. (author)

  11. Synthesis, biological distribution and radiation dosimetry of Te-123m analogues of hexadecenoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Ice, R.D.; Mills, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis and biological distribution of four Te-123m analogues of hexadecenoic acid in rats, rabbits and dogs were described for use as possible myocardial imaging agents. The heart-to-blood ratios ranged from 0.13 for 3-telluranonadecenoic acid in rats at 5 mins to 6.25 for 18-methyl-17-tellura-9-nonadecenoic acid in dogs at 24 hrs. The biological half-life of the Te-123m labelled fatty acids ranged from 26 to 583 hrs in the hearts of the test animals. These Te-123m fatty acids were retained in the heart longer than radioiodinated fatty acids and have acceptable absorbed doses to the various target organs. (U.K.)

  12. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  13. OEDIPE, a software for personalized Monte Carlo dosimetry and treatment planning optimization in nuclear medicine: absorbed dose and biologically effective dose considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitguillaume, A.; Broggio, D.; Franck, D.; Desbree, A.; Bernardini, M.; Labriolle Vaylet, C. de

    2014-01-01

    For targeted radionuclide therapies, treatment planning usually consists of the administration of standard activities without accounting for the patient-specific activity distribution, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry to organs at risk. The OEDIPE software is a user-friendly interface which has an automation level suitable for performing personalized Monte Carlo 3D dosimetry for diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide administrations. Mean absorbed doses to regions of interest (ROIs), isodose curves superimposed on a personalized anatomical model of the patient and dose-volume histograms can be extracted from the absorbed dose 3D distribution. Moreover, to account for the differences in radiosensitivity between tumoral and healthy tissues, additional functionalities have been implemented to calculate the 3D distribution of the biologically effective dose (BED), mean BEDs to ROIs, isoBED curves and BED-volume histograms along with the Equivalent Uniform Biologically Effective Dose (EUD) to ROIs. Finally, optimization tools are available for treatment planning optimization using either the absorbed dose or BED distributions. These tools enable one to calculate the maximal injectable activity which meets tolerance criteria to organs at risk for a chosen fractionation protocol. This paper describes the functionalities available in the latest version of the OEDIPE software to perform personalized Monte Carlo dosimetry and treatment planning optimization in targeted radionuclide therapies. (authors)

  14. Biological and clinical dosimetry. Progress report July 1, 1964-June 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; McDonald, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The dosimetric studies at this laboratory were initiated with the primary goal of developing systems for the determination of absorbed dose in biological research and clinical applications. The primary method under study is the local absorbed dose calorimeter, a concept initiated and developed by J. S. Laughlin. In addition, secondary dosimetric systems such as ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) are being developed and applied to provide an absolute basis for the evaluation and comparison of experiments, treatments, and other procedures using radiation

  15. The biological response of plucked human hair to low-dose radiation: a measure of individual radiosensitivity and a technique for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, D.

    1997-01-01

    It is often assumed that the effects of radiation are linear with dose and that high dose effects can be extrapolated to low dose levels. However, there are a variety of mechanisms which can alter the response at low doses. The most important of these relate to induced sensitivity or induced repair mechanisms. It is therefore important that this area is studied in more depth by looking at the molecular effects and damage to cells at low doses. It is well known that there are certain rare genetic syndromes which predispose individuals to cancer, e.g. ataxia telangiectasia. It is also probable that there is a large range of sensitivity in the natural variation of individuals to the risk of radiation-induced cancer. It is proposed that radiosensitivity is studied using stimulated lymphocytes from whole blood and the technique extended to look at the effects in cell cultures established from human hair. Radiation treatment of cell cultures established from plucked human hair has been previously advocated as a non-invasive technique for non-uniform biological dosimetry and it is proposed that these techniques are adapted to the use of hair to estimate individual radiosensitivity. The aim is to establish and optimize these techniques for culturing keratinocytes from plucked human hair follicles with a view to study biological markers for the subsequent assessment of radiosensitivity. Preliminary results are promising and suggest that the technique for culturing keratinocytes from hair presents a feasible approach. Results from this primary cell culture technique and results from the comparison of the micronuclei data obtained from the cell cultures and stimulated lymphocytes will be presented. (author)

  16. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  17. Cytogenetic biological dosimetry in radiological protection: chromosome aberration analysis in human lymphocyties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, I.M.A. de.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on chromosomes have been know for several decades and dose effect relationships are also fairly well established for several doses and dose rates. Apart from its biological significance, the interpretation of chromosome aberration frequency associated with human exposure to radiation plays an important role in dose assessment, particularly in cases where exposure is though to have occurred but no physical dose monitoring system was present. Based on the cytogenetic data obtained from seven cases of exposure to radiation the aberration frequency have been fitted to the quadratic function Y= αD + βD 2 as the dose response curves from literature. The dose equivalent estimate by frequency of chromosomic aberration found here was compared with 60 Co and 192 Ir already published curves obtained at almost similar dose rate together with some hematological data. (author) [pt

  18. Development and performance evaluation of a dynamic phantom for biological dosimetry of moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, A.; Bert, C.; Saito, N.; von Neubeck, C.; Iancu, G.; K-Weyrather, W.; Durante, M.; Rietzel, E.

    2010-06-01

    A dynamic phantom has been developed to allow for measurement of 3D cell survival distributions and the corresponding distributions of the RBE-weighted dose (RBED) in the presence of motion. The phantom consists of two 96-microwell plates holding Chinese hamster ovary cells inside a container filled with culture medium and is placed on a movable stage. Basic biological properties of the phantom were investigated without irradiation and after irradiation with a carbon ion beam, using both a stationary (reference) exposure and exposure during motion of the phantom perpendicular to the beam with beam tracking. There was no statistically significant difference between plating efficiency measured in the microwells with and without motion (0.75) and values reported in the literature. Mean differences between measured and calculated cell survival for these two irradiation modes were within ±5% of the target dose of 6 Gy (RBE).

  19. Development and performance evaluation of a dynamic phantom for biological dosimetry of moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, A; Bert, C; Saito, N; Von Neubeck, C; Iancu, G; K-Weyrather, W; Durante, M; Rietzel, E, E-mail: alexander.ag.gemmel@siemens.co [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-06-07

    A dynamic phantom has been developed to allow for measurement of 3D cell survival distributions and the corresponding distributions of the RBE-weighted dose (RBED) in the presence of motion. The phantom consists of two 96-microwell plates holding Chinese hamster ovary cells inside a container filled with culture medium and is placed on a movable stage. Basic biological properties of the phantom were investigated without irradiation and after irradiation with a carbon ion beam, using both a stationary (reference) exposure and exposure during motion of the phantom perpendicular to the beam with beam tracking. There was no statistically significant difference between plating efficiency measured in the microwells with and without motion (0.75) and values reported in the literature. Mean differences between measured and calculated cell survival for these two irradiation modes were within {+-}5% of the target dose of 6 Gy (RBE).

  20. Stopping powers for protons in materials of interest in dosimetry and in medical and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    Stopping powers are required for many radiation applications in medicine and biology. Their accuracy can be critical. Some published calculations for these situations have not included recent developments in stopping power theory or the body of work on deviations from additivity due to phase of chemical binding effects. These areas have recently been reviewed and mean excitation energies recommended for a range of materials of interest. Calculated stopping powers are presented for protons of 0.4 to 200 MeV taking the available information into account. The materials considered are Lucite, ICRU composition muscle and bone, A-150 plastic, a TE gas, acetylene and polystyrene and water and water vapour. With suitable corrections and suitable I values in the Bethe stopping power expression, accuracies of <2% can be achieved. (author)

  1. Analysis of the frequency of mutant T-helpers as a parameter for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nov, S.B.; Minenko, V.F.; Demidchik, E.P.

    1998-01-01

    It was made the attempt of quantitatively estimation of radiation damage by the frequency of mutant T-helpers, i.e. CD4+cells, depleted of T-cell receptor (TCR). The object of the study was lymphocytes of peripheral blood of children exposed to iodine radioisotopes therapy on medical indications. The examined group consisted of 36 patients 10 -21 years old, which were injected from 0,3 to 27,6 GBq of iodine 131. The time between exposition to iodine 131 and the investigation varied from 2 months to 3 years. The results gave evidence about the existence of direct relation between the frequency of mutant T-helpers and integrated dose. The character of the relation was described on the basis of mathematical processing. It was concluded that TCR-test can be used for restoration of the biological radiation dose

  2. Reproductive function and biological dosimetry prospective study of young thyroid differentiated cancer patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Taja, M.R.; Radl, A.; Chebel, Graciela; Fadel, Ana Maria; Gutierrez, Silvia; Normandi, Eduardo; Levalle, Oscar; Kundt, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    The administration of I-131 in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a well established practice. As the spermatogonia is highly sensitive to radiation, large doses of internal radiation could result in adverse effects on reproductive function such as oligo/azoospermia and infertility. During spermiogenesis, mammalian chromatin undergoes replacement of nuclear histones by protamines, which yields a DNA sixfold more highly condensed in spermatozoa than in mitotic chromosomes. The structure of this highly packaged chromatin shows a low binding capacity for several fluorochromes and dyes such as chromomycin A3 (CMA3). The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between reproductive function (endocrine and exocrine testicular function, and levels of CMA3 stainability) and biological dosimetry in a prospective study of 4 young DTC patients treated with I-131. In this context, a background level of CMA3 binding in mature human sperm was established. It revealed a variable accessibility of CMA3 to the DNA that is dependant on packaging quality and thus, indicative of protamine deficiency. The identification of altered stainability suggests DNA damage as well as epigenetic effects, which may be indicators of male infertility. Transient impairment of spermatogenesis associated with an increase in FSH, an altered spermiogram and even azoospermia was observed after the administration of cumulative activities. Overall, testosterone levels were preserved, except in one case, which presented a drastically diminished value associated with an increase in LH level. As peripheral blood lymphocytes and spermatogonia have equivalent radiosensitivity (interphase death) we hypothesize that the knowledge of DNA damage recovery in peripheral lymphocytes could correlate with spermatogonia recovery and with FSH evolution. (authors)

  3. Reproductive function and biological dosimetry prospective study of young thyroid differentiated cancer patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, Analia; Chebel, Graciela; Fadel, Ana M.; Gutierrez, Silvia; Normandi, Eduardo; Levalle, Oscar; Kundt, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The administration of I-131 in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a well established practice. As the spermatogonia is highly sensitive to radiation, large doses of internal radiation could result in adverse effects on reproductive function such as oligo/azoospermia and infertility. During spermiogenesis, mammalian chromatin undergoes replacement of nuclear histones by protamines, which yields a DNA sixfold more highly condensed in spermatozoa than in mitotic chromosomes. The structure of this highly packaged chromatin shows a low binding capacity for several fluoro chromes and dyes such as chromo mycin A 3 (CMA 3 ). The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between reproductive function (endocrine and exocrine testicular function, and levels of CMA 3 stainability) and biological dosimetry in a prospective study of 4 young DTC patients treated with I-131. In this context, a background level of CMA 3 binding in mature human sperm was established. It revealed a variable accessibility of CMA 3 to the DNA that is dependant on packaging quality and thus, indicative of protamine deficiency. The identification of altered stainability suggests DNA damage as well as epigenetic effects, which may be indicators of male infertility. Transient impairment of spermatogenesis associated with an increase in FSH, an altered spermiogram and even azoospermia was observed after the administration of cumulative activities. Overall, testosterone levels were preserved, except in one case, which presented a drastically diminished value associated with an increase in LH level. As peripheral blood lymphocytes and spermatogonia have equivalent radiosensitivity (interphase death) we hypothesize that the knowledge of DNA damage recovery in peripheral lymphocytes could correlate with spermatogonia recovery and with FSH evolution. Therefore, a prospective study on the decline of unstable chromosome aberrations is being conducted, considering the damage

  4. Biological dosimetry of local radiation accidents of skin: possible cytological and biochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Skin erythema or skin reaction is a highly dose-dependent change in skin appearance. A few gray can usually be detected in humans but higher doses are usually required for experimental rodents. The disadvantages are that the end-point is subjective and the response strongly influenced by numerous physical and biological factors. Changes in the levels of pigmentation can be detected in the epidermis and possibly the hair follicles but generally these only become apparent after chronic exposures. The skin appendages, particularly the hair follicles, could represent sensitive systems for detecting radiation exposures, but the cyclic behaviour of the hair follicles is difficult to control or determine in an accident. Acute cell death can be measured in the follicle germ and changes in the thickness and appearance of the hair are easily detected: in severe cases there is loss of hair (epilation). The number of dead cells per follicle section increased at a rate of 2.9/Gy and doses of about 0.2Gy can be easily detected. The width of the hair is reduced by about 7-8%/Gy and this change, which results in a dysplastic hair is believed to be the consequences of cell death in the follicles. (author)

  5. Enhancing Cytogenetic Biological Dosimetry Capabilities of the Philippines for Nuclear Incident Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Celia O; Caraos, Gloriamaris L; Robles, Gerardo Jose M; Asa, Anie Day D C; Cobar, Maria Lucia C; Asaad, Al-Ahmadgaid

    2016-01-01

    The utility of a biological dosimeter based on the analysis of dicentrics is invaluable in the event of a radiological emergency wherein the estimated absorbed dose of an exposed individual is crucial in the proper medical management of patients. The technique is also used for routine monitoring of occupationally exposed workers to determine radiation exposure. An in vitro irradiation study of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was conducted to establish a dose-response curve for radiation-induced dicentric aberrations. Blood samples were collected from volunteer donors and together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters and were irradiated at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy using a cobalt-60 radiotherapy unit. Blood samples were cultured for 48 h, and the metaphase chromosomes were prepared following the procedure of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Emergency Preparedness and Response - Biodosimetry 2011 manual. At least 100 metaphases were scored for dicentric aberrations at each dose point. The data were analyzed using R language program. The results indicated that the distribution of dicentric cells followed a Poisson distribution and the dose-response curve was established using the estimated model, Y dic = 0.0003 (±0.0003) +0.0336 (±0.0115) × D + 0.0236 (±0.0054) × D 2 . In this study, the reliability of the dose-response curve in estimating the absorbed dose was also validated for 2 and 4 Gy using OSL dosimeters. The data were fitted into the constructed curve. The result of the validation study showed that the obtained estimate for the absorbed exposure doses was close to the true exposure doses.

  6. Chromosomal analysis and application of biological dosimetry in two cases of apparent over exposure; Analisis cromosomico y aplicacion de la dosimetria biologica en dos casos de aparente sobreexposicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. [Departamento de Biologia, ININ A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The gamma radiation calibration curve of {sup 60} Co is used which was generated in the ININ Laboratory of Biology to calculate the exposure dose of two workers whose dosemeters marked values above of the limit allowed. The analysis indicates that in a first case, the aberrations frequency corresponded to the basal value, therefore there is not over exposure. The aberrations frequency of the second case is lightly above to the basal value and therefore the probability favors to what the physical dosimetry indicates. (Author)

  7. Biological and chemical removal of Cr(VI) from waste water: cost and benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aynur; Arisoy, Münevver

    2007-08-17

    The objective of the present study is cost and benefit analysis of biological and chemical removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions. Cost and benefit analysis were done with refer to two separate studies on removal of Cr(VI), one of heavy metals with a crucial role concerning increase in environmental pollution and disturbance of ecological balance, through biological adsorption and chemical ion-exchange. Methods of biological and chemical removal were compared with regard to their cost and percentage in chrome removal. According to the result of the comparison, cost per unit in chemical removal was calculated 0.24 euros and the ratio of chrome removal was 99.68%, whereas those of biological removal were 0.14 and 59.3% euros. Therefore, it was seen that cost per unit in chemical removal and chrome removal ratio were higher than those of biological removal method. In the current study where chrome removal is seen as immeasurable benefit in terms of human health and the environment, percentages of chrome removal were taken as measurable benefit and cost per unit of the chemicals as measurable cost.

  8. Dosimetry Control: Technic and methods. Proceedings of the international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutsko, A.M.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Chudakov, V.A.; Konoplya, E.F.; Milyutin, A.A.

    1997-10-01

    There is a number of unsolved problems of both dosimetric and radiometric control, questions of the biological dosimetry, reconstruction of dozes of irradiation of the population at radiation incidents, which require coordination of efforts of scientists in various areas of a science. The submitted materials are grouped on five units: dosimetry engineering, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation impact, dosimetry of a medical irradiation, normative and measurement assurance of the dosimetric control, monitoring and reconstruction of dozes at radiation incidents

  9. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Cern Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00. Closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after the use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  10. Biological dosimetry in astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, M.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the unavoidable presence of ionizing radiation in space, astronauts are classified as radiation workers. I fact, dose rate in space is considerably higher than on earth. Radiation dose absorbed after one day in space is close to the dose received by all natural sources, excluding radon, in one year on earth. Large solar particle events can considerably increase this dose, and could even be life threatening for an inadequately protected crew

  11. Benefits and costs of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.; Ansink, E.; van de Wiel, C.; Wesseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  12. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  13. Dicentric chromosome aberration analysis using giemsa and centromere specific fluorescence in-situ hybridization for biological dosimetry: An inter- and intra-laboratory comparison in Indian laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavani, M.; Tamizh Selvan, G.; Kaur, Harpreet; Adhikari, J.S.; Vijayalakshmi, J.; Venkatachalam, P.; Chaudhury, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate efficient handling of large samples, an attempt towards networking of laboratories in India for biological dosimetry was carried out. Human peripheral blood samples were exposed to 60 Co γ-radiation for ten different doses (0–5 Gy) at a dose rate of 0.7 and 2 Gy/min. The chromosomal aberrations (CA) were scored in Giemsa-stained and fluorescence in-situ hybridization with centromere-specific probes. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the CA yield for given doses except 4 and 5 Gy, between the laboratories, among the scorers and also staining methods adapted suggest the reliability and validates the inter-lab comparisons exercise for triage applications. - Highlights: • This is the first report from India on Networking for Biological Dosimetry preparedness using dicentric chromosomal (DC) aberration assay. • There is no significant difference in the in vitro dose response curve (Slope, Intercept, Curvature) constructed among the two labs. • No significant variation in the scoring of DC aberrations between the scorers irrespective of labs. • The DC results obtained by the labs from the Giemsa stained metaphase preparations were confirmed with centromere specific-FISH for further reliability and validity

  14. The status of the seventh report in the series Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and a revised dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's A-bomb studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douple, Evan; Jostes, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Results of a National Academies workshop and feasibility study led US Governmental agencies to request the Board on Radiation Effects Research of the National Research Council to commence a risk assessment study in 1998 as the seventh report in the series Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR VII). Originally targeted for completion in the autumn of 2001, the study Potential Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose, Low-LET Ionizing Radiation was extended until the autumn of 2003 at the request of the sponsors. Two factors contributing to this decision are discussed: a revised dosimetry to update DS86 for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's A-bomb-survivor studies and the potential for new information to become available from low-dose studies that are under way. Epidemiological and biological data since BEIR V are being considered by a BEIR VII committee composed of 17 members. The committee's statement of task is reviewed along with the major recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on the status of DS86 - recommendations that are being implemented by US and Japan dosimetry working groups. (author)

  15. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis; Dosimetria biologica de las radiaciones ionizantes mediante el analisis de aberraciones cromosomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Castano, S.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1990-07-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y ={alpha} + {beta}{sub 1}D + {beta}{sub 2}D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs.

  16. In-house quality audit and benefits of some quality control procedures in the quality assurance of TL dosimetry system at NRPB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A number of Quality Control (QC) procedures have been introduced into the running and operation of the NRPB personal monitoring services. Those described here apply to the whole-body TL dosimetry system. These QC procedures comprise Quality Assurance (QA) of incoming raw materials and equipment, reader stabilisation, daily, routine and periodic QA checks on all phases of the service. In-house quality audit, periodic internal and external 'blind QA checks' on the dosimetry system as a whole have assured the continuing high quality and reliability of the NRPB TL dosimetry service for assessing body and skin doses of radiation workers from external photon and beta radiations. (author)

  17. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  18. Biological dosimetry after criticality accidents. Intercomparison exercise in the Silene Reactor - France; Dosimetria biologica en accidentes de criticidad. Ejercicio de intercomparacion en el Reactor Silene - Francia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B; Taja, Maria R [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); arn gov ar, E-mail: mdigiorg@cae

    2004-07-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN) organized an international biological dosimetry intercomparison, at the SILENE experimental reactor (Valduc, France), simulating different criticality scenarios: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield source 1 and 2 Gy and gamma pure {sup 60}Co source 2 Gy. Fifteen laboratories were involved in this exercise, including the Argentine Biological Dosimetry Laboratory. The purposes of the intercomparison were: 1) To compare the unstable chromosome aberration (UCA) frequency observed by the different laboratories; and 2) To compare the dose estimation for gamma rays and neutrons. The objects of the present work were: I) To compare the mean frequency of UCA observed by the Argentine laboratory with the mean frequency observed by the participant laboratories as a whole. II) To compare the dose estimates performed by the Argentine lab with those estimated by the other laboratories involved in the second stage of the intercomparison. Overall, the mean frequencies of UCA and the correspondent 95% confidence limits obtained by the Argentine lab were consistent with the results obtained by the laboratories as a whole. For the gamma pure scenario, smaller variations were observed among laboratories in terms of dose (CV=18,2%) than in terms of frequency (CV=30,1%). For the mixed field scenarios, only four laboratories, including the Argentine lab, estimated gamma and neutron components of the total dose and just two (Argentine lab and lab 12) were in agreement with the given physical doses. The 1 Gy experiment presented lesser variations both in terms of frequency and dose than the other two scenarios. For the 4 and 2 Gy experiments, variations in neutron dose were more significant than variations in gamma dose, related to the magnitude of the dose. The results suggest that intercomparison exercises jointly with the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories, in compliance with ISO

  19. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Rossi, Bruno; Graeff, Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Chen Abrego, Felipe; Santos, Adevailton Bernardo dos

    2004-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  20. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  1. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service Tel. 7 2155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  2. Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please remember to read your dosimeter at least once a month. Regular read-outs are vital to ensure that your personal dose is periodically monitored. Dosimeters should be read even if you have not visited the controlled areas. Dosimetry Service - Tel. 72155 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  3. Biological dosimetry of patients with differenced carcinoma of thyroid treated with Iodine-131; Dosimetria biologica de pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides tratados con Iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallerga, M. B.; Rojo, A.M.; Taja, M.R.; Deluca, G.; Di Giorgio, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP). Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fadel, A. [Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Carlos Durand Av. Diaz Velez 5044. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrejas, M.; Valdivieso, C. [Hospital de Clfnicas Jose de San Martin Av. Cordoba 2351 (CP1120). Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mvallerg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The administration of I-131 to patient with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (CaDiT) it is used inside the therapeutic outline as later step to the thyroidectomy. However, the good activity to give is of difficult determination due to factors such as, the variability in the capacity of tumoral reception of the I-131, distribution of the pharmaceutical, physiologic status, other associate pathologies, grade of advance of the illness, and previous treatments. Additionally, the activity to administer is dependent of the dose of tolerance in the healthy tissues; superior dose to 2 Gy in bone marrow, its could drive to myelotoxicity. At the moment, the form more extended of administration it is the empiric prescription that considers clinical parameters and of laboratory for their determination. Presently work, the protocol of applied treatment incorporates the evaluation for internal dosimetry and biological dosimetry to estimate absorbed dose in bone marrow. The biological estimate of the dose of these patients is based on the quantification of chromosomal aberrations whose frequency is referred to a curve-dose response in which the lymphocytes is irradiated in vitro with I-131, allowing to determine the in vivo dose to the patient's circulating lymphocytes. The objective of the present work is to determine the applicability of different cytogenetic essays in the estimate of the absorbed dose to the whole body or specific organs. Three patients were evaluated with CaDiT. Their treatment protocol consisted on a tracer administration of radioactive iodine of 74 - 111 MBq (2 - 3 mCi) and a therapy 7,4 - 11,1 GBq (200 - 300 mCi). Previous to the tracer administration and 8 days post-therapeutic administration took samples of veined blood that were evaluated by biological dosimetry by means of the application of the techniques: conventional cytogenetic Micronucleus and FISH (Hybridization in situ by Fluorescence). Starting from the frequencies of observed chromosomal

  4. Validation of an immunochemical assay for the detection of DNA damage as a tool for biological dosimetry of human exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Timmerman, A.J.; Wojewodzka, M.; Zaim, J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for biological dosimetry based on the immunochemical detection of DNA damage in human white blood cells has been validated. To this end the method developed at TNO (Rijswijk, the Netherlands) was also set up at INCT (Warsaw, Poland). Blood samples of 11 individuals were irradiated with 0 or 5 Gy of 170 kV X-rays at INCT and analyzed both at INCT and TNO. It appeared that in both laboratories damage could be detected to the same extent. The average background level of DNA damage amounted to 1.0 Gy-eq with an interindividual standard deviation of 0.25 Gy. The contribution of the sample variance to the total variance is only 14%. The radiosensitivity showed only a variation of about 10% and can, therefore, be neglected in estimating the radiation dose from the amount of DNA damage detected. (author)

  5. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  6. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  7. Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Wellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mandolesi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence shows that physical exercise (PE is a strong gene modulator that induces structural and functional changes in the brain, determining enormous benefit on both cognitive functioning and wellbeing. PE is also a protective factor for neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear if such protection is granted through modifications to the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration or through better compensation against attacks. This concise review addresses the biological and psychological positive effects of PE describing the results obtained on brain plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms in animal and human studies, in order to clarify how to maximize the positive effects of PE while avoiding negative consequences, as in the case of exercise addiction.

