WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological diversity crisis

  1. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  2. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  3. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  4. The biology of hair diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics.

  5. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom......Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...

  6. The Biological Origin of Linguistic Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Christiansen, Morten H; 10.1371/journal.pone.0048029

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with animal communication systems, diversity is characteristic of almost every aspect of human language. Languages variously employ tones, clicks, or manual signs to signal differences in meaning; some languages lack the noun-verb distinction (e.g., Straits Salish), whereas others have a proliferation of fine-grained syntactic categories (e.g., Tzeltal); and some languages do without morphology (e.g., Mandarin), while others pack a whole sentence into a single word (e.g., Cayuga). A challenge for evolutionary biology is to reconcile the diversity of languages with the high degree of biological uniformity of their speakers. Here, we model processes of language change and geographical dispersion and find a consistent pressure for flexible learning, irrespective of the language being spoken. This pressure arises because flexible learners can best cope with the observed high rates of linguistic change associated with divergent cultural evolution following human migration. Thus, rather than genetic ada...

  7. Global biological diversity, forests and ecosystem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent international reports and a paper published on Science stresses the lack of evidence about the reduction in the rate of biodiversity decline as expected as a consequence of political agreements on global environment. This decline is of particular concern not only with respect to the intrinsic value of the nature as such but also because it involves the reduction or loss of ecosystem services. This issue is distinctively relevant for forest ecosystems. The Ecosystem Approach proposed by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity might be a strategy to reverse the negative trend, promoting a fair conservation and sustainable use of natural resources on an operational level.

  8. Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    Crisis as an omnipresent part of our daily lives has become engrained in our mindsets. We should, however, not resort to apathy, but instead attempt to differentiate between those issues sold to us as crises. The new Schlossplatz³ issue shows how crises are managed in various examples and how they can serve as instances of learning.

  9. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    for extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online......This thesis applies methods from medical image analysis for modeling the biological diversity of pig carcasses. The Danish meat industry is very focused on improving product quality and productivity by optimizing the use of the carcasses and increasing productivity in the abattoirs. In order...... to achieve these goals there is a need for more detailed information about pig carcasses in relation to measures of quality. Non-invasive imaging such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) can provide this very detailed information discerning the major tissue types. Medical image analysis provides the tools...

  10. Arenavirus genetic diversity and its biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonet, Sebastien F; de la Torre, Juan C; Domingo, Esteban; Sevilla, Noemí

    2009-07-01

    The Arenaviridae family currently comprises 22 viral species, each of them associated with a rodent species. This viral family is important both as tractable experimental model systems to study acute and persistent infections and as clinically important human pathogens. Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bi-segmented negative-strand RNA genome. The interaction with the cellular receptor and subsequent entry into the host cell differs between Old World and New World arenavirus that use alpha-dystoglycan or human transferring receptor 1, respectively, as main receptors. The recent development of reverse genetic systems for several arenaviruses has facilitated progress in understanding the molecular biology and cell biology of this viral family, as well as opening new approaches for the development of novel strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses. On the other hand, increased availability of genetic data has allowed more detailed studies on the phylogeny and evolution of arenaviruses. As with other riboviruses, arenaviruses exist as viral quasispecies, which allow virus adaptation to rapidly changing environments. The large number of different arenavirus host reservoirs and great genetic diversity among virus species provide the bases for the emergence of new arenaviruses potentially pathogenic for humans.

  11. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttichai Mhuantong

    Full Text Available The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas.

  12. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Pattaragulwanit, Kobchai; Punmatharith, Thantip; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak; Rachakornkij, Manaskorn; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas.

  13. THE REFUGEE CRISIS ON TWITTER: A DIVERSITY OF DISCOURSES AT A EUROPEAN CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Gualda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the European Union has approved and launched measures to promote Intercultural Cities, Diversity Management and the Integration of Immigrants in Europe. Despite this European framework, we are now at a crossroads between solidarity and humanity and an important restriction of refugees’ human rights across Europe. In this paper, we try to compare the international approaches to the refugee crisis in different countries in Europe. Data were extracted from Twitter. We obtained thousands of tweets about “refugees”, using this word in six different languages (English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish from end November 2015 to 27 February 2016 as search strings. We performed a discourse analysis, focusing on the comparison between countries. A qualitative analysis with the help of both Atlas ti and T-Lab software was performed. The results showed a diversity of current discourses in Europe about refugees and the refugee crisis (from solidary to xenophobic ones, some of them very characteristic of particular countries or of local events experienced in these countries. These results allow us to reinforce the idea that we are at a key moment for the future development of Europe, especially regarding aspects concerning living together in cities and villages.

  14. One species, many terpenes: matching chemical and biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Francesco; Bagnoli, Francesca; Fineschi, Silvia

    2009-08-01

    Volatile terpenes have been proposed as chemotaxonomic markers, despite the strong environmental control on their synthesis. To clarify whether chemical profiles match biological diversity, cork oak, a monoterpene-emitting species that has been bred by humans and frequently hybridizes with other oaks, is a useful case-study. Analysis of the available genetic information in cork oak provenances suggests that volatile terpenes might indeed suitably track geographical diversity even at the intraspecific level. Phylogeographical diversity does not reflect chemical diversity in other evergreen oaks that have not been intensively bred. Breeding for productive traits might therefore drive selection for terpene diversity, in turn modulating important adaptive mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stressors.

  15. Role of natural product diversity in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2011-06-01

    Through the natural selection process, natural products possess a unique and vast chemical diversity and have been evolved for optimal interactions with biological macromolecules. Owing to their diversity, target affinity, and specificity, natural products have demonstrated enormous potential as modulators of biomolecular function, been an essential source for drug discovery, and provided design principles for combinatorial library development.

  16. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action.

  17. Critical elements of the crisis intervention team model of jail diversion: an expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Alan B; Bond, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model of jail diversion is a promising approach to addressing the over-involvement of people with mental illness with the criminal justice system. Despite its popularity and promising empirical support, the literature has yet to clarify CIT's critical elements. The aim of this study was to assess the degree to which experts agreement on the importance and perceived implementation of the critical elements of CIT. Study 1 used a literature review to cull potential elements. Three experts familiar with the CIT model reviewed these elements. Study 2 utilized an online survey of 55 CIT co-ordinators/officers and published experts to assess agreement regarding importance and degree the element is implemented. A preliminary list of 36 elements was identified with a high level of expert agreement on their importance regarding importance and implementation. This study developed a preliminary list of elements of the CIT's program. Further research should develop consensus, explore elements' association with outcomes, and differentiate elements from those common to all jail diversion programs.

  18. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P crisis.

  19. Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop C. van Lenteren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the "Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing". This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article, we summarize our concern about the effects of access and benefit sharing systems on the future of biological control.

  20. Biological diversity, dietary diversity, and eye health in developing country populations: establishing the evidence-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Julie; Johns, Timothy

    2008-09-01

    Human and ecosystem health converge around biological diversity issues. Cultivated and wild plants as food and medicine make essential contributions to human health, which in turn provides rationales for conservation. While wild and cultivated plant diversity reasonably facilitates dietary diversity and positive health outcomes, the challenges of demonstrating this relationship limit its impact in concept, policy, and practice. We present a rationale for testing the dietary contribution of biological diversity to improved eye health as a case study based on existing phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical knowledge. We consider the empirical evidence needed to substantiate, interpret, and apply this relationship at a population and ecosystem level within a unified research framework. Epidemiological data strongly support the prevention of childhood vitamin A deficiency blindness, cataract, and age-related macular degeneration by fruit and vegetable consumption. Phytonutrients, including the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, protect the eye from oxidative stress and harmful light exposure. Laboratory, community, and population level research should prioritize food composition of dietary plants from both agriculture and the wild. Intervention studies, focus groups, and transmission of knowledge of local species and varieties within communities will further interpretation of epidemiological data. Population-based studies combining clinical data and measures of access and consumption of biological diversity are key to demonstrating the important relationships among biodiversity, dietary diversity, and health outcomes.

  1. On the Biological and Genetic Diversity in Neospora caninum

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    John T. Ellis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a parasite regarded a major cause of foetal loss in cattle. A key requirement to an understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of N. caninum is knowledge of the biological characteristics of the species and the genetic diversity within it. Due to the broad intermediate host range of the species, worldwide geographical distribution and its capacity for sexual reproduction, significant biological and genetic differences might be expected to exist. N. caninum has now been isolated from a variety of different host species including dogs and cattle. Although isolates of this parasite show only minor differences in ultrastructure, considerable differences have been reported in pathogenicity using mainly mouse models. At the DNA level, marked levels of polymorphism between isolates were detected in mini- and microsatellites found in the genome of N. caninum. Knowledge of what drives the biological differences that have been observed between the various isolates at the molecular level is crucial in aiding our understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite and, in turn, the development of efficacious strategies, such as live vaccines, for controlling its impact. The purpose of this review is to document and discuss for the first time, the nature of the diversity found within the species Neospora caninum.

  2. Bar coding Biological Diversity: A New Micr ogenomic Identification Approach

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    Bazartseren Boldgiv

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphology-based taxonomy suffers from its inherent limitations, even though most of biological research depends on reliable identifications of species. A recent microgenomic identification approach, which is now being called the “DNA-barcoding,” presents a promising potential of developing into a real- time, on site tool for identification of organisms, especially animals and of providing an added insight into evolutionary history . For animals, the DNA-barcode seems to have been found in the mitochondrial genome and researchers are in quest of developing similar microgenomic DNA-barcoding systems for other domains of biological diversity . This article discusses the DNA-barcoding technique and considers some of the implications of this approach.

  3. Can the natural diversity of quorum sensing advance synthetic biology?

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    Rene Michele Davis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over one hundred morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology.

  4. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

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    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  5. Diversity and equity: dealing with biological and social differences

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    Friedhelm Nachreiner

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the design of working hours inequities in health associated with biological, psychological, social, and socioeconomic diversities can be observed. The paper first tries to set up a frame of reference for a discussion of this topic, relating to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and some recent discussions on equity in health and then goes into some factors that produce inequities in health in the context of the design of working hours, dealing with sex or gender, age and job age, personality traits, marital status, social support, diversities in values, and socio-economic differences; the discussion deals with approaches on how to deal with these differences and inequities.No contexto do planejamento das horas de trabalho, observam-se iniqüidades na saúde associadas à diversidade biológica, psicológica, social e socioeconômica. Inicialmente, procura-se criar uma estrutura de referência para a discussão do assunto, relacionando-o à Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos e a discussões recentes sobre eqüidade em saúde. Em seguida, passa-se a alguns fatores que causam iniqüidades em saúde no contexto do planejamento das horas de trabalho, associados ao sexo ou gênero, idade e tempo de permanência no serviço, características de personalidade, estado civil, apoio social, diversidades de valores e diferenças socioeconômicas; a discussão estende-se sobre enfoques para lidar com estas diferenças e iniqüidades.

  6. Impacts of biological diversity on sediment transport in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, L. K.; Cardinale, B. J.; Sklar, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have shown that biological structures (e.g. plant roots) have large impacts on sediment transport, and that physical models that do not incorporate these biological impacts can produce qualitatively incorrect predictions. But while it is now recognized that biological structures influence sediment transport, work to date has focused primarily on the impacts of individual, usually dominant, species. Here, we ask whether competitive interactions cause multi-species communities to have fundamentally different impacts on sediment mobility than single-species systems. We use a model system with caddisfly larvae, which are insects that live in the benthic habitat of streams where they construct silken catchnets across pore spaces between rocks to filter food particles. Because caddisflies can reach densities of 1,000s per m2 with each larva spinning hundreds of silken threads between rocks, studies have shown that caddisflies reduce the probability of bed movement during high discharge events. To test whether streams with multiple species of caddisfly are stabilized any differently than single-species streams, we manipulated the presence or absence of two common species (Ceratopsyche oslari, Arctopsyche californica) in substrate patches (0.15 m2) in experimental stream channels (50-m long x 1-m wide) with fully controlled hydrology at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory. This experiment was designed to extend the scale of previous laboratory mesocosm studies, which showed that critical shear stress is 31% higher in a multi-species flume mesocosm compared to a single-species mesocosm. Under these more realistic field conditions, we found that critical shear stress was, on average, 30% higher in streams with caddisflies vs. controls with no caddisflies. However, no differences were detected between treatments with 2 vs. 1 species. We hypothesize that the minimal effect of diversity on critical shear stress

  7. Structural diversity of biologically interesting datasets: a scaffold analysis approach

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    Khanna Varun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent public availability of the human metabolome and natural product datasets has revitalized "metabolite-likeness" and "natural product-likeness" as a drug design concept to design lead libraries targeting specific pathways. Many reports have analyzed the physicochemical property space of biologically important datasets, with only a few comprehensively characterizing the scaffold diversity in public datasets of biological interest. With large collections of high quality public data currently available, we carried out a comparative analysis of current day leads with other biologically relevant datasets. Results In this study, we note a two-fold enrichment of metabolite scaffolds in drug dataset (42% as compared to currently used lead libraries (23%. We also note that only a small percentage (5% of natural product scaffolds space is shared by the lead dataset. We have identified specific scaffolds that are present in metabolites and natural products, with close counterparts in the drugs, but are missing in the lead dataset. To determine the distribution of compounds in physicochemical property space we analyzed the molecular polar surface area, the molecular solubility, the number of rings and the number of rotatable bonds in addition to four well-known Lipinski properties. Here, we note that, with only few exceptions, most of the drugs follow Lipinski's rule. The average values of the molecular polar surface area and the molecular solubility in metabolites is the highest while the number of rings is the lowest. In addition, we note that natural products contain the maximum number of rings and the rotatable bonds than any other dataset under consideration. Conclusions Currently used lead libraries make little use of the metabolites and natural products scaffold space. We believe that metabolites and natural products are recognized by at least one protein in the biosphere therefore, sampling the fragment and scaffold

  8. Linking biological soil crust diversity to ecological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Karin; Borchhardt, Nadine; Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Ulf, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions. Our aim was to determine and compare the biodiversity of all occurring organisms in biogeographically different habitats, ranging from polar (both Arctic and Antarctic), subpolar (Scandinavia), temperate (Germany) to dry regions (Chile). The combination of microscopy and molecular techniques (next-generation sequencing) revealed highly diverse crust communities, whose composition clustered by region and correlates with habitat characteristics such as water content. The BSC biodiversity was then linked to the ecological function of the crusts. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous is evaluated using an array of state of the art soil chemistry methods including Py-FIMS (pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry) and XANES (x-ray absorbance near edge structure). Total P as well as P fractions were quantified in all BSCs, adjacent soil underneath and comparable nearby soil of BSC-free areas revealing a remarkable accumulation of total phosphorous and a distinct pattern of P fractions in the crust. Further, we observed an indication of a different P-speciation composition in the crust compared with BSC-free soil. The data allow answering the question whether BSCs act as sink or source for these compounds, and how biodiversity controls the biogeochemical function of BSCs.