  8. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  9. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  10. AN EXACT GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST BASED ON THE OCCUPANCY PROBLEMS TO STUDY ZERO-INFLATION AND ZERO-DEFLATION IN BIOLOGICAL DOSIMETRY DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fontelo, Amanda; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Higueras, Manuel

    2018-01-12

    The goal in biological dosimetry is to estimate the dose of radiation that a suspected irradiated individual has received. For that, the analysis of aberrations (most commonly dicentric chromosome aberrations) in scored cells is performed and dose response calibration curves are built. In whole body irradiation (WBI) with X- and gamma-rays, the number of aberrations in samples is properly described by the Poisson distribution, although in partial body irradiation (PBI) the excess of zeros provided by the non-irradiated cells leads, for instance, to the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution. Different methods are used to analyse the dosimetry data taking into account the distribution of the sample. In order to test the Poisson distribution against the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution, several asymptotic and exact methods have been proposed which are focused on the dispersion of the data. In this work, we suggest an exact test for the Poisson distribution focused on the zero-inflation of the data developed by Rao and Chakravarti (Some small sample tests of significance for a Poisson distribution. Biometrics 1956; 12 : 264-82.), derived from the problems of occupancy. An approximation based on the standard Normal distribution is proposed in those cases where the computation of the exact test can be tedious. A Monte Carlo Simulation study was performed in order to estimate empirical confidence levels and powers of the exact test and other tests proposed in the literature. Different examples of applications based on in vitro data and also data recorded in several radiation accidents are presented and discussed. A Shiny application which computes the exact test and other interesting goodness-of-fit tests for the Poisson distribution is presented in order to provide them to all interested researchers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  12. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  13. Activities developed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN of Argentina; Actividades desarrolladas por el laboratorio de dosimetria biologica de la Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear de Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radl, A.; Sapienza, C. E.; Taja, M. R.; Bubniak, R.; Deminge, M.; Di Giorgio, M., E-mail: csapienza@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Biological dosimetry (DB) allows to estimate doses absorbed in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation through the quantification of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (SCA and UCA). The frequency of these aberrations is referred to a calibration dose response curve (in vitro) to determine the doses of the individual to the whole body. The DB is a necessary support for programs of national radiation protection and response systems in nuclear or radiological emergencies in the event of accidental or incidental, single overexposure or large scale. In this context the Laboratory of Dosimetry Biological (LDB) of the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN) Argentina develops and applies different dosimeters cytogenetic from four decades ago. These dosimeters provide a fact more within the whole of the information necessary for an accidental, complementing the physical and clinical dosimetry exposure assessment. The most widely used in the DB biodosimetric method is the quantification of SCA (dicentrics and rings Central) from a sample of venous blood. The LDB is accredited for the trial, under rules IRAM 301: 2005 (ISO / IEC 17025: 2005) and ISO 19238:2004. Test applies to the immediate dosimetry evaluation of acute exposures, all or a large part of the body in the range 0,1-5 Gy. In this context the LDB is part of the Latin American network of DB (LBDNet), BioDoseNet-who and response system in radiological emergencies and nuclear IAEA-RANET, being enabled to summon the LBDNet if necessary.

  14. Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food. Scope and Approach. In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding. Key Findings and Conclusions. An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

  15. Dosimetry and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1977-01-01

    Today, reactor dosimetry and shielding have wide areas of overlap as concerns both problems and methods. Increased interchange of results and know-how would benefit both. The areas of common interest include calculational methods, sensitivity studies, theoretical and experimental benchmarks, cross sections and other nuclear data, multigroup libraries and procedures for their adjustment, experimental techniques and damage functions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the latest development in each of these areas as far as shielding is concerned, and suggests a number of interactions that could be profitable for reactor dosimetry. Among them, re-evaluation of the potentialities of calculational methods (in view of the recent developments) in predicting radiation environments of interest; the application of sensitivity analysis to dosimetry problems; a common effort in the field of theoretical benchmarks; the use of the shielding one-material propagation experiments as reference spectra for detector cross sections; common standardization of the detector nuclear data used in both fields; the setting up of a common (or compatible) multigroup structure and library applicable to shielding, dosimetry and core physics; the exchange of information and experience in the fields of cross section errors, correlations and adjustment; and the intercomparison of experimental techniques

  16. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  17. Dosimetry in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  18. Dosimetry in life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-06-15

    The uses of radiation in medicine and biology have grown in scope and diversity to make the Radiological Sciences a significant factor in both research and medical practice. Of critical importance in the applications and development of biomedical and radiological techniques is the precision with which the dose may be determined at all points of interest in the absorbing medium. This has developed as a result of efficacy of investigations in clinical radiation therapy, concern for patient safety and diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic radiology and the advent of clinical trials and research into the use of heavily ionizing radiations in biology and medicine. Since the last IAEA Symposium on Dosimetry Techniques applied to Agriculture, Industry, Biology and Medicine, held in Vienna in 1972, it has become increasingly clear that advances in the techniques and hardware of biomedical dosimetry have been rapid. It is for these reasons that this symposium was organized in a concerted effort to focus on the problems, developments and areas of further research in dosimetry in the Life Sciences. (author)

  19. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of

  20. Clinical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1973-01-01

    The main point of this paper on clinical dosimetry which is to be understood here as application of physical dosimetry on accelerators in medical practice, is based on dosimetric methodics. Following an explanation of the dose parameters and description of the dose distribution important for clinical practice as well as geometric irradiation parameters, the significance of a series of physical parameters such as accelerator energy, surface energy of average stopping power etc. is dealt with in detail. Following a section on field homogenization with bremsstrahlung and electron radiation, details on dosimetry in clinical practice are given. Finally, a few problems of dosemeter or monitor calibration on accelerators are described. The explanations are supplemented by a series of diagrams and tables. (ORU/LH) [de

  1. Assessment of radiation damage - the need for a multi-parametric and integrative approach with the help of both clinical and biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meineke, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Accidental exposure to ionising radiation leads to a damage on different levels of the biological organization of the organism. Depending on exposure conditions, such as nature of radiation, time and affected organs and organ systems, the clinical endpoint of radiation damage and the resulting acute and chronic radiation syndromes may vary to a great extent. Exposure situations range from pure localised radiation scenarios and partial body exposures up to whole body exposures. Therefore clinical pictures vary from localized radiation injuries up to the extreme situation of a radiation-induced multi-organ involvement and failure requiring immediate, intensive and interdisciplinary medical treatment. These total different and complex clinical situations not only show up most different clinical diagnostic and therapeutic aspects but necessarily due to different levels of the underlying biological damage, biological indicators of effects may vary to a wide extent. This fact means that an exact assessment of the extent of radiation damage within individual patients can only be performed when taking into consideration both clinical signs and symptoms as well as different biological indicators. Among the clinical indicators, routine laboratory parameters such as blood counts and the documentation of clinical signs and symptoms (such as the METREPOL system) are the key parameters, whereas the dicentric assay, the gold standard for biological dosimetry, but also methods under development such as the gamma-H2Ax focus assay or the estimation of variations of gene expression have to be taken into account. Each method provides best results in different situations, or in other words, there are methods that work better in a specific exposure condition or at a given time of examination (e.g. time after exposure) than others. Some methods show up results immediately, others require days to weeks until results are available for clinical decision making. Therefore to

  2. Biological effects of 224Ra. Benefit and risk of therapeutic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.A.; Ebert, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Second Symposium on the Biological effects of 224 Ra, held at Neuherberg, was focused on two topical aspects of radiation protection. One aspect was the long-term effects of high-LET ionizing radiations on man and the quantitative data involved in risk assessment at low doses. The evaluation of epidemiological studies and experimental research was discussed in order to provide facts and figures contributing to an objective assessment of the radiation hazard from incorporated radionuclides. The other aspect was that of radiation protection in medicine. In the case of 224 Ra treatment of ankylosing spondylitis the questions of benefit and risk of this therapeutic use of ionizing radiations were discussed, the aim being to achieve the therapeutic effect while reducing radiation exposure - and therefore the hazard - to a minimum. The proceedings contain the complete texts of 23 papers as well as the final round table discussions

  3. Dosimetry of internal emitting: principles and perspectives of the MIRD technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the radiopharmaceutical technology have multiplied the number of radioisotopes with applications in therapeutical nuclear medicine so known as Directed radiotherapy. Assuming the radiation is capable to produce noxious effects in the biological systems, it is important to evaluate appropriately the risks and benefits of the administration of radioactive agents in the patient. The outstanding parameter in this evaluation is the absorbed dose, which is product of the radiation emitted by a radionuclide that is localized or distributed to the interior of the human body in study and whose its estimation helps to predict the efficacy of the treatment. The scheme generalized of MIRD, it was formulated from thirty years ago for evaluating the interior dosimetry at level of organs.The finality of this work is to show the basic principles of the MIRD methodology and its perspectives using innovator tools as the dosimetry for dynamic masses, in particular the personnel dosimetry for the organs of each patient, the dosimetry for the small structures inside the organs (sub organic dosimetry), the distributions of doses in three dimensions (S voxel), the dosimetry at cellular level and the quantitative acquisition of pharmaceutical data. (Author)

  4. How can increased use of biological N2 fixation in agriculture benefit the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    Asymbiotic, associative or symbiotic biological N 2 fixation (BNF), is a free and renewable resource, which should constitute an integral part of sustainable agro-ecosystems. Yet there has been a rapid increase in use of fertiliser N and a parallel decline in the cultivation of leguminous plants and BNF, especially in the developed world. Fertilisers have boosted crop yields, but intensive agricultural systems have increasingly negative effects on the atmospheric and aquatic environments. BNF, either alone or in combination with fertilisers and animal manures, may prove to be a better solution to supply nitrogen to the cropping systems of the future. This review focuses on the potential benefit of BNF on the environment especially on soil acidification, rhizosphere processes and plant CO 2 fixation. As fertiliser N has supplanted BNF in agriculture the re-substitution of BNF is considered. What is the consequence of fertiliser N production on energy use? The effect of fertiliser use on the release of the greenhouse gas CO 2 is estimated at approximately 1 % of the global anthropogenic emission of CO 2 . The role of BNF on nitrogen cycling, ammonia volatilisation, N 2 O emission and NO 3 leaching suggests that BNF is less likely than fertilisers to cause losses during pre-cropping and cropping. Sometimes however the post-harvest losses may be greater, due to the special qualities of legume residues. Nevertheless, legumes provide other 'ecological services' including improved soil structure, erosion protection and greater biological diversity. (author)

  5. Biological dosimetry - a Bayesian approach in the presentation of the uncertainty of the estimated dose in cases of exposure to low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Zaretzky, A.

    2010-01-01

    Biodosimetry laboratory experience has shown that there are limitations in the existing statistical methodology. Statistical difficulties generally occur due to the low number of aberrations leading to large uncertainties for dose estimation. Some problems derived from limitations of the classical statistical methodology, which requires that chromosome aberration yields be considered as something fixed and consequently provides a deterministic dose estimation and associated confidence limits. On the other hand, recipients of biological dosimetry reports, including medical doctors, regulators and the patients themselves may have a limited comprehension of statistics and of informed reports. Thus, the objective of the present paper is to use a Bayesian approach to present the uncertainty on the estimated dose to which a person could be exposed, in the case of low dose (occupational doses) radiation exposure. Such methodology will allow the biodosimetrists to adopt a probabilistic approach for the cytogenetic data analysis. At present, classical statistics allows to produce a confidence interval to report such dose, with a lower limit that could not detach from zero. In this situation it becomes difficult to make decisions as they could impact on the labor activities of the worker if an exposure exceeding the occupational dose limits is inferred. The proposed Bayesian approach is applied to occupational exposure scenario to contribute to take the appropriate radiation protection measures. (authors) [es

  6. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  7. Quantitative autoradiography of radionuclides in biological tissues by high resolution nuclear analysis: application in radio-toxicology and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubineau Laniece, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of radiation damage on cells in living organisms an auto-radiograph, based on the STIC method, has been developed for the particles detection. This apparatus associates a thin scintillator with a photosensitive detector (CCD). The design and the performance of this well adapted tool for low activity biological samples study, are described. (A.L.B.)

  8. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  9. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  10. Hematological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluery-Herard, A.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of hematological dosimetry after acute or protracted whole-body irradiation are reviewed. In both cases, over-exposure is never homogeneous and the clinical consequences, viz medullary aplasia, are directly associated with the mean absorbed dose and the seriousness and location of the overexposure. The main hematological data required to assess the seriousness of exposure are the following: repeated blood analysis, blood precursor cultures, as indicators of whole-body exposure; bone marrow puncture, medullary precursor cultures and medullary scintigraphy as indicators of the importance of a local over-exposure and capacity for spontaneous repair. These paraclinical investigations, which are essential for diagnosis and dosimetry, are also used for surveillance and for the main therapeutic issues [fr

  11. Dosimetry in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.

  12. Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, W.F. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Ossetrova, N.I.; Manglapus, G.L.; Salter, C.A.; Levine, I.H.; Jackson, W.E.; Grace, M.B.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Sandgren, D.J.; Ledney, G.D. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Effective medical management of suspected radiation exposure incidents requires the recording of dynamic medical data (clinical signs and symptoms), biological assessments of radiation exposure, and physical dosimetry in order to provide diagnostic information to the treating physician and dose assessment for personnel radiation protection records. The need to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of suitable biomarkers that can provide early diagnostic information after exposure. We investigated the utility of serum amylase and hematological blood-cell count biomarkers to provide early assessment of severe radiation exposures in a non-human primate model (i.e., rhesus macaques; n=8) exposed to whole-body radiation of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays (6.5 Gy, 40cGymin{sup -1}). Serum amylase activity was significantly elevated (12.3{+-}3.27- and 2.6{+-}0.058-fold of day zero samples) at 1 and 2-days, respectively, after radiation. Lymphocyte cell counts decreased ({<=}15% of day zero samples) 1 and 2 days after radiation exposure. Neutrophil cell counts increased at day one by 1.9({+-}0.38)-fold compared with levels before irradiation. The ratios of neutrophil to lymphocyte cell counts increased by 13({+-}2.66)- and 4.23({+-}0.95)-fold at 1 and 2 days, respectively, after irradiation. These results demonstrate that increases in serum amylase activity along with decreases of lymphocyte counts, increases in neutrophil cell counts, and increases in the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts 1 day after irradiation can provide enhanced early triage discrimination of individuals with severe radiation exposure and injury. Use of the biodosimetry assessment tool (BAT) application is encouraged to permit dynamic recording of medical data in the management of a suspected radiological casualty.

  13. Dosimetry of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahr, R.

    1975-03-01

    Following an explanation of the physical fundamentals of neutron dosimetry, the special needs in medicine and biology are gone into. It is shown that the dose equivalent used in radiation protection simplifies in an undue manner the complicated dependence of the biological effects. The reason for this is the fact that the RBE for heavy recoil nuclei, amongst others, depends on the energy and sort of particle, whereas it is approximately equal to one for electrons independent of the energy. It is thus necessary in the fields of biology and medicine to have additional information on energy spectra of the neutrons as well as of all charged secondary particles as a function of the position in the phantom. These are obtained partly by calculation and partly by special dosemeters. The accuracy achieved so far is 5%. (ORU/LH) [de

  14. Neutron Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding

  15. Neutron Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhavere, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on neutron dosimetry is to improve the determination of neutron doses by studying neutron spectra, neutron dosemeters and shielding adaptations. In 2000, R and D focused on the contiued investigation of the bubble detectors type BD-PND and BDT, in particular their sensitivity and temperature dependence; the updating of SCK-CEN's criticality dosemeter, the investigation of the characteristics of new thermoluminescent materials and their use in neutron dosemetry; and the investigation of neutron shielding.

  16. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  17. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  18. Estimation of dose ionizing radiation exposure by biological dosimetry; Estimación de dosis de exposición a radiaciones ionizantes mediante dosimetría biológica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz Crespo, R.; Moreno Domene, M.; Prieto Rodríguez, M.J.; Lozano Barriuso, M.A.

    2014-07-01

    the Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Radiopathology Centre, at Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, is the only national laboratory accredited by UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and scope to ISO 19238:2004 (Radiation protection – Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by citogenetics), for dose assessment by the dycentrics assay, has great experience with more than 100 real cases analyzed, and several population studies. This paper describes experience and results from more than 20 years of work under the Reference level II Centre for the attention of irradiated and/or contaminated people. [Spanish] El Laboratorio de Dosimetría Biológica, del Centro de Radiopatología del Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, es el único en España que dispone de acreditación internacional por la norma UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 con alcance a la norma ISO 19238:2004 (Radiationprotection – Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by citogenetics), para la realización de estimaciones dosimétricas mediante la técnica de dicéntricos, dispone de amplia experiencia en su aplicación en los 110 casos reales analizados, y en diferentes estudios de poblaciones españolas. En este trabajo se describe la experiencia del laboratorio y los resultados obtenidos en los más de 20 años de funcionamiento en el Centro de Referencia de nivel II para la atención a irradiados y/o contaminados por radiaciones ionizantes.

  19. Advances in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry, the accurate determination of the absorbed dose within an irradiated body or a piece of material, is a prerequisite for all applications of ionizing radiation. This has been known since the very first radiation applications in medicine and biology, and increasing efforts are being made by radiation researchers to develop more reliable, effective and safe instruments, and to further improve dosimetric accuracy for all types of radiation used. Development of new techniques and instrumentation was particularly fast in the field of both medical diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Thus, in Paris in October the IAEA held the latest symposium in its continuing series on dosimetry in medicine and biology. The last one was held in Vienna in 1975. High-quality dosimetry is obviously of great importance for human health, whether the objectives lie in the prevention and control of risks associated with the nuclear industry, in medical uses of radioactive substances or X-ray beams for diagnostic purposes, or in the application of photon, electron or neutron beams in radiotherapy. The symposium dealt with the following subjects: General aspects of dosimetry; Special physical and biomedical aspects; Determination of absorbed dose; Standardization and calibration of dosimetric systems; and Development of dosimetric systems. The forty or so papers presented and the discussions that followed them brought out a certain number of dominant themes, among which three deserve particular mention. - The recent generalization of the International System of Units having prompted a fundamental reassessment of the dosimetric quantities to be considered in calibrating measuring instruments, various proposals were advanced by the representatives of national metrology laboratories to replace the quantity 'exposure' (SI unit = coulomb/kg) by 'Kerma' or 'absorbed dose' (unit joule/kg, the special name of which is 'gray'), this latter being closer to the practical

  20. Green mathematics: Benefits of including biological variation in your data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schouten, R.E.; Unuk, T.; Simcic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological variation is omnipresent in nature. It contains useful information that is neglected by the usually applied statistical procedures. To extract this information special procedures have to be applied. Biological variation is seen in properties (e.g. size, colour, firmness), but the

  1. Cytometric approaches to biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Automatic cytometric techniques for detecting chromosomal aberrations are being tested but will not be used in routine examinations for some time to come. Automatic micronuclei counts are more promising but not sufficiently sensitive in the low dose range ( [de

  2. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  3. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  4. Interpersonal amplification of risk? Citizen discussions and their impact on perceptions of risks and benefits of a biological research facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Brossard, Dominique; Gunther, Albert C

    2011-02-01

    Much risk communication research has demonstrated how mass media can influence individual risk perceptions, but lacks a comprehensive conceptual understanding of another key channel of communication: interpersonal discussion. Using the social amplification of risk as a theoretical framework, we consider the potential for discussions to function as amplification stations. We explore this possibility using data from a public opinion survey of residents living in potential locations for a new biological research facility in the United States. Controlling for a variety of key information variables, our results show that two dimensions of discussion-frequency and valence-have impacts on residents' perceptions of the facility's benefits and its risks. We also explore the possibility that an individual's overall attitude moderates the effect of discussion on their perceptions of risks and benefits. Our results demonstrate the potential for discussions to operate as amplifiers or attenuators of perceptions of both risks and benefits. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants: case studies from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species can have significant negative environmental and economic impacts. Such species are often controlled biologically by means of introducing host-specific insects or pathogens that can reduce the species' invasive potential...

  6. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Marbach-Ad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207 taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III—Organismal Biology is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198 employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136 replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students. Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies.

  7. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  8. Integration of new biological and physical retrospective dosimetry methods into EU emergency response plans - joint RENEB and EURADOS inter-laboratory comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Badie, Christophe; Barnard, Stephen; Manning, Grainne; Moquet, Jayne; Abend, Michael; Antunes, Ana Catarina; Barrios, Lleonard; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Bortolin, Emanuela; Bossin, Lily; Bricknell, Clare; Brzoska, Kamil; Buraczewska, Iwona; Castaño, Carlos Huertas; Čemusová, Zina; Christiansson, Maria; Cordero, Santiago Mateos; Cosler, Guillaume; Monaca, Sara Della; Desangles, François; Discher, Michael; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Eakins, Jon; Fattibene, Paola; Filippi, Silvia; Frenzel, Monika; Georgieva, Dimka; Gregoire, Eric; Guogyte, Kamile; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hadjiiska, Ljubomira; Hristova, Rositsa; Karakosta, Maria; Kis, Enikő; Kriehuber, Ralf; Lee, Jungil; Lloyd, David; Lumniczky, Katalin; Lyng, Fiona; Macaeva, Ellina; Majewski, Matthaeus; Vanda Martins, S; McKeever, Stephen W S; Meade, Aidan; Medipally, Dinesh; Meschini, Roberta; M'kacher, Radhia; Gil, Octávia Monteiro; Montero, Alegria; Moreno, Mercedes; Noditi, Mihaela; Oestreicher, Ursula; Oskamp, Dominik; Palitti, Fabrizio; Palma, Valentina; Pantelias, Gabriel; Pateux, Jerome; Patrono, Clarice; Pepe, Gaetano; Port, Matthias; Prieto, María Jesús; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Quintens, Roel; Ricoul, Michelle; Roy, Laurence; Sabatier, Laure; Sebastià, Natividad; Sholom, Sergey; Sommer, Sylwester; Staynova, Albena; Strunz, Sonja; Terzoudi, Georgia; Testa, Antonella; Trompier, Francois; Valente, Marco; Hoey, Olivier Van; Veronese, Ivan; Wojcik, Andrzej; Woda, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    RENEB, 'Realising the European Network of Biodosimetry and Physical Retrospective Dosimetry,' is a network for research and emergency response mutual assistance in biodosimetry within the EU. Within this extremely active network, a number of new dosimetry methods have recently been proposed or developed. There is a requirement to test and/or validate these candidate techniques and inter-comparison exercises are a well-established method for such validation. The authors present details of inter-comparisons of four such new methods: dicentric chromosome analysis including telomere and centromere staining; the gene expression assay carried out in whole blood; Raman spectroscopy on blood lymphocytes, and detection of radiation-induced thermoluminescent signals in glass screens taken from mobile phones. In general the results show good agreement between the laboratories and methods within the expected levels of uncertainty, and thus demonstrate that there is a lot of potential for each of the candidate techniques. Further work is required before the new methods can be included within the suite of reliable dosimetry methods for use by RENEB partners and others in routine and emergency response scenarios.

  9. Which patients with resectable pancreatic cancer truly benefit from oncological resection: is it destiny or biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis. A technically perfect surgical operation may still not provide a survival advantage for patients with technically resectable pancreatic cancer. Appropriate selection of patients for surgical resections is an imminent issue. Recent studies have provided an important clue on what serum biomarkers may be used to select out the patients who would unlikely benefit from the surgical resection.

  10. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  11. Assessing risks and benefits of floral supplements in conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Wackers, F.L.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of flowering field margins is often proposed as a method to support biological control in agro-ecosystems. In addition to beneficial insects, many herbivores depend on floral food as well. The indiscriminate use of flowering species in field margins can therefore lead to higher pest numbers.

  12. Is 'class effect' relevant when assessing the benefit/risk profile of a biologic agent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterry, W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically predisposed skin disorder, characterised by thickened scaly plaques. Although no therapy is recognised as curative, therapies aimed at symptom control include biologic agents that are generally designed to block molecular activation of cellular pathways of a

  13. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem

  14. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  15. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.; Thomas, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A knowledge of the radiation dose received by different organs in the body is essential to an evaluation of the risks and benefits of any procedure. In this paper, current methods for internal dosimetry are reviewed, as they are applied in nuclear medicine. Particularly, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system for dosimetry is explained, and many of its published resources discussed. Available models representing individuals of different age and gender, including those representing the pregnant woman are described; current trends in establishing models for individual patients are also evaluated. The proper design of kinetic studies for establishing radiation doses for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. An overview of how to use information obtained in a dosimetry study, including that of the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 30) and effective dose (ICRP 60), is given. Current trends and issues in internal dosimetry, including the calculation of patient-specific doses and in the use of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, are also reviewed

  16. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL and phenolic acids (PA. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest studies on the identification and distribution of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from oregano species and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer health benefits.

  17. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Erick P; Picos-Salas, Manuel A; Leyva-López, Nayely; Criollo-Mendoza, Marilyn S; Vazquez-Olivo, Gabriela; Heredia, J Basilio

    2017-12-26

    Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo experiments have related long-term consumption of dietary FL and PA with a decreased risk of incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to summarize the latest studies on the identification and distribution of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from oregano species and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer health benefits.

  18. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from Oregano: Occurrence, Biological Activity and Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Erick P. Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Manuel A. Picos-Salas; Nayely Leyva-López; Marilyn S. Criollo-Mendoza; Gabriela Vazquez-Olivo; J. Basilio Heredia

    2017-01-01

    Several herb species classified as oregano have been widely used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation-related diseases, respiratory and digestive disorders, headaches, rheumatism, diabetes and others. These potential health benefits are partially attributed to the phytochemical compounds in oregano such as flavonoids (FL) and phenolic acids (PA). Flavonoids and phenolic acids are among the most abundant and most studied phytochemicals in oregano species. Epidemiological, in vitro and in...

  19. Contribution of new cytogenetic techniques in the estimations of old irradiations in retrospective biological dosimetry; Apport des nouvelles techniques de cytogenetiques dans l'estimation des irradiations anciennes en dosimetrie biologique retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F

    2007-10-15

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: if the translocations are steady: the results have shown that the translocations even if they are not obligatory steady can be used in retrospective dosimetry. Furthermore, it appeared important to consider the complex translocations in view of their relative stability and complementary information they bring ( quality of radiation, received dose). The second question is what contribution of the M-F.I.S.H. in the translocations analysis in comparison with the F.I.S.H.-3: we have shown that the M-F.I.S.H. would allow to raise the whole of doubt due to a partial genome observation. that has for effect to increase the precision of the analysis and that what ever be the received dose. The third question is if there are differences between the chromosomal aberrations generated by x radiation of 50 keV and by gamma radiation from cobalt-60: yes, the low energy photons generate more translocations than the photons coming from cobalt-60. But they generate less dicentrics. this difference comes from the way the energy is deposited that leads to a more important formation of complex and multiple translocations with the low energy photons. this could constitute a problem in the use of low energy photons in radiotherapy. it would seem that the simple translocations rate is not influenced by the photons energy. (N.C.)

  20. Contribution of new cytogenetic techniques in the estimations of old irradiations in retrospective biological dosimetry; Apport des nouvelles techniques de cytogenetiques dans l'estimation des irradiations anciennes en dosimetrie biologique retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F

    2007-10-15

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: if the translocations are steady: the results have shown that the translocations even if they are not obligatory steady can be used in retrospective dosimetry. Furthermore, it appeared important to consider the complex translocations in view of their relative stability and complementary information they bring ( quality of radiation, received dose). The second question is what contribution of the M-F.I.S.H. in the translocations analysis in comparison with the F.I.S.H.-3: we have shown that the M-F.I.S.H. would allow to raise the whole of doubt due to a partial genome observation. that has for effect to increase the precision of the analysis and that what ever be the received dose. The third question is if there are differences between the chromosomal aberrations generated by x radiation of 50 keV and by gamma radiation from cobalt-60: yes, the low energy photons generate more translocations than the photons coming from cobalt-60. But they generate less dicentrics. this difference comes from the way the energy is deposited that leads to a more important formation of complex and multiple translocations with the low energy photons. this could constitute a problem in the use of low energy photons in radiotherapy. it would seem that the simple translocations rate is not influenced by the photons energy. (N.C.)

  1. Regenerative patterning in Swarm Robots: mutual benefits of research in robotics and stem cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBENSTEIN, MICHAEL; SAI, YING; CHUONG, CHENG-MING; SHEN, WEI-MIN

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective of Robotic Stem Cells (RSCs), defined as the basic non-biological elements with stem cell like properties that can self-reorganize to repair damage to their swarming organization. “Self” here means that the elements can autonomously decide and execute their actions without requiring any preset triggers, commands, or help from external sources. We develop this concept for two purposes. One is to develop a new theory for self-organization and self-assembly of multi-robots systems that can detect and recover from unforeseen errors or attacks. This self-healing and self-regeneration is used to minimize the compromise of overall function for the robot team. The other is to decipher the basic algorithms of regenerative behaviors in multi-cellular animal models, so that we can understand the fundamental principles used in the regeneration of biological systems. RSCs are envisioned to be basic building elements for future systems that are capable of self-organization, self-assembly, self-healing and self-regeneration. We first discuss the essential features of biological stem cells for such a purpose, and then propose the functional requirements of robotic stem cells with properties equivalent to gene controller, program selector and executor. We show that RSCs are a novel robotic model for scalable self-organization and self-healing in computer simulations and physical implementation. As our understanding of stem cells advances, we expect that future robots will be more versatile, resilient and complex, and such new robotic systems may also demand and inspire new knowledge from stem cell biology and related fields, such as artificial intelligence and tissue engineering. PMID:19557691

  2. Regenerative patterning in Swarm Robots: mutual benefits of research in robotics and stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Michael; Sai, Ying; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Shen, Wei-Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective of Robotic Stem Cells (RSCs), defined as the basic non-biological elements with stem cell like properties that can self-reorganize to repair damage to their swarming organization. Self here means that the elements can autonomously decide and execute their actions without requiring any preset triggers, commands, or help from external sources. We develop this concept for two purposes. One is to develop a new theory for self-organization and self-assembly of multi-robots systems that can detect and recover from unforeseen errors or attacks. This self-healing and self-regeneration is used to minimize the compromise of overall function for the robot team. The other is to decipher the basic algorithms of regenerative behaviors in multi-cellular animal models, so that we can understand the fundamental principles used in the regeneration of biological systems. RSCs are envisioned to be basic building elements for future systems that are capable of self-organization, self-assembly, self-healing and self-regeneration. We first discuss the essential features of biological stem cells for such a purpose, and then propose the functional requirements of robotic stem cells with properties equivalent to gene controller, program selector and executor. We show that RSCs are a novel robotic model for scalable self-organization and self-healing in computer simulations and physical implementation. As our understanding of stem cells advances, we expect that future robots will be more versatile, resilient and complex, and such new robotic systems may also demand and inspire new knowledge from stem cell biology and related fields, such as artificial intelligence and tissue engineering.

  3. Chemical dosimetry principles in high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.

    2016-01-01

    In radiation processing, activities of principal concern are process validation and process control. The objective of such formalized procedures is to establish documentary evidence that the irradiation process has achieved the desired results. The key element of such activities is inevitably a well characterized reliable dosimetry system that is traceable to recognized national and international dosimetry standards. Only such dosimetry systems can help establish the required documentary evidence. In addition, industrial radiation processing such as irradiation of foodstuffs and sterilization of health careproducts are both highly regulated, in particular with regard to dose. Besides, dosimetry is necessary for scaling up processes from the research level to the industrial level. Thus, accurate dosimetry is indispensable

  4. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Biological Control Programs That Targeted Insect Pests of Eucalypts in Urban Landscapes of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, T D; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M; Gould, J; Wang, Q; Daane, K; Dahlsten, D L; Mcpherson, E G

    2015-12-01

    As well as being planted for wind breaks, landscape trees, and fuel wood, eucalypts are also widely used as urban street trees in California. They now are besieged by exotic insect herbivores of four different feeding guilds. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the return on investment from biological control programs that have targeted these pests. Independent estimates of the total number of eucalypt street trees in California ranged from a high of 476,527 trees (based on tree inventories from 135 California cities) to a low of 190,666 trees (based on 49 tree inventories). Based on a survey of 3,512 trees, the estimated mean value of an individual eucalypt was US$5,978. Thus, the total value of eucalypt street trees in California ranged from more than US$1.0 billion to more than US$2.8 billion. Biological control programs that targeted pests of eucalypts in California have cost US$2,663,097 in extramural grants and University of California salaries. Consequently, the return derived from protecting the value of this resource through the biological control efforts, per dollar expended, ranged from US$1,070 for the high estimated number of trees to US$428 for the lower estimate. The analyses demonstrate both the tremendous value of urban street trees, and the benefits that stem from successful biological control programs aimed at preserving these trees. Economic analyses such as this, which demonstrate the substantial rates of return from successful biological control of invasive pests, may play a key role in developing both grass-roots and governmental support for future urban biological control efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Methods and equipment for analysis of biological materials; (3) A system of fixed nuclear accident... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...

  7. Dosimetry system 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Gritzner, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    In May 1983, the authors proposed a dosimetry system for use by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) that would incorporate the new findings and calculations of the joint United States - Japan working groups on the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system evolved from extensive discussions with RERF personnel, numerous meetings of the scientists from Japan and the United States involved in the dosimetry reassessment research, and requirements expressed by epidemiologists and radiobiologists on the various review panels. The dosimetry system proposed was based on considerations of the dosimetry requirements for the normal work of RERF and for future research in radiobiology, the computerized input data on A-bomb survivors available in the RERF data base, the level of detail, precision, and accuracy of various components of the dosimetric estimates, and the computer resources available at RERF in Hiroshima. These discussions and our own experience indicated that, in light of the expansion of computer and radiation technologies and the desire for more detail in the dosimetry, an entirely new approach to the dosimetry system was appropriate. This resulted in a complete replacement of the T65D system as distinguished from a simpler approach involving a renormalization of T65D parameters to reflect the new dosimetry. The proposed dosimetry system for RERF and the plan for implementation was accepted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Working Group on A-bomb Dosimetry chaired by Dr. R.F. Christy. The dosimetry system plan was also presented to the binational A-bomb dosimetry review groups for critical comment and was discussed at joint US-Japan workshop. A prototype dosimetry system incorporating preliminary dosimetry estimates and applicable to only a limited set of A-bomb survivors was installed on the RERF computer system in the fall of 1984. This system was successfully operated at RERF and provided an initial look at the impact of

  8. Applications of gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    Gel dosimetry has been examined as a clinical dosimeter since the 1950s. During the last two decades, however, a rapid increase in the number of investigators has been seen, and the body of knowledge regarding gel dosimetry has expanded considerably. Gel dosimetry is still considered a research project, and the introduction of this tool into clinical use is proceeding slowly. This paper will review the characteristics of gel dosimetry that make it desirable for clinical use, the postulated and demonstrated applications of gel dosimetry, and some complications, set-backs, and failures that have contributed to the slow introduction into routine clinical use

  9. Economic Benefits of Advanced Control Strategies in Biological Nutrient Removal Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Nielsen, M.K.; Harremoës, Poul

    1994-01-01

    little regards to the variations in load and biomass activity. However, these dynamics can be evaluated on-line using grey box models to describe the most important features of the hydraulic and biological processes. Simulation studies of plants with an alternating process have shown that control...... strategies incorporating information from the grey box models are capable of reducing the total nitrogen discharge as well as energy costs. These results have a major impact on both existing and future plants. In fact, it is expected that future plants can be reduced with 10-20 per cent in size...

  10. Personal dosimetry service of VF, a.s. company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasek, P.

    2009-01-01

    The VF, a.s. Company will extend its services in the area of personal dosimetry at the end of 2008, which is fully in compliance with the requirements of the Atomic Act, section 9 paragraph (1) letter r) and Decree on Radiation Protection, section 59 paragraph (1) letter a). Optically stimulated luminescence was selected in VF .a.s. as the most advantageous and the most advanced technology for the integral personal dosimetry. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been using in dosimetry for more than ten years. Although it is relatively new technology , its indisputable advantages predetermine that technology has significantly benefited in personal dosimetry services within a short time all over the advanced world. The VF, a.s. personal dosimetry service is based on the licensed products of LANDAUER, the US company, which is the world leader in OSL dosimetry. Crystalline Al 2 O 3 :C was selected as the detection material. All equipment of personal dosimetry service is installed in the VF Centre of Technology in Cerna Hora. The personal dosimetry service is incorporated in the International LANDAUER Dosimetry Service Network, and in the European Union, it is directly linked to the LANDAUER European Headquarters with its office in Paris. As a part of the OSL technology licence, the VF personal dosimetry service was included in the inter-laboratory comparison programme of the LANDAUER syndicate. (author)

  11. Personal dosimetry service of VF, a.s. company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasek, P.

    2008-01-01

    The VF, a.s. Company will extend its services in the area of personal dosimetry at the end of 2008, which is fully in compliance with the requirements of the Atomic Act, section 9 paragraph (1) letter r) and Decree on Radiation Protection, section 59 paragraph (1) letter a). Optically stimulated luminescence was selected in VF .a.s. as the most advantageous and the most advanced technology for the integral personal dosimetry . Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been using in dosimetry for more than ten years. Although it is relatively new technology , its indisputable advantages predetermine that technology has significantly benefited in personal dosimetry services within a short time all over the advanced world. The VF, a.s. personal dosimetry service is based on the licensed products of LANDAUER, the US company, which is the world leader in OSL dosimetry. Crystalline Al 2 O 3 :C was selected as the detection material. All equipment of personal dosimetry service is installed in the VF Centre of Technology in Cerna Hora. The personal dosimetry service is incorporated in the International LANDAUER Dosimetry Service Network, and in the European Union, it is directly linked to the LANDAUER European Headquarters with its office in Paris. As a part of the OSL technology licence, the VF personal dosimetry service was included in the inter-laboratory comparison programme of the LANDAUER syndicate. (author)

  12. Dosimetry of internal emitting: principles and perspectives of the MIRD technology; Dosimetria de emisores internos: principios y perspectivas de la metodologia MIRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G [Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of the radiopharmaceutical technology have multiplied the number of radioisotopes with applications in therapeutical nuclear medicine so known as Directed radiotherapy. Assuming the radiation is capable to produce noxious effects in the biological systems, it is important to evaluate appropriately the risks and benefits of the administration of radioactive agents in the patient. The outstanding parameter in this evaluation is the absorbed dose, which is product of the radiation emitted by a radionuclide that is localized or distributed to the interior of the human body in study and whose its estimation helps to predict the efficacy of the treatment. The scheme generalized of MIRD, it was formulated from thirty years ago for evaluating the interior dosimetry at level of organs.The finality of this work is to show the basic principles of the MIRD methodology and its perspectives using innovator tools as the dosimetry for dynamic masses, in particular the personnel dosimetry for the organs of each patient, the dosimetry for the small structures inside the organs (sub organic dosimetry), the distributions of doses in three dimensions (S voxel), the dosimetry at cellular level and the quantitative acquisition of pharmaceutical data. (Author)

  13. MO-B-BRB-04: 3D Dosimetry in End-To-End Dosimetry QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbott, G. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835.

  14. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  15. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  16. Current trends on internal dosimetry for patient protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gisone, P.A.; Kunst, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The associated risk-benefit analyses in nuclear medicine implicitly performed by the clinician have been straightforward. Relatively low administered activity activities yield important diagnostic information, the benefit of which far outweigh any potential risk associated with the attendant normal tissue radiation doses. Such small risk to benefit ratios have been very forgiving of possible inaccuracies in dose estimates. With the ongoing development of new radiopharmaceutical and the increasing therapeutic application of internal radionuclides, radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine continues to evolve from population- and organ-average to patient-specific dose estimation. Patient-specific dosimetry refers to the estimation of radiation dose to tissues of a specific-patients based on their individual body and measured biokinetics rather than an average anthropomorphic model and hypothetic kinetic. The importance of dosimetry specific-patient considers to avoid the risk of an unsuitable treatment and/or with probability of damage to the patient. This is illustrated by the dosimetric approaches to radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. The most common prescription algorithm to fix the activity administered to a hyperthyroid patient does not consider individual parameters that are highly variable (thyroid uptake, biological half-life, thyroid mass). Its arbitrary approach doesn't permit individually optimized therapy and it may be inappropriate and even hazardous. (author)

  17. [The safety of biologics : a risk-benefit assessment of treating rheumatoid arthritis with biologics based on registry data on mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, O

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is a risk-benefit assessment of treating rheumatoid arthritis with biologics based on registry data on mortality.UK, Sweden and Spain have published evaluable data on mortality. A parallel control group was conducted in the UK. Sweden and Spain used an historical cohort for comparison.Central registries supported British and Swedish research by sending details on all deaths. The variety of possible confounders prevents direct comparisons of the registers and safe predictions for individual patients.The death rate in TNF-inhibitor-treated patients is higher than in the general population but lower than in the control groups with RA. Thus comorbidities are not balanced, the weighted mortality rate scaled down the difference between exposed patients and controls. When TNF-inhibitors are given for the usual indication, mortality is reduced compared to conventional therapy.

  18. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Relationship between biological benefit and damage induction. A synopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Absorption of ionizing radiation in biological tissue stochastically interacts with constituent atoms and molecules and always generates energy deposition (track) events accompanied by bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS are quite similar to those ROS that arise abundantly and constantly by normal oxidative metabolism. ROS effects from either source need attention when assessing radiation-induced alterations in biological structure and function. Endogenous ROS alone induce about 10 6 DNA oxyadducts per cell per day compared to about 5x10 -3 total DNA damage per average cell per day from background radiation exposure (1 mGy per year). At this background level, the corresponding ratio of probabilities of endogenous versus radiogenic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) per cell per day is about 103 with some 25-40 % of low-LET caused radiogenic DNA-DSBs being of the multi-damage-site type. Radiogenic DNA damage increases in proportion to absorbed dose over a certain dose range. By evolution, tissues possess physiological mechanisms of protection against an array of potentially toxic agents, externally from the environment and endogenously from metabolism, mainly against the abundantly and constantly produced ROS. Ad hoc protection operates at a level that is genetically determined. Following small to moderate perturbation of cell-tissue homeostasis by a toxic impact, adaptive responses develop with a delay and may last from hours to weeks, even months, and aim at protecting the system against renewed insults. Protective responses encompass defense by scavenging mechanisms, DNA repair, damage removal largely by apoptosis and immune responses, as well as changes in cell proliferation. Acute low-dose irradiation below about 0.2 Gy can not only disturb cell-tissue homeostasis but also initiate adaptived protection that appears with a delay of hours and may last from less than a day to months. The balance between damage production and adaptive protection favors

  20. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Laelia Pumilla Botelho

    2000-03-01

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing 32 P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  1. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  2. Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis in the Governance of Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Wendell; Saner, Marc; Marchant, Gary

    2018-01-01

    For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures. How many of the new categories of products require new forms of regulatory oversight, or at least extensive forms of testing, remains unclear. Any effort to improve the governance of synthetic biology should start with a rich understanding of the different possible science-policy interfaces that could help to inform governance. CBA falls into a subset of the overall range of possibilities, and which interface is appropriate may turn out to depend on context, on the demands of the decision at hand. In what follows, we lay out a typology of interfaces. After that, we turn to the question of how to draw upon the range of possible interfaces and effectively address the factual and moral complexities of emerging technologies. We propose a governance model built around structures that we call "governance coordinating committees." GCCs are intended to be mechanisms for accommodating the complexities of innovations that have far-ranging societal impacts. The production of biofuels, for example, could contaminate water supplies and have a destructive environmental impact if not managed correctly. The introduction of a gene drive could have economic and environmental impacts that are not restricted to one nation. Forging appropriate means for determining and evaluating those societal impacts, to the best of a corporation's, industry's, or government's ability, is central to responsible research and innovation. Public policy must be shaped in a manner that

  3. Thermoluminescence albedo-neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Storruste, A.

    1986-10-01

    The report discusses neutron detection with respect to dosimetry and compares different thermoluminescent dosimetry materials for neutron dosimetry. Construction and calibration of a thermoluminescence albedo neutron dosemeter, developed by the authors, is described

  4. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.

    2011-10-01

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  5. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  6. Do new Access and Benefit Sharing procedures under the Convention on Biological Diversity threaten the future of biological control? Supplemental material (case studies, natural enemy releases, country views concerning ABS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, M.J.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Brodeur, J.; Barratt, I.P.; Bigler, F.; Bolckmans, K.; Cônsoli, F.L.; Haas, F.; Mason, P.G.; Parra, J.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties [i.e. Access and Benefit Sharing

  7. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  8. Patient Understanding of the Risks and Benefits of Biologic Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Insights from a Large-scale Analysis of Social Media Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bibiana; Dailey, Francis; Almario, Christopher V; Keller, Michelle S; Desai, Mansee; Dupuy, Taylor; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Whitman, Cynthia; Lasch, Karen; Ursos, Lyann; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients' knowledge and understanding of biologic therapies outside traditional surveys. Here, we used social media data to examine IBD patients' understanding of the risks and benefits associated with biologic therapies and how this affects decision-making. We collected posts from Twitter and e-forum discussions from >3000 social media sites posted between June 27, 2012 and June 27, 2015. Guided by natural language processing, we identified posts with specific IBD keywords that discussed the risks and/or benefits of biologics. We then manually coded the resulting posts and performed qualitative analysis using ATLAS.ti software. A hierarchical coding structure was developed based on the keyword list and relevant themes were identified through manual coding. We examined 1598 IBD-related posts, of which 452 (28.3%) centered on the risks and/or benefits of biologics. There were 5 main themes: negative experiences and concerns with biologics (n = 247; 54.6%), decision-making surrounding biologic use (n = 169; 37.4%), positive experiences with biologics (n = 168; 37.2%), information seeking from peers (n = 125; 27.7%), and cost (n = 38; 8.4%). Posts describing negative experiences primarily commented on side effects from biologics, concerns about potential side effects and increased cancer risk, and pregnancy safety concerns. Posts on decision-making focused on nonbiologic treatment options, hesitation to initiate biologics, and concerns about changing or discontinuing regimens. Social media reveals a wide range of themes governing patients' experience and choice with IBD biologics. The complexity of navigating their risk-benefit profiles suggests merit in creating online tailored decision tools to support IBD patients' decision-making with biologic therapies.

  9. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  10. EPR dosimetry - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as co-ordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as biomarkers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the International Organisation of Standards (ISO) as well as those of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (author)

  11. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D.F. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  12. EPR Dosimetry - Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    In the past, IAEA has played a central role in stipulating research and development in EPR high-dose standardisation as well as in coordinating and organising international dose intercomparison programs, within the Member States of the United Nations from the mid-seventies till today. The future tasks of EPR dosimetry seem to tend towards different subjects such as bio markers, biological radiation effects, post-accident dose reconstruction in the environment, and retrospective human dosimetry. The latter may be considered a promising tool for epidemiology on the way to re-define radiation risk of man for chronicle radiation exposures, based on e.g. South Ural civil population and radiation workers. There are on-going international activities in the field of standardising high-level dosimetry by the American Standards on Testing and Materials (Astm), and by the International Organisation of Standards (ISO). The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is considering the establishment of relevant recommendations concerning industrial radiation processing, but also human dose reconstruction. (Author)

  13. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong

    2002-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  14. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  15. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  16. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  17. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  18. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  19. Cellular dosimetry in nuclear medicine imaging: training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardin, I.; Faraggi, M.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.; Bok, B.