  9. Evolutionary and Political Economic Influences on Biological Diversity in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah Linda Collier

    1993-01-01

    Examines existing data on biological diversity among Americans of African descent within the contexts of their evolutionary backgrounds and political and economic realities. Explores the origins of the diversity, and provides an evolutionary and political economy synthesis for evaluating the biological distinctions apparent among African…

  10. Biology Teachers' Conceptions of the Diversity of Life and the Historical Development of Evolutionary Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paloma Rodrigues; de Andrade, Mariana A. Bologna Soares; de Andrade Caldeira, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Biology is a science that involves study of the diversity of living organisms. This diversity has always generated questions and has motivated cultures to seek plausible explanations for the differences and similarities between types of organisms. In biology teaching, these issues are addressed by adopting an evolutionary approach. The aim of this…

  11. The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Joslin L; Manne, Lisa; Brooks, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    Anthropologists, biologists and linguists have all noted an apparent coincidence in species diversity and human cultural or linguistic diversity. We present, to our knowledge, one of the first quantitative descriptions of this coincidence and show that, for 2 degrees x 2 degrees grid cells across...... sub-Saharan Africa, cultural diversity and vertebrate species diversity exhibit marked similarities in their overall distribution. In addition, we show that 71% of the observed variation in species richness and 36% in language richness can be explained on the basis of environmental factors, suggesting...

  12. Scientists' opinions on the global status and management of biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A

    2011-12-01

    The large investments needed if loss of biological diversity is to be stemmed will likely lead to increased public and political scrutiny of conservation strategies and the science underlying them. It is therefore crucial to understand the degree of consensus or divergence among scientists on core scientific perceptions and strategies most likely to achieve given objectives. I developed an internet survey designed to elucidate the opinions of conservation scientists. Conservation scientists (n =583) were unanimous (99.5%) in their view that a serious loss of biological diversity is likely, very likely, or virtually certain. Scientists' agreement that serious loss is very likely or virtually certain ranged from 72.8% for Western Europe to 90.9% for Southeast Asia. Tropical coral ecosystems were perceived as the most seriously affected by loss of biological diversity; 88.0% of respondents familiar with that ecosystem type agreed that a serious loss is very likely or virtually certain. With regard to conservation strategies, scientists most often viewed understanding how people and nature interact in certain contexts and the role of biological diversity in maintaining ecosystem function as their priorities. Protection of biological diversity for its cultural and spiritual values and because of its usefulness to humans were low priorities, which suggests that many scientists do not fully support the utilitarian concept of ecosystem services. Many scientists expressed a willingness to consider conservation triage, engage in active conservation interventions, and consider reframing conservation goals and measures of success for conservation of biological diversity in an era of climate change. Although some heterogeneity of opinion is evident, results of the survey show a clear consensus within the scientific community on core issues of the extent and geographic scope of loss of biological diversity and on elements that may contribute to successful conservation strategies

  13. Bar coding Biological Diversity: A New Micr ogenomic Identification Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bazartseren Boldgiv

    2004-01-01

    Morphology-based taxonomy suffers from its inherent limitations, even though most of biological research depends on reliable identifications of species. A recent microgenomic identification approach, which is now being called the “DNA-barcoding,” presents a promising potential of developing into a real- time, on site tool for identification of organisms, especially animals and of providing an added insight into evolutionary history . For animals, the DNA-barcode seems...

  14. Chemical Biology Studies on Molecular Diversity of Annonaceous Acetogenins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu-Jun

    2004-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins, isolated from the Annonaceae plants, have been attracting worldwide attention in recent years due to their biological activities, especially as growth inhibitors of certain tumor ceils [ 1 ]. They have been shown to function by blocking complex I in mitochondria [2] as well as ubiquinone-linked NADPH oxidase in the cells of specific tumor cell lines, including some multidrug-resistant ones [3]. These features make these acetogenins excellent leads for the new antitumor agents. In our previous work, the compounds 1a to 1d (Figure 1), which relies on structure simplification while maintaining all essential functionalities of the acetogenins, was in vitro tested against several human solid tumor cell lines and showed interesting cell selectivity [4]. All four analogues show remarkable activity against the HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines, while compound 1c was found the best [4bi. In order to further investigate the effects of key structural features, a convergent parallel fragments assembly strategy was developed [4e]. In addition, the biological relevancies of typical annonaceous acetogenin mimetics were also studied [4f].

  15. IQGAP1 and its binding proteins control diverse biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin D; Erdemir, Huseyin H; Sacks, David B

    2012-04-01

    IQGAP proteins have been identified in a wide spectrum of organisms, ranging from yeast to humans. The most extensively studied family member is the ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein IQGAP1, which participates in multiple essential aspects of mammalian biology. IQGAP1 mediates these effects by binding to and regulating the function of numerous interacting proteins. Over ninety proteins have been reported to associate with IQGAP1, either directly or as part of a larger complex. In this review, we summarise those IQGAP1 binding partners that have been identified in the last five years. The molecular mechanisms by which these interactions contribute to the functions of receptors and their signalling cascades, small GTPase function, cytoskeletal dynamics, neuronal regulation and intracellular trafficking are evaluated. The evidence that has accumulated recently validates the role of IQGAP1 as a scaffold protein and expands the repertoire of cellular activities in which it participates.

  16. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed.

  17. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  18. Crisis, What Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Responding to the recent work of Andrew Gamble, the article discusses the extent to which the British situation can be described in terms of crisis. It suggests that an essential element of crisis is that of political and social contestation, and explores the terms on which contestation is taking shape in and around British education.

  19. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway....... The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed....

  20. Microbial diversity and structure are drivers of the biological barrier effect against Listeria monocytogenes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivant, Anne-Laure; Garmyn, Dominique; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Nowak, Virginie; Piveteau, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the ecology of pathogenic organisms is important in order to monitor their transmission in the environment and the related health hazards. We investigated the relationship between soil microbial diversity and the barrier effect against Listeria monocytogenes invasion. By using a dilution-to-extinction approach, we analysed the consequence of eroding microbial diversity on L. monocytogenes population dynamics under standardised conditions of abiotic parameters and microbial abundance in soil microcosms. We demonstrated that highly diverse soil microbial communities act as a biological barrier against L. monocytogenes invasion and that phylogenetic composition of the community also has to be considered. This suggests that erosion of diversity may have damaging effects regarding circulation of pathogenic microorganisms in the environment.

  1. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Willis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009 highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  2. Questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity: answers from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-06-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary in order to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  3. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity) (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  4. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jae Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed.

  5. Crisis intervention for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.

  6. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  7. Crisis! what crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Bednar, Peter; Welch, Christine

    2010-01-01

    There is a crisis discussed in the discipline of Information Systems. Those who perceive such a crisis to exist are by no means agreed, as to its nature and origins. Our inquiry shows that there are a three distinct ‘crises’ being debated. The first of these relates to the substance and boundaries of the discipline itself and if it is even a discipline at all. Another ‘crisis’ relates to higher education and a fall in demand for IS courses from new students. Commentators perceive this to thre...

  8. Can we manage for biological diversity in the absence of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauger, D.L.; Hall, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Conservation of biological diversity is dependent on sound scientific information about underlying ecological processes. Current knowledge of the composition, distribution, abundance and life cycles of most species of plants and animals is incomplete, insufficient, unreliable, or nonexistent. Contemporary managers are also confronted with additional levels of complexity related to varying degrees of knowledge and understanding about interactions of species and ecosystems. Consequently, traditional species-oriented management schemes may have unintended consequences and ecosystem-oriented management initiatives may fail in the face of inadequate or fragmentary information on the structure, function, and dynamics of biotic communities and ecological systems. Nevertheless, resource managers must make decisions and manage based on the best biological information currently available. Adaptive resource management may represent a management paradigm that allows managers to learn something about the species or systems that they are managing while they are managing, but potential pitfalls lurk for such approaches. In addition to lack of control over the primary physical, chemical, and ecological processes, managers also lack control over social, economic, and political parameters affecting resource management options. Moreover, appropriate goals may be difficult to identify and criteria for determining success may be elusive. Some management responsibilities do not lend themselves to adaptive strategies. Finally, the lessons learned from adaptive management are usually obtained from a highly situational context that may limit applicability in a wider range of situations or undermine confidence that problems and solutions were properly diagnosed and addressed. Several scenarios are critically examined where adaptive management approaches may be inappropriate or ineffective and where management for biological diversity may be infeasible or inefficient without a sound

  9. Diversity vs. Difference: A Critical Analysis of Hybridity and Cultural Identity Crisis in the Novels of Cheikh Hamidou Kane and Chinua Achebe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Abdoulaye DIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity has been one of the most recurrent themes of the African fiction during and after the colonial period. It is one of the complex issues of postcolonial Africa as it was difficult for many Négritude writers, such as Léopold Sédar Senghor, Aimé Césaire, and Frantz Fanon, to find a common ground on what colonization bequeathed to Africa. Hence, Senghor (1977 came up with the oxymoron of “colonization as a necessary evil”. However, to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of colonization to Africans, in terms of impact, one should go further than expected to approve or dismantle Senghor’s position. The issues of cultural hybridity and identity crisis are still topical in African literature. Also, in the context of globalization, it is relevant to study the post-independence situation of African societies as represented by their early prominent and visionary writers such as Chinua Achebe from Nigeria and Cheikh Hamidou Kane from Senegal. Therefore, hybridity becomes a concern, through which writers address the dilemma of the African. They portray the intellectual who is entrapped in two different cultures and becomes alienated. The corpus of this article showcases this phenomenon through the characters of Obi Okonkwo in No Longer at Ease (1960 and Samba Diallo in Ambiguous Adventure (1962. Through a critical analysis and a post-colonial perspective, the article focuses on identity crisis, alongside the contentious debate over cultural diversity versus cultural difference, which is highly reflected in the novels investigated in the paper.

  10. Varieties of capitalism in crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...

  11. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... 18,2017 Know the two types of HBP crisis to watch for A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) ...

  12. A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Barnard, Phoebe; Broad, Steven; Clout, Mick; Connor, Ben; Côté, Isabelle M; Dicks, Lynn V; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Fox, Marie; Gaston, Kevin J; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Wintle, Bonnie C; Ockendon, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology.

  13. Crisis Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edwin Kent

    2016-01-01

    Crisis thought is an idea that gives a name to and accounts for some of the problematics of the sign crisis in political, social, cultural, and economic discourse. Specifically, crisis thought is a discursive formation, a concept used loosely here to refer to an assemblage of signs such as anxiety or fear that evoke or invoke similar, but inaccurate connotations as crisis in political and everyday usage. The general question this study grapples with is why political, social, cultural, and eco...

  14. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  15. Biological principles of microRNA-mediated regulation: shared themes amid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, Alex S; Lai, Eric C

    2008-11-01

    Regulation of gene activity by microRNAs is critical to myriad aspects of eukaryotic development and physiology. Amidst an extensive regulatory web that is predicted to involve thousands of transcripts, emergent themes are now beginning to illustrate how microRNAs have been incorporated into diverse settings. These include potent inhibition of individual key targets, fine-tuning of target activity, the coordinated regulation of target batteries, and the reversibility of some aspects of microRNA-mediated repression. Such themes may reflect some of the inherent advantages of exploiting microRNA control in biological circuits, and provide insight into the consequences of microRNA dysfunction in disease.

  16. Exploring the potential of second-generation sequencing in diverse biological contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise

    Second generation sequencing (SGS) has revolutionized the study of DNA, allowing massive parallel sequencing of nucleic acids with unprecedented depths of coverage. The research undertaken in this thesis occurred in parallel with the increased accessibility of SGS platforms for routine genetic...... H1N1 influenza A virus genomes. The results of these studies demonstrate the power of SGS for gaining insight into the genetic variation of diverse biological samples and highlight the importance of using optimized protocols for sequencing non-conventional samples....

  17. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  18. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem El-Shazly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available information on the present status (literature up to early 2014 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Boraginaceae and summarizes the topics structure, distribution, chemistry, chemotaxonomic significance, and biological properties.

  19. A not-so-big crisis: re-reading Silurian conodont diversity in a sequence-stratigraphic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarochowska, Emilia; Munnecke, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Conodonts are extensively used in Ordovician through Triassic biostratigraphy and fossil-based geochemistry. However, their distribution in rock successions is commonly taken at face value, without taking into account their diverse and poorly understood ecology. Multielement taxonomy, ontogenetic and environmental variability, difficulties in extraction, and relative rarity all contribute to the general lack of quantitative studies on conodont stratigraphic distribution and temporal turnover. With respect to Silurian conodonts, the concept of recurrent conodont extinction events - the so called Ireviken, Mulde and Lau events - has become a standard in the stratigraphic literature. The concept has been proposed based on qualitative observations of local extirpations of open-marine pelagic or nekto-benthic taxa and temporary dominance of shallow-water species in the Silurian succession of the Swedish island of Gotland. These changes coincided with positive carbon isotope excursions, abrupt facies shifts, "blooms" of benthic fauna, and changes in reef communities, which have all been combined into a general view of Silurian bio-geochemical events. This view posits a deterministic, reproducible pattern in Silurian conodont diversity, attributed to recurrent ecological or geochemical conditions. The growing body of sequence-stratigraphic interpretations across these events in Gotland and other sections worldwide indicate that in all cases the Silurian "events" are associated with rapid global regressions. This suggests that faunal changes such as the dominance of shallow-water, low-diversity conodont fauna and the increase of benthic invertebrate diversity and abundance represent predictable consequences of the variation in the completeness of the rock record and preservation potential of different environments. Our studies in Poland and Ukraine indicate that the magnitude of change in the taxonomic composition of conodont assemblages across the middle Silurian global

  20. Frequent fire promotes diversity and cover of biological soil crusts in a derived temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Katharine E; Prober, Suzanne Mary; Lunt, Ian D; Eldridge, David J

    2009-04-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts that species diversity is maximized at moderate disturbance levels. This model is often applied to grassy ecosystems, where disturbance can be important for maintaining vascular plant composition and diversity. However, effects of disturbance type and frequency on cover and diversity of non-vascular plants comprising biological soil crusts are poorly known, despite their potentially important role in ecosystem function. We established replicated disturbance regimes of different type (fire vs. mowing) and frequency (2, 4, 8 yearly and unburnt) in a high-quality, representative Themeda australis-Poa sieberiana derived grassland in south-eastern Australia. Effects on soil crust bryophytes and lichens (hereafter cryptogams) were measured after 12 years. Consistent with expectations under IDH, cryptogam richness and abundance declined under no disturbance, likely due to competitive exclusion by vascular plants as well as high soil turnover by soil invertebrates beneath thick grass. Disturbance type was also significant, with burning enhancing richness and abundance more than mowing. Contrary to expectations, however, cryptogam richness increased most dramatically under our most frequent and recent (2 year) burning regime, even when changes in abundance were accounted for by rarefaction analysis. Thus, from the perspective of cryptogams, 2-year burning was not an adequately severe disturbance regime to reduce diversity, highlighting the difficulty associated with expression of disturbance gradients in the application of IDH. Indeed, significant correlations with grassland structure suggest that cryptogam abundance and diversity in this relatively mesic (600 mm annual rainfall) grassland is maximised by frequent fires that reduce vegetation and litter cover, providing light, open areas and stable soil surfaces for colonisation. This contrasts with detrimental effects of 2-year burning on native perennial grasses

  1. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  2. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea. PMID:27579575

  3. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  4. Stochastic developmental variation, an epigenetic source of phenotypic diversity with far-reaching biological consequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Günter Vogt

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the production of different phenotypes from the same genotype in the same environment by stochastic cellular events, nonlinear mechanisms during patterning and morphogenesis, and probabilistic self-reinforcing circuitries in the adult life. These aspects of phenotypic variation are summarized under the term‘stochastic developmental variation’ (SDV) in the following. In the past, SDV has been viewed primarily as a nuisance, impairing laboratory experiments, pharmaceutical testing, and true-to-type breeding. This article also emphasizes the positive biological effects of SDV and discusses implications for genotype-to-phenotype mapping, biological individuation, ecology, evolution, and applied biology. There is strong evidence from experiments with genetically identical organisms performed in narrowly standardized laboratory set-ups that SDV is a source of phenotypic variation in its own right aside from genetic variation and environmental variation. It is obviouslymediated bymolecular and higher-order epigeneticmechanisms. Comparison of SDV in animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, archaeans, and viruses suggests that it is a ubiquitous and phylogenetically old phenomenon. In animals, it is usually smallest for morphometric traits and highest for life history traits and behaviour. SDV is thought to contribute to phenotypic diversity in all populations but is particularly relevant for asexually reproducing and genetically impoverished populations, where it generates individuality despite genetic uniformity. In each generation, SDV produces a range of phenotypes around a well-adapted target phenotype, which is interpreted as a bet-hedging strategy to cope with the unpredictability of dynamic environments. At least some manifestations of SDV are heritable, adaptable, selectable, and evolvable, and therefore, SDV may be seen as a hitherto overlooked evolution factor. SDV is also relevant for husbandry, agriculture, and medicine because most

  5. Can the natural diversity of quorum-sensing advance synthetic biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology.