    1998-01-01

    The radionuclides used in nuclear medicine imaging emit not only diagnostically useful photons, but also energy electron emissions, responsible for dose heterogeneity at the cellular level. The mean dose delivered to the cell nucleus by electron emissions of 99m Tc, 123 I, 111 In, 67 Ga, and 201 Tl, has been calculated, for the cell nucleus, a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distribution of radioactivity. This model takes into account both the self-dose which results from the radionuclide located in the target cell, and the cross-dose, which comes from the surrounding cells. The results obtained by cellular dosimetry (D cel ) have been compared with those obtained with conventional dosimetry (D conv ), by assuming the same amount of radioactivity per cell. Cellular dosimetry shows, for a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, that the main contribution to the dose to the cell nucleus, comes from the surrounding cells. On the other hand, for a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity, the self-dose is not negligible and may be the main contribution. The comparison between cellular and conventional dosimetry shows that D cel /D conv ratio ranges from 0.61 and O.89, in case of a cytoplasmic and a cell membrane distributions of radioactivity, depending on the radionuclide and cell dimensions. Thus, conventional dosimetry slightly overestimates the mean dose to the cell nucleus. On the other hand, D cel /D conv ranges from 1.1 to 75, in case of a cell nucleus distribution of radioactivity. Conventional dosimetry may strongly underestimates the absorbed dose to the nucleus, when radioactivity is located in the nucleus. The study indicates that in nuclear medicine imaging, cellular dosimetry may lead to a better understanding of biological effects of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  20. Dosimetry in radioisotope placentography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, K.G.K.; Reddy, A.R.; Nagaratnam, A.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide investigation of the placenta is being widely used in recent years for the diagnosis and management of vaginal bleeding in the third trimester of pregnancy. One is, therefore, concerned about the radiation exposure to the foetus during such procedures. In the present communication a precise method of estimation of radiation doses is presented. A concept termed 'effective absorbed dose constant' is utilized to enable the absorbed fractions and equilibrium absorbed dose constants to be more easily employed in radiation dose estimations. Tables of the effective absorbed dose constants for radionuclides like 131 I, 123 I, sup(113m)Tc, sup(99m)Tc, 67 Ga, and 51 Cr, are given for different masses and shapes. Masses of different organs of both mother and foetus at different periods of pregnancy and the biological turnover data for different radiopharmaceuticals are reviewed and typical values are presented. Radiation doses to different organs of both mother and foetus at the 30th week of pregnancy are finally estimated for 131 I-HSA, 123 I-SHA, sup(99m)Tc-HSA and sup(113m)In-chloride. The advantage of the effective absorbed dose constants in radiation dosimetry in general is discussed. The relative merits of different radiopharmaceuticals for placental investigations are brought out in comparison with antenatal pelvimetric and abdominal X-ray investigations, from the point of view of radiation doses. (author)

  1. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  2. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  3. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  4. Complete Biological Evaluation of Therapeutical Radiopharmaceuticals in Rodents, Laboratory Beagles and Veterinary Patients - Preclinical Distribution-, Kinetic-, Excretion-, Internal Dosimetry-, Radiotoxicological-, Radiation Safety- and Efficacy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Domokos, M.; Polyak, A.; Thuroczy, J.; Janoki, G.

    2009-01-01

    The research and development of various novel therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals is a huge demand in many laboratories world-wide. Beside of multiple bone metastases pain-palliation and radiosynovectomy agents a number of specific radiopharmaceutical applicants mainly for oncological applications are in the pipeline. Numerous in vitro methods are available in the first line to test the radiolabelling efficiency, the possible radioactive and non-labelled impurities, the stability of the label at different conditions and mediums, and some specific characteristics of radiopharmaceutical applicants eg.: receptor binding assays, antigen-antibody assays. But, still before human clinical trials there are several questions to be solved in regards of toxicology, radiotoxicology, radiation safety and maybe most importantly the efficacy tasks. All these issues cannot be answered without animal tests. Several decades back animal tests in radiopharmacy meant only standard bioassays in a large number of healthy rodents. Later on pathological models eg.: human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient animals came-out and through them radiopharmaceutical tumor-uptake by the targets were available to evaluate in vivo as well. Xenografts are still popular and widely used models in the field but instead of wide-scaled bioassays nowadays repeated scintiscans or hybrid images (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) are more and more often used to answer kinetic-, excretion-, tumor uptake, internal dosimetry (Minimum Effective Dose, Maximum Tolerable Dose, critical organ doses, tumor doses) questions. Greater animals like laboratory Beagles are more closely in size, clinical and metabolic parameters to the human objects so playing a more perfect role of human medical doctor and especially veterinary patients. Easy to understand that many of the spontaneously occurring companion animal diseases are a good model of human pathological diseases. The need of a better diagnosis and treatment of that animals meets with

  5. Currently Situation, Some Cases and Implications of the Legislation on Access and Benefit-sharing to Biologi cal Genetic Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yi-ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.

  6. Individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. JENDL Dosimetry File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Iwasaki, Shin; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Nakagawa, Tsuneo.

    1992-03-01

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d, n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form. (author) 76 refs

  8. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  9. JENDL Dosimetry File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kobayashi, Katsuhei [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Iwasaki, Shin [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujior; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1992-03-15

    The JENDL Dosimetry File based on JENDL-3 was compiled and integral tests of cross section data were performed by the Dosimetry Integral Test Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Data stored in the JENDL Dosimetry File are the cross sections and their covariance data for 61 reactions. The cross sections were mainly taken from JENDL-3 and the covariances from IRDF-85. For some reactions, data were adopted from other evaluated data files. The data are given in the neutron energy region below 20 MeV in both of point-wise and group-wise files in the ENDF-5 format. In order to confirm reliability of the data, several integral tests were carried out; comparison with the data in IRDF-85 and average cross sections measured in fission neutron fields, fast reactor spectra, DT neutron fields and Li(d,n) neutron fields. As a result, it has been found that the JENDL Dosimetry File gives better results than IRDF-85 but there are some problems to be improved in future. The contents of the JENDL Dosimetry File and the results of the integral tests are described in this report. All of the dosimetry cross sections are shown in a graphical form.

  10. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: X-ray examinations remain an essential and widely used diagnostic tool in medicine and hence the most significant source of exposure to man-made radiation for populations. Patterns of practice in diagnostic radiology continue to evolve, with overall growth in the numbers of procedures worldwide and, particularly in developed countries, increasing importance for complex procedures such as computed tomography (CT) and interventional techniques. In order to maximise the benefits from x-rays relative to the associated radiation risks, there is a need to ensure the prior justification of all examinations and the optimisation of patient protection such that doses are as low as reasonably practicable to meet specific clinical requirements. Accordingly, patient dosimetry is a fundamental requirement in diagnostic radiology. Detailed measurements for the assessment of risks or comparison of different types of procedure require the estimation of organ and effective doses. Such comprehensive dosimetry necessarily involves the simulation of clinical practice using anthropomorphic phantoms, with either measurements in a physical phantom or calculations utilising a mathematical phantom. Simpler measurements for the routine monitoring of dose in x-ray departments can be based on practical quantities such as entrance surface dose, dose-area product and, for CT, weighted CT dose index and dose-length product. Widescale surveys reveal significant variations between departments in the typical doses for a given type of procedure and potential scope for dose reductions. In order to promote improvements in practice, the results of periodic dose surveys in departments should be compared with appropriate standards, such as diagnostic reference levels for adult and paediatric patients, that are set nationally or locally for the purposes of promoting critical review of the equipment and techniques in use. Patient dosimetry should form an essential element of routine quality

  11. MO-B-BRB-00: Three Dimensional Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835.

  12. Interest of numerical dosimetry in radiation protection: mean of substitution or measurements consolidation?; Interet de la dosimetrie numerique en radioprotection: moyen de substitution ou de consolidation des mesures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaye, T.; Chau, Q. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DPHD/SDOS), Service Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ferragut, A.; Gillot, J.Y. [SAPHYMO, 91 - Massy (France)

    2003-07-01

    The use of calculation codes allows to reduce the costs and the time limits. These codes brings to operators elements to reinforce their projected dosimetry. In the cases of accidental overexposure, the numerical dosimetry comes in complement of clinical and biological investigations to give an estimation as precise as possible of the received dose. For particular situations where it does not exist an adapted instrumentation, the numerical dosimetry can substitute to conventional techniques used by regulatory dosimetry (project for aviation personnel). (N.C.)

  13. Image in nuclear dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinsburg, G.; Matsuoka, M.; Watanabe, S.

    1987-01-01

    A low cost methodology to produce images of internal sick organs by radioisotopic intake, is presented. Dosimetries of thermoluminescent material and Teflon (ratio:50%) in bidimensional matrix shape are used with a Pb collimator. This collimator-bidimensional matrix system was tested ''in vivo'' and in thyroid phantoms using 99m Tc. A comparative evaluation between this method and the scintigraphy one is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Radiotherapy Based On α Emitting Radionuclides: Geant4 For Dosimetry And Micro-/Nano-Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guatelli, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Possible physics approaches to evaluate the efficacy of TAT are dosimetry, microdosimetry and nanodosimetry. Dosimetry is adequate when mean absorbed dose to a macroscopic target volume is important to understand the biological effect of radiation. General purpose Monte Carlo (MC) codes, based on condensed history approach, are a very useful, cost effective tool to solve dosimetric problems. The condensed history approach is based on the use of multiple scattering theories to calculate the energy losses and angular changes in the direction of the particle. The short α particle range and high LET make the microdosimetric approach more suitable than dosimetry to study TAT from first physics principles, as this approach takes into account the stochastic nature of energy deposition at cellular level

  15. Fast neutron dosimetry: Progress summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the radiological physics and biology of very low energy photons derived from a 1-GeV electron synchrotron storage ring. An extensive beam line and irradiation apparatus was designed, developed, and constructed. Dosimetry measurements required invention and testing of a miniature absolute calorimeter and a cell irradiation fixture suitable for scanning exposures under computer control. Measurements of the kerma factors of oxygen, aluminum and silicon for 14-20 MeV neutrons. Custom designed miniature proportional counters of cylindrical symmetry were employed in these determinations. The oxygen kerma factor was found significantly lower than values calculated from microscopic cross sections. We also tested Mg and Fe walled conventional spherical counters. The direct neutron-counting gas interaction is significant enough for these counters that a correction is needed. We also investigated the application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to radiation dosimetry. Our purpose was to take advantage of recent development of very high-field magnets, complex RF-pulse techniques for solvent suppression, and improved spectral analysis techniques

  16. SFPM opinion on the so-called 'transit' in vivo dosimetry in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Lucie; Dupuis, Pauline; Marchesi, Vincent; Boutry, Christine; Francois, Pascal; Crespin, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Written to the demand of the ASN to the SFPM (the French professional body in medical physics), this report states the opinion of these professionals regarding the use of the so-called 'transit' dosimetry for the control of the in vivo dose received during radiotherapy. After an overview of the use of in vivo dosimetry in medical practices, the authors outline the main benefits and drawbacks of point conventional detectors used for this dosimetry. They propose an overview of the state-of-the-art in transit in vivo dosimetry by briefly describing the different developed methodologies: the prediction-based methodology and the rear projection methodology. They also propose a literature review on transit in vivo dosimetry. Based on expert experience and on this review they give lists of technical benefits and drawbacks of techniques of in vivo dosimetry by EPID transit imagery. They finally indicate some commercially available technical solutions to transit in vivo dosimetry

  17. Proposal for an experiment at the SIN: contribution on πE3-beam dosimetry. Measurement of particle spectra after pion absorption in biologically interesting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, H.; Boehmer, V.; Bueche, G.; Kluge, W.; Matthay, H.

    It is proposed to measure the energy spectra of light charged particles (protons, deuterons, tritons, 3 He- and 4 He-nuclei) and of neutrons, after the absorption of stopped pions in the biologically interesting hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen nuclei. In addition, the relative particle yield will be examined in tissue-like targets such as polyethylene, plexiglas, and water. Furthermore, it is proposed to measure the coincidence spectra of two particles emitted after absorption, as a function of the angle between their impulses. In the case of a pure three-body decay, these examinations may open the possibility of drawing conclusions about the heavy recoil nuclei arising during pion absorption. Particle energy and type will be determined by a combined time-of-flight/energy measurement with totally absorbent NaI or plastic detectors. The HF signal will serve as a start signal for time-of-flight measurements

  18. Dosimetry applied to radiology and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus

    2010-01-01

    Full text. The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are increasing worldwide, and the population doses increase as well. The actual radiation protection philosophy is based on the balance of risks and benefits related to the practices, and patient dosimetry has an important role in the implementation of this point of view. In radiology the goal is to obtain an image with diagnostic quality with the minimum patient dose. In modern Radiotherapy the cure indexes are higher, giving rise to longer survival times to the patients. Dosimetry in radiotherapy helps the treatment planning systems to get a better protection to critical organs, with higher doses to the tumor, with a guarantee of better life quality to the patient. We will talk about the new trends in dosimetry of medical procedures, including experimental techniques and calculation tools developed to increase reliability and precision of dose determination. In radiology the main concerns of dosimetry are: the transition from film- radiography to digital image, the pediatric patient doses, and the choice of dosimetric quantities to quantify fluoroscopy and tomography patient doses. As far as Radiotherapy is concerned, there is a search for good experimental techniques to quantify doses to tissues adjacent to the target volumes in patients treated with new radiotherapy techniques, as IMRT and heavy particle therapy. (author)

  19. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact

  20. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion bin Salikin.

    1983-01-01

    A secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has been established in the Tun Ismail Research Centre, Malaysia as a national laboratory for reference and standardization purposes in the field of radiation dosimetry. This article gives brief accounts on the general information, development of the facility, programmes to be carried out as well as other information on the relevant aspects of the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. (author)

  1. Coming out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual,…

  2. Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, E. A.; Bakhanova, E.; Barquinero, J. F.; Brai, M.; Chumak, V.; Correcher, V.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gruel, G.; Guclu, I.; Horn, S.; Jaworska, A.; Kulka, U.; Lindholm, C.; Lloyd, D.; Longo, A.; Marrale, M.; Monteiro Gil, O.; Oestreicher, U.; Pajic, J.; Rakic, B.; Romm, H.; Trompier, F.; Veronese, I.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Whitehouse, C. A.; Wieser, A.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.; Rothkamm, K.

    2011-01-01

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. (authors)

  3. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  4. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Emiliano; Miller, Marcelo; Thorp, Silvia I.; Heber, Elisa M.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Zarza, Leandro; Estryk, Guillermo; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7 Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6 Li 2 CO 3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author) [es

  5. Interest of numerical dosimetry in radiation protection: mean of substitution or measurements consolidation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaye, T.; Chau, Q.; Ferragut, A.; Gillot, J.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The use of calculation codes allows to reduce the costs and the time limits. These codes brings to operators elements to reinforce their projected dosimetry. In the cases of accidental overexposure, the numerical dosimetry comes in complement of clinical and biological investigations to give an estimation as precise as possible of the received dose. For particular situations where it does not exist an adapted instrumentation, the numerical dosimetry can substitute to conventional techniques used by regulatory dosimetry (project for aviation personnel). (N.C.)

  6. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  7. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  8. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1998-01-01

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  9. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  10. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  11. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  12. Glucinium dosimetry in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.

    1949-05-01

    The application of the method developed by Kolthoff and Sandell (1928) for the dosimetry of glucinium (beryllium) in beryl gives non-reproducible results with up to 20% discrepancies. This method recommends to separate beryllium and aluminium using 8 hydroxyquinoline and then to directly precipitate glucinium in the filtrate using ammonia. One possible reason of the problems generated by this method should be the formation of a volatile complex between beryllium and the oxine. This work shows that when the oxine is eliminated before the precipitation with ammonia the dosimetry of beryllium becomes accurate. The destruction of the oxine requires the dry evaporation of the filtrate, which is a long process. Thus the search for a reagent allowing the quantitative precipitation of beryllium in its solutions and in presence of oxine has been made. It has been verified also that the quantitative precipitation of the double beryllium and ammonium phosphate is not disturbed by the oxine in acetic buffer. This method, which gives good results, has also the advantage to separate beryllium from the alkaline-earth compounds still present in the filtrate. The report details the operation mode of the method: beryllium dosimetry using ammonium phosphate, aluminium-beryllium separation, application to beryl dosimetry (ore processing, insolubilization of silica, precipitation with ammonia, precipitation with oxine, precipitation of PO 4 NH 4 Gl, preciseness). (J.S.)

  13. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  14. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  15. External dosimetry - Applications to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry is the essential component of radiation protection. It allows to determine by calculation and measurement the absorbed dose value, i.e. the energy amounts deposited in matter by ionizing radiations. It deals also with the irradiation effects on living organisms and with their biological consequences. This reference book gathers all the necessary information to understand and master the external dosimetry and the metrology of ionizing radiations, from the effects of radiations to the calibration of radiation protection devices. The first part is devoted to physical dosimetry and allows to obtain in a rigorous manner the mathematical formalisms leading to the absorbed dose for different ionizing radiation fields. The second part presents the biological effects of ionizing radiations on living matter and the determination of a set of specific radiation protection concepts and data to express the 'risk' to develop a radio-induced cancer. The third part deals with the metrology of ionizing radiations through the standardized study of the methods used for the calibration of radiation protection equipments. Some practical exercises with their corrections are proposed at the end of each chapter

  16. Coming Out in Class: Challenges and Benefits of Active Learning in a Biology Classroom for LGBTQIA Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M; Brownell, Sara E

    As we transition our undergraduate biology classrooms from traditional lectures to active learning, the dynamics among students become more important. These dynamics can be influenced by student social identities. One social identity that has been unexamined in the context of undergraduate biology is the spectrum of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) identities. In this exploratory interview study, we probed the experiences and perceptions of seven students who identify as part of the LGBTQIA community. We found that students do not always experience the undergraduate biology classroom to be a welcoming or accepting place for their identities. In contrast to traditional lectures, active-learning classes increase the relevance of their LGBTQIA identities due to the increased interactions among students during group work. Finally, working with other students in active-learning classrooms can present challenges and opportunities for students considering their LGBTQIA identity. These findings indicate that these students' LGBTQIA identities are affecting their experience in the classroom and that there may be specific instructional practices that can mitigate some of the possible obstacles. We hope that this work can stimulate discussions about how to broadly make our active-learning biology classes more inclusive of this specific population of students. © 2016 K. M. Cooper and S. E. Brownell. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ''The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.'' The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers

  18. Textbook of dosimetry. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    This textbook of dosimetry is devoted to the students in physics and technical physics of high education institutions, confronted with different application of atomic energy as well as with protection of population and environment against ionizing radiations. Atomic energy is highly beneficial for man but unfortunately incorporates potential dangers which manifest in accidents, the source of which is either insufficient training of the personnel, a criminal negligence or insufficient reliability of the nuclear facilities. The majority of the incident and accident events have had as origin the personnel errors. This was the case with both the 'Three Miles Island' (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) NPP accidents. The dosimetry science acquires a vital significance in accident situations since the data obtained by its procedures are essential in choosing the correct immediate actions, behaviour tactics, orientation of liquidation of accident consequences as well as in ensuring the health of population. An important accent is placed in this manual on clarification of the nature of physical processes taken place in dosimetric detectors, in establishing the relation between radiation field characteristics and the detector response as well as in defining different dosimetric quantities. The terminology and the units of physical quantities is based on the international system of units. The book contains the following 15 chapters: 1. Ionizing radiation field; 2. Radiation doses; 3. Physical bases of gamma radiation dosimetry; 4. Ionization dosimetric detectors; 5. Semiconductor dosimetric detectors; 6. Scintillation detection in the gamma radiation dosimetry; 7. Luminescent methods in dosimetry; 8. The photographic and chemical methods of gamma radiation dosimetry; 9. Neutron dosimetry; 10. Dosimetry of high intensity radiation; 11. Dosimetry of high energy Bremsstrahlung; 12. Measurement of the linear energy transfer; 13. Microdosimetry; 14. Dosimetry of incorporated

  19. Delivering The Benefits of Chemical-Biological Integration in Computational Toxicology at the EPA (ACS Fall meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Researchers at the EPA’s National Center for Computational Toxicology integrate advances in biology, chemistry, and computer science to examine the toxicity of chemicals and help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. The intent...

  20. The Benefits of Mouse Keeping--An Empirical Study on Students' Flow and Intrinsic Motivation in Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annika; Klingenberg, Konstantin; Wilde, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Contact with living animals is an exceptional possibility within biology education to facilitate an intense immersion into the study topic and even allow for a flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Further, it might affect the perceptions of the students' basic needs for autonomy and competence and thereby their quality of motivation (Deci and…

  1. Cost-benefit analysis for biological control programs that target insects pests of eucalypts in urban landscapes of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.D. Paine; J.G. Millar; L.M. Hanks; J. Gould; Q. Wang; K. Daane; D.L. Dahlsten; E.G. McPherson

    2015-01-01

    As well as being planted for wind breaks, landscape trees, and fuel wood, eucalypts are also widely used as urban street trees in California. They now are besieged by exotic insect herbivores of four different feeding guilds. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the return on investment from biological control programs that have targeted these pests....

  2. Protocol for X-ray dosimetry and exposure arrangements employed in studies of late somatic effects in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Broerse, J.J.; Scarpa, G.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    A number of European laboratories studying the late effects of ionizing radiation in animals have established an effective cooperation within the European Late Effects Project Group (EULEP) since 1970. To facilitate the exchange of biological results several techniques, including quality control of the experimental animals, pathology and dosimetry, have to be standardized. The most important aspects of the procedures for X-irradiation and dosimetry of small animals are summarized. These include recommendations on irradiation conditions, dosimetry methods, characteristics of phantoms and factors affecting X-ray dosimetry. X-irradiation procedures employed by the participating institutes are described and the results of five X-ray dosimetry intercomparisons are reported. The introduction of a common dosimetry protocol has resulted in improvements in exposure arrangements and absolute dosimetry. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the III international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry (15 years after the Chernobyl accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.; Chudakov, V.A.; Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2001-10-01

    Materials grouped to three main issues: normative, metrological and technical support of dosimetric and radiometric control; biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects; monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents

  4. Development of technology for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Lee, Kang Sik; Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Shim, Hye Won; Park, Seon Young.

    1997-07-01

    Adult male rats were treated a single, whole body exposure to a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 Gy. The animal were sacrificed 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 212 hours following exposure. Enzyme activity changes such as alkaline phosphatase, GOT, creating kinase, MDH and LDH in rat serum as biochemical indicators useful for evaluating radiation exposure were measured. An competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to measure acute phase reactants (APRs) in rat serum after gamma-irradiation. Rat alpha-2 macroglobulin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin were purified from the plasma of turpentine treated rats. In vitro somatic mutation induced by gamma-irradiation and pentachlorophenol (PCP) which is representative of chemical pollutant was measured at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphorybosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in human T-lymphocytes by a cell cloning assay. Mutant cells were selected by their ability to form a clone in the presence of purine analogue 6-thioguanine. Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction technique was needed for the mutation spectrum to discriminate combined exposure to radiation and chemicals. (author). 98 refs., 7 tabs., 47 figs

  5. Development of technology for biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Lee, Kang Sik; Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Shim, Hye Won; Park, Seon Young

    1997-07-01

    Adult male rats were treated a single, whole body exposure to a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 Gy. The animal were sacrificed 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 212 hours following exposure. Enzyme activity changes such as alkaline phosphatase, GOT, creating kinase, MDH and LDH in rat serum as biochemical indicators useful for evaluating radiation exposure were measured. An competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to measure acute phase reactants (APRs) in rat serum after gamma-irradiation. Rat alpha-2 macroglobulin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin were purified from the plasma of turpentine treated rats. In vitro somatic mutation induced by gamma-irradiation and pentachlorophenol (PCP) which is representative of chemical pollutant was measured at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphorybosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in human T-lymphocytes by a cell cloning assay. Mutant cells were selected by their ability to form a clone in the presence of purine analogue 6-thioguanine. Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction technique was needed for the mutation spectrum to discriminate combined exposure to radiation and chemicals. (author). 98 refs., 7 tabs., 47 figs.

  6. Experimental IMRT breast dosimetry in a thorax phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Elsa B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Lima, Andre C.S., E-mail: elsabpimenta@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: lucibn19@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Tratamento em Radioterapia, Betim, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential therapeutic method. RT is often used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. The dose-volume restrictions of the organs at risk limit the prescribed dose to the target volume and biological and clinical effects may influence the final treatment outcome. The breast RT provides large risks to the adjacent organs and consequently the recommended dosimetry to the prescribed dose volume (PTV) is 50 Gy, lower than the most prescribed dose in other treatments (70-85 Gy). Such values implies in less tumor control compared to other sites. The present research proposal aimed to measure absorbed dose in a thorax phantom with synthetic breasts provided by an Intensity-Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) protocol in a RT center. On the methodology, IMRT protocol was selected following recommendations from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiochromic films and a thorax simulator were prepared by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI). Dosimeters were calibrated on a selected linear accelerator (LINAC). The comparison of the dosimetry from treatment planning system (TPS), Xio (Elekta) and from experimental data was performed. The spatial distribution of the breast internal dose and in the adjacent organs was depicted by the experimental data. In the film's calibration, the quadratic polynomial fit presented a satisfactory coefficient. Two-dimensional dose profiles were obtained in the breast suggesting that films can supply details and information that TPS does not provide. At the phantom's dosimetry, the internal mean doses taken at the synthetic breast presented usual values above the prescribed dose, besides overall values were within the dosimetric MSKCC criterion. The non full reproduction of the build-up region in the films had occurred due to the asymmetrical positioning of the films in the inner breast, in addition to their non constant distance from the skin. The hot regions were present may

  7. Experimental IMRT breast dosimetry in a thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Elsa B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Lima, Andre C.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential therapeutic method. RT is often used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. The dose-volume restrictions of the organs at risk limit the prescribed dose to the target volume and biological and clinical effects may influence the final treatment outcome. The breast RT provides large risks to the adjacent organs and consequently the recommended dosimetry to the prescribed dose volume (PTV) is 50 Gy, lower than the most prescribed dose in other treatments (70-85 Gy). Such values implies in less tumor control compared to other sites. The present research proposal aimed to measure absorbed dose in a thorax phantom with synthetic breasts provided by an Intensity-Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) protocol in a RT center. On the methodology, IMRT protocol was selected following recommendations from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiochromic films and a thorax simulator were prepared by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI). Dosimeters were calibrated on a selected linear accelerator (LINAC). The comparison of the dosimetry from treatment planning system (TPS), Xio (Elekta) and from experimental data was performed. The spatial distribution of the breast internal dose and in the adjacent organs was depicted by the experimental data. In the film's calibration, the quadratic polynomial fit presented a satisfactory coefficient. Two-dimensional dose profiles were obtained in the breast suggesting that films can supply details and information that TPS does not provide. At the phantom's dosimetry, the internal mean doses taken at the synthetic breast presented usual values above the prescribed dose, besides overall values were within the dosimetric MSKCC criterion. The non full reproduction of the build-up region in the films had occurred due to the asymmetrical positioning of the films in the inner breast, in addition to their non constant distance from the skin. The hot regions were present may be due to

  8. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  9. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  10. Bio-dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Kristova, R.; Stainova, A.; Deleva, S.; Popova, L.; Georgieva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The impact of ionizing radiation in medical, occupational and accidental human exposure leads to adverse side effects such as increased mortality and carcinogenesis. Information about the level of absorbed dose is important for risk assessment and for implementation of appropriate therapy. In most cases of actual or suspected exposure to ionizing radiation biological dosimetry is the only way to assess the absorbed dose. What you will learn: In this work we discuss the methods for biodosimetry and technological developments in their application in various emergency situations. The application of biological dosimetry and assessment of the influence of external factors in the conduct of epidemiological studies of radiation effects in protracted low-dose ionizing radiation on humans is presented. Discussion: The results of cytogenetic analysis and biological evaluation of absorbed dose based on the analysis of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes of five people injured in a severe radiation accident in Bulgaria in 2011 are presented. The assessed individual doses of the injured persons are in the range of 1.2 to 5,2 Gy acute homogeneous irradiation and are in line with the estimates of international experts. Conclusion: An algorithm to conduct a biological assessment of the dose in limited radiation accidents and in large scale radiation accidents with large number irradiated or suspected for exposure persons is proposed

  11. Interlaboratory niobium dosimetry comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, P.

    1980-01-01

    For an interlaboratory comparison of neutron dosimetry using niobium the 93 sup(m)Nb activities of irradiated niobium monitors were measured. This work was performed to compare the applied techniques of dosimetry with Nb in different laboratories. The niobium monitors were irradiated in the fast breeder EBRII, USA and the BR2, Belgium. The monitors were dissolved and several samples were prepared. Their niobium contents were determined by the 94 Nb-count rates. since the original specific count rate was known. The KX radiations of the 93 sup(m)Nb of the samples and of a calibrated Nb-foil were compared. This foil was measured by PTB, Braunschweig and CBNM, Geel, which we additionally compared with the KX radiation of 88 Sr produced by a thin 88 Y source from a 88 Y-standard solution (PTB). (orig.) [de

  12. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  13. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Thermo-luminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M; Schorn, B; Schneider, E

    1981-01-01

    The development of paediatric radiology which began in the late 195O's has been characterised by the need to limit the dose of ionising radiation to which the child is subjected. The aim has been to keep radiation exposure as low as possible by the introduction of suitable techniques and by the development of new methods. It is therefore surprising that studies in dosimetry in the paediaytric age range have only been carried out in recent years. One reason for this may have been the fact that a suitable technique of measurement was not available at the time. The introduction of solid state dosimetry based on thermo-luminescence, first into radiotherapy (1968) and subsequently into radiodiagnosis, has made it possible to abandon the previously widely used ionisation chamber. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate the suitability of this form of dose measurement for paediatric radiological purposes and to stimulate its application in this field.

  15. Legal aspects of dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, H.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations is regulated in France in all fields of application. The main principles governing inspection activities in the food industry are outlined. Conventional preservation methods are mentioned, after which a discussion is devoted to the preservation of food products by irradiation treatment and the increasing importance given to this technique. Consumer protection automatically implies the obligatory use of dosimetry by inspection organisms if the irradiated merchandise is likely to serve for human or animal consumption. Irradiation treatment permits are granted in a context of specific statutory texts mentioned here. Supervision is constant, but always both realistic and flexible. Each aspect of this treatment is discussed in maximum detail if not quite exhaustively, with special emphasis on dosimetry as an indispensable safety factor [fr

  16. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  17. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardies, Manuel [INSERM U601, 9 Quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes (France)]. E-mail: manu@nantes.inserm.fr; Flux, Glenn [Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Lassmann, Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Julis-Maximilians University, Wuerzburg (Germany); Monsieurs, Myriam [Department of Health Physics, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki and HUS, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Strand, Sven-Erik [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University (Sweden)

    2006-12-20

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  18. Sixth symposium on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This booklet contains all abstracts of papers presented in 13 sessions. Main topics: Cross sections and Kerma factors; analytical radiobiology; detectors for personnel monitoring; secondary charged particles and microdosimetric basis of q-value for neutrons; personnel dosimetry; concepts for radiation protection; ambient monitoring; TEPC and ion chambers in radiation protection; beam dosimetry; track detectors (CR-39); dosimetry at biomedical irradiation facilities; health physics at therapy facilities; calibration for radiation protection; devices for beam dosimetry (TLD and miscellaneous); therapy and biomedical irradiation facilities; treatment planning. (HP)

  19. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  20. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  1. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  2. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  3. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  4. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to give a new user some practical information on the use of radiochromic films for medical applications. While various aspects of radiochromic film dosimetry for medical applications have been covered in some detail in several other excellent review articles which have appeared in the last few years [Niroomand-Rad, A., Blackwell, C.R., Coursey, B.M., Gall, K.P., McLaughlin, W.L., Meigooni, A.S., Nath, R., Rodgers, J.E., Soares, C.G., 1998. Radiochromic dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med. Phys. 25, 2093-2115; Dempsey, J.F., Low, D.A., Mutic, S., Markman, J., Kirov, A.S., Nussbaum, G.H., Williamson, J.F., 2000. Validation of a precision radiochromic film dosimetry system for quantitative two-dimensional imaging of acute exposure dose distributions. Med. Phys. 27, 2462-2475; Butson, M.J., Yu, P.K.N., Cheung, T., Metcalfe, P., 2003. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry. Mater. Sci. Eng. R41, 61-120], it is the intent of the present author to present material from a more user-oriented and practical standpoint. That is, how the films work will be stressed much less than how to make the films work well. The strength of radiochromic films is most evident in applications where there is a very high dose gradient and relatively high absorbed dose rates. These conditions are associated with brachytherapy applications, measurement of small fields, and at the edges (penumbra regions) of larger fields

  5. Dosimetry: an ARDENT topic

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The first annual ARDENT workshop took place in Vienna from 20 to 23 November. The workshop gathered together the Early-Stage Researchers (ESR) and their supervisors, plus other people involved from all the participating institutions.   “The meeting, which was organised with the local support of the Austrian Institute of Technology, was a nice opportunity for the ESRs to get together, meet each other, and present their research plans and some preliminary results of their work,” says Marco Silari, a member of CERN Radiation Protection Group and the scientist in charge of the programme. Two full days were devoted to a training course on radiation dosimetry, delivered by renowned experts. The workshop closed with a half-day visit to the MedAustron facility in Wiener Neustadt. ARDENT (Advanced Radiation Dosimetry European Network Training) is a Marie Curie ITN project funded under EU FP7 with €4 million. The project focuses on radiation dosimetry exploiting se...

  6. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  7. Colchicine in Pericardial Disease: from the Underlying Biology and Clinical Benefits to the Drug-Drug Interactions in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, Aldo L; Menon, Venu

    2018-06-14

    This is an in-depth review on the mechanism of action, clinical utility, and drug-drug interactions of colchicine in the management of pericardial disease. Recent evidence about therapeutic targets on pericarditis has demonstrated that NALP3 inflammasome blockade is the cornerstone in the clinical benefits of colchicine. Such benefits extend from acute and recurrent pericarditis to transient constriction and post-pericardiotomy syndrome. Despite the increased utilization of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine, safety concerns remains unsolved regarding the long-term use of colchicine in the cardiac patient. Moreover, recent evidence has demonstrated that numerous cardiovascular medications, ranging from antihypertensive medication to antiarrhythmics, are known to interact with the CYP3A4 and/or P-gp system increasing the toxicity potential of colchicine. The use of adjunctive colchicine in the management of inflammatory pericardial diseases is standard of care in current practice. It is advised that a careful medication reconciliation with emphasis on pharmacokinetic is completed before prescribing colchicine in order to avoid harmful interaction by finding an alternative regimen or adjusting colchicine dosing.

  8. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  9. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  10. Special workshop on lung dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A Special Workshop on Lung Dosimetry was convened in Salt Lake City, Utah, on April 21-22, 1982, to stimulate the use of improved radiation dosimetry and to formulate a stronger basis for dose-response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. The two-day workshop was held in conjunction with the 30th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society. Publication is planned

  11. The Benefits of Mouse Keeping—an Empirical Study on Students' Flow and Intrinsic Motivation in Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annika; Klingenberg, Konstantin; Wilde, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Contact with living animals is an exceptional possibility within biology education to facilitate an intense immersion into the study topic and even allow for a flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Further, it might affect the perceptions of the students' basic needs for autonomy and competence and thereby their quality of motivation (Deci and Ryan 1985, 2002). Still, there is little empirical evidence about the duration of the exposure with living animals that is required. We investigated the students' flow experience, and the students' motivation, reported retrospectively in three different treatments: lessons involving short-term or long-term contact with living harvest mice and a control group without living animals. Our sample consisted of 156 fifth graders (10.76 years, SD = 0.513). The test instruments were adapted versions of the Flow Short Scale (FSS, Rheinberg et al. 2003) and of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI, Ryan 1982). As expected, the control group produced significantly lower scores for both FSS and IMI. In addition, we found a significant difference between students with short-term versus long-term contact. Whereas the flow experience was indistinguishable for all pupils who had contact with living animals, those with long-term experience reported significantly higher intrinsic motivation.

  12. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  13. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade.

  14. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual’s working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  15. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  16. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  17. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  18. Aqueous chemical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous chemical dosimetry based on ceric and ferrous sulfate solutions and on a number of fluorescence-induced systems is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the factors affecting the response of these dosimeters to radiation and the corrections necessary for more accurate dosimetry under various irradiation conditions. The effect of cerous and ceric ion, oxygen, and sulfuric acid concentration on the ceric dosimeter is discussed together with the effects of temperature, energy of radiation, degraded energy spectra, and peroxysulfuric acids. Practical aspects of ceric/cerous dosimetry are given. Although ferrous sulfate solution is the most important and widely studied reference dosimeter, general agreement has not been reached on the ''best'' value for the molar extinction coefficient of ferric ions nor on the correction necessary to the G(Fe 3 - ) value for irradiations at temperatures significantly different from 25 0 C. New data are presented which indicate that the larger temperature coefficients given in the literature are more accurate. The ferrous sulfate system has been of great importance in establishing the primary radiolytic yields for 0.4 M sulfuric acid solution; it is shown how the failure to take into account the effect of oxygen and ferrous sulfate concentrations has led to erroneously high estimates of the zero solute concentration values in acid solutions. Some of the methods for extending the dose ranges measurable with ferrous sulfate-based solutions are reviewed. Substances which on irradiation give highly fluorescent products are among the most sensitive aqueous chemical dosimeters. These include benzoate and terephthalate solutions and the more recent coumarin and trimesate solutions. Advantages and disadvantages system are discussed. (author)

  19. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained

  20. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Nielsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  1. NRPB patient dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.; Hillier, M.; Bungay, D.; Wall, B.

    1994-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) have been used by NRPB to investigate the doses received by patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with x-rays, and these measurements have formed the basis for national recommendations on patient protection. Monitoring typical levels of patient dose should represent an essential element of routine quality assurance in x-ray departments. In order to promote more widespread measurements in hospitals, NRPB has drawn on a wealth of experience to establish a high-quality service providing TLDs for medical dosimetry by post. (author)

  2. Internal dosimetry and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1990-05-01

    This internal dosimetry and control report provides guidance for EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., field programs in detecting, evaluating, and controlling personnel exposure resulting from uptake of radionuclides by the body. Procedures specific to each program or facility are required to define the details of guidance from this report. Fundamental principles related to philosophy, policies, monitoring guidelines, and dose evaluation are discussed. Specific numerical guides and action levels are developed to guide the programs in evaluating the significance of specific analytical results. The requirement to thoroughly document the results and provide a formal technical base for each policy and/or practice is outlined and explained. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Dosimetry in Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzi, A.E

    2014-01-01

    The steady growth in the use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging requires to maintain a proper management of patient’s dose. Dosimetry in Radiology is a difficult topic to address, but vital for proper estimation of the dose the patient is receiving. The awareness that every day is perceived in our country on these issues is the appropriate response to this problem. This article describes the main dosimetric units used and easily exemplifies doses in radiology through internationally known reference values. (authors) [es

  4. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  5. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period

  6. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  7. Calibration of SSTR neutron dosimetry for TMI-2 applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; Ulseth, J.A.; McElroy, W.N.; Leitz, F.J.; Hayward, B.R.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    Application of neutron dosimetry for assessment of fuel distribution throughout the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) reactor-core region and the primary-coolant system is advanced. Neutron dosimetry in the reactor cavity, i.e. the cavity between the pressure vessel and the biological shield, could provide data for the assessment of the core fuel distribution. A more immediate task entails locating and quantifying the amount of fuel debris in the ex-core primary coolant system; in the range of 1 to 1000 kg. Solid-state track-recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry is considered for such exploratory scoping experiments at TMI-2. The sensitivity of mica- 235 U (asymptotically thick) SSTR has been ascertained for such environments. It has been demonstrated that the SSTR method has adequate sensitivity to properly respond and detect fuel quantities of the order of 1 kg in the ex-core primary coolant system. 21 figures

  8. Realising the European network of bio-dosimetry (RENEB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, U.; Ainsbury, L.; Atkinson, M.; Barquinero, J. F.; Barrios, L.; Beinke, C.; Bognar, G.; Cucu, A.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gil, O.; Gregoire, E.; Hadjidekova, V.; Haghdoost, S.; Herranz, R.; Jaworska, A.; Lindholm, C.; Mkacher, R.; Moertl, S.; Montoro, A.; Moquet, J.; Moreno, M.; Ogbazghi, A.; Oestreicher, U.; Palitti, F.; Pantelias, G.; Popescu, I.; Prieto, M. J.; Romm, H.; Rothkamm, K.; Sabatier, L.; Sommer, S.; Terzoudi, G.; Testa, A.; Thierens, H.; Trompier, F.; Turai, I.; Vandersickel, V.; Vaz, P.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Ugletveit, F.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, a network for biological dosimetry has been created to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response capabilities in case of a large-scale nuclear accident or radiological emergency. Through the RENEB (Realising the European Network of bio-dosimetry) project, 23 experienced laboratories from 16 European countries will establish a sustainable network for rapid, comprehensive and standardised bio-dosimetry provision that would be urgently required in an emergency situation on European ground. The foundation of the network is formed by five main pillars: (1) the ad hoc operational basis, (2) a basis of future developments, (3) an effective quality-management system, (4) arrangements to guarantee long-term sustainability and (5) awareness of the existence of RENEB. RENEB will thus provide a mechanism for quick, efficient and reliable support within the European radiation emergency management. The scientific basis of RENEB will concurrently contribute to increased safety in the field of radiation protection. (authors)

  9. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian ... RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,.

  10. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  11. The NUKDOS software for dosimetry in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kletting, P.; Schimmel, S.; Haenscheid, H.; Fernandez, M.; Lassmann, M.; Broer, J.; Nosske, D.; Glatting, G.

    2015-01-01

    ; plausibility checks are available. The results are reproducible; the error propagation calculation of the absorbed doses adds additional benefit. Conclusion: The software represents a summary/unification of currently used methods from image data processing to the absorbed dose and biological effective dose calculation for specific treatment scenarios. Features like the assignment of errors for all results, an objective method for model selection and inference are provided. NUKDOS promises to increase accuracy, reproducibility and documentation as a prerequisite for determining a dose-effect relationship in MRT dosimetry. (authors)

  12. Internal Dosimetry. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindorf, C. [Department of Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2014-12-15

    The Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) is a committee within the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The MIRD Committee was formed in 1965 with the mission to standardize internal dosimetry calculations, improve the published emission data for radionuclides and enhance the data on pharmacokinetics for radiopharmaceuticals [18.1]. A unified approach to internal dosimetry was published by the MIRD Committee in 1968, MIRD Pamphlet No. 1 [18.2], which was updated several times thereafter. Currently, the most well known version is the MIRD Primer from 1991 [18.3]. The latest publication on the formalism was published in 2009 in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4], which provides a notation meant to bridge the differences in the formalism used by the MIRD Committee and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [18.5]. The formalism presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 21 [18.4] will be used here, although some references to the quantities and parameters used in the MIRD primer [18.3] will be made. All symbols, quantities and units are presented.

  13. Dosimetry of industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Rodriguez J, R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez V, R.; Ramirez G, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2007-01-01

    The gamma rays are produced during the disintegration of the atomic nuclei, its high energy allows them to cross thick materials. The capacity to attenuate a photons beam allows to determine the density, in line, of industrial interest materials as the mining. By means of two active dosemeters and a TLDs group (passive dosimetry) the dose rates of two sources of Cs-137 used for determining in line the density of mining materials were determined. With the dosemeters the dose levels in diverse points inside the grave that it harbors the sources and by means of calculations the isodoses curves were determined. In the phase of calculations was supposed that both sources were punctual and the isodose curves were calculated for two situations: naked sources and in their Pb packings. The dosimetry was carried out around two sources of 137 Cs. The measured values allowed to develop a calculation procedure to obtain the isodoses curves in the grave where the sources are installed. (Author)

  14. Clinical dosimetry using mosfets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, Ramaseshan; Russell, Stephen; O'Brien, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The use of metal oxide-silicon field effect transistors (MOSFETs) as clinical dosimeters is demonstrated for a number of patients with targets at different clinical sites. Methods and Materials: Commercially available MOSFETs were characterized for energy response, angular dependency of response, and effect of accumulated dose on sensitivity and some inherent properties of MOSFETs. The doses determined both by thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and MOSFETs in clinical situation were evaluated and compared to expected doses determined by calculation. Results: It was observed that a standard calibration of 0.01 Gy/mV gave MOSFET determined doses which agreed with expected doses to within 5% at the 95% confidence limit for photon beams from 6 to 25 MV and electron beams from 5 to 14 MeV. An energy-dependent variation in response of up to 28% was observed between two orientations of a MOSFET. The MOSFET doses compared very well with the doses estimated by TLDs, and the patients tolerated MOSFETs very well. A standard deviation of 3.9% between expected dose and MOSFET determined dose was observed, while for TLDs the standard deviation was 5.1%. The advantages and disadvantages of using MOSFETs for clinical dosimetry are discussed in detail. Conclusion: It was concluded that MOSFETs can be used as clinical dosimeters and can be a good alternative to TLDs. However, they have limitations under certain clinical situations

  15. 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IC3DDose 2016 - 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry Preface It was a great pleasure to welcome participants to IC3DDose 2016, the 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry, held from 7–10 November 2016 in Galveston, Texas. The series of conferences has evolved considerably during its history. At the first conference, DOSGEL’99, the discussion centered around gel dosimetry. Held in Lexington, Kentucky in 1999, it was timed to coincide with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Annual Meeting in Nashville, Tennessee. It was my honour to organize that first conference, and it was once again my honour to organize the 9th conference in the series now known as IC3DDose which was held in Galveston, Texas. As was the case with recent IC3DDose conferences, the topic has broadened considerably beyond gel dosimetry. Not only have newer 3D volumetric dosimeters appeared on the scene, but novel electronic dosimetry systems and software that generate quasi-3D dose information have also. These changes have tracked advances in radiation oncology as techniques such as IMRT, VMAT, and IGRT have become almost ubiquitous. At the same time, dynamic treatments including gating and tracking now enjoy widespread use. Novel treatment technologies have appeared with perhaps the most disruptive being combined MR imaging-treatment units such as the ViewRay MR-cobalt unit and the Elekta/Philips MR-Linac. The potential benefits offered by 3D dosimetry were explored, compared and evaluated during IC3DDose 2016. Novel and improved readout techniques, some of which take advantage of the contemporary treatment environment and new QA systems and procedures, as well as other aspects of clinical dosimetry were well represented in the program. Over the past several years, the importance of safety in radiation therapy has been highlighted. The benefits of 3D dosimetry in contributing to safe and accurate treatments cannot be overstated. The

  16. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  17. The sensitivity analysis of tooth enamel to the absorbed dose for the application to EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Dae Seok; Lee, Kun Jai; Cho, Young Hwan

    2002-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is one of the methods applicable to retrospective dosimetry. The retrospective dosimetry is a process that is a part of dose reconstruction for estimation of exposed dose occurred years before the estimation. Many techniques can be used to the retrospective dosimetry. As a physical method, EPR analysis of biological material measures the quantity of free radicals generated in the material from the interaction of radiation and material. Since the later 80s, in many countries, EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel has been studied and applied for the retrospective dosimetry. In the consideration of the biological materials for EPR dosimetry, human fingernail, hair, bone and tooth are generally considered. The tooth can be separated as enamel, dentine and cementum. Among the three parts, enamel shows the best sensitivity to the absorbed dose and is most widely used. In this study, the characteristics of tooth enamel for EPR dosimetry is examined and experimented. At the experiment, for easy separation, tooth was cut into 4 parts and then each part is treated by ultrasonic vibration in NaOH liquid to reduce mechanically induced noise in the corresponding signal. After the separation of the enamel from dentine, background EPR signal is measured and then radiation-induced EPR spectrum is estimated

  18. Skin dosimetry - radiological protection aspects of skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following a Workshop in Skin Dosimetry, a summary of the radiological protection aspects is given. Aspects discussed include routine skin monitoring and dose limits, the need for careful skin dosimetry in high accidental exposures, techniques for assessing skin dose at all relevant depths and the specification of dose quantities to be measured by personal dosemeters and the appropriate methods to be used in their calibration. (UK)

  19. A method of dosimetry for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy using radiochromic films and microdensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, J. C.; Svalbe, I. D.; Lewis, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Normal tissue displays an exceptional tolerance to high doses of radiation (hundreds of Gy) when delivered as a microplanar array of synchrotron-generated x-rays. Furthermore, MRT has been shown to cause significant tumour growth delay and in some case complete ablation. The biological effects of MRT on tissue are not fully understood. This is further complicated by difficulties in performing accurate dosimetry. The majority of dosimetry performed for MRT has been Monte Carlo simulations. The aim of this work was to utilise film dosimetry and microdensitometry to measure the peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDRs) for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy.

  20. Neutron generator (HIRRAC) and dosimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, S; Hoshi, M; Takada, J; Tauchi, H; Matsuura, S; Takeoka, S; Kitagawa, K; Suga, S; Komatsu, K

    1999-12-01

    Dosimetry studies have been made for neutrons from a neutron generator at Hiroshima University (HIRRAC) which is designed for radiobiological research. Neutrons in an energy range from 0.07 to 2.7 MeV are available for biological irradiations. The produced neutron energies were measured and evaluated by a 3He-gas proportional counter. Energy spread was made certain to be small enough for radiobiological studies. Dose evaluations were performed by two different methods, namely use of tissue equivalent paired ionization chambers and activation of method with indium foils. Moreover, energy deposition spectra in small targets of tissue equivalent materials, so-called lineal energy spectrum, were also measured and are discussed. Specifications for biological irradiation are presented in terms of monoenergetic beam conditions, dose rates and deposited energy spectra.