  6. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T.; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution. PMID:27688704

  7. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution.

  8. Progress towards the Conventionon Biological Diversity terrestrial2010 and marine 2012 targets forprotected area coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Lauren; Burgess, Neil David; Fish, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    coverage targets. National protected areas data from the WDPA have been used to measure progress in protected areas coverage at global, regional and national scale. The mean protected area coverage per nation was 12.2% for terrestrial area, and only 5.1% for near-shore marine area. Variation in protected......Protected area coverage targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for both terrestrial and marine environments provide a major incentive for governments to review and upgrade their protected area systems. Assessing progress towards these targets will form an important component...... of the work of the Xth CBD Conference of Parties meeting to be held in Japan in 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the largest assembly of data on the world's terrestrial and marine protected areas and, as such, represents a fundamental tool in tracking progress towards protected area...

  9. Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-02-01

    The muscles that power vertebrate locomotion are associated with springy tissues, both within muscle and in connective tissue elements such as tendons. These springs share in common the same simple action: they stretch and store elastic strain energy when force is applied to them and recoil to release energy when force decays. Although this elastic action is simple, it serves a diverse set of functions, including metabolic energy conservation, amplification of muscle power output, attenuation of muscle power input, and rapid mechanical feedback that may aid in stability. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms and importance of biological springs in locomotion has advanced significantly, and it has been demonstrated that elastic mechanisms are essential for the effective function of the muscle motors that power movement. Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of elastic mechanisms, with an emphasis on two proposed organizing principles. First, we review the evidence that the various functions of biological springs allow the locomotor system to operate beyond the bounds of intrinsic muscle properties, including metabolic and mechanical characteristics, as well as motor control processes. Second, we propose that an energy-based framework is useful for interpreting the diverse functions of series-elastic springs. In this framework, the direction and timing of the flow of energy between the body, the elastic element and the contracting muscle determine the function served by the elastic mechanism (e.g. energy conservation vs power amplification). We also review recent work demonstrating that structures such as tendons remodel more actively and behave more dynamically than previously assumed.

  10. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  11. The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Gordon M; Katz, Flora; Newman, David J; Rosenthal, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The discovery and development of novel, biologically active agents from natural sources, whether they be drugs, agrochemicals or other bioactive entities, involve a high level of interdisciplinary as well as international collaboration. Such collaboration, particularly at the international level, requires the careful negotiation of collaborative agreements protecting the rights of all parties, with special attention being paid to the rights of host (source) country governments, communities and scientific organizations. While many biodiversity-rich source countries currently might not have the necessary resources for in-country drug discovery and advanced development, they provide valuable opportunities for collaboration in this endeavor with research organizations from more high-income nations. This chapter discusses the experiences of the US National Cancer Institute and the US government-sponsored International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program in the establishment of international agreements in the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity's objectives of promoting fair and equitable collaboration with multiple parties in many countries, and includes some specific lessons of value in developing such collaborations.

  12. Deciphering genetic diversity and inheritance of tomato fruit weight and composition through a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Laura; Xu, Jiaxin; Biais, Benoît; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Desgroux, Aurore; Faurobert, Mireille; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    Integrative systems biology proposes new approaches to decipher the variation of phenotypic traits. In an effort to link the genetic variation and the physiological and molecular bases of fruit composition, the proteome (424 protein spots), metabolome (26 compounds), enzymatic profile (26 enzymes), and phenotypes of eight tomato accessions, covering the genetic diversity of the species, and four of their F1 hybrids, were characterized at two fruit developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red). The contents of metabolites varied among the genetic backgrounds, while enzyme profiles were less variable, particularly at the cell expansion stage. Frequent genotype by stage interactions suggested that the trends observed for one accession at a physiological level may change in another accession. In agreement with this, the inheritance modes varied between crosses and stages. Although additivity was predominant, 40% of the traits were non-additively inherited. Relationships among traits revealed associations between different levels of expression and provided information on several key proteins. Notably, the role of frucktokinase, invertase, and cysteine synthase in the variation of metabolites was highlighted. Several stress-related proteins also appeared related to fruit weight differences. These key proteins might be targets for improving metabolite contents of the fruit. This systems biology approach provides better understanding of networks controlling the genetic variation of tomato fruit composition. In addition, the wide data sets generated provide an ideal framework to develop innovative integrated hypothesis and will be highly valuable for the research community.

  13. The Biological Diversity and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds by Stem-Inhabiting Endophytic Fungi of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Rundell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes colonize every major lineage of land plants without causing apparent harm to their hosts. Despite their production of interesting and potentially novel compounds, endophytes—particularly those inhabiting stem tissues—are still a vastly underexplored component of microbial diversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of over 1500 fungal endophyte isolates collected from three Ecuadorian ecosystems: lowland tropical forest, cloud forest, and coastal dry forest. We sought to determine whether Ecuador’s fungal endophytes are hyperdiverse, and whether that biological diversity is reflected in the endophytes’ chemical diversity. To assess this chemical diversity, we analyzed a subset of isolates for their production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, a representative class of natural products. This study yielded a total of 1526 fungal ITS sequences comprising some 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, resulting in a non-asymptotic OTU accumulation curve and characterized by a Fisher’s α of 120 and a Shannon Diversity score of 7.56. These figures suggest that the Ecuadorian endophytes are hyperdiverse. Furthermore, the 113 isolates screened for VOCs produced more than 140 unique compounds. These results present a mere snapshot of the remarkable biological and chemical diversity of stem-inhabiting endophytic fungi from a single neotropical country.

  14. [Biological crisis at the end of the Cretaceous and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Validity of the cosmic hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnol, J P

    2001-01-01

    The history of life, which appeared more than 500 million years ago, has been characterized by a constant faunal and floral turnover. On five occasions, the background extinctions has become a mass extinction (ME), i.e. a major biotic crisis collapsing the upward curve of the biodiversity. The mass extinction of the end of the Permian is the most murderous but the end-Cretaceous one, which experiences dinosaur's death, is the most well-known. In fact, these land-dwelling reptiles with upright limbs, as well as the pterosaurs, the mosasaurs and numerous invertebrates die as far as the last. There exists a lot of hypotheses tending to explain their death but they are often extravagant and/or impossible to be verified. The last one, referring to a collapse between the earth and a heavenly large bolide has given rise, since more than 20 years, to heated debates between catastrophists and gradualists, even if the reality of the impact seems no more doubtful (discovery of Chicxulub impact crater, iridium anomaly, tektite glass, shocked quartz, spinels with high nickel concentrations). It is now the extent of the deleterious effects (regional or worldwide repercussion) which is debating. By referring to the obtained data in oceanic environment and, if necessary, in terrestrial environment where fossil record is too often incomplete, it can be noticed an important fact corresponding to a selective character of extinctions, the event of the C/T boundary killing off some taxa while others are preserved. This remark does not really correspond to the hypothesis of a sudden planetary catastrophe of large magnitude. Consequently, it seems to be reasonable to make arise intrinsic factors associated to the dynamics of the globe (volcanic eruptions, marine regression, fall of temperature) over a long period. The collapse with the Chicxulub asteroid should then come up, especially in Western North-America, as a "coup de grâce" in a weakened ecosystem.

  15. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  16. Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy.

  17. Global Warming: Can Existing Reserves Really Preserve Current Levels of Biological Diversity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Paleoecological evidence and paleoclimatic records indicate that there was a plant poleward migration in latitude and an upward shift in elevation with increased temperatures after the last glaciation. Recent studies have shown that global warming over the past 100 years has been having a noticeable effect on living systems.Current global warming is causing a poleward and upward shift in the range of many plants and animals.Climate change, in connection with other global changes, is threatening the survival of a wide range of plant and animal species. This raises the question: can existing reserves really preserve current levels of biological diversity in the long term given the present rapid pace of climate change? The present paper deals with this question in the context of the responses of plants and animals to global climate change, based on a literature review. Consequently, we recommend expanding reserves towards the poles and/or towards higher altitudes,to permit species to shift their ranges to keep pace with global warming.

  18. Crisis Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    East Asian countries consider a financial alliance tostabilize the regional economy East Asian financial cooperation has come under the spotlight once again amid the spiraling global financial crisis originated in the

  19. Crisis communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewenhous, Daria; Sterling, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Whether healthcare security is directly or indirectly involved in a crisis that will involve the media, it will pay to better familiarize yourself with the kind of planned responses discussed in this article to mitigate negative outcomes.

  20. Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骅

    2012-01-01

      Financial crisis started from America and soon spread all over the world. How did this happen? What government has done to rescue the economy and what should we do to help? Is financial crisis inevitable? These questions have bothered me for a long time. However, if we use a macroeconomist eye to view the world, all the questions seemed clear and crystal.

  1. Preparing for a crisis: crisis team development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calarco, C

    1999-02-01

    Emergency preparedness in the school setting necessitates the formation and development of a Crisis Team that will be prepared to assume critical roles in the event of a crisis. This paper discusses the school Crisis Team, including member identification and responsibilities, and the relationship of the Crisis Team to the school crisis plan and policies.

  2. Global analysis of lysine acetylation suggests the involvement of protein acetylation in diverse biological processes in rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babi Ramesh Reddy Nallamilli

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa. We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions.

  3. Isolation of a significant fraction of non-phototroph diversity from a desert Biological Soil Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses eNunes da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs are organosedimentary assemblages comprised of microbes and minerals in topsoil of terrestrial environments. BSCs strongly impact soil quality in dryland ecosystems (e.g., soil structure and nutrient yields due to pioneer species such as Microcoleus vaginatus; phototrophs that produce filaments that bind the soil together, and support an array of heterotrophic microorganisms. These microorganisms in turn contribute to soil stability and biogeochemistry of BSCs. Non-cyanobacterial populations of BSCs are less well known than cyanobacterial populations. Therefore, we attempted to isolate a broad range of numerically significant and phylogenetically representative BSC aerobic heterotrophs. Combining simple pre-treatments (hydration of BSCs under dark and light and isolation strategies (media with varying nutrient availability and protection from oxidative stress we recovered 402 bacterial and one fungal isolate in axenic culture, which comprised 116 phylotypes (at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, 115 bacterial and one fungal. Each medium enriched a mostly distinct subset of phylotypes, and cultivated phylotypes varied due to the BSC pre-treatment. The fraction of the total phylotype diversity isolated, weighted by relative abundance in the community, was determined by the overlap between isolate sequences and OTUs reconstructed from metagenome or metatranscriptome reads. Together, more than 8% of relative abundance of OTUs in the metagenome was represented by our isolates, a cultivation efficiency much larger than typically expected from most soils. We conclude that simple cultivation procedures combined with specific pre-treatment of samples afford a significant reduction in the culturability gap, enabling physiological and metabolic assays that rely on ecologically relevant axenic cultures.

  4. La crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Greenspan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las causas de la crisis, explora la naturaleza de la intermediación financiera, presenta un conjunto de reformas para superar las deficiencias de la estructura reguladora y examina el papel de la política monetaria en la crisis actual. Concluye que es primordial aumentar los requerimientos regulatorios de capital y de liquidez de los bancos e incrementar en forma significativa las garantías obligatorias de los productos financieros que se negocian globalmente.

  5. La crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Greenspan, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo revisa las causas de la crisis, explora la naturaleza de la intermediación financiera, presenta un conjunto de reformas para superar las deficiencias de la estructura reguladora y examina el papel de la política monetaria en la crisis actual. Concluye que es primordial aumentar los requerimientos regulatorios de capital y de liquidez de los bancos e incrementar en forma significativa las garantías obligatorias de los productos financieros que se negocian globalmente.

  6. Structural diversity and biological significance of lipoteichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria: focusing on beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yokota, Shinichi; Fukiya, Satoru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell surface molecules are at the forefront of host-bacterium interactions. Teichoic acids are observed only in Gram-positive bacteria, and they are one of the main cell surface components. Teichoic acids play important physiological roles and contribute to the bacterial interaction with their host. In particular, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) anchored to the cell membrane has attracted attention as a host immunomodulator. Chemical and biological characteristics of LTA from various bacteria have been described. However, most of the information concerns pathogenic bacteria, and information on beneficial bacteria, including probiotic lactic acid bacteria, is insufficient. LTA is structurally diverse. Strain-level structural diversity of LTA is suggested to underpin its immunomodulatory activities. Thus, the structural information on LTA in probiotics, in particular strain-associated diversity, is important for understanding its beneficial roles associated with the modulation of immune response. Continued accumulation of structural information is necessary to elucidate the detailed physiological roles and significance of LTA. In this review article, we summarize the current state of knowledge on LTA structure, in particular the structure of LTA from lactic acid bacteria. We also describe the significance of structural diversity and biological roles of LTA.

  7. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk ! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Wednesday 2nd April at 10:30 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned !

  8. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Thursday 7th May 2015 at 9 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned!

  9. Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  10. Crisi della struttura o crisi della semantica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedele Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political crisis, crisis of the science, economic crisis or crisis of the society as a whole? The concept of “Crisis” is nowadays essential to describe social phenomena. But is this a structural crisis of contemporary society or is it a crisis of the semantics or is it a conceptual heritage used to describe the current evolution of society? Starting from the recent developments of systems theory, the paper tries to investigate the developmental phase of modern society and to re-position the concept of crisis in a founded epistemologically framework.

  11. Defining the crisis and crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Racaj, Muhamet

    2016-01-01

    The crisis can now be played with little or no warning, anywhere, anytime. But it is not necessarily badnews. I tisa reality. The ability to manage changing situation and to bring sober decision - which is just another way of perceiving the crisis management - is vital to achieving success in the critical milestones in life, politics, the world in general. In the new circumstances arise new opportunities for successful early crisis management. What is the crisis? What is crisis manag...