  1. Alanine dosimetry for clinical applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, M.

    2006-05-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Therapy level alanine dosimetry at the UK Nationational Physical Laboratory, alanine as a precision validation tool for reference dosimetry, composition of alanine pellet dosimeters, the angular dependence of the alanine ESR spectrum, the CIAE alanine dosimeter for radiotherapy level, a correction for temporal evolution effects in alanine dosimetry, next-generation services foe e-traceability to ionization radiation national standards, establishing e-traceability to HIST high-dose measurement standards, alanine dosimetry of dose delivery from clinical accelerators, the e-scan alanine dosimeter reader, alanine dosimetry at ISS, verification of the integral delivered dose for IMRT treatment in the head and neck region with ESR/alanine dosimetry, alanine dosimetry in helical tomotherapy beams, ESR dosimetry research and development at the University of Palermo, lithium formate as a low-dose EPR radiation dosimeter, sensitivity enhancement of alanine/EPR dosimetry. (HSI)

  2. Results of the dosimetry intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dure, Elsa S.

    2000-07-01

    The appropriate way to verify the accuracy of the results of dose reported by the laboratories that offer lend personal dosimetry service is in the periodic participation of round of intercomparison dosimetry, undertaken by laboratories whose standards are trace (Secondary Laboratory). The Laboratory of External Personal Dosimetry of the CNEA-PY has participated in three rounds of intercomparison. The first two were organized in the framework of the Model Project RLA/9/030 RADIOLOGICAL WASTE SECURITY, and the irradiations were carried out in the Laboratory of Regional Calibration of the Center of Nuclear Technology Development, Belo Horizonte-Brazil (1998) and in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the ionizing radiations of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (1999). The third was organized by the IAEA and the irradiations were made in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Braunschweig - Federal Republic of Germany (1999-2000) [es

  3. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaize, S.; Ailloud, J.; Mariani, J.; Millot, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    We have studied fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through the recoil protons they produce in hydrogenated samples. In spectrometric, we used nuclear emulsions, in dosimetric, we used polyethylene coated with zinc sulphide and placed before a photomultiplier. (author) [fr

  4. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  5. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  6. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Desrosiers, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Dosimetry serves important functions in radiation processing, where large absorbed doses and dose rates from photon and electron sources have to be measured with reasonable accuracy. Proven dosimetry systems are widely used to perform radiation measurements in development of new processes, validation, qualification and verification (quality control) of established processes and archival documentation of day-to-day and plant-to-plant processing uniformity. Proper calibration and traceability of routine dosimetry systems to standards are crucial to the success of many large-volume radiation processes. Recent innovations and advances in performance of systems that enhance radiation measurement assurance and process diagnostics include dose-mapping media (new radiochromic film and solutions), optical waveguide systems for food irradiation, solid-state devices for real-time and passive dosimetry over wide dose-rate and dose ranges, and improved analytical instruments and data acquisition. (author)

  7. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of ionising radiation in industrial processes and also international trade in irradiated products. With this, the demand for internationally accepted dosimetric techniques, accredited to international standards has also increased which is further stimulated by the emergence of ISO-9000 series of standards in industries. The present paper describes some of the important dosimetric techniques used in radiation processing, the role of IAEA in evolving internationally accepted standards and work carried out at the Defence Laboratories, Jodhpur in the development of a cheap, broad dose range and simple dosimeter for routine dosimetry. For this polyhydroxy alcohols viz., mannitol, sorbitol and inositol were studied using the spectrophotometric read out method. Out of the alcohols studied mannitol was found to be most promising covering a dose range of 0.01 kGy - 100 kGy. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  9. Radioiodotherapy: dosimetry planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apyan, A.; Mileshin, O.; Klyopov, A.; Shishkanov, N.; Matusevich, E.; Roziev, A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of treatment of 142 case histories of 125 patients who had been treated with radioactive iodine at the Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medicine Sciences from 1983 to 1999 are given in the presentation. Among the patients, 35 cases of diffuse toxic goiter with signs of thyrotoxicosis of a mild degree, 25 cases of Diffuse toxic goiter with severe thyrotoxicosis, 6 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck, 30 cases of thyroid cancer with metastases to lymph-nodes of the neck and lung and 1 case of thyroid cancer with metastases to bones were diagnosed. This paper gives recommendations for individual dosimetry planning for radioiodine-therapy. (authors)

  10. Advances in electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.

    1980-04-01

    Starting from the two most important interactions of electrons with matter, energy loss and scattering, a review is given of a number of effects which are important in electron dosimetry. For determining the absorbed dose in a phantom by means of ionization chambers, imformation is required on the electron spectrum at the location of the measurement, on the stopping powers of different materials and on disturbances such as the displacement of the effective point of measurements from the centre of the chamber. By means of figures and photographs of electron traces in bubble chambers, the origin of the formation of the absorbed dose maximum in a phantom is explained. It is shown, how by multiple scattering, the similarity of dose distributions in different media can be explained and how by Monte-Carlo calculations absorbed dose distributions in the surroundings of inhomogeneities (e.g. cavities) in a phantom can be determined. (orig.) [de

  11. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-03-15

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States.

  12. The Vinca dosimetry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-03-01

    On 15 October 1958 there occurred a very brief uncontrolled run of the zero-power reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Science, Vinca, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. During this run six persons received various doses of radiation. They were subsequently given medical treatment of a novel kind at the Curie Hospital, Paris. In atomic energy operations to date, very few accidents involving excessive radiation exposure to human beings have occurred. In fact, the cases of acute radiation injury are limited to about 30 known high exposures, few of which were in the lethal or near-lethal range. Since direct experiment to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on man is unacceptable, information on these effects has to be based on a consideration of data relating to accidental exposures, viewed in the light of the much more extensive data obtained from experiments on animals. Therefore, any direct information on the effects of radiation on humans is very valuable. The international dosimetry project described in this report was carried out at Vinca, Yugoslavia, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to determine the precise amount of radiation to which the persons had been exposed during the accident. These dosimetry data, together with the record of the carefully observed clinical effects, are of importance both for the scientific study of radiation effects on man and for the development of methods of therapy. The experiment and measurements were carried out at the end of April 1960. The project formed part of the Agency's research programme in the field of health and safety. The results of the experiment are made available through this report to all Member States

  13. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  14. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  15. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  16. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  17. Internal dosimetry, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the progress in the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides (internal dosimetry) since World War II. Previous to that, only naturally occurring radionuclides were available and only a limited number of studies of biokinetics and dosimetry were done. The main radionuclides studied were 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 224 Ra but natural uranium was also studied mainly because of its toxic effect as a heavy metal, and not because it was radioactive. The effects of 226 Ra in bone, mainly from the radium dial painters, also formed the only bases for the radiotoxicity of radionuclides in bone for many years, and it is still, along with 224 Ra, the main source of information on the effects of alpha emitters in bone. The publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection that have an impact on internal dosimetry are used as mileposts for this review. These series of publications, more than any other, represent a broad consensus of opinion within the radiation protection community at the time of their publication, and have formed the bases for radiation protection practice throughout the world. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; it is meant to be a personnel view of the evolution of internal dosimetry, and to present the author's opinion of what the future directions in internal dosimetry will be. 39 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Proceedings of the V. international symposium 'Actual problems of dosimetry'; Materialy V mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundas, S P; Okeanov, A E [International A. Sakharov environmental univ., Minsk (Belarus); Shevchuk, V E [Komitet po problemam posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl' skoj AEhS pri Sovete Ministrov Respubliki Belarus' , Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-10-01

    The main topics of the workshop were: monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects as well as normative, metrological and technical aspects of dosimetric and radiometric monitoring.

  19. 11. International conference on solid radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylova, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The main problems discussed during the international conference on solid radiation dosimetry which took place in June 1995 in Budapest are briefly considered. These are the basic physical processes, materials applied for dosimetry, special techniques, personnel monitoring, monitoring of environmental effects, large-dose dosimetry, clinic dosimetry, track detector used for dosimetry, dosimetry in archaeology and geology, equipment and technique for dosimetric measurements. The special attention was paid to superlinearity in the TLD-100 (LiF, Mg, Ti) response function when determining doses of gamma radiation, heavy charged particles, low-energy particle fluxes in particular. New theoretical models were considered

  20. MO-B-BRB-02: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: IMRT Technique Validation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceberg, S.

    2016-01-01

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835

  1. MO-B-BRB-01: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: Background and Motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, L.

    2016-01-01

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835

  2. MO-B-BRB-03: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: Validating Special Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, T.

    2016-01-01

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835

  3. MO-B-BRB-03: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: Validating Special Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, T. [Stanford Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835.

  4. MO-B-BRB-01: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: Background and Motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, L. [Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835.

  5. MO-B-BRB-02: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: IMRT Technique Validation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceberg, S. [Lund University (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    irradiated volume can help understand interplay effects during TomoTherapy or VMAT. Titania Juang: Special techniques in the clinic and research Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry in validating dose accumulation in deformable systems, and Observe the benefits of high resolution measurements for precision therapy in SRS and in MicroSBRT for small animal irradiators Geoffrey S. Ibbott: 3D Dosimetry in end-to-end dosimetry QA Understand the potential for 3D dosimetry for end-to-end radiation therapy process validation in the in-house and external credentialing setting. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; L. Schreiner, Modus QA, London, ON, Canada; T. Juang, NIH R01CA100835.

  6. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T.; Osorio V, M.; Hernandez O, O.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  7. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara C, A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Osorio V, M. [ISSSTE, Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Felix Cuevas 540, Col. del Valle, 03100 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez O, O., E-mail: armando_lara_cam@yahoo.com.mx [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we studied the dosimetry performed on CT scan in two different equipment, SOMATOM and Phillips, with 16 and 64 slice respectively. We used 51 pellets of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti) also knows as TLD-100 due to its physical properties and its easy of use, in this study, first analysis a batch of 56 pellets, but only 53 pellets were optimal for this study, cesium-137 was used as source irradiation, then proceeded to calibrate the batch with X-rays source, measuring the corresponding dose in a Farmers ionization chamber, then, we obtained a calibration curve, and we used as reference to calculation of the applied dose, finally designing ergonomic mesh, were it was deposited a TLD 100, placed in a regions of interest were made to each scan type. Once characterized our material proceeded to testing in 30 patients, which were irradiated with X-ray tube, whose operation was performed at 80, 120 kV with a current of 100, 300 and 400 m A according to scanning protocol. Overall we measured dose of 5 mGy to 53 mGy, these measurements reflect significant dose to can induced cancer, due previous reports published, that doses greater than 20 mGy there is a risk of developing cancer in the long term, but in practice when it assigned a medical diagnosis, there are no dose limits due to benefits patients, however, IAEA publish recommendations that allow us to carry out optimum handling of ionizing radiation, among these is the quality control of the tomography equipment that helps greatly reduce patient dose. (Author)

  8. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  9. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    shapes and sizes while sparing normal tissue. The situation is further complicated if the normal tissues are critical organs or are particularly sensitive to radiation. Radiotherapy techniques employed to obtain a closer conformation of the dose distribution to the tumour volume are referred to as conformal radiotherapy techniques. The clinical implementation of conformal therapy has been delayed by limitations in the verification of conformal dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems prior to the irradiation of the patient and the verification of complex treatments during its delivery to the patient. There are several aspects of conformal therapy that complicate dose verification. To achieve the dose distributions conforming to complex 3D volumes, high dose gradients arise in the treatment volume. Further, overdose or underdose regions can exist when separate radiation fields are used to deliver additional radiation. These aspects require that practical dose measurement (dosimetry) techniques be able to integrate dose over time and easily measure dose distributions in 3D with high spatial resolution. Traditional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic film do not fulfil these requirements. Novel gel dosimetry techniques are being developed in which dose distributions can potentially be determined in vitro in 3D using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate a clinically irradiated situation. As long ago as the 1950's, radiation-induced colour change in dyes was used to investigate radiation doses in gels. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In Fricke gels, Fe 2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin, agarose or PVA matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to

  10. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  12. Study and development of radiothermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, Guy.

    1978-11-01

    After briefly reviewing bibliography concerning the mechanism of radiothermoluminescence and its use in dosimetry, we have concentrated on studies of three thermoluminescent products: magnesium activated lithium fluoride, alumina and calcium sulfate activated with either dysprosium or thulium. In particular, the preparation and singular properties of a new type of lithium fluoride stabilised with sodium, created especially for dosimetric purposes, is described. The physical characteristics of these three products, their emission spectra and their trap parameters, have been studied and we have analysed, both theoretically and experimentally, their dosimetric properties, paying particular attention to their relative chromatic sensitivity to photons and neutrons. It is shown that alumina exhibits an exceptional neutron thermoluminescent yield which points to a potential interest in this material which is little used to date. The deep trapping levels of these products have been studied and some levels found appearing at temperatures above 600 0 C: these can be used for radiation dosimetry in enclosures at temperatures between 400 and 450 0 C. Finally, a brief outline of radiothermoluminescent applications of these products in the radioprotection, medical, biological, archeological and industrial fields is presented [fr

  13. Dosimetry for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; McAulay, I.R.; Schrewe, U.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, aircraft structure, etc. This has been recognised for some time and estimates of the exposure of aircraft crew have been made previously and included in, for example, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) publications. The recent increased interest has been brought about by several factors - the consideration that the relative biological effectiveness of the neutron component was being underestimated; the trend towards higher cruising altitudes for subsonic commercial aircraft and business jet aircraft; and most importantly, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 60, and the revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS). In 1992, the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) established a Working Group to consider the exposure to cosmic radiation of aircraft crew, and the scientific and technical problems associated with radiation protection dosimetry for this occupational group. The Working Group was composed of fifteen scientists (plus a corresponding member) involved in this field of study and with knowledge of radiation measurement at aviation altitudes. This paper is based on the findings of this Working Group. (author)

  14. Accreditation ISO/IEC 1705 in dosimetry: Experience and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Garcia, R.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experience in the process of accreditation of the radiation dosimetry service in which there are trials for the determination of radiation doses due to internal and external exhibitions. Is They describe the aspects that were considered for the design and development of a system of quality and results after its implementation. A review of the benefits accreditation has been reported to the organization is finally made. (Author)

  15. In vitro dissolution and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Dahl, A.R.; Jow, H.N.

    1993-01-01

    It has been completed to investigate the dissolution behavior of both titanium and erbium tritide particles in simulated biological fluids and in rats. Data from these studies will provide information to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled metal tritides. The dosimetric model can then be used as the technical basis for setting health protection limits, including the annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for DOE facilities. (3 figs.)

  16. Characterising an aluminium oxide dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conheady, Clement F; Gagliardi, Frank M; Ackerly, Trevor

    2015-09-01

    In vivo dosimetry is recommended as a defence-in-depth strategy in radiotherapy treatments and is currently employed by clinics around the world. The characteristics of a new optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry system were investigated for the purpose of replacing an aging thermoluminescence dosimetry system for in vivo dosimetry. The stability of the system was not sufficient to satisfy commissioning requirements and therefore it has not been released into clinical service at this time.

  17. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastra B, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  18. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of neutron exposures to personnel is an issue that has received increased attention in the last few years. It is important to consider key aspects of the whole dosimetry system when developing dose estimates. This begins with selection of proper dosimeters and survey instruments, and extends through the calibration methods. One must match the spectral response and sensitivity of the dosimeter to the spectral characteristics of the neutron fields. Threshold detectors that are insensitive to large fractions of neutrons in the lower energy portion of reactor spectra should be avoided. Use of two or more detectors with responses that complement each other will improve measurement quality. It is important to understand the spectral response of survey instruments, so that spectra which result in significant overresponse do not lead to overestimation of dose. Calibration sources that do not match operational field spectra can contribute to highly erroneous results. In those situations, in-field calibration techniques should be employed. Although some detection developments have been made in recent years, a lot can be done with existing technology until fully satisfactory, long term solutions are obtained

  19. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    During 1988--1990 the magnetic resonance dosimetry project was completed, as were the 250 MeV proton shielding measurements. The first cellular experiment using human cells in vitro at the 1 GeV electron storage ring was also accomplished. More detail may be found in DOE Report number-sign DOE/EV/60417-002 and the open literature cited in the individual progress subsections. We report Kinetic Energy Released in Matter (KERMA), factor measurements in several elements of critical importance to neutron radiation therapy and radiation protection for space habitation and exploration for neutron energies below 30 MeV. The results of this effort provide the only direct measurements of the oxygen and magnesium kerma factors above 20 MeV neutron energy, and the only measurements of the iron kerma factor above 15 MeV. They provide data of immediate relevance to neutron radiotherapy and impose strict criteria for normalizing and testing nuclear models used to calculate kerma factors at higher neutron energies

  20. High Energy Electron Dosimetry by Alanine/ESR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Sung Sil

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry based on electron spin resonance(ESR) analysis of radiation induced free radicals in amino acids is relevant to biological dosimetry applications. Alanine detectors are without walls and are tissue equivalent. Therefore, alanine ESR dosimetry looks promising for use in the therapy level. The dose range of the alanine/ESR dosimetry system can be extended down to l Gy. In a water phantom the absorbed dose of electrons generated by a medical linear accelerator of different initial energies (6-21 MeV) and therapeutic dose levels(1-60 Gy) was measured. Furthermore, depth dose measurements carried out with alanine dosimeters were compared with ionization chamber measurements. As the results, the measured absorbed doses for shallow depth of initial electron energies above 15 MeV were higher by 2-5% than those calculated by nominal energy CE factors. This seems to be caused by low energy scattered beams generated from the scattering foil and electron cones of beam projecting device in medical linear accelerator

  1. Miniature semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Takacs, G.; Cornelius, I. M.; Yudelev, M.; Zaider, M.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon mini-semiconductor detectors are found in wide applications for in vivo personal dosimetry and dosimetry and Micro-dosimetry of different radiation oncology modalities. These applications are based on integral and spectroscopy modes of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor and silicon p-n junction detectors. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed. (authors)

  2. Fundamentals of x-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamental information about x-ray dosimetry is presented. Definitions are given and expanded on for dose, absorbed dose including microdosimetry, radiation physics (properties of the radiation that are important to dosimetry), and dosimetry (how the properties are dealt with in determining dose). 5 figs, 12 refs

  3. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note the following opening hours of the Service: In June: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 In July: Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:30 to 11:30 Closed all day on Tuesdays and Thursdays From 31st July onwards: Every morning from 8:30 to 12:00 The Service is closed in the afternoons. We should like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCTs) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats. Dosimetry Service Tel 72155 Bldg. 24 E 011 Dosimetry.service@cern.ch http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  4. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  5. Importance of dosimetry of irradiators for pre-clinical radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2014-01-01

    Importance of radiation dose in radiation biology has been increasingly recognized due to translational use of beyond 2Gy dose is in current practice. Hence, accurate dosimetry of biological irradiators is warranted. To address these problems and propose recommendations, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) along with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) as well as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) highlighted a number of recommendations that will be presented in this talk that includes creating dosimetry standard operating procedures (SOPs) for both in-vitro as well as in-vivo experiments. Other recommendations include for journals (as well as to funding agencies) mandating the reporting of dosimetry of biological irradiators. (author)

  6. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  7. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  8. 'Hot particle' intercomparison dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.; Charles, M.W.; Darley, D.P.J.; Durham, J.S.; Scannell, M.J.; Soares, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements of four 'hot particles' were made at different density thickness values using five different methods. The hot particles had maximum dimensions of 650 μm and maximum beta energies of 0.97, 046, 0.36, and 0.32 MeV. Absorbers were used to obtain the dose at different depths for each dosimeter. Measurements were made using exoelectron dosimeters, an extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), Eberline RO-2 and RO-2A survey meters, and two sets of GafChromic (tm) dye film with each set read out at a different institution. From these results the dose was calculated averaged over 1 cm 2 of tissue at 18, 70, 125, and 400 μm depth. Comparisons of tissue-dose averaged over 1 cm 2 for 18, 70, and 125 μm depth based on interpolated measured values, were within 30% for the GafChromic (tm) dye film, extrapolation chamber, NE Extremity Tape Dosimeters (tm), and Eberline RO-2 and 2A (tm) survey meters except for the hot particle with 0.46 MeV maximum beta energy. The results for this source showed differences of up to 60%. The extrapolation chamber and NE Extremity Tape dosimeters under-responded for measurements at 400 μm by about a factor of 2 compared with the GafChromic dye films for two hot particles with maximum beta energy of 0.32 and 0.36 MeV which each emitted two 100% 1 MeV photons per disintegration. Tissue doses determined using exoelectron dosimeters were a factor of 2 to 5 less than those determined using other dosimeters, possibly due to failures of the equipment. (author)

  9. Personal dosimetry and information platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Hidalgo, M.; Galan Montenegro, P.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Hernandez Rodriguez, R.; Jimenez Nartin, A.; Cano Sanchez, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    One question often raised by the hospital personnel dosimetry is the high incidence in the no monthly turnover of dosimeters, which is currently a high number of administrative dose assignments. The high number of workers with personal dosimetry and in many cases, the dispersion of workplaces makes it impossible to personalized management. To make a more direct and personal, and transmit information quickly and with guaranteed reception, has developed and implemented a system of personalized dosimetric information through messaging Short Message Service (SMS) and access to the history of dosimetric dosimetric and management through web space Service Hospital Radio physics.

  10. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  11. Characterization of internal dosimetry practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Heid, K.R.; Mann, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Current practices in internal dosimetry at DOE facilities were evaluated with respect to consistency among DOE Contractors. All aspects of an internal dosimetry program were addressed. Items considered include, but are not necessarily limited to, record systems and ease of information retrieval; ease of integrating internal dose and external dose; modeling systems employed, including ability to modify models depending on excretion data, and verification of computer codes utilized; bioassay procedures, including quality control; and ability to relate air concentration data to individual workers and bioassay data. Feasibility of uranium analysis in solution by laser fluorescence excitation at uranium concentrations of one part per billion was demonstrated

  12. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page: http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 to 12.00 and is closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  13. Information from the Dosimetry Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Staff and Users can now consult their dose records for an individual or an organizational unit with HRT. Please see more information on our web page http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry. The Dosimetry Service is open every morning from 8.30 - 12.00, and closed in the afternoons. We would like to remind you that dosimeters cannot be sent to customers by internal mail. Short-term dosimeters (VCT's) must always be returned to the Service after use and must not be left on the racks in the experimental areas or in the secretariats.

  14. Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radak, B.; Markovic, V.; Draganic, I.

    1961-01-01

    Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation is relatively new reactor dosimetry method and the number of relevant papers is rather small. Some difficulties in applying standard methods (chemical dosemeters, ionization chambers) exist because of the complexity of radiation. In general application of calorimetric dosemeters for measuring absorbed doses is most precise. In addition to adequate choice of calorimetric bodies there is a possibility of determining the yields of each component of the radiation mixture in the total absorbed dose. This paper contains a short review of the basic calorimetry methods and some results of measurements at the RA reactor in Vinca performed by isothermal calorimeter [sr

  15. Alanine EPR dosimetry of therapeutic irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugay, O.; Bartchuk, V.; Kolesnik, S.; Mazin, M.; Gaponenko, H.

    1999-01-01

    The high-dose alanine EPR dosimetry is a very precise method in the dose range 1-100 kGy. The system is used generally as the standard high-dose transfer dosimetry in many laboratories. This is comparatively expensive technique so it is important to use it as a more universal dosimetry system also in the middle and low dose ranges. The problems of the middle-dose alanine dosimetry are discussed and the solution of several problems is proposed. The alanine EPR dosimetry has been applied to the dose measurements of medical irradiators in the Kiev City Oncology Center. (author)

  16. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1993-01-01

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti 3 H x ) and erbium tritide (Er 3 H x ) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases. As a result, workers could be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between SNL and ITRI (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute) was initiated last fall to investigate the solubility of metal tritides, retention and translocation of inhaled particles and internal dosimetry of metal tritides. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure are very limited. There is no provision in the ICRP-30 for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggested that the solubility of metal tritide could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which behaves like body fluid with a relative short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility of metal tritide is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have major implications in current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritides Including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of metal tritide dissolution study at ITRI indicate that the solubility of titanium tritide is low. The outlines of the project, the preliminary results and future work will be discussed in presentation

  17. Portal dosimetry in wedged beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuw, Hanno; Rozendaal, Roel; Camargo, Priscilla; Mans, Anton; Wendling, Markus; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel; Mijnheer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Portal dosimetry using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) is often applied to verify high-energy photon beam treatments. Due to the change in photon energy spectrum, the resulting dose values are, however, not very accurate in the case of wedged beams if the pixel-to-dose conversion for the

  18. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...

  19. Thermoluminescence dosimetry environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoluzzi, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, characteristics and performances of an environmental monitoring system with thermoluminescence dosimetry are presented. Most of the work deals with the main physical parameters necessary for measurements of ambiental dose. At the end of this report some of level doses in the environment around the site of the ENEA Center of Energy Research Salluggia (Italy) are illustrated

  20. Manual of food irradiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Following items are discussed: Fundamentals of dosimetry; description of irradiators; dose distribution in the product and commissioning the process; plant operation and process control; detailed instructions on using various dose-meter systems; references; glossary of some basic terms and concepts

  1. Dosimetry for photo-coagulation by the use of autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, T.

    1989-01-01

    A basic problem when using lasers in medicine is that of dosimetry. The definition of the terms dose, effective value etc. will be dealt with in Chapter 2. This chapter is intended to give an insight into the problems of basic dosimetry and its technical realization within the field of photocoagulation, an established method used to treat the retina, or some skin diseases. Until now the coagulation process was assessed to be completed when the irradiated area became blanched. However in terms of dosimetry, it must be possible to predict or at least to monitor the biological effect using well-defined parameters for the laser or in achieving an objective measure for a feedback loop. In the case of coagulation, a prediction in this form is not possible. There are two ways of pro- ceeding further see Fig. 1. One can either determine the physical effect, i.e. temperature, by some kind of sensors, or even better, use some biological effect as a direct measure of the effective dose applied.

  2. The personal dosimetry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it

  3. Introduction to the special issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue is a collection of peer-reviewed articles derived from presentations at the fourth EPR BioDose Meeting, held in Hanover, NH, USA in 4-8 October 2015. Organised by The International Association of Biological and EPR Radiation Dosimetry (IABERD), this meeting was held in combination with two international conferences (The International Symposium on EPR Dosimetry and Dating and The International Conference on Biodosimetry) and a symposium (The International EPR Society). The primary focus of this conference was on medical response to events in which large numbers of individuals may be exposed to significant levels of ionising radiation; topics included biodosimetry techniques, radiation mitigators, model systems to develop countermeasures, new data from different exposure events and the implication of these methods in a radiological emergency or in terrorist attack scenarios. (authors)

  4. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  5. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  6. Dosimetry in Phototherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurto, L. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Snellman, E. [Department of Dermatology, Central Hospital of Paeijaet-Haeme, Lahti (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    Artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is used in phototherapy, the medical treatment of various skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic eczema. Both solar and artificial UVR exposure have also carcinogenic effects. Long term phototherapy with high cumulative UVR doses is shown to be risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Various biological effects are strongly dependent of the wavelength of the UVR. UV-B-radiation with short wavelength (280 - 320 nm) is more effective to cause sunburn of the skin than UV-A - radiation with longer wavelength (320 - 400 nm). The correlation between wavelength of UVR and the tissue sensitivity is described by action spectra. An action spectrum is a mathematical model describing the efficiency of UVR of different wavelength for producing a certain biological phenomena. Specific action spectra have been determined for the most important health effects like erythema and skin cancers as regard squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas. (orig.)

  7. Dosimetry in Phototherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huurto, L.; Snellman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is used in phototherapy, the medical treatment of various skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic eczema. Both solar and artificial UVR exposure have also carcinogenic effects. Long term phototherapy with high cumulative UVR doses is shown to be risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Various biological effects are strongly dependent of the wavelength of the UVR. UV-B-radiation with short wavelength (280 - 320 nm) is more effective to cause sunburn of the skin than UV-A - radiation with longer wavelength (320 - 400 nm). The correlation between wavelength of UVR and the tissue sensitivity is described by action spectra. An action spectrum is a mathematical model describing the efficiency of UVR of different wavelength for producing a certain biological phenomena. Specific action spectra have been determined for the most important health effects like erythema and skin cancers as regard squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas. (orig.)

  8. Biodosimetry versus physical dosimetry for emergency dose assessment following large-scale radiological exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Sholom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data on intercomparisons involving biodosimetry or physical dosimetry methods are analyzed and the results interpreted regarding their efficacy in triage in emergency dosimetry following mass casualty radiological events. The biodosimetry technique examined is dicentric chromosome aberrations (DCA). The physical dosimetry techniques include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of biological material (teeth) and physical material (smartphone screen glass), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of electronic components (surface mount resistors) from mobile phones. Issues relating to calibration and interpretation of the data are discussed. An important conclusion of the analysis is that more research is critically needed to interpret the efficacy of the various methods. Included in this needed research are intercomparisons of the various methods in controlled experiments and the need to harmonize protocols. - Highlights: • Utility of bio- and physical dosimetry methods for emergency dosimetry triage. • Analysis of intercomparison data for different bio- and physical dosimetry methods. • The percentage of false positives and false negatives for a simulated IND event. • More research, especially intercomparisons, is required to reduce uncertainties.

  9. Lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1986-01-01

    Lung cancer risk assessment for inhaled radon progeny requires a detailed knowledge of the dose distribution pattern throughout the human respiratory tract. Current lung dosimetry models take into acocunt aerosol deposition in a formalized airway structrue, modification of the initial deposition pattern by clearance mechanisms, and the energy deposited by alpha particles in sensitive cells of the bronchial epithelium. The resulting dose distribution pattern depends on the characteristics of the inhaled aerosol and the breathing pattern. Special emphasis has been laid on the age dependency of the anatomical structure of the human lung and the resulting doses, as well as on the rediological significance of enhanced aerosol deposition at bronchial bifuraction. The biological variability inherent in all morphometric, physiological and histological parameters involved in lung dosimetry suggests the application of stochastic modelling techniques. Examples for the use of Monte Carlo methods presented here are the random walk of inhaled particles through a random airway geometry, and the influence of the intra-subject variability of radiation doses on radiation protection standards. At the cellular level the concept of absorbed dose loses its significance and has to be replaced by microdosimetric concepts, such as internal microdosimtry or track structure theory. An image-analysis model allows us to construct specific energy distributions in sensitive lung cells. Application of a track structure model of alpha particle interaction with bronchial epithelial cells permits the calculation of probabilities for inactivation, transformation, and tumor induction. The latter has been used to analyse lung cancer risk at low doses in Chinese high background areas

  10. Proceedings of the 5. symposium on neutron dosimetry. Beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, H.; Burger, G.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantitites, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  11. Energy and entropy in radiation dosimetry and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present and discuss a proposal to describe the degradation of the energy of photons when they interact with matter, which can be applied in radiation dosimetry and protection. Radiation dosimetry is founded in the well known physical approach of field theory as showed by Roesch and Rossi. Fluence and energy deposited are the most fundamental quantities in radiation dosimetry allowing us to calculate absorbed dose. One of the main characteristics of absorbed dose, sometimes ignored, is that it is an intensive quantity pushing radiation dosimetry into the field of statistical physics. In radiation dosimetry it is often used what we can call collective or macroscopic concepts, such as, for example, effective energy, beam quality or beam hardening and absorbed dose. Some of these concepts are trials to describe macroscopically and with simplicity what happens microscopically with a rather higher degree of complexity. In other words, is a tentative to make a bridge between the non continuous world of atoms and photons to the continuous world of radiation protection dosimetry. In computer simulations, that allow to known accurately the energy deposited in matter, absorbed dose (or fluence) is still a very useful and used quantity; however, some issues are still open problems, source of many discussions in conferences and journals in spite of the development of microdosimetry and nano-dosimetry. In spite of that, macroscopic quantities like absorbed dose are still important quantities. One of the important and controversial open question in biological effects at low doses is the linear no threshold concept (L.N.T.). In our opinion this problem is directly related with the problem mentioned above of the bridge between microscopic and macroscopic concepts. Actually, the extrapolation to low dose region is a good expression of the challenge we have to deal in order to make the connections between both worlds, the discrete micro-world to the continuous macro

  12. A microcomputer controlled thermoluminescence dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Kicken, P.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, an automatic thermoluminescence dosimetry system for personal dosimetry and thermoluminescence detector (TLD) research was developed. Process automation, statistical computation and dose calculation are provided by this microcomputer. Recording of measurement data, as well as dose record keeping for radiological workers is carried out with floppy disk. The microcomputer also provides a human/system interface by means of a video display and a printer. The main features of this dosimetry system are its low cost, high degree of flexibility, high degree of automation and the feasibility for use in routine dosimetry as well as in TLD research. The system is in use for personal dosimetry, environmental dosimetry and for TL-research work. Because of its modular set-up several components of the system are in use for other applications, too. The system seems suited for medium sized health physics groups. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  14. Accidental and retrospective dosimetry using TL method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesterházy, D.; Osvay, M.; Kovács, A.; Kelemen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective dosimetry is one of the most important tools of accidental dosimetry for dose estimation when dose measurement was not planned. In the affected area many objects can be applied as natural dosimeters. The paper discusses our recent investigations on various electronic components and common salt (NaCl) having useful thermoluminescence (TL) properties. Among materials investigated the electronic components of cell phones seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes, having high TL responses, proper glow curve peaks and the intensity of TL peaks vs. gamma dose received provided nearly linear response in the dose range of 10 mGy–1.5 Gy. - Highlights: ► Electronic components and common salt were investigated for accidental and retrospective dosimetry. ► SMD resistors seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes. ► Table salt can be used effectively for accidental dosimetry purposes, as well.

  15. Dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andisco, D.; Blanco, S.; Buzzia, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The amount of computed tomography (CT) studies that are performed each year in the world is growing exponentially mainly due to the incorporation of multislice CT that allows studies in a few seconds. But, despite the benefit received by patients with the diagnosis, radiation dose is a concern in the professional community and it has be reduced as much as reasonably possible. This article describes the main dosimetric CT units used in order to work with this practice easily, using the values that provide modern equipment and internationally known reference levels. (authors) [es

  16. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  17. The dosimetry programme of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Describes the activities of the IAEA's Dosimetry Laboratory which provides calibration and comparison services for secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) of Member States. In addition, a joint IAEA/WHO postal dosimetry service has been established for radiotherapy centers. The International Measurement System and the calibration ''chain'' from measurement standard instruments of the International Bureau of Weights and Measurements (BIPM) through the primary and secondary standards to the dosimeters of the users are presented as well

  18. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  19. Some aspects on neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henaish, B.A.; Youssef, S.K.

    1988-01-01

    The American National Council on Radiation Protection and measurements (1) has recently issued a statement regarding dose limitation system for neutrons. The changes proposed in that statement presented substantial problems regarding the personnel exposure to neutrons and had pointed out the need to reassess an adequate current neutron dosimetry practice. Generally, the same types of dosimeters i.e. Nuclear Track (NTA films) and TLD-Albedo, have been used at major nuclear facilities over the past 15 years. here recently, other dosimetry methods such as track etch with polycarbonates such as CR-39 have been developed. However these should be recognized as local systems aiming to the development of better and more applicable dosimeters. 4 tab

  20. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhavere, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  1. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  2. Relative dosimetry by Ebt-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon A, M. A.; Rivera M, T.; Hernandez O, J. O.

    2015-10-01

    In the present work relative dosimetry in two linear accelerator for radiation therapy was studied. Both Varian Oncology systems named Varian Clinac 2100-Cd and MLC Varian Clinac i X were used. Gaf Chromic Ebt-3 film was used. Measurements have been performed in a water equivalent phantom, using 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams on both Linacs. Both calibration and Electron irradiations were carried out with the ionization chamber placed at the isocenter, below a stack of solid water slabs, at the depth of dose maximum (D max), with a Source-to-Surface Distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Calibration and dosimetric measurements photons were carried out under IAEA-TRS 398 protocol. Results of relative dosimetry in the present work are discussed. (Author)

  3. NOTE FROM THE DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During March, the Dosimetry Service will be opened from 8h30 to 12h in the morning and closed every afternoon.   We have established that many people, who are provided regularly with a personal dosimeter (film badge), have changed their activity and do not need it anymore, because they do not, or only exceptionally, enter controlled areas. If you are one of these persons, please contact the Personal Dosimeter Service (tel: 72155). There is a simplified procedure for obtaining a dosimeter if you have an immediate need for short-term visits in controlled areas. A reduction of the number of persons on the regular distribution list of dosimeters would decrease our and the distributors workload. It would also contribute to significant savings in the dosimetry, and thus CERN, budget. We thank you in advance for your understanding and for your collaboration.

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of luminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olko, Pawel, E-mail: Pawel.Olko@ifj.edu.p [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Science (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland)

    2010-03-15

    Owing to their excellent dosimetric properties, luminescence detectors of ionizing radiation are now extensively applied in individual dosimetry services. The most frequently used personal dosemeters are based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radiophotoluminescence (RPL) or thermoluminescence (TL). Luminescence detectors have also found several applications in clinical dosimetry, especially around new radiation modalities in radiotherapy, such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) or ion beam radiotherapy. Requirements of luminescence detectors applied in individual and clinical dosimetry and some recent developments in luminescence of detectors and techniques leading to significant improvements of the functionality and accuracy of dosimetry systems are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Dosimetry for electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    According to ISO 11137-1 (sect 4.3.4) dosimetry used in the development, validation and routine control of the sterilization process shall have measurement traceability to national or international standards and shall have a known level of uncertainty. It can only be obtained through calibration of the dosimeters. In presented lecture different types of dosimeter systems for electron beams (calorimeters, radiochromic film dosimeters, alanine / EPR) and their calibration are described

  6. Dosimetry of β extensive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of β extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  7. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose

  8. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Kuker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.

  9. Individual monitoring dosimetry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the various types of individual monitoring systems presently in use within the European community and neutron dosimetry research being coordinated by the EURADOS working group. Research is currently being conducted on nuclear track dosimeters, primarily with CR-39 (TM), and TLD-albedo dosimeters. Studies are being conducted on the energy and angular response of each type of dosimeter. Because the response of dosimeters depends on the energy of the neutrons, it is necessary to have spectral information to accurately assess the dose. Neutron energy spectrum measurements are being performed in typical work place environments. Work is also progressing on development of calibration sources which will be representative of the neutron energy spectrum found in typical neutron exposure situations. This work utilizes 14 MeV neutrons incident on a uranium block with various other filters. Research is also continuing on neutron dosimetry using tissue equivalent proportional counters and microdosimetric techniques. The results of intercomparisons between several different instruments are discussed. In addition to personnel dosimetry, these systems are being used to record the dose to passengers and flight crews aboard commercial aircraft

  10. Measurement uncertainty. A practical guide for Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The need for international traceability for radiation dose measurements has been understood since the early nineteen-sixties. The benefits of high dosimetric accuracy were recognized, particularly in radiotherapy, where the outcome of treatments is dependent on the radiation dose delivered to patients. When considering radiation protection dosimetry, the uncertainty may be greater than for therapy, but proper traceability of the measurements is no less important. To ensure harmonization and consistency in radiation measurements, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) created a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) in 1976. An SSDL is a laboratory that has been designated by the competent national authorities to undertake the duty of providing the necessary link in the traceability chain of radiation dosimetry to the international measurement system (SI, for Systeme International) for radiation metrology users. The role of the SSDLs is crucial in providing traceable calibrations; they disseminate calibrations at specific radiation qualities appropriate for the use of radiation measuring instruments. Historically, although the first SSDLs were established mainly to provide radiotherapy level calibrations, the scope of their work has expanded over the years. Today, many SSDLs provide traceability for radiation protection measurements and diagnostic radiology in addition to radiotherapy. Some SSDLs, with the appropriate facilities and expertise, also conduct quality audits of the clinical use of the calibrated dosimeters - for example, by providing postal dosimeters for dose comparisons for medical institutions or on-site dosimetry audits with an ion chamber and other appropriate equipment. The requirements for traceable and reliable calibrations are becoming more important. For example, for international trade where radiation products are manufactured within strict quality control systems, it is

  11. Radiobiology and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.; Kereiakes, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of radiobiology is presented that should indicate the reasonable limits of pediatric nuclear medicine. Together with the dosimetric information and the few caveats of laboratory procedure, the use of nuclear medicine as clinically indicated, maintaining doses as low as practicable, should be readily applied to pediatrics. In discussing benefits versus risks in nuclear medicine, the conscience guide (CG) was introduced as a unit, being defined as the referral rate to better qualified centers from a laboratory where expertise in a given test is lacking versus the total number of examinations done in that laboratory. When considering procedures in the pediatric age group, the physician is urged to use the CG to do only those procedures for which he and his staff have adequate equipment and experience. In this way, the best interests of the patient and physician can be insured. (auth)

  12. The implications of the publication 92 of the ICRP for the neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives some comments on the neutron dosimetry in the publication 92 called 'Relative Biological Effectiveness, Quality factor and Radiation weighting factor'. the accent is put on the question of the weighting factor given to the radiation. (N.C.)

  13. A European neutron dosimetry intercomparison project (ENDIP). Results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Burger, G.; Coppola, M.

    1978-01-01

    A total of twenty groups from nine countries participated in sessions of the European Neutron Dosimetry Intercomparison Project (ENDIP) which were held during 1975 at GSF, Munich-Neuherberg and TNO, Rijswijk. The data of all participants are collected, the analysis and evaluation of the results are given in the present report. Specific chapters deal with the experimental arrangements and monitoring results at GSF and TNO, characteristics of the dosimetry systems employed by the paticipating groups and the basic physical data and correction factors employed for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. In general, the participants in ENDIP quote systematic uncertainties of 7 to 8% in the neutron and total kerma or absorbed dose, which are mainly attributed to inadequate knowledge of basic constants. The variations in the results obtained by different participants seem to be in accordance with the relative large systematic uncertainties quoted. In order to determine the influence of the use of different values for the physical parameters, the relative responses of the participants' dosimeters have also been compared. The variances of quoted kerma and dose values are of the same order of magnitude as those of instrument responses. This result indicates inconsistencies in experimental techniques employed by the participants for the determination of kerma and absorbed dose. A separate nonparametric analysis of the ENDIP results confirmed that there are considerable systematic differences. Recommendations for future studies on neutron dosimetry for biological and medical applications are given at the end of the report

  14. Developments in physical dosimetry and radiation protection; Entwicklungen in der physikalischen Dosimetrie im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebich, Martin [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-07-01

    In the frame of physical dosimetry new dose units have been defined: the depth personal dose (equivalent dose in 10 mm depth) and the surface personal dose (equivalent dose in 0.07 mm depth). Physical dosimetry is applied for the determination of occupational radiation exposure, the radiation protected area control, the estimation of radiation exposure of patients during radiotherapy, for quality assurance and in research projects and optimization challenges. Developments have appeared with respect to punctual measuring chambers, eye lens dosimetry, OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) dosimetry, real-time dosimetry and Monte Carlo methods. New detection limits of about 1 micro Gy were reached.

  15. Individualised dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer based on external dose-rate. Optimisation of the number of measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ballesteros, J A; Torres-Espallardo, I; Borrelli, P; Rivas-Sanchez, A; Bello, P; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the results of individual dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with (131)I at our centre with the established limits and dosimetry results of published studies. Analysis of the optimal number of measurements necessary to reduce the impact of dosimetry for the comfort of the patient and, secondly, on the workload of health workers. Dosimetry was performed in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, on 29 patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer and treated with activities between 1.02 and 5.51 GBq (mean 2.68 GBq) of (131)I. The Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM) protocol was used, based on measurements of external dose rate adjusted to a bi-exponential curve according to a two compartment model. Different dosimetries were performed on each patient, taking different selections of the available measurements in order to find the optimal number. Results are well below the dosimetry limits, and are consistent with those obtained in other centres. The number of measurements can be reduced from 5, as proposed in the SEFM protocol, to 4 without significant loss of accuracy. Further reducing measures may be justified in individual cases. The values obtained for the dosimetry quantities are significantly below the established limits. A reduction in measurements can be assumed at the cost of a moderate increase in uncertainty, benefiting the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Retrospective dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.V.; Bakhanova, E.V.; Sholom, S.V.; Pasalskaya, L.F.; Bouville, A.; Krjuchkov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The numerous cohort of Chernobyl liquidators is a very attractive subject for epidemiological follow up due to high levels of exposure, age-gender distribution and availability of patients for medical examination. However, dosimetric information related to this population is incomplete, in many cases the quality of available dose records is doubtful and uncertainties of all dose values are not determined. Naive attempts to evaluate average doses on the basis of such factors as 'distance from the reactor' obviously fail due to large variation of tasks and workplace contamination. Therefore, prior to any sensible consideration of liquidators as a subject of epidemiological study, their doses should be evaluated (reevaluated) using the methods of retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry in general got significant development over the last decade. However, most of the retrospective dosimetry techniques are time consuming, expensive and possess sensitivity threshold. Therefore, application of retrospective dosimetry for the needs of epidemiological follow up studies requires development of certain strategy. This strategy depends, of coarse, on the epidemiological design of the study, availability of resources and dosimetric information related to the time of clean up. One of the strategies of application of retrospective dosimetry may be demonstrated on the example of a cohort study with occasional nested case control consideration. In this case, the tools are needed for validation of existing dose records (of not always known quality), screening of the study cohort with express dosimetric method called to determine possible dose ranges, and 'state-of-the-art' assessment of individual doses for selected subjects (cases and controls). Verification of dose records involves analysis of the statistical regularities of dose distributions and detection of possible extraneous admixtures (presumably falsified dose records). This work is performed on impersonified data

  17. Radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E T

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes the present state of knowledge in dosimetry of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. Data have been presented on the physical factors involved in the two cities and on attenuation of radiation by various shielding situations. This information is being used to estimate a tentative radiation dose to individual A-bomb survivors. It should be emphasized that many important problems remain to be solved before accurate doses can be assigned to individual survivors. Such information will greatly strengthen investigation of biological consequences of instantaneous doses of gamma and neutron irradiation in men. 18 references, 9 figures.

  18. Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviller, H. de

    1965-01-01

    The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10 -2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author) [fr

  19. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a 60 Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  20. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang

    1999-01-01

    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  1. Sizewell B Power Station control dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, G.

    1995-01-01

    Sizewell B Power Station is the first Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) built in the UK for commercial electricity production. An effective control dosimetry system is a crucial tool, in allowing the station to assess its radiological performance against targets. This paper gives an overview of the control dosimetry system at Sizewell B and describes early operating experience with the system. (UK)

  2. Mixed field dosimetry with paired ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, M.; Porro, F.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of neutron and gamma mixed-field dosimetry obtained by the Ispra Group in the framework of the European Neutron Dosimetry intercomparison Project (ENDIP). The experimental method and the formulation employed for the derivation of Kerma results are also present

  3. Dosimetry system of the RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolic, B.; Vukadin, D.

    1962-01-01

    Although RB reactor is operated at very low power levels, safety and dosimetry systems have high importance. This paper shows detailed dosimetry system with fundamental typical components. Estimated radiation doses dependent on reactor power are given at some characteristic points in the rooms nearby reactor

  4. Uncertainty analysis of dosimetry spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perey, F.G.

    1977-01-01

    The propagation of uncertainties in the input data is analyzed for the usual dosimetry unfolding solution. A new formulation of the dosimetry unfolding problem is proposed in which the most likely value of the spectrum is obtained. The relationship of this solution to the usual one is discussed

  5. Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brik, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scherbina, O.; Matyash, M.; Gaver, O.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

  6. Research and innovation in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this article some relevant lines of research in radiation dosimetry are presented. In some of them innovative approaches have been recently proposed in recent years. In others innovation is still to come as it is necessary in view of the insufficiency of the actual methods and techniques. mention is made to Thermoluminescence Dosimetry an to the improvement produced by new computational methods for the analysis of the usually complex TL signals. A solid state dosimetric technique recently proposed, Optically Stimulated Luminescence, OSL, is briefly presented. This technique promises advantages over TLD for personal and environmental dosimetry. The necessity of improving the measurement characteristics of neutron personal dosemeters is commented, making reference to some very recent developments. The situation of the dosimetry in connection with radiobiology research is overviewed, commenting the controversy on the adequacy and utility of the quality absorbed dose for these activities. Finally the special problematic of internal dosimetry is discussed. (Author) 25 refs

  7. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  8. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  9. A new analysis of radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes using the PCC technique, and its implications for biological dosimetry and the understanding of cell-cycle-dependent radiosensitivity fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannos, A.; Pantelias, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project are: to develop a sensitive biological dosemeter, based on the analysis of C-banded peripheral blood lymphocyte prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCCs), for the early assessment of radiation injury and the establishment of absorbed dose estimates in accidental overexposures; and to elucidate the mechanisms of radiation action at the molecular, chromosomal and cellular levels by the study of the effects of DNA repair inhibitors on the repair of radiation damage, effects of BrdUrd incorporation on radiation damage, effects of hyperthermia on the induction and repair of radiation-induced damage, and induction and repair of radiation damage in an X-ray sensitive CHO mutant cell line. (authors) 16 refs., 1 fig

  10. Next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a number of external dosimetry problems have been solved. However, changes in standards and legal concepts relating to the application of dosimetry results will require further enhancements in measurement techniques and philosophy in the next 10 y. The introduction of effective dose equivalent and the legal use of probability of causation will require that much greater attention be given to determination of weighted organ dose from external exposure. An imminent change--an increase in the fast neutron quality factor--will require a new round of technology development in a field that has just received a decade of close scrutiny. For the future, we must take advantage of developments in microelectronics. The use of random access memory (RAM) and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices as detector elements, particularly for neutron dosimetry, has exciting possibilities that are just beginning to be explored. Advances in microcircuitry are leading, and will continue to lead, in the development of a new generation of small, rugged and smart radiation survey instruments that will make the most of detector data. It has become possible with very compact instruments to obtain energy spectra, linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra, and quality factors in addition to the usual integrated dosimetric quantities: exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These instruments will be reliable and easy to use. The user will be able to select the level of sophistication that is required for any specific application. Moreover, since the processing algorithms can be changed, changes in conversion factors can be accommodated with relative ease. During the next decade, the use of computers will continue to grow in value to the health physicist

  11. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, A.