  12. Soil microbial community structure in diverse land use systems:A comparative study using Biolog,DGGE,and PLFA analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Dong; YAO Huai-Ying; GE De-Yong; HUANG Chang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    Biolog,16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE),and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses were used to assess soil microbial community characteristics in a chronosequence of tea garden systems (8-,50-,and 90year-old tea gardens),an adjacent wasteland,and a 90-year-old forest.Biolog analysis showed that the average well color development (AWCD) of all carbon sources and the functional diversity based on the Shannon index decreased (P<0.05)in the following order:wasteland>forest>tea garden.For the DGGE analysis,the genetic diversity based on the Shannon index was significantly lower in the tea garden soils than in the wasteland.However,compared to the 90-year-old forest,the tea garden soils showed significantly higher genetic diversity.PLFA analysis showed that the ratio of Gram positive bacteria to Gram negative bacteria was significantly higher in the tea garden soils than in the wasteland,and the highest value was found in the 90-year-old forest.Both the fungal PLFA and the ratio of fungi to bacteria were significantly higher in the three tea garden soils than in the wasteland and forest,indicating that fungal PLFA was significantly affected by land-use change.Based on cluster analysis of the soil microbial community structure,all three analytical methods showed that land-use change had a greater effect on soil microbial community structure than tea garden age.

  13. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbe, Alex; Neves, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates) and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix) of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá) were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene. PMID:26465141

  14. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hubbe

    Full Text Available Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene.

  15. Thaler Konrad (wissenschaftliche Redaktion (2004: Diversität und Biologie von Webspinnen, Skorpionen und anderen Spinnentieren. Diversity and biology of spiders, scorpions and other arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blick, Theo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available book review: Thaler Konrad (wissenschaftliche Redaktion (2004: Diversität und Biologie von Webspinnen, Skorpionen und anderen Spinnentieren. Diversity and biology of spiders, scorpions and other arachnids.

  16. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  17. Gran Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Verdu Maciá, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    La extensión y la duración de esta Gran Crisis ha adquirido tanta envergadura que sería inocente creer que tras ella las cosas seguirán siendo más o menos como antes. No sabemos con exactitud cómo será el porvenir, pero sin duda diferirá sustantivamente de este presente. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  18. Testing the museum versus cradle tropical biological diversity hypothesis: phylogeny, diversification, and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Corrie S; Bell, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    Ants are one of the most ecologically and numerically dominant group of terrestrial organisms with most species diversity currently found in tropical climates. Several explanations for the disparity of biological diversity in the tropics compared to temperate regions have been proposed including that the tropics may act as a "museum" where older lineages persist through evolutionary time or as a "cradle" where new species continue to be generated. We infer the molecular phylogenetic relationships of 295 ant specimens including members of all 21 extant subfamilies to explore the evolutionary diversification and biogeography of the ants. By constraining the topology and age of the root node while using 45 fossils as minimum constraints, we converge on an age of 139-158 Mya for the modern ants. Further diversification analyses identified 10 periods with a significant change in the tempo of diversification of the ants, although these shifts did not appear to correspond to ancestral biogeographic range shifts. Likelihood-based historical biogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Neotropics were important in early ant diversification (e.g., Cretaceous). This finding coupled with the extremely high-current species diversity suggests that the Neotropics have acted as both a museum and cradle for ant diversity.

  19. Accessing Nature’s diversity through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. King

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective, we highlight recent examples and trends in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology that demonstrate the synthetic potential of enzyme and pathway engineering for natural product discovery. In doing so, we introduce natural paradigms of secondary metabolism whereby simple carbon substrates are combined into complex molecules through “scaffold diversification”, and subsequent “derivatization” of these scaffolds is used to synthesize distinct complex natural products. We provide examples in which modern pathway engineering efforts including combinatorial biosynthesis and biological retrosynthesis can be coupled to directed enzyme evolution and rational enzyme engineering to allow access to the “privileged” chemical space of natural products in industry-proven microbes. Finally, we forecast the potential to produce natural product-like discovery platforms in biological systems that are amenable to single-step discovery, validation, and synthesis for streamlined discovery and production of biologically active agents.

  20. Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important fungal genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Riley, Robert; Wiebenga, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Background:  The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eight...... here, allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases linked genome differences to phenotype. Insights gained could be exploited for biotechnological and medical applications of fungi....

  1. Social diversity in humans: implications and hidden consequences for biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2014-05-01

    Humans are both similar and diverse in such a vast number of dimensions that for human geneticists and social scientists to decide which of these dimensions is a worthy focus of empirical investigation is a formidable challenge. For geneticists, one vital question, of course, revolves around hypothesizing which kind of social diversity might illuminate genetic variation-and vice versa (i.e., what genetic variation illuminates human social diversity). For example, are there health outcomes that can be best explained by genetic variation-or for social scientists, are health outcomes mainly a function of the social diversity of lifestyles and social circumstances of a given population? Indeed, what is a "population," how is it bounded, and are those boundaries most appropriate or relevant for human genetic research, be they national borders, religious affiliation, ethnic or racial identification, or language group, to name but a few? For social scientists, the matter of what constitutes the relevant borders of a population is equally complex, and the answer is demarcated by the goal of the research project. Although race and caste are categories deployed in both human genetics and social science, the social meaning of race and caste as pathways to employment, health, or education demonstrably overwhelms the analytic and explanatory power of genetic markers of difference between human aggregates.

  2. Assessment of Diverse Biological Indicators in Gulf War Illness: Are They Replicable? Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    controls in a protocol that includes physical and neuropsychological evaluations, neuroimaging (MRI, fMRI, DTI), adrenal function tests, and diverse immune...War illness, neuroimaging, neuropsychological testing, immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal testing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...fMRI, diffusion tensor imaging), neuropsychological evaluations, assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, standard diagnostic laboratory

  3. Crisis Communication Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utz, Sonja; Schultz, Friederike; Glocka, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Social media play in today's societies a fundamental role for the negotiation and dynamics of crises. However, classical crisis communication theories neglect the role of the medium and focus mainly on the interplay between crisis type and crisis communication strategy. Building on the recently...... the effects of crisis type. Crisis communication via social media resulted in a higher reputation and less secondary crisis reactions such as boycotting the company than crisis communication in the newspaper. However, secondary crisis communication, e.g. talking about the crisis communication, was higher...... in the newspaper condition than in the social media conditions because people consider traditional media as more credible. We also found higher levels of anger in the intentional crisis condition than in the victim crisis condition. Anger in turn was related to reputation, secondary crisis communication...

  4. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  5. Inaugural meeting of the Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology report: the importance of diversity in a multidisciplinary field

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the interdisciplinary state of evolutionary developmental biology based on the diversity of themes, taxa, levels of organization and scientists at the first meeting of the Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology (2015). We first highlight selected presentations representative of three themes: gene regulatory control, developmental patterning mechanisms, and ecological-evolutionary-developmental interactions. We summarize the questions, approaches, and taxonomic ...

  6. Functional soil microbial diversity across Europe estimated by EEA, MicroResp and BIOLOG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rutgers, Michiel; Creamer, Rachel

    Soil microorganisms are abundant and essential for the bio-geochemical processes of soil, soil quality and soil ecosystem services. All this is dependent on the actual functions the microbial communities are performing in the soil. Measuring soil respiration has for many years been the basis...... of estimating soil microbial activity. However, today several techniques are in use for determining microbial functional diversity and assessing soil biodiversity: Methods based on CO2 development by the microbes such as substrate induced respiration (SIR) on specific substrates have lead to the development...... of MicroResp and Community Level Physiological Profile (CLPP), while soil enzymatic activity are being assayed by Extracellular Enzyme Activity (EEA) based on MUF-substrates. Here we compared and contrasted the three techniques of assessing soil microbial functional diversity in a European transect...

  7. Diversity in Fish Auditory Systems: One of the Riddles of Sensory Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich eLadich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An astonishing diversity of inner ears and accessory hearing structures (AHS that can enhance hearing has evolved in fishes. Inner ears mainly differ in the size of the otolith end organs, the shape and orientation of the sensory epithelia, and the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of sensory hair cells. Despite our profound morphological knowledge of inner ear variation, two main questions remain widely unanswered. (i What selective forces and/or constraints led to the evolution of this inner ear diversity? (ii How is the morphological variability linked to hearing abilities? Improved hearing is mainly based on the ability of many fish species to transmit oscillations of swim bladder walls or other gas-filled bladders to the inner ears. Swim bladders may be linked to the inner ears via a chain of ossicles (in otophysans, anterior extensions (e.g. some cichlids, squirrelfishes, or the gas bladders may touch the inner ears directly (labyrinth fishes. Studies on catfishes and cichlids demonstrate that larger swim bladders and more pronounced linkages to the inner ears positively affect both auditory sensitivities and the detectable frequency range, but lack of a connection does not exclude hearing enhancement. This diversity of auditory structures and hearing abilities is one of the main riddles in fish bioacoustics research. Hearing enhancement might have evolved to facilitate intraspecific acoustic communication. A comparison of sound-producing species, however, indicates that acoustic communication is widespread in taxa lacking AHS. Eco-acoustical constraints are a more likely explanation for the diversity in fish hearing sensitivities. Low ambient noise levels may have facilitated the evolution of AHS, enabling fish to detect low-level abiotic noise and sounds from con- and heterospecifics, including predators and prey. Aquatic habitats differ in ambient noise regimes, and preliminary data indicate that hearing sensitivities of fishes

  8. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available ...

  9. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of ex...

  10. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-06

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis.

  11. Assessment of Diverse Biological Indicators in Gulf War Illness: Are They Replicable Are They Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    investigators. There are also few instances in which measures related to different biological systems, for example, measures of brain function and...War veterans in the region who have come forward to enroll in VA’s Gulf War Registry since their return from Desert Storm . Accessing veterans through

  12. Assessment of Diverse Biological Indicators in Gulf War Illness: Are They Replicable Are They Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    treatments, it is imperative to establish a more definitive and integrated understanding of GWI pathophysiology. This study utilizes a case-control design...distinguished by biological measures, deployment experiences /exposures, or illness severity and characteristics. Veterans are evaluated over two...initiated. Over the performance period, we continued to experience extended institutional delays in project start-up associated with our local and

  13. Biological diversity of a temporary pond herpetofauna in north Florida sandhills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.

    1992-01-01

    From 1985 through 1990, the herpetofauna of a temporary pond in an uplands longleaf pine sandhills community in north-central Florida was monitored. A drift fence completely encircled the pond. Animals were captured in pitfall traps and marked as they entered and exited the pond basin. I captured 16 155 individuals of 42 species (16 amphibians, 26 reptiles). The species richness, diversity (using Margalef's Diversity Index) and dominance (using the Berger-Parker Index) varied among years. Between 62.5% and 87.5% of the amphibian species and 65% to 81% of the reptile species were captured in any one year. Daily amphibian capture was positively correlated with rainfall, whereas reptile capture was either not correlated or weakly negatively correlated with rainfall. Hydroperiod duration was not correlated with the numbers of either amphibians or reptiles captured. Neither the amphibian nor the reptile community showed any trends in diversity or dominance indices during the course of the study, although both communities were dominated by a few species. However, the species responsible for community dominance changed somewhat as the study progressed. Assessing the results of this study is hampered by the lack of comparable studies elsewhere, expected natural fluctuations of amphibian populations, and a prolonged drought, especially during the latter stages of the study. The herpetological community at Breezeway Pond does not appear to follow theoretical predictions of community response to stress. Temporary ponds are important centres of herpetofaunal biodiversity in uplands sandhills communities. Long-term studies are needed to monitor the composition, structure, and functional interactions of their resident species.

  14. Molluscan biological and chemical diversity: secondary metabolites and medicinal resources produced by marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2010-11-01

    The phylum Mollusca represents an enormous diversity of species with eight distinct classes. This review provides a taxonomic breakdown of the published research on marine molluscan natural products and the medicinal products currently derived from molluscs, in order to identify priority targets and strategies for future research. Some marine gastropods and bivalves have been of great interest to natural products chemists, yielding a diversity of chemical classes and several drug leads currently in clinical trials. Molluscs also feature prominently in a broad range of traditional natural medicines, although the active ingredients in the taxa involved are typically unknown. Overall secondary metabolites have only been investigated from a tiny proportion (gastropods, the opisthobranchs (a subgroup of Heterobranchia), which are primarily comprised of soft-bodied marine molluscs. Conversely, most molluscan medicines are derived from shelled gastropods and bivalves. The complete disregard for several minor classes of molluscs is unjustified based on their evolutionary history and unique life styles, which may have led to novel pathways for secondary metabolism. The Polyplacophora, in particular, have been identified as worthy of future investigation given their use in traditional South African medicines and their abundance in littoral ecosystems. As bioactive compounds are not always constitutively expressed in molluscs, future research should be targeted towards biosynthetic organs and inducible defence reactions for specific medicinal applications. Given the lack of an acquired immune system, the use of bioactive secondary metabolites is likely to be ubiquitous throughout the Mollusca and broadening the search field may uncover interesting novel chemistry.

  15. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  16. Biological diversity of yeasts in the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets kept under different farm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urubschurov, Vladimir; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Souffrant, Wolfgang B

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine yeasts present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of piglets kept under experimental farm (EF) and commercial farm (CF) conditions. Ninety five German Landrace full- and half-sibling piglets were sacrificed at 39 days of age. Sixty eight piglets were weaned at 28th day of life, when they were offered one diet ad libitum. Twenty seven piglets remained unweaned by their dams. None of the piglets received any creep feed before weaning. Digesta samples were collected from 1/3 distal small intestine (SI), caecum and proximal colon. One hundred seventy three colonies of isolated yeasts were characterized by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene with following alignment of the recovered sequences to GenBank entries. From the 17 phylotypes found, isolates most closely related to Galactomyces geotrichum, Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida catenulata dominated in the GIT of CF piglets. Kazachstania slooffiae and Candida glabrata dominated in GIT of EF piglets. Sørenson and Morisita-Horn similarity indices between farms were low (0.44 and 0.54 respectively) and the Simpson diversity index was higher for EF (7.58) than for CF (4.34). The study brings new data on yeasts composition in the pig GIT and shows differences in yeasts biodiversity between farms operated at different hygiene conditions.

  17. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiekotter, K L

    1985-04-01

    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Banerjee, Indranil [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Das, Manasmita [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Mishra, Debashish; Maiti, Tapas K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Pramanik, Panchanan, E-mail: dipsikha.chem@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2011-09-15

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T{sub 2} contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T{sub 2} relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  19. Integrated Genomic Analysis of Diverse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonis, Nathan; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Omberg, Larsson; Schroll, Robin; Bush, Stacy; Huo, Jeffrey; Schriml, Lynn; Ho Sui, Shannan; Keddache, Mehdi; Mayhew, Christopher; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Wells, James; Daily, Kenneth; Hubler, Shane; Wang, Yuliang; Zambidis, Elias; Margolin, Adam; Hide, Winston; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Malik, Punam; Cancelas, Jose A; Aronow, Bruce J; Lutzko, Carolyn

    2016-07-12

    The rigorous characterization of distinct induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from multiple reprogramming technologies, somatic sources, and donors is required to understand potential sources of variability and downstream potential. To achieve this goal, the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium performed comprehensive experimental and genomic analyses of 58 iPSC from ten laboratories generated using a variety of reprogramming genes, vectors, and cells. Associated global molecular characterization studies identified functionally informative correlations in gene expression, DNA methylation, and/or copy-number variation among key developmental and oncogenic regulators as a result of donor, sex, line stability, reprogramming technology, and cell of origin. Furthermore, X-chromosome inactivation in PSC produced highly correlated differences in teratoma-lineage staining and regulator expression upon differentiation. All experimental results, and raw, processed, and metadata from these analyses, including powerful tools, are interactively accessible from a new online portal at https://www.synapse.org to serve as a reusable resource for the stem cell community.

  20. Integrated Genomic Analysis of Diverse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Salomonis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rigorous characterization of distinct induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC derived from multiple reprogramming technologies, somatic sources, and donors is required to understand potential sources of variability and downstream potential. To achieve this goal, the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium performed comprehensive experimental and genomic analyses of 58 iPSC from ten laboratories generated using a variety of reprogramming genes, vectors, and cells. Associated global molecular characterization studies identified functionally informative correlations in gene expression, DNA methylation, and/or copy-number variation among key developmental and oncogenic regulators as a result of donor, sex, line stability, reprogramming technology, and cell of origin. Furthermore, X-chromosome inactivation in PSC produced highly correlated differences in teratoma-lineage staining and regulator expression upon differentiation. All experimental results, and raw, processed, and metadata from these analyses, including powerful tools, are interactively accessible from a new online portal at https://www.synapse.org to serve as a reusable resource for the stem cell community.

  1. Structures of human folate receptors reveal biological trafficking states and diversity in folate and antifolate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Ardian S; Singh, Mirage; Reeder, Kristen M; Carter, Joshua J; Kovach, Alexander R; Meng, Wuyi; Ratnam, Manohar; Zhang, Faming; Dann, Charles E

    2013-09-17

    Antifolates, folate analogs that inhibit vitamin B9 (folic acid)-using cellular enzymes, have been used over several decades for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Cellular uptake of the antifolates in clinical use occurs primarily via widely expressed facilitative membrane transporters. More recently, human folate receptors (FRs), high affinity receptors that transport folate via endocytosis, have been proposed as targets for the specific delivery of new classes of antifolates or folate conjugates to tumors or sites of inflammation. The development of specific, FR-targeted antifolates would be accelerated if additional biophysical data, particularly structural models of the receptors, were available. Here we describe six distinct crystallographic models that provide insight into biological trafficking of FRs and distinct binding modes of folate and antifolates to these receptors. From comparison of the structures, we delineate discrete structural conformations representative of key stages in the endocytic trafficking of FRs and propose models for pH-dependent conformational changes. Additionally, we describe the molecular details of human FR in complex with three clinically prevalent antifolates, pemetrexed (also Alimta), aminopterin, and methotrexate. On the whole, our data form the basis for rapid design and implementation of unique, FR-targeted, folate-based drugs for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  2. Biological motion perception links diverse facets of theory of mind during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine; Anderson, Laura C; Velnoskey, Kayla; Thompson, James C; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Two cornerstones of social development--social perception and theory of mind--undergo brain and behavioral changes during middle childhood, but the link between these developing domains is unclear. One theoretical perspective argues that these skills represent domain-specific areas of social development, whereas other perspectives suggest that both skills may reflect a more integrated social system. Given recent evidence from adults that these superficially different domains may be related, the current study examined the developmental relation between these social processes in 52 children aged 7 to 12 years. Controlling for age and IQ, social perception (perception of biological motion in noise) was significantly correlated with two measures of theory of mind: one in which children made mental state inferences based on photographs of the eye region of the face and another in which children made mental state inferences based on stories. Social perception, however, was not correlated with children's ability to make physical inferences from stories about people. Furthermore, the mental state inference tasks were not correlated with each other, suggesting a role for social perception in linking various facets of theory of mind.

  3. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  4. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120

  5. Genetic diversity of parasitic dinoflagellates in the genus amoebophrya and its relationship to parasite biology and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunju; Park, Myung Gil; Kim, Keun-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yih, Wonho; Park, Jong Soo; Coats, D Wayne

    2008-01-01

    genetic diversity in Amoebophrya strains does not always reflect parasite biology or biogeography.

  6. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  7. Guidelines for Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberley, Lloyd

    1985-01-01

    The article offers guidelines for crisis prediction, preplanning, support team development, and post-crisis management that can handle aggressive behavior and convey to the child the existence of a legitimate system for enhancing positive self control. (CL)

  8. Juridica; Crisis en herstel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Het geruchtmakende wetsontwerp voor een Crisis- en Herstelwet wordt ook in de juridische kring nogal bekritiseerd en zelfs afgedaan als haastige gelegenheidswetgeving en politieke symboolwetgeving. Door de Crisis en Herstelwet worden ook enkele bepalingen van de Natuurbeschermingswet (Nbw) gewijzigd

  9. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis.

  10. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  11. Actions, progress and prospects in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity during the past 20 years in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD was adopted by United Nations Conference of Environment and Development (UNCED in June 1992 as a milestone event. During the past 20 years, China established the national coordination mechanisms for CBD implementation in 1993, conducted a country study for biodiversity conservation during 1995–1997, formulated China National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan during 2007–2010, founded the National Committee for Biodiversity Conservation in 2011, and, aiming to CBD’s objectives, implemented a lot of researches and actions for biodiversity conservation, including: protection of ecosystems such as forests, grasslands, deserts, wetlands and marine areas; investigations, inventory and databases for species; increased protection of rare and endangered species; control of alien invasive species; and risk assessment for genetically-modified organisms. Challenges to biodiversity conservation include, establishment of biodiversity monitoring system, in situ conservation, access and benefit sharing of genetic resources, and protection and application of traditional knowledge. Lastly, we report potential research topics for biodiversity conservation.

  12. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  13. L’Italia: una crisi nella crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'ippoliti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.  JEL Codes: B50; E12; G01Keywords: crisis, euro, sovereign, Italy, credit default swaps

  14. [Crisis and nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Riera, José Ramón

    2012-02-01

    Nobody can escape that we are in crisis. Already are responsible every day media, risk agencies and abstract but crucial markets reminded us. In this crisis, deep, prolonged and distressing health systems have been in the spotlight of national Governments and corporations, as key elements of building and resolution of the crisis. Generation because it interprets its inefficiency is responsible for much of the crisis. Resolution because it is understood that actions that envelope the same are carried out they shall foster the output. So then we have two key elements: crisis and health systems, which combine very differently but which inevitably and unfortunately have been associated on a permanent basis. To understand this symbiosis and try to analyze it I operate the simple formula of semantically understanding what is crisis and what health crisis.

  15. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the economic and financial crisis is still being felt. It started as an acute crisis of the banking system, but then quickly affected the real economy, causing a substantial slump in business investment, household demand and output. The current economic crisis has affected almost all European countries but the countries of the European south and the former eastern socialist republics have suffered the most. The objective in this paper is to quantify economic disparities as expressed by several growth indicators, such as GDP per capita, employment/unemployment rates, labour productivity rates and use them to compare the economic performances before and after the crisis. EU took several measures to recover from the economic crisis. Nevertheless, its ability to adjust to widely diverse national and local contexts that have been impacted differently by the effects of the crisis, and to support the different patterns of economic growth that will result from it, is yet to be seen.

  16. Derivation of the extrinsic values of biological diversity from its intrinsic value and of both from the first principles of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter S

    2013-12-01

    Conservation ethics have been based on 2 philosophical value systems: extrinsic value (defined broadly to include all values that derive from something external to the thing valued) and intrinsic value. Valuing biological diversity on the basis of an extrinsic value system is problematic because measurement is often difficult; extrinsic value changes as spatial or temporal scales change; extrinsic value differs on the basis of external factors; some species have trivial or negative extrinsic values; and extrinsic value varies across human cultures and societies and with such factors as socioeconomic conditions, individual experiences, and educational backgrounds. Valuing biological diversity on the basis of an intrinsic value system also poses challenges because intrinsic value can be seen as a disguised form of human extrinsic value; intrinsic value is initially ambiguous as to which objects or characteristics of biological diversity are to being valued; all aspects of biological diversity (e.g., species and ecosystems) are transitory; species and ecosystems are not static concrete entities; and intrinsic value of one species is often in conflict with the intrinsic value of other species. Extrinsic and intrinsic value systems share a common origin, such that extrinsic values are always derived from intrinsic value and life mutely expresses both intrinsic and extrinsic values-these are derived from and are products of biological evolution. Probing the values that underlie conservation helps the community clearly articulate its aims. Derivación de los Valores Extrínsecos de la Biodiversidad a Partir de sus Valores Intrínsecos y de Ambos a Partir de los Primeros Principios de la Evolución.

  17. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1 DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2 Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 μl water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 μg/μl for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3 Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4 High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  18. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Li, Li; Sheen, Jen

    2010-01-14

    Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1) DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2) Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 mul water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 mug/mul) for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3) Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4) High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  19. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  20. L’Italia: una crisi nella crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.

  1. Sickle Cell Crisis (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... Crisis drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  2. Far Away, So Close:A Legal Analysis of the Increasing Interactions between the Convention on Biological Diversity and Climate Change Law

    OpenAIRE

    Morgera, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    This article discuss the possible legal bases to support synergies between international biodiversity law and climate change law. The central section of the article analyse sthe multiple climate-change-related outcomes of the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, focusing on the legal relevance of the significant rapprochement of international biodiversity law and climate change law.

  3. Classifying Life, Reconstructing History and Teaching Diversity: Philosophical Issues in the Teaching of Biological Systematics and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reydon, Thomas A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Classification is a central endeavor in every scientific field of work. Classification in biology, however, is distinct from classification in other fields of science in a number of ways. Thus, understanding how biological classification works is an important element in understanding the nature of biological science. In the present paper, I…

  4. Protecting biological diversity : major issues facing the realisation of hydroelectric projects; La protection de la diversite biologique : un enjeux majeur dans la realisation de projets hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebert, J.; Juneau, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    This article emphasized the importance of developing renewable energy sources to minimize the potential impacts of climate change. The role that the Quebec government has taken together with Hydro-Quebec to protect species diversity was discussed in this article. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 emphasized that poverty and low economic development are the main challenges facing developing countries, while industrialized countries are faced with the challenge of protecting species diversity and promoting sustainable development. The UNFCC cautioned that the continued exploitation and reliance on fossil fuels as an energy source poses the risk that endangered species and their habitats will disappear. This article stated that the legislative and regulatory code that was adopted following the UNFCC for protecting biological diversity has been among the environmental priorities of Hydro-Quebec. The public utility has conducted environmental evaluations in all of its jurisdictions, including James Bay, and has taken the initiative to monitor the ecological progress of flora and fauna. This article emphasized that the results of the UNFCC have been impressive in terms of sustainable development as several developers have taken the challenge to address the issues of biological diversity, deforestation and protecting the ozone layer. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Fluorescent oligo and poly-thiophenes and their utilization for recording biological events of diverse origin—when organic chemistry meets biology

    OpenAIRE

    Åslund, Andreas; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Konradsson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The technique of using luminescent oligo-thiophenes and luminescent conjugated poly-thiophenes to monitor biological processes has gained increased interest from scientists within different research areas, ranging from organic chemistry and photo-physics to biology since its introduction. The technique is generally straightforward and requires only standard equipment, and the result is available within minutes from sample preparation. In this review, the syntheses of oligo and polythiophenes ...

  6. Coral reefs in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability.

  7. 生物危机应对方略: 澳大利亚的经验%General tackling plan of the biological crisis: Experience of Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静坤

    2005-01-01

    @@ "生物危机"(biological emergency)具有如下特征:生物危机在整个生物系统内部很少发生,并且经常由某种生物引发;生物危机具有快速从最初感染区域扩散的可能性公众经常对该生物媒介并不知悉,因此,处置工作人员总是无所适从;生物危机的扩散不仅可能具有地域性,而且可能具有时间上的连续性.

  8. From Liquidity Crisis to Sovereign Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of empirical research on European Union s evolution in terms of macroeconomic stability in a period in which member countries crossed from a liquidity crisis to a sovereign debt crisis. So, the evolution of the EU member countries is analyzed as the sovereign debt crisis has worsened and has become increasingly dangerous for the stability of the European economy. The research that is the subject of this paper aims to segment the EU member countries according to the degree of macroeconomic stability. Also, this segmentation process is performed according to two indicators that are highly important for macroeconomic stability, namely the sovereign debt, expressed as public debt to GDP, and fiscal and budgetary discipline, expressed by the ratio of budget balance to GDP.

  9. Dalla crisi finanziaria alla crisi reale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLO D’ADDA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow.

  10. Crisis redt ruimtelijke ordening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Janssen-Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Wie buiten om zich heen kijkt, ziet een enorm overschot aan vastgoed variërend van leegstaande kantoren en winkels en eindeloos te koop staande woningen tot stilliggende bouwprojecten. In de vakwereld en media krijgt de fi nanciële crisis de schuld. Maar is de crisis wel de schuldige? Of juist de re

  11. Opportunity From Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa can benefit from the global financial crisis by developing and chartering its own economic course by Zhong Weiyun THE global economic development is like a sports competition.A loss by one competitor creates the chance for another to win.The financial crisis has seen major economies in Europe and America struggling under the burden of sluggish markets,while developing

  12. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  13. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  14. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  15. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  16. Instruments for assessing the biological diversity applied to socio-economic systems. Case study: Romanian regions of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianoş

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When referring to environmental diversity, the components (the variety of ecological systems and species, the genetic diversity, and the heterogeneity of anthropized and anthropic systems vary at different spatial scales. This study proposes a method for assessing the latter component, based on a correlation between its spatial levels and the territorial statistical units. Consequently, Shannon-Wiener's informational entropy index, its associated measure of evenness, and Simpson's measure of dominance are used to characterize three components of the ethno-cultural diversity in Romania: ethnic, religious, and territorial. The results indicate that the three components exhibit lower values than natural systems, suggesting the possibility of assimilating them to young systems, and display a heterogeneous spatial distribution varying in time and across components influenced by administrative and political changes, which seem to control anthropic systems.

  17. The intellectual crisis of psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the intellectual crisis and the potential sources of reveille in clinical research in psychiatry. Current prevailing conceptual models in psychiatry are critically examined, with particular reference to neurobiology, clinical psychopharmacology, assessment, and the therapeutic process. Biological reductionism, neglect of individual responses to treatment, massive propaganda from the pharmaceutical industry, misleading effects of psychometric theory on clinical assessment, and lack of consideration of multiple therapeutic ingredients and of the role of psychological well-being are identified as major sources of an intellectual crisis in psychiatric research. The conceptual crisis of psychiatry is shared by other areas of clinical medicine and stems from a narrow concept of science that neglects clinical observation, the basic method of medicine. A unified concept of health and disease may yield new clinical insights in psychiatric disorders, and may result in therapeutic efforts of more enduring quality than current strategies.

  18. Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Uljana

    2012-06-01

    This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time.

  19. Dalla crisi finanziaria alla crisi reale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'Adda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available  The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow. JEL Code: E44, G01, G10Keywords: Cultura economica, Crisi finanziaria, Regole  

  20. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  1. Trust vs. Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mogensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968, Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967, and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma & Collective Memory (1998.

  2. Growth in a Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG HOU

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the first half of 2010, the Greek sovereign debt crisis hit Europe severely,casting a shadow over the region's slow economic recovery. Although the crisis has been gradually curbed across Europe, thanks largely to major financial stability measures by the EU and its member states, it still poses grave challenges to the long-term economic growth of Europe. Faced with serious structural problems brought to light by the crisis, Europe must carry out substantial measures to regain vitality and ensure lasting growth.