    1984-10-01

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60 Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided ( 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137 Cs and 60 Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  12. The RERF dosimetry measurements database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Preston, Dale L.; Grant, Eric J.; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Takashi; Lowder, Wayne M.

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation maintains a database containing detailed information on every known measurement of environmental materials in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for gamma-ray thermoluminescence or neutron activation produced by incident radiation from the atomic bomb detonations. The intent was to create a single information resource that would consistently document, as completely as possible in each case, a standard array of data for every known measurement. This database provides a uniquely comprehensive and carefully designed reference for the dosimetry reassessment. (J.P.N.)

  13. The Future of Medical Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Robert D., E-mail: robert_adams@med.unc.edu

    2015-07-01

    The world of health care delivery is becoming increasingly complex. The purpose of this manuscript is to analyze current metrics and analytically predict future practices and principles of medical dosimetry. The results indicate five potential areas precipitating change factors: a) evolutionary and revolutionary thinking processes, b) social factors, c) economic factors, d) political factors, and e) technological factors. Outcomes indicate that significant changes will occur in the job structure and content of being a practicing medical dosimetrist. Discussion indicates potential variables that can occur within each process and change factor and how the predicted outcomes can deviate from normative values. Finally, based on predicted outcomes, future opportunities for medical dosimetrists are given.

  14. Review on individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, M.

    1983-01-01

    Up to now, nuclear energy workers in relation to neutron radiations were few. Fast development of nuclear energy lead us to study, for future, individual dosimetry techniques which are autonomous, more accurate and cheaper. The future dosemeter will be a couple: fast neutron dosemeter and slow neutron dosemeter. The different current studies concerning this ''composite'' dosemeter are described. In 1984-1985, operation of a ''non-homogeneous, composite'' dosemeter is foreseen; later on, an ''homogeneous composite'' dosemeter that is to say a dosemeter which needs same basis techniques [fr

  15. NMR mechanisms in gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, L J

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance was critical to the development of gel dosimetry, as it established the potential for three dimensional dosimetry with chemical dosimeter systems through magnetic resonance imaging [1]. In the last two decades MRI has served as the gold standard for imaging, while NMR relaxometry has played an important role in the development and understanding of the behaviour of new gel dosimetry systems. Therefore, an appreciation of the relaxation mechanisms determining the NMR behaviour of irradiated gel dosimeters is important for a full comprehension of a considerable component of the literature on gel dosimetry. A number of excellent papers have presented this important theory, this brief review will highlight some of the salient points made previously [1-5]. The spin relaxation of gel dosimeters (which determines the dose dependence in most conventional MR imaging) is determined principally by the protons on water molecules in the system. These water protons exist in different environments, or groups (see Figure 1): on bulk water, on water hydrating the chemical species that are being modified under irradiation, and on water hydrating the gel matrix used to spatially stabilize the dosimeter (e.g., gelatin, agarose, etc). The spin relaxation depends on the inherent relaxation rate of each spin group, that is, on the relaxation rate which would be observed for the specific group if it were isolated. Also, the different water environments are not isolated from each other, and the observed relaxation rate also depends on the rate of exchange of magnetization between the groups, and on the fraction of protons in each group. In fact, the water exchanges quickly between the environments, so that relaxation is in what is usually termed the fast exchange regime. In the limit of fast exchange, the relaxation of the water protons is well characterized by a single exponential and hence by a single apparent relaxation rate. In irradiated gel dosimeters this

  16. Recent research into thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1979-04-01

    The trend of basic research in thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD), the results, and developing fields in which it can be applied are reported. This trend is outlined from the viewpoint fields of application, a new trend in TLD readers, the conditions of development of new photogenic substances, and research in the radiation characteristics of photogenic substances (radiosensitivity to particle rays and ultraviolet rays, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence at irradiation, and ..gamma.. ray energy dependence). Utilization of TLD in the medical field for measurement of environmental radiation and as a monitor for workers exposed to radiation is discussed. An international comparison of dose was necessary in order to prove its universal validity.

  17. Gamma dosimetry of high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, T.; Galvan G, A.; Canizal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The gamma dosimetry of high doses is problematic in almost all the classic dosemeters either based on the thermoluminescence, electric, chemical properties, etc., because they are saturated to very high dose and they are no longer useful. This work carries out an investigation in the interval of high doses. The solid system of heptahydrate ferrous sulfate, can be used as solid dosemeter of routine for high doses of radiation. The proposed method is simple, cheap and it doesn't require sophisticated spectrophotometers or spectrometers but expensive and not common in some laboratories

  18. The internal dosimetry code PLEIADES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, T P; Phipps, A W; Smith, T J

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public, including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients divides naturally into two distinct parts-the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper describes in detail the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES. A summary of the dosimetric treatment is included.

  19. The internal dosimetry code PLEIADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, T. P.; Phipps, A. W.; Smith, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public, including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients divides naturally into two distinct parts - the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper describes in detail the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES. A summary of the dosimetric treatment is included. (authors)

  20. Dosimetry for electron beam application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron beam dosimetry, on one hand development of film dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand development of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film dosimeters have been developed in this department, and the properties of these and commercially available dosimeters have been measured and found to be comparable. Calorimeters which are in use for routine measurements, are being investigated with reference to their application as standardizing instruments, and new calorimeters are being developed. (author)

  1. Dosimetry-based treatment for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Steve L; Pratt, Brenda; Gray, Matthew; Chittenden, Sarah; Du, Yong; Harmer, Clive L; Flux, Glenn D

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the long-term outcome of a personalized dosimetry approach in Graves' disease aiming to render patients euthyroid from a planned thyroid absorbed dose of 60 Gy. A total of 284 patients with Graves' disease were followed prospectively following administration of radioiodine calculated to deliver an absorbed dose of 60 Gy. Patients with cardiac disease were excluded. Outcomes were analysed at yearly intervals for up to 10 years with a median follow-up of 37.5 months. A single radioiodine administration was sufficient to render a patient either euthyroid or hypothyroid in 175 (62%) patients, the remainder requiring further radioiodine. The median radioactivity required to deliver 60 Gy was 77 MBq. Less than 2% patients required 400-600 MBq, the standard activity administered in many centres. In the cohort receiving a single administration, 38, 32 and 26% were euthyroid on no specific thyroid medication at 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Larger thyroid volumes were associated with the need for further therapy. The presence of nodules on ultrasonography did not adversely affect treatment outcome. A personalized dosimetric approach delayed the long-term onset of hypothyroidism in 26% of patients. This was achieved using much lower administered activities than currently recommended. Future studies will aim to identify those patients who would benefit most from this approach.

  2. A preliminary study on thermoluminescence of AMOLED glass from mobile phones for retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Lee, Jungil; Chang, Insu; Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Min Chae; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Jang-Lyul; Kim, Bong-Hwan; Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Ah-reum

    2017-01-01

    Since mobile phones are always carried by individuals, the retrospective dosimetry using thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of elements in mobile phone is intensively developing nowadays due to its advantages over conventional biological dosimetry techniques. Using a TL and OSL method on resistors and inductors in a mobile phone, a low background dose (zero dose) about tens of mGy is acquired in previous study. Radiation workers have to wear a dosimeter to assess individual exposure during their works. This monitoring system facilitate a fast medical treatment for highly exposed workers in case of a radiation accident. In the event of large-scale radiation accidents, where most of the subjects are ordinary people, it is difficult to evaluate the individual dose due to the absence of dosimeters. A technique for dose evaluation using a radiation dependency of various materials in the absence of a dosimeter is called retrospective dosimetry.

  3. Code of practice for clinical proton dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vynckier, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this document is to make recommendations for the determination of absorbed dose to tissue for clinical proton beams and to achieve uniformity in proton dosimetry. A Code of Practice (CoP) has been chosen, providing specific guidelines for the choice of the detector and the method of determination of absorbed dose for proton beams only. This CoP is confined specifically to the determination of absorbed dose and is not concerned with the biological effects of proton beams. It is recommended that dosimeters be calibrated by comparison with a calorimeter. If this is not available, a Faraday cup, or alter-natively, an ionization chamber, with a 60 Co calibration factor should be used. Physical parameters for determining the dose from tissue-equivalent ionization chamber measurements are given together with a worksheet. It is recommended that calibrations be carried out in water at the centre of the spread-out-Bragg-peak and that dose distributions be measured in a water phantom. It is estimated that the error in the calibrations will be less than +-5 per cent (1 S.D.) in all cases. Adoption and implementation of this CoP will facilitate the exchange of clinical information. (author). 34 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Dosimetry at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    Although the primary reason for the existence of the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility is to provide basic data on the physics of systems of fissile material, the physical arrangements and ability to provide sources of radiation have led to applications for all types of radiation dosimetry. In the broad definition of radiation phenomena, the facility has provided sources to evaluate biological effects, radiation shielding and transport, and measurements of basic parameters such as the evaluation of delayed neutron parameters. Within the last 15 years, many of the radiation measurements have been directed to calibration and intercomparison of dosimetry related to nuclear criticality safety. Future plans include (1) the new applications of Godiva IV, a bare-metal pulse assembly, for dosimetry (including an evaluation of neutron and gamma-ray room return); (2) a proposal to relocate the Health Physics Research Reactor from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to Los Alamos, which will provide the opportunity to continue the application of a primary benchmark source to radiation dosimetry; and (3) a proposal to employ SHEBA, a low-enrichment solution assembly, for accident dosimetry and evaluation

  5. Overview of physical dosimetry methods for triage application integrated in the new European network RENEB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, François; Burbidge, Christopher; Bassinet, Céline; Baumann, Marion; Bortolin, Emanuela; De Angelis, Cinzia; Eakins, Jonathan; Della Monaca, Sara; Fattibene, Paola; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Tanner, Rick; Wieser, Albrecht; Woda, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    In the EC-funded project RENEB (Realizing the European Network in Biodosimetry), physical methods applied to fortuitous dosimetric materials are used to complement biological dosimetry, to increase dose assessment capacity for large-scale radiation/nuclear accidents. This paper describes the work performed to implement Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dosimetry techniques. OSL is applied to electronic components and EPR to touch-screen glass from mobile phones. To implement these new approaches, several blind tests and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILC) were organized for each assay. OSL systems have shown good performances. EPR systems also show good performance in controlled conditions, but ILC have also demonstrated that post-irradiation exposure to sunlight increases the complexity of the EPR signal analysis. Physically-based dosimetry techniques present high capacity, new possibilities for accident dosimetry, especially in the case of large-scale events. Some of the techniques applied can be considered as operational (e.g. OSL on Surface Mounting Devices [SMD]) and provide a large increase of measurement capacity for existing networks. Other techniques and devices currently undergoing validation or development in Europe could lead to considerable increases in the capacity of the RENEB accident dosimetry network.

  6. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  7. Chernobyl Experience in the Field of Retrospective Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Bakhanova, E.

    2011-01-01

    Chernobyl accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986 at NPP located less than 150 km north of Kiev, is the largest nuclear accident ever. Unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by a number of population and workers involved and, therefore, exposed to enhanced doses of ionizing radiation. Population of the 30-km exclusion zone numbering about 116,000 persons of all ages and both genders was evacuated within days and weeks after the accident, emergency workers called ''liquidators of the accident'' (males age 20-50) were involved into clean-up and recovery for 5 years and their number is estimated as 600,000, about 300,000 are Ukrainian citizens. Due to unexpected and excessively large scale accident, none of residents had personal dosimeters, personal dosimetry of liquidators was not total, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. This need was responded by implementation of wide scale dose reconstruction efforts, which covered main exposed cohorts and encompassed broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical (time-and-motion), modeling, biological and physical (EPR spectroscopy of teeth, TL of quartz). The presentation summarizes vast experience accumulated by RCRM in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up medical consequences of Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, in particular, Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukemia among liquidators. Over 25 years passed after Chernobyl accident a broad variety of retrospective dosimetry problems was addressed by the team of Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS Ukraine. In

  8. Non-conventional personal dosimetry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Established dosimetry has achieved a high standard in personnel monitoring. This applies particularly to photon dosimetry. Nevertheless, even in photon dosimetry, improvements and changes are being made. The reason may be technological progress, or the introduction of new tasks on the basis of the recommendations of international bodies (e.g. the new ICRU measurement unit) of national legislation. Since we are restricting ourselves here to technical trends the author would like to draw attention to various activities of current interest, e.g. the computation of receptor-related conversion coefficients from personal dose to organ or body doses, taking into account the conditions of exposure with respect to differential energy and angular distribution of the radiation field. Realistic data on exposure geometry are taken from work place analyses. Furthermore, the data banks of central personal dosimetry services are subject to statistical evaluation and radiation protection trend analysis. Technological progress and developments are considered from the point of view of personal dosimetry, partial body or extremity dosimetry and accidental dosimetry

  9. Neutron personnel dosimetry considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The increasing development of fusion reactor technology warrants an evaluation of personnel neutron dosimetry systems to aid in the concurrent development of a radiation protection program. For this reason, current state of knowledge neutron dosimeters have been reviewed with emphasis placed on practical utilization and the problems inherent in each type of dosimetry system. Evaluations of salient parameters such as energy response, latent image instability, and minimum detectable dose equivalent are presented for nuclear emulsion films, track etch techniques, albedo and other thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques, electrical conductivity damage effects, lyoluminescence, thermocurrent, and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission. Brief summaries of dosimetry regulatory requirements and intercomparison study results help to establish compliance and recent trends, respectively. Spectrum modeling data generated by the Neutron Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Princeton Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Facility have been analyzed by both International Commission on Radiological Protection fluence to dose conversion factors and an adjoint technique of radiation dosimetry, in an attempt to determine the applicability of current neutron dosimetry systems to deuterium and tritium fusion reactor leakage spectra. Based on the modeling data, a wide range of neutron energies will probably be present in the leakage spectra of the TFTR facility, and no appreciable risk of somatic injury to occupationally exposed workers is expected. The relative dose contributions due to high energy and thermal neutrons indicate that neutron dosimetry will probably not be a serious limitation in the development of fusion power

  10. New materials for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madatov, R.S.; Necefov, A.I.; Qabulov, I.A.; Seferova, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The utilization of nuclear energy and beginning the production of radioactive nuclides are the reasons for radiation safety problems actualization. As a result of this, a new specific peculiar properties such as environmental, psychological, biological and etc. that are originated due to radioactive irradiation have been observed. Dosimetric equipment is used with the purpose of environmental protection, radiation detection, radiation safety assessment and distribution of information. The principle of operation of this equipment is based on the ionization effect. However, the equipment is differed one from another by the registration method. The main imperfections of dosimetric equipment are a narrowness of irradiation range as well as small values of energy sensitivity and stability. Taking into account of all above-stated imperfections, the obtaining of a new radiation-resistant materials and production of modern dosimetric detectors on their basis are one of the actual problems in dosimetry. At present the detectors on the basis of semiconductor materials such as Ge, Si, CdTe, CdS and etc. are widespread. Their principle of operation is also based on the ionization process, but the mechanism of its is differ from gas detectors. It is connected with that the carrier mobility for electrons in semiconductors is varied from 1400 up to 4000 cm 2 /(V·sec), and for holes from 400 up to 2000 cm 2 /(V·sec). It provides high level of detection for detectors on the basis of semiconductors. Initial conductivity of semiconductors differs one from another and it restricts the efficiency of detectors. The investigations on two directions have been carried out by this reason. The first direction is the increasing of radiation resistance of existing materials. The second direction is the obtaining of a new materials with high radiation resistance. It is known that the laminated materials on the basis of tellurium, for instance TeInS 2 are high sensitivity to X

  11. Retrospective dosimetry by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.; Davila, F.A.; Boveris, A.; Puntarulo, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biophysical dosimetry based on EPR in biological solid samples (like bone and teeth) or in organic materials (like textile fibres, sugar, etc.) is a complementary technique that could contribute, along with the biological dosimetry, to the retrospective evaluation of the absorbed dose in accidental situations. Dental enamel could be considered as the only tissue with structure and composition essentially constant over time: this characteristic feature allows its use as an index of radiation exposure since tooth retains indefinitely its radiation history. Samples of human molars were exposed to gamma-Rays (Co 60) with doses between 0,5 Gy to 10 Gy. After a chemical treatment of samples, enamel was removed by grinding with a dental drill and reduced to a fine powder. A characteristic EPR signal was detected at g=2.002. The dose effect curves were done using 20 mw of microwave power. Measurements were done both, with flat cells and disposable Pasteur pipettes allowing the use of lower amounts of sample. The intensity of the signal was proportional to the dose and linearity was verified in both cases. We discuss the applicability of this technique in evaluating radiation dose in accidental overexposures. (author) [es

  12. Characterization of commercial MOSFETS electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, M. A.; Simancas, F.; Guirado, D.; Banqueri, J.; Vilches, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been commercial dosimetry devices based on transistors Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOSFET) having a number of advantages over traditional systems for dosimetry in medical applications. These include the portability of the sensor element and a reading process quick and relatively simple dose, linearity, and so on. The use of electron beams is important in modern radiotherapy include its use in intra-operative radiotherapy (RIO). This paper presents an initial characterization of different business models MOSFET, not specific for radiation detection, to demonstrate their potential as sensors for electron beam dosimetry. (Author)

  13. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Attix, Frank Herbert

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward presentation of the broad concepts underlying radiological physics and radiation dosimetry for the graduate-level student. Covers photon and neutron attenuation, radiation and charged particle equilibrium, interactions of photons and charged particles with matter, radiotherapy dosimetry, as well as photographic, calorimetric, chemical, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Includes many new derivations, such as Kramers X-ray spectrum, as well as topics that have not been thoroughly analyzed in other texts, such as broad-beam attenuation and geometrics, and the reciprocity theorem

  14. Accuracy Requirements in Medical Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    2011-01-01

    The need for adopting unambiguous terminology on 'accuracy in medical radiation dosimetry' which is consistent with international recommendations for metrology is emphasized. Uncertainties attainable, or the need for improving their estimates, are analysed for the fields of radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine dosimetry. This review centres on uncertainties related to the first step of the dosimetry chain in the three fields, which in all cases involves the use of a detector calibrated by a standards laboratory to determine absorbed dose, air kerma or activity under reference conditions in a clinical environment. (author)

  15. Dosimetry optimization at COGEMA-La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimbadjian, J.

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, the la Hague site strives to apply international recommendations together with national regulations concerning radiation protection, and especially the respect of limitation and optimization principles. The application of these principles is based on the implementation of a passive dosimetry and an active dosimetry. The monthly passive dosimetry is monitored by means of a photographic dosimetry film, completed with lithium fluorine thermoluminescent film badges. This personal dosimetry common to X, β, γ and neutron radiations is carried out in close relationship between the Radiation Protection Department, the Occupational Medical Department and the staff running the Plant. The application or ALARA's principle as well as that of radiation protection optimization implies to implement a complementary active dosimetry enabling to gain in real time, the personal dosimetry of each intervening person, either they be COGEMA's workers or external companies'. This active dosimetry provides with following information: This preventive dosimetry is based on the knowledge of doses integration in real time and is fitted with alarm thresholds according to the total amount of doses and dose rates. Thresholds on the dose rate are also set relatively to the radiological environment. This knowledge of doses and dose rates allows a stricter management of the works, while analyzing them according to the nature of the work, to the location and to the skills of the intervening people. This dosimetry allows to analyze and optimize doses integration according to the works nature for the whole intervening staff. The la Hague Site has developed an active personal dosimetry system, common to every intervening person, COGEMA or external companies. The DOSICARD was thus elaborated, shaped as an electronic dosimeter fitted with an alarm and a smart card. The access to controlled areas is conditioned to information given by the DOSICARD concerning medical aptitudes and

  16. Radiographic film orientation in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchowerska, N.; Davison, A.; Drew, J.; Metcalfe, P.

    1996-01-01

    Since the discovery of x-rays, film has been used as a detection medium for radiation. More recently radiographic film has become established as a practical tool for the measurement of dose distribution in radiotherapy. The accuracy and reproducibility of film dosimetry depends on photon energy, processing conditions and film plane orientation. The relationship between photon energy, processing conditions and film dosimetry accuracy has been studied. The role of film plane orientation is still controversial. The current work aims to clarify the effects film plane orientation has on film dosimetry. Poster 205. (author)

  17. External dosimetry by Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory - IPEN/CNEN - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoli, Jose Eduardo; Carvalho, Ricardo Nunes

    2001-01-01

    The Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Laboratory, LDT - IPEN/CNEN - Brazil, executes around six thousand TLD readings monthly. It is responsible for the dose evaluation and registration and for all the manufacture process of preparation and sending the dosemeters which are used by IPEN itself, hospitals, industries, town halls, universities, etc. Although prepared to read many kinds of materials, actually the LDT reads only CaSO 4 :Dy detector chips. Chips, heating molds, plastic packaging and almost every material or instrument are made right here at IPEN. The readings are performed in a Bicron Harshaw TLD model 5500, but an old model 2000-AB is ready to be used if necessary. In this work it is presented some features of this important service realized to the IPEN workers and to the community. (author)

  18. Skeletal dosimetry models for alpha-particles for use in molecular radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Christopher J.

    Molecular radiotherapy is a cancer treatment methodology whereby a radionuclide is combined with a biologically active molecule to preferentially target cancer cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides show significant potential for use in molecular radiotherapy due to the short range of the alpha-particles in tissue and their high rates of energy deposition. Current radiation dosimetry models used to assess alpha emitter dose in the skeleton were developed originally for occupational applications. In medical dosimetry, individual variability in uptake, translocation and other biological factors can result in poor correlation of clinical outcome with marrow dose estimates determined using existing skeletal models. Methods presented in this work were developed in response to the need for dosimetry models which account for these biological and patient-specific factors. Dosimetry models are presented for trabecular bone alpha particle dosimetry as well as a model for cortical bone dosimetry. These radiation transport models are the 3D chord-based infinite spongiosa transport model (3D-CBIST) and the chord-based infinite cortical transport model (CBICT), respectively. Absorbed fraction data for several skeletal tissues for several subjects are presented. Each modeling strategy accounts for biological parameters, such as bone marrow cellularity, not previously incorporated into alpha-particle skeletal dosimetry models used in radiation protection. Using these data a study investigating the variability in alpha-particle absorbed fractions in the human skeleton is also presented. Data is also offered relating skeletal tissue masses in individual bone sites for a range of ages. These data are necessary for dose calculations and have previously only been available as whole body tissue masses. A revised 3D-CBIST model is also presented which allows for changes in endosteum thickness to account for revised target cell location of tissues involved in the radiological

  19. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  20. Dosimetry techniques applied to thermoluminescent age estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.

    1986-12-01

    The reliability and the ease of the field application of the measuring techniques of natural radioactivity dosimetry are studied. The natural radioactivity in minerals in composed of the internal dose deposited by alpha and beta radiations issued from the sample itself and the external dose deposited by gamma and cosmic radiations issued from the surroundings of the sample. Two technics for external dosimetry are examined in details. TL Dosimetry and field gamma dosimetry. Calibration and experimental conditions are presented. A new integrated dosimetric method for internal and external dose measure is proposed: the TL dosimeter is placed in the soil in exactly the same conditions as the sample ones, during a time long enough for the total dose evaluation [fr