  3. Small-Scale Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Biomass and Diversity in Biological Soil Crusts from Arid Lands in the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Johnson, S.L.; Youngkin, D.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    We characterized, at millimeter resolution, bacterial biomass, diversity, and vertical stratification of biological soil crusts in arid lands from the Colorado Plateau. Microscopic counts, extractable DNA, and plate counts of viable aerobic copiotrophs (VAC) revealed that the top centimeter of crusted soils contained atypically large bacterial populations, tenfold larger than those in uncrusted, deeper soils. The plate counts were not always consistent with more direct estimates of microbial biomass. Bacterial populations peaked at the immediate subsurface (1-2 mm) in light-appearing, young crusts, and at the surface (0-1 mm) in well-developed, dark crusts, which corresponds to the location of cyanobacterial populations. Bacterial abundance decreased with depth below these horizons. Spatially resolved DGGE fingerprints of Bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated the presence of highly diverse natural communities, but we could detect neither trends with depth in bacterial richness or diversity, nor a difference in diversity indices between crust types. Fingerprints, however, revealed the presence of marked stratification in the structure of the microbial communities, probably a result of vertical gradients in physicochemical parameters. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that most of the naturally occurring bacteria are novel types, with low sequence similarity (83-93%) to those available in public databases. DGGE analyses of the VAC populations indicated communities of lower diversity, with most types having sequences more than 94% similar to those in public databases. Our study indicates that soil crusts represent small-scale mantles of fertility in arid ecosystems, harboring vertically structured, little-known bacterial populations that are not well represented by standard cultivation methods.

  4. Analysis of undergraduate students' conceptual models of a complex biological system across a diverse body of learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnbeck, Matthew R.

    Biological systems pose a challenge both for learners and teachers because they are complex systems mediated by feedback loops; networks of cause-effect relationships; and non-linear, hierarchical, and emergent properties. Teachers and scientists routinely use models to communicate ideas about complex systems. Model-based pedagogies engage students in model construction as a means of practicing higher-order reasoning skills. One such modeling paradigm describes systems in terms of their structures, behaviors, and functions (SBF). The SBF framework is a simple modeling language that has been used to teach about complex biological systems. Here, we used student-generated SBF models to assess students' causal reasoning in the context of a novel biological problem on an exam. We compared students' performance on the modeling problem, their performance on a set of knowledge/comprehension questions, and their performance on a set of scientific reasoning questions. We found that students who performed well on knowledge and understanding questions also constructed more networked, higher quality models. Previous studies have shown that learners' mental maps increase in complexity with increased expertise. We wanted to investigate if biology students with varying levels of training in biology showed a similar pattern when constructing system models. In a pilot study, we administered the same modeling problem to two additional groups of students: 1) an animal physiology course for students pursuing a major in biology (n=37) and 2) an exercise physiology course for non-majors (n=27). We found that there was no significant difference in model organization across the three student populations, but there was a significant difference in the ability to represent function between the three populations. Between the three groups the non-majors had the lowest function scores, the introductory majors had the middle function scores, and the upper division majors had the highest function

  5. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  6. Policing the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.

  7. Averting a Future Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world has left the worst of the financial crisis behind, but memories of the meltdown have barely faded. But what made the world’s economy so vulnerable, and what kinds of lessons can we draw from it?

  8. Migrants caught in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kelly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of new initiatives point to ways in which the internationalcommunity – particularly governments – could help reduce the vulnerabilities of migrant workers during conflict and crisis situations.

  9. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    ‘Crisis’ has been a word frequently heard of over the last couple of years, both in a global meaning (e.g. the environmental crisis, the financial crisis) and also in a more regional or national meaning, many times related to Africa (Horn of Africa, Ivory Coast, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast......, Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory...

  10. Modelli formali della crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Gandolfo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a distinction is made between the immediate technical-financial causes that unleashed the crisis in the United States, and its macroeconomic causes, which also explain its international transmission. Two formal paradigmatic models are considered. The first is Li’s formula on default correlation (“The Formula that Killed Wall Street”, whose misuse gave rise to the crisis. The second is the international financial multiplier set forth by Paul Krugman. After examining these two models, the paper concludes that, contrary to widespread opinion, the crisis was indeed foreseen by some economists, who, coming from the non-mainstream side of the profession, were largely ignored.   JEL Codes: G01, F3, E44Keywords: Cultura economica, Crisi finanziaria, Regole

  11. Teaching Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Kay Young McChesney

    2015-01-01

    This article is targeted to faculty teaching race and ethnicity, racism, diversity, and multicultural courses. Many students equate race with skin color. The premise of this article is that to teach students about the social construction of race, teachers must first know enough science to teach students that race is not biological. This article examines the biology of race by showing how advances in DNA sequencing led ...

  12. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  13. Tools for Chemical Biology: New Macrocyclic Compounds from Diversity-Oriented Synthesis and Toward Materials from Silver(I) Acetylides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie

    Part I The formation of a library of diverse macrocyclic compounds with different functionalities and ring sizes in a few steps from two easily accessible α,ω-diol building blocks is presented. The building blocks are combined by esteriffcations in four different ways leading to the formation of ...... of uoro-iodoadamantanes. However, overall the results provide a good starting point for the synthesis of new triptycene and adamantane-containing molecules that can interact with carbon nanotubes....

  14. Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F; Yue, L; Robertson, D L; Hill, S C; Hui, H.; Biggar, R J; Neequaye, A E; Whelan, T M; Ho, D D; Shaw, G M

    1994-01-01

    The virulence properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are known to vary significantly and to range from relative attenuation in certain individuals to high-level pathogenicity in others. These differences in clinical manifestations may, at least in part, be determined by genetic differences among infecting virus strains. Evaluation of the full spectrum of HIV-2 genetic diversity is thus a necessary first step towards understanding its molecular epidemiology, natural history ...

  15. Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2:evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F; Yue, L; ROBERTSON, DL; Hill, SC; Hui, HX; BIGGAR, RJ; NEEQUAYE, AE; WHELAN, TM; Ho, DD; Shaw, GM; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, BH

    1994-01-01

    The virulence properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are known to vary significantly and to range from relative attenuation in certain individuals to high level pathogenicity in others. These differences in clinical manifestations may, at least in part, be determined by genetic differences among infecting virus strains. Evaluation of the full spectrum of HIV-2 genetic diversity is thus a necessary first step towards understanding its molecular epidemiology, natural history ...

  16. Application of culture culture-independent molecular biology based methods to evaluate acetic acid bacteria diversity during vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilabaca, Carolina; Navarrete, Paola; Mardones, Pamela; Romero, Jaime; Mas, Albert

    2008-08-15

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are considered fastidious microorganisms because they are difficult to isolate and cultivate. Different molecular approaches were taken to detect AAB diversity, independently of their capacity to grow in culture media. Those methods were tested in samples that originated during traditional vinegar production. Bacterial diversity was assessed by analysis of 16S rRNA gene, obtained by PCR amplifications of DNA extracted directly from the acetification container. Bacterial composition was analyzed by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA gene, Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) separation of amplicons containing region V3-V5 of 16S rRNA gene and cloning of those amplicons. TTGE bands and clones were grouped based on their electrophoretic pattern similarity and sequenced to be compared with reference strains. The main microorganism identified in vinegar was Acetobacter pasteurianus, which at the end of the acetification process was considered to be the only microorganism present. The diversity was the highest at 2% acetic acid, where indefinite species of Gluconacetobacter xylinus/europaeus/intermedius were also present.

  17. The ecology and evolutionary biology of cancer: a review of mathematical models of necrosis and tumor cell diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, John D

    2005-04-01

    Recent evidence elucidating the relationship between parenchyma cells and otherwise "healthy" cells in malignant neoplasms is forcing cancer biologists to expand beyond the genome-centered, "one-renegade-cell" theory of cancer. As it becomes more and more clear that malignant transformation is context dependent, the usefulness of an evolutionary ecology-based theory of malignant neoplasia becomes increasingly clear. This review attempts to synthesize various theoretical structures built by mathematical oncologists into potential explanations of necrosis and cellular diversity, including both total cell diversity within a tumor and cellular pleomorphism within the parenchyma. The role of natural selection in necrosis and pleomorphism is also examined. The major hypotheses suggested as explanations of these phenomena are outlined in the conclusions section of this review. In every case, mathematical oncologists have built potentially valuable models that yield insight into the causes of necrosis, cell diversity, and nearly every other aspect of malignancy; most make predictions ultimately testable in the lab or clinic. Unfortunately, these advances have gone largely unexploited by the empirical community. Possible reasons why are considered.

  18. Quale crisi, quale sociologia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1929 gli studi sociologici che hanno preso in esame la crisi in atto nel momento stesso in cui questa si dispiegava sono stati molto limitati e, fino ad oggi, questa tendenza sembra confermarsi anche con riferimento alla crisi attuale. Per contro si registra una notevole diffusione di contributi di analisi del fenomeno da parte degli economisti che rivelano, in particolare, due tipi di ragionamenti: uno che limita l’analisi al breve periodo, l’altro che invece legge la crisi inquadrandola nei mutamenti dell’ultimo trentennio. La sociologia non è in crisi ma è necessario che rifletta nuovamente sugli strumenti teorici di cui dispone per analizzare la crisi contemporanea. Lo spazio dell’analisi sociologica è quello in cui si coniugano le letture dell’avvenimento attuale e le analisi di lungo periodo, lo spazio in cui può trovare adeguata considerazione la soggettività degli individui. È in questo senso che la sociologia può dare il proprio contributo, anche attraverso la collaborazione con le scienze «dure», nel tracciare degli itinerari di uscita dalla crisi.

  19. CRISIS COMMUNICATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan MADRAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Institutions should implement effective crisis communication strategies to manage their reputations in crisis situations. Thus, the negative perceptions that may occur because of crisis can be reduced and eliminated by continuously informing stakeholders. Therefore, various researches are needed in the area of crisis communication management. The aim of the study is to determine the types of crises that often occur in universities and evaluate the crisis communication efforts in higher education institutions. Crises and crisis communication efforts were evaluated within the framework of media reflections in this study. Content analysis was applied in the classification of crises and responses provided for crises. As a result, the types of crises in Turkish universities were determined as campus safety, actions, protests, loss of confidential information, loss of financial opportunities, loss of key managers and personnel, staff problems, increase of accidents, slander and gossip, unnecessary explanations, rumors, damage to organization and employee reputation, terrorism, workplace violence, corruption, fire and epidemic. It is seen that universities don’t make any communicational effort regarding campus safety, staff problems, increase of accidents, corruption or fire.

  20. Crisis management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Maria C; Politis-Norton, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the different facets of crisis as experienced within the pharmaceutical industry but which are also prevalent throughout other industries. It highlights the importance of early identification and management of crises and issues, which in return are strongly intertwined with a fundamental positive internal corporate climate. A corporate philosophy should always embrace crisis management with the attitude of 'when' and not 'if'; therefore, a company should act today and not tomorrow once a crisis is on its doorstep. Preparation is of utmost importance and there are several items that can be addressed even before a crisis has arisen. Further, this paper also provides guidance on how to deal with the media, what to do and what not to do, and how to appoint the appropriate spokesperson. In this era of fast exchange of information, crisis, which previously may have stayed behind corporate doors, may not do so any longer. Image is very important and should therefore not be risked. Crisis and issue management should therefore be integrated in every company's philosophy and standard operating procedures.

  1. Diversity and importance of filamentous bacteria in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plants – a worldwide survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Ziegler, Anja Sloth; McIlroy, Simon Jon;

    bacteria in full-scale nutrient removal WWTPs. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied to survey 24 Danish and 30 worldwide full-scale biological nutrient removal WWTPs (total of >550 samples), where all known bacterial genera possessing filamentous morphology were investigated. Candidatus Microthrix...

  2. La crisis latente del Darwinismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla, Maurício

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will be analyzing the Darwinist paradigm in the biological science, discussing its capacity to give satisfactory understanding of the new data from biochemistry, microbiology and genetics. The general aim of this analysis is to contribute for the debate about the statute of the scientific theories. Its specific aim is to reflect upon a possible crisis of the Darwinist paradigm, which could corroborate the conception of scientific theories as something historically transitory, and not as definitive discoveries.

    El presente artículo analiza el paradigma darwinista en las ciencias biológicas a partir de la pregunta sobre su capacidad de explicar satisfactoriamente los nuevos datos obtenidos de la bioquímica, la microbiología y la genética. El objetivo general del análisis es contribuir con una discusión acerca del estado de las teorías científicas y el objetivo específico es reflexionar sobre una posible crisis del paradigma darwinista, lo que corroboraría la concepción de las teorías científicas como algo históricamente transitorio y no como descubrimientos definitivos.

  3. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  4. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  5. Cephalopods of the Southwest Indian OceanRidge: A hotspot of biological diversity and absence of endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptikhovsky, V.; Boersch-Supan, P.; Bolstad, K.; Kemp, K.; Letessier, T.; Rogers, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    A total of 68 cephalopod species belonging to 26 families (10-11% of the total known cephalopod diversity) were collected onboard R/V Fridtjof Nansen during a research survey on Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge in November-December 2009. This relatively small area extends from the Tropical front to the Subantarctic front with four distinctive cephalopod faunas and represents one of the most outstanding hotspots of cephalopod diversity reported to date. However, most of the species caught there were characterised by circumglobal distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, and no endemic species were unambiguously found, although a number of taxa could not be confidently attributed to known species. Most of the studied area was dominated by squid species reproducing in epipelagic layers (mostly Enoploteuthidae and Pyroteuthidae). Species reproducing in meso-bathypelagial whose juveniles ascend to surface water (Cranchiidae, Histioteuthidae, etc.) became gradually more and more important southward from the Tropical Zone to the Southern Peripheral Ecotone. In the latter region they were joined by near-bottom dwellers of the order Sepiolida. The epipelagic strategy of reproduction disappears completely at the Subpolar Front, where epipelagic waters were inhabited by young members of the Cranchiidae and Gonatidae hatched in deep-seas. This study demonstrated the importance of conservation and management of this high-seas area, with its unique biodiversity and ecological resources, in line with recommendations by the IUCN Seamount project and Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative.

  6. Diversity: A Philosophical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahotra Sarkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, diversity, whether it be ecological, biological, cultural, or linguistic diversity, has emerged as a major cultural value. This paper analyzes whether a single concept of diversity can underwrite discussions of diversity in different disciplines. More importantly, it analyzes the normative justification for the endorsement of diversity as a goal in all contexts. It concludes that no more than a relatively trivial concept of diversity as richness is common to all contexts. Moreover, there is no universal justification for the endorsement of diversity. Arguments to justify the protection of diversity must be tailored to individual contexts.

  7. The Euro crisis. Causes and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S. Weber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro crisis is mainly a consequence of the international financial crisis of 2008. Thereby, the term Euro crisis is misleading as there is no currency crisis. First, the article shows some of the birth defects of the Euro. Second, it shows that the increase in public debt was caused by rescue measures for banks and anti-cyclical fiscal policy. Third, we argue that the Euro crisis is not just one crisis (a sovereign debt crisis but it is a combination of several macroeconomic crises including a growth crisis, a labour market crisis, a public debt crisis, and a current account crisis.

  8. Organizational crisis management - crisis communication when IT fails

    OpenAIRE

    Glad, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS ABSTRACT International Business, Master’s Thesis Jutta Glad 08.05.2009 ORGANIZATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT – CRISIS COMMUNICATION WHEN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FAILS Objectives of the thesis The objective of this study is to find out what different factors an organization should consider when responding to an organizational crisis that has been caused by an information technology failure. The study also tries to find out whether crisis communicat...

  9. PeerWise provides significant academic benefits to biological science students across diverse learning tasks, but with minimal instructor intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, H A; Shields, C; Finnegan, D J; Higham, J; Simmen, M W

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that student engagement with PeerWise, an online tool that allows students to author and answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs), is associated with enhanced academic performance across diverse assessment types on a second year Genetics course. Benefits were consistent over three course deliveries, with differential benefits bestowed on groups of different prior ability. A rating scheme, to assess the educational quality of students' questions, is presented and demonstrates that our students are able intuitively to make such quality assessments, and that the process of authoring high quality questions alone does not explain the academic benefits. We further test the benefits of providing additional PeerWise support and conclude that PeerWise works efficiently with minimal intervention, and can be reliably assessed using automatically generated PeerWise scores.

  10. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-10-15

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with {>=} 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  11. SERVICES IN GORJ COUNTY IN ECONOMIC CRISIS SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂBONTU CECILIA IRINA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a synthetic analysis of the evolution of the tertiary sector in Gorj county under the pressure of the economic crisis that is felt now more than ever, the tertiary sector whos activities resulted in extremely diverse and constantly expanding services in our county as well. Like other regions of Romania, Gorj county is facing a new situation: after the period 2001-2008 when there has been growth, started a period marked by crisis, outcome of the effect of economic and financial crisis that broke out in the U.S. in October 2008. The economic crisis raises even more problems further enhancing poverty due to lower employment, as well as the decline in purchasing power especially among low-income population, under the impact of inflation and restrictive policies in wages, issues that are consequential to the stage of development of services in Gorj County.

  12. Re-Envisioning Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaith, Holly; Rosamond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    of EU integration – namely the 1970s oil shocks and the more recent global financial crisis – in order to determine the extent to which these events have been contemporarily defined as providing opportunities to act, or simply challenges to the existing order. The paper provides an analysis of the way...... in which EU actors have mobilised the idea of ‘crisis’ in order to (a) exert control over endogenous and exogenous destabilising forces, (b) (re)define the EU as an object of both political engagement and academic study, and finally (c) make the case for further expansion and integration (particularly....... The comparative nature of the findings helps to contextualise current discourses around the global financial crisis, in order to evaluate the EU’s previous efforts at global repositioning, and the significance of crisis discourse to these efforts....

  13. Aspects of Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to explore Germany, known as one of the most developed Europeaneconomy, based mainly on exports, which until 2010 was the number-one leading exporter. Also,Poland, who managed to surprise us by its economic growth of 1.2% during the most recent globaleconomic crisis, and Romania, which manages to surprise us every day in comparison with othercountries such as France or Italy. The global economic crisis is one of the most important events inrecent years has brought about tremendous losses and increases levels of unemployment well abovethe expectations of many analysts. He started as a tornado in the U.S. savings and was felt all over theworld. It is practically a state of disorder in the world economy, in which countries economy suddenlygoing to lower its labor, usually fall brought the financial crisis.

  14. Modelli formali della crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANCARLO GANDOLFO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a distinction is made between the immediate technical-financial causes that unleashed the crisis in the United States, and its macroeconomic causes, which also explain its international transmission. Two formal paradigmatic models are considered. The first is Li’s formula on default correlation (“The Formula that Killed Wall Streetâ€, whose misuse gave rise to the crisis. The second is the international financial multiplier set forth by Paul Krugman. After examining these two models, the paper concludes that, contrary to widespread opinion, the crisis was indeed foreseen by some economists, who, coming from the non-mainstream side of the profession, were largely ignored.

  15. Financial crisis: theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Sarrió, Dídac; Ceballos Hornero, David; Rodriguez, Martha; Cortez, Klender; Cantarero Prieto, David; CASTILLO, Jorge; Fuenzalida, Darcy; Garcia, Heriberto; Mongrut, Samuel; Nash, Mauricio; Rosales, Luis Francisco; Torres, Gabriela; Treviño, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In the last 50 years, we have had approximately 40 events with characteristics related to financial crisis. The most severe crisis was in 1929, when the financial markets plummet and the US gross domestic product decline in more than 30 percent. Recently some years ago, a new crisis developed in the United States, but instantly caused consequences and effects in the rest of the world. This new economic and financial crisis has increased the interest and motivation for the academic communit...

  16. Bargaining in the crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Andersen, Søren Kaj; Due, Jesper Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis weighed heavily on the 2010 collective bargaining rounds in the Danish and Swedish manufacturing sectors – the pattern-setting sectors in both countries. This article analyses and compares the bargaining rounds from agenda-setting to signing, pointing to the significant...... differences in bargaining structures, processes and output. On the whole, the crisis seems to have had little effect on the Danish bargaining system due to a strong centralization on the employer side through the Confederation of Danish Industries, union moderation and the coordination of bargaining areas...

  17. Crisis of Transient Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文秀; 陆云清; 陈贺胜; 马明全; 竹有章; 何大韧

    2002-01-01

    A new kind of crisis, which is marked by a sudden change of a strange repeller, is observed in an electronicrelaxation oscillator. Firstly, by its simplified piecewise linear model, we show analytically that a strange repellerappears after a hole-induced crisis, and that the fractal dimension of the strange repeller and the average lifetimeof the iterations in the region occupied by the original attractor suddenly change at the critical parameter valuewhen the repeller disappears. Our numerical investigation convinces us that the corresponding phenomenon canbe found in the original electronic relaxation oscillator.

  18. Dark energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, J.-A. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University (NTU), Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-01

    In cosmology we are facing the dark energy crisis: How can we survive huge vacuum energy, meanwhile living with tiny dark energy? For the solution to this crisis, we raise several clues and hints, in particular, supersymmetry and the double hierarchy, M{sub p}-M{sub SM}-M{sub DE} (Planck-Standard Model-dark energy scales). These two clues naturally lead to a solution with a supersymmetry-breaking brane-world. The train of thought from the clues to the solution is elucidated.

  19. Interpretando la crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Eugenio Nanni; Adriana Fátima Panico

    2009-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es analizar e interpretar la crisis económico- financiera actual y sus similitudes con las crisis que se sucedieron en el siglo XX, marcando sus causas y consecuencias. Para realizar este estudio consideramos las series del producto y de las tasas de crecimiento de Estados Unidos y del Reino Unido, ya que poseen datos históricos fidedignos. Utilizamos la metodología de modelos estructurales de espacio de estado para analizar las series de tiempo, detectar las caí...

  20. Psicoterapia de la crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González de Rivera y Revuelta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis es un sindrome agudo de estrés, caracterizado por la ruptura brusca de la vivencia de continuidad psíquica y por la respuesta activa ante un proceso de cambio. El éxito en esta respuesta favorece el desarrollo e integración de la personalidad, mientras que su fracaso puede llevar a una total desestructuración. La intervención terapéutica requiere consideración del tipo y fase de la crisis, de la personalidad y experiencias criticas del sujeto, y de los condicionantes socioculturales del entorno. :

  1. Keeping Cool in a Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Raven

    2006-01-01

    Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.

  2. Study of primary biological aerosols to characterize their diversity in particulate matter over the Indian tropical region: assessment for climatic and health impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada R, H.; Muthalagu, A.; R, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Desprès, V.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs) are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and can influence the biosphere, climate, and public health (Després et al., 2012).To study the importance of the PBAPs, it is important to have an understanding about their origin, seasonal abundance and diversity. The study of PBAPs over the Indian tropical region becomes important as it hosts ~ 18% of the world population and has a distinct climate with a systematic and cyclic monsoon season which is different from the continental climates in Europe and America. In this study, the PBAPs were characterized by the application of molecular genetic techniques involving DNA extraction, PCR amplifications, cloning and DNA sequencing. In addition, characterization of the fungal source emissions was performed to better understand the diversity, abundance, and relative contribution of the fungal aerosols. For the present study, DNA analysis was performed on a one-year air filter set of PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 mm) covering three distinct meteorological seasons, i.e. summer, monsoon, and winter. The results from DNA analysis revealed the presence of bacteria and fungi in the filter samples. The fungal source characterization performed by the DNA analysis revealed the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota to be 96:4, which is consistent with previously reported studies from airborne fungal communities in the European continental boundary layer air (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2009). In the study region, the highest species richness was found to be present in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.81%). Agaricaceae, Polyporaceae and Psathyrellaceae were dominant families in the study region and the families like Clavariaceae, Nectriaceae, Phanerochaetachae, Pleurotaceae and Strophariaceae were found to be rare. The results will next be compared with the diversity and types of the fungi found in ambient PM10. More details will be presented.

  3. Two Novel Myoviruses from the North of Iraq Reveal Insights into Clostridium difficile Phage Diversity and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srwa J. Rashid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages (phages are increasingly being explored as therapeutic agents to combat bacterial diseases, including Clostridium difficile infections. Therapeutic phages need to be able to efficiently target and kill a wide range of clinically relevant strains. While many phage groups have yet to be investigated in detail, those with new and useful properties can potentially be identified when phages from newly studied geographies are characterised. Here, we report the isolation of C. difficile phages from soil samples from the north of Iraq. Two myoviruses, CDKM15 and CDKM9, were selected for detailed sequence analysis on the basis of their broad and potentially useful host range. CDKM9 infects 25/80 strains from 12/20 C. difficile ribotypes, and CDKM15 infects 20/80 strains from 9/20 ribotypes. Both phages can infect the clinically relevant ribotypes R027 and R001. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole genome sequencing revealed that the phages are genetically distinct from each other but closely related to other long-tailed myoviruses. A comparative genomic analysis revealed key differences in the genes predicted to encode for proteins involved in bacterial infection. Notably, CDKM15 carries a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR array with spacers that are homologous to sequences in the CDKM9 genome and of phages from diverse localities. The findings presented suggest a possible shared evolutionary past for these phages and provides evidence of their widespread dispersal.

  4. Effects of silvicultural techniques on the diversity of microorganisms in forest soil and their possible participation in biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different pre-planting soil preparations and post-harvest wood debris applications in a clear-cut Scots pine plantation, on the abundance, diversity, and activity of culturable microorganisms were investigated. The investigation was done 9 years after the re-plantings had been done. This formed part of an investigation of silvicultural practices for conservation and the biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion in northern temperate forests (Poland. The treatments being compared, were expected to have altered the soil’s physical and chemical properties, and consequently, its biological properties. Only soft-rot microfungi from the Ascomycota and Zygomycota were detected in the soil. Fungi, including those antagonistic to Armillaria and Heterobasidion, were more abundant after shallow ploughing than after deep ploughing or ridging, and where chipped rather than coarse wood debris was left on the soil surface or incorporated. Scots pine trees had the most biomass and the least mortality after ridging and leaving coarse wood debris on the surface (associated with only a relatively moderate abundance of fungi.

  5. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  6. Effects of environmental and architechtural diversity of Caryocar brasiliense (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae on Edessa ruformaginata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and its biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leao Demolin Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of environmental complexity and plant architecture on the abundance of the Edessa rufomarginata bugs in pastures and cerrado areas and its biology. We observed higher number of bugs on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the cerrado than pasture areas. Bugs were more abundant on leaves and branches rather than fruits. Caryocar brasiliense had greatest fruit production on pasture than in the cerrado areas. The abundance of bugs was correlated positively with aluminum, organic matter, and tree height, but negatively correlated by soil pH. Productivity of C. brasiliense were negatively correlated with aluminum, pH, and number of bugs, but positively correlated with phosphorus and calcium. The number of eggs per clutch was 14.3, their viability was 93% and the embryonic period was 6.9 days. The respective length and width of each instar were: first instar 3.3 mm and 2.4 mm, second 4.1 mm and 3.0 mm, third 6.7 mm and 3.0mm, and fourth 11.5 mm and 3.5 mm. The respective length and width of adults were: males, 15.8 mm and 8.6 mm and females, 17.3 mm and 9.1 mm. The sex ratio was 0.43, and the total duration of the life cycle of E. rufomarginata was 156 days.

  7. Structurally diverse secondary metabolites from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001 and their biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengtian; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Zhen; Lin, Xiuping; Zhao, Bingxin; Kaliaperumal, Kumaravel; Liao, Xiaojian; Tu, Zhengchao; Li, Jianlin; Xu, Shihai; Liu, Yonghong

    2017-03-01

    Five new compounds, including a cytotoxic dimeric isocoumarin, bipenicilisorin (1), a merosesquiterpenoid, yaminterritrem C (2), a citrinin dimer, penicitrinone F (3), a alkaloid, terremide D (4), and a δ-valerolacton, (E)-4-(propen-1-yl)-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (5), along with ten known compounds (6-15) were isolated from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by NMR spectra, MS, CD, optical rotation, X-ray crystallography, and compared with literature data. Biological evaluation results revealed that 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against K562, A549, and Huh-7 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.78, 6.94, and 2.59μM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against EV71 with IC50 value of 14.50μM. In addition, 13 and 14 showed specific COX-2 inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 1.09 and 1.97μM, respectively.

  8. Crisis, Kuhn, Fuller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Siggaard

    2003-01-01

    Social Epistemology 17(2):197?201. 2003 Short description: In this paper Hans Siggaard Jensen looks at the concept of crisis as a central aspect of Kuhn?s theory of science, and relate it to Steve Fullers account of this theory as itself exemplary?not to say paradigmatic?for the understanding...

  9. Financial Crisis Redux?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Observers refute the start of a new Asian financial crisis sparked by Viet Nam’s financial and economic troubles It looked like a sudden nightmare when stockholders with hundreds of millions of Vietnamese dong found their pockets half empty overnight. The once prosper- ous bull market in Viet Nam plummeted to

  10. Crisis -- A Leadership Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    On the contrary, an organization which has no clear purpose, or a “valueless” purpose such as simply raising capital – as in the Enron scandal ...citation without the permission of the authors" “Tribune Scandal : A Case Study in Crisis Management.” Utah Policy.com. 8 Dec 2004 <http

  11. Crisis Counseling: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Scott, Amy Nicole; Padilla, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists working in schools are often the first contacts for children experiencing a potentially traumatizing event or change in status. This article reviews basic concepts in crisis counseling and describes the components of psychological first aid. This form of counseling must be developmentally and culturally appropriate as well as…

  12. Trust vs. Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968), Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967), and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma...

  13. Managing a Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Planning ahead, practicing your response for various scenarios, being open and honest, showing empathy and respect for other peoples' perspectives and assuring stakeholders that you have the situation covered are the foundations of communicating successfully during a crisis, experts say. This article provides strategies for Community College…

  14. Unpacking the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction in ...

  15. The Walking Debt Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Kruse, Robinson; Wegener, Christoph

    stability of Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain during the European debt crisis. First, we find compelling evidence for bubbles in the Dow Jones Equity Real Estate Investment Trust (REITs) index which serves as a weekly measure of economic activity in the North American real estate sector. Second...

  16. Crisis and Environmental Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental ethics began in the 1960s with a growing awareness of coming environmental problems such as pollution and the projected shortage of resources caused by an acceleration in human’s technically based exploitation of nature. In addition to becoming an issue in public debate and in politics since the 1970s, the environmental crisis, which can be laid at the door of industrialization, calls for a more basic consideration of man’s attitude to nature. In this paper I give a short presentation of the concept of crisis in a selection of the principal classical critical philosophies of history and suggest that they all connect crisis to the oppression of man’s inner nature. I go on to sketch the idea of environmental crisis as an oppression of outer nature (the natural environment suggesting that a new, more nuanced organic concept of nature is needed as a condition for ascribing value to life on earth as a whole, which is what most non-anthropocentric ethical theories to some extent do.

  17. Insights into the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Daniel Arfire

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Political crises are increasingly frequent and devastating not only for the population of a state, but also for the international diplomacy. Such an example is the ongoing Ukrainian crisis. Starting from S. Fink‘s life cycle of a crisis and T.W. Coombs‘s crisis response strategies, I will analyse the evolution of the Ukrainian crisis and the crisis response strategies of three major international actors: Vladimir Putin, Barack Obama and Angela Merkel. The findings of my study will prove that the denial strategy prevails in Putin‘s statement, whereas Obama uses the diminish strategy and Merkel focuses on the bolstering strategy.

  18. TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY AND THE ROLE OF ALGAEFLORA FOR BIOLOGICAL DEPURATION OF WATERS FROM RIVER COGÂLNIC (R. MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALARU VICTOR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2004-2005 there were performed studies regarding the taxonomic structure of the algaeflora in river Cogâlnic in order to point out the role of the algae during the process of water quality improvement and the role of the indicator of the most representative species. River Cogâlnic, or Cunduc, starts from nearby village Iurceni, district Nisporeni and flows into lake Sasac, and runs for a distance of 243 km. Decrease of the analyzed water quality from the river is caused by the sewerage waters from different sectors from town Hinceshti and Cimishlia that are directed into the river without any depuration. We've studied about 118 samples in which we've discovered about 382 species and intraspecific taxonomic units of algae of the following types: Cyanophyta -73, Euglenophyta-75, Chlorophyta-111, Xantophyta-3, Bacillariophyta-118 and Chrysophyta-2. Mass development of the euglena within Colgalnic river, among which are the following types of species Euglena-26, Trachelomonas-14 and Phacus-13, demonstrate a high level of trophicity in water. Among the chloride algae predominate the following species Scenedesmus-21, and from cyanophyta species predominates Oscillatoria-23. The high taxonomic level of the bacillariophyta algae is determined by species as Navicula-27, Nitzschia-24 and Surirella-16. Most of species refer to categories β and β-α , demonstrating a high level of water pollution. This fact speaks about the high concentration of nitrogen and phosphor compounds in water. It was demonstrated that as far as we go from the places were the sewerage waters flow into the river, the excessive quantities of biological elements decrease clearly. Also, go down the quantity of bicarbonates and oxidizers. Numeric growth of the algae is nothing else but a positive role for water depuration.

  19. Biolog ECO解析不同产地大曲微生物群落功能多样性特征%Analysis of Microbial Community Functional Diversity in Daqu from Different Regions Using Biolog-ECO Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆伍; 李红歌; 李安军; 刘国英; 汤有宏; 何宏魁; 李晓欢

    2014-01-01

    运用Biolog-ECO微平板技术研究安徽、四川、山东、湖北四个产地大曲的微生物群落功能多样性。结果表明,不同产地大曲微生物在碳源利用能力、均匀性和物种优势度等方面存在较大差异;对Biolog数据进行聚类分析显示:相似理化指标的大曲聚为一类,富集有相似的微生物群系。通过实验表明,应用BIOLOG微生物鉴定系统可以明确反映大曲微生态的情况,与传统的平板计数法相比,可以更加有效地反映大曲微生物的活性。%The Biolog ECO method was used in the study of microbial community functional diversity in Daqu from Anhui、 Sichuan、 Shandong、 Hubei. The results showed that Daqu microbes of different regions has different carbon source utilization ability, and the Simpson and McIntosh also was differences; The Analysis on the data of Hierar-chial Cluster showed that similar of physicochemical index of Daqu were clustered into one group, and enriching similar microbiota. Experiments showed that the application of Biolog microbes identification system can clearly re-flect the Daqu micro-ecological situation.Compared with the traditional method of plate,it can more effectively re-flect the Daqu microbial activity.

  20. Crowds and Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    of crowds and their alleged revolutionary aspirations. Interestingly, the sociological interest in crowds took off in the late nineteenth century as a reflection on modern political (dis)order, with the French Revolution and in particular the Paris Commune serving as key points of reference. This early......The November Revolution in 1918 made manifest and further unleashed a political crisis in Germany, the consequences of which have been thoroughly examined. What has attracted less attention is how the Revolution also triggered a semantic crisis within sociology, namely with regard to conceptions...... semantics of crowds associated collective behaviour with irrationality, contagion and hypnotic suggestibility. Precisely this semantic repertoire was called into question after the November revolution: Weimar sociologists, with Theodor Geiger in a lead role, argued for an alternative conception of crowds...

  1. Crisis concealing light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the blossoming of musical life in Greece that begun in 1974, simultaneously with the growth of the debt crisis. Communist musicians returned from exile and they were hailed as heroes while their music became indispensible to pre-electoral gatherings. Connected to the return to democracy, music and musicians became extremely important to politicians and loved by the people, and were offered a substantial portion of the money that poured in from the EU. Cold War cultural politics played their role in promoting avant-garde music as well. In comparison, today Greece has a great number of excellent musicians and the architectural infrastructure for the performance and study of music, but these are concealed by the daily hammering of crisis news.

  2. Spirituality, Crisis, and Illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOSONCZ, Alpar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the structural interpretations of the ongoing crisis. The author considers the approaches of Joseph Alois Schumpeter and Tibor Scitovsky that thematize the long-run destiny of capitalism. The viewpoint is constituted as the relation between the structural socio-economic tendencies and existential constellations. What is addressed by the crisis is capitalism as a dependent system. The author emphasizes that capitalism cannot survive without the outside sphere, reciprocal interactions, economics of community, eco-system and complex eco-social moments. This can be applied to the frequently mentioned embeddedness which is related to Polanyi and other researchers who are influenced by Polanyi’s concepts. Embeddedness can be analyzed through the holon, from the inside perspective. Only comprehensive perspective enables to see the entire horizon, since capitalism cannot summarize the eco-system, not even with the most sophisticated techniques that recognize monetary expressions.

  3. Second Episode of the Global Crisis: 2011European Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer SEZGİN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Measures for 2008 Global Economic Crisis cause a new crisis at 2011. Irreducible budget deficit, decreasing economy, great debt stock cause concern about sustainability of debt for some European economies. For ceasing ecomomic crisis, ECB takes some monetary policy measures; EFSF and monetary expansion are in place. This article aims to explain existing and oncoming conditions of European economies. Methodology is setting representative and containing suitable period data set from primary resources.

  4. Crisis de cianosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Analía

    2005-01-01

    Las crisis de cianosis son eventos hallados casi exclusivamente en la Tetralogía de Fallot. Se caracterizan por irritabilidad, cianosis aguda y taquipnea. En situaciones más graves puede llevar a la hipotonía, pérdida de conocimiento, convulsiones, accidente cerebrovascular y muerte. Es el evento más grave de la Tetralogía de Fallot. Se observa en 30% de estos pacientes, mayormente entre los 3 y 5 meses de edad. ...

  5. Crisis in management solutions

    OpenAIRE

    BATYUK B.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses psychological properties of managers in stressful situations, their ability to make appropriate management decisions and act objectively according to the situation. The author conventionally divided into categories due to present management solutions in new crisis. The basis of the separation of management categories are psychological and personality and expertise of managers. Particular attention is paid to the managers ability to use their psychological data, combined wi...

  6. Averting a Future Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world has left the worst of the financial crisis behind,but memories of the meltdown have barely faded.But what made the world's economy so vulnerable,and what kinds of lessons can we draw from it? Yi Gang,Deputy Governor of the People's Bank of China and Administrator of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange,discussed these issues in a speech at the Lujiazui Forum 2010 held in Shanghai on June 25-26.Edited excerpts follow:

  7. The US Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Many comparative political economists hold that market performance depends on the presence of institutional complementarities. Some argue that when institutions reinforce similar incentives markets work best. Others disagree and argue that for markets to function well institutions must compensate...... for each other's shortcomings rather than reinforce each other's incentives. This paper uses evidence from the US financial crisis of 2008 to adjudicate this debate. It argues that different types of institutional complementarities are necessary in combination to ensure market stability and successful...

  8. Leadership in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron R. Hume

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué hay que hacer para prevenir el estallido o la continuación de un conflicto interno que tenga consecuencias internacionales? ¿Qué circunstancias podrían generar una acción unilateral por parte de los Estados Unidos, Francia o el Reino Unido para crear coalicionesque dieran una respuesta internacional a estas situaciones de crisis? Para acercarse a las respuestas de estas preguntas, Hume examina la actual y sobrecargada agenda del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas y las actitudes ante situaciones de crisis. El autor revisa tres de las fuentes de liderazgo nacional –voluntad, capacidad y visión– y las relaciona con la problemática internacional y las experiencias de las Naciones Unidas en Somalia y Rwanda y de UNPROFOR en Bosnia. A partir de su análisis, Hume argumenta que, a la hora de afrontar situaciones de crisis, la autoridad para usar la fuerza no debiera divorciarse de los intereses nacionales de los Estados participantes en una misión de las Naciones Unidas, aunque, en una fase posterior, otros actores debieran participar para identificar vías de diálogo, preservar las normas internacionales y hallar soluciones a los conflictos internos.

  9. Revisiting the financial crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明

    2009-01-01

    Recently,the media and commentators have saturated us with talk of the subprimeinduced financial debacle. Yet,some basic questions remain unanswered:why did almost all of the"market doorkeepers"fail to function in the crisis? Why did the financial intermediaries,such as investment banks selling complex derivatives,go under? Why did the crisis cause such far-reaching repercussions? What seed did U.S.Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson sow for the fiasco to rage globally? What does the future hold for financial regulation? In the face of the tempestuous"financial tsunami,"what lessons should China learn and how should the country develop a more secure capital market? Unlike other macroeconomists, Dr.Huang Ming proceeds from a micro perspective to sort out the financial mess along the logical chain within the capital market.In this interview,Dr.Huang presents a clear and unsettling look at the breakout,transmission and spreading path of the financial crisis

  10. CRISIS LEADERSHIP - AN ORGANIZATIONAL OPPORTUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Prewitt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive leadership and crisis management have been synonymous for years. This flows from the belief that crisis is unpredictable and unexpected, which is simply not true. Crisis has its genesis in the values, beliefs, culture, or behavior of an organization which become incongruent with the milieu in which the organization operates. A leader, who is able to read the signals of looming crisis and understands how to harness the exigency brought on by the situation, can diminish the potential dangers and take full advantage of the resulting opportunities. This paper presents a generic crisis lifecycle as a representation of overall crisis. Since a crisis can be broken down into three unique phases, crisis lifecycles can be understood and utilized for the benefit of the organization. In the first phase of the lifecycle, the organization finds itself mired in a static phase which equates to a comfort zone. In this first phase leaders struggle when they attempt to introduce change or learning due to the organizations preference to avoid conflict and maintain stasis. When a crisis engulfs an organization then the stasis that envelops the organization evaporates and gives rise to the second phase or the disaster phase. The disaster phase often threatens the very existence of the organization. When the organization successfully eliminates the immediate organizational threat, the organization is able to enter the adjustive phase of the crisis lifecycle. In this third phase, the leader has the undivided attention of the organization and the underlying urgency to solve the issues that led to the crisis in the first place. Regrettably, many leaders don’t take advantage of this golden opportunity and push the organization back toward the status-quo which ensures that the crisis will return in force. The study of crisis leadership has become more important since the dawn of the new millennium because leaders in all areas face differing degrees of crisis in

  11. Global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The most recent developments in economy are a clear indicator of many changes, which are a result of this high rate pacing, which also demonstrates as such. Market economy processes occur as a result of intertwining of many potential technological and human factors, thereby creating a system of numerous diver-gences and turbulences. Economics, a social science, is characteri-sed with movements from a system to another system, and is har-monized with elements or components which have impacted the development and application of economic policies as a result. This example can be illustrated with the passing from a commanded system (centralized to a self-governing (decentrali-zed system, while the movement from a system to another is known as transi-tion. Such transition in its own nature bears a number of problems of almost any kind (political, economic, social, etc., and is charac-terised with differences from a country to another. Financial crisis is a phenomenon consisting of a perception of economic policies and creation of an economic and financial stabi-lity in regional and global structures. From this, one may assume that each system has its own changes in its nature, and as a result of these changes, we have the crisis of such a system. Even in the economic field, if we look closely, we have such a problem, where development trends both in human and technological fields have created a large gap between older times and today, thereby crea-ting dynamics with a high intensity of action. If we dwell on the problem, and enter into the financial world, we can see that the so-called industrialized countries have made giant leaps in deve-lopment, while countries in transition have stalled in many fields, as a result of a high rate of corruption and unemployment in these countries, and obviously these indicators are directly connected, thereby stroking the financial system in these countries. Corruption is an element, which directly and indirectly

  12. Diversity in gut microflora of Helicoverpa armigera populations from different regions in relation to biological activity of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Cry1Ac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasiva, Inakarla; Shouche, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Girish Jayant; Krishnayya, Pulipaka Venkata; Akbar, Shaik Mohammed; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2014-12-01

    Transgenic crops expressing toxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been deployed on a large scale for management of Helicoverpa armigera. Resistance to Bt toxins has been documented in several papers, and therefore, we examined the role of midgut microflora of H. armigera in its susceptibility to Bt toxins. The susceptibility of H. armigera to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was assessed using Log-dose-Probit analysis, and the microbial communities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The H. armigera populations from nine locations harbored diverse microbial communities, and had some unique bacteria, suggesting a wide geographical variation in microbial community in the midgut of the pod borer larvae. Phylotypes belonging to 32 genera were identified in the H. armigera midgut in field populations from nine locations. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Order Bacillales) were present in all the populations, and these may be the common members of the H. armigera larval midgut microflora. Presence and/or absence of certain species were linked to H. armigera susceptibility to Bt toxins, but there were no clear trends across locations. Variation in susceptibility of F1 neonates of H. armigera from different locations to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac was found to be 3.4-fold. These findings support the idea that insect migut microflora may influence the biological activity of Bt toxins.

  13. Successful Ways for Crisis Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByHuYuyue; LiLiang

    2004-01-01

    In the past spring and summer, the burst of SARS crisis had a negative influence on people's daily life and enterprises'business. Under the impact of SARS, leaders of enterprises had personally known more of a word——crisis, and at the same time they had thought of another concept——crisis management. But if we try to comorehend it from another point of view.

  14. Biolog-Eco解析黄山风景区空气微生物碳代谢多样性特征%Analysis of Carbon Metabolism Diversity Characters of Air Microbes in Huangshan Scenic Spot Using Biolog-Eco Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌琪; 包金梅; 李瑞; 陶勇; 鲍立宁; 毛钦焱

    2012-01-01

    采用Biolog生态微平板分析黄山风景区6个景区空气样品的微生物碳代谢群落结构,旨在了解不同景区空气微生物碳代谢功能群落结构的特点与差异.结果表明:6个景区AWCD值变化趋势不同,空气微生物在碳源利用能力、微生物丰度等方面存在差异,可能与海拔、气象、游客集中与流动等因素有关;6个景区空气微生物对6类31种碳源的利用程度存在差异,但总体对羧酸类和碳水化合物类的利用程度较高,对其它化合物类的利用程度较低;主成分分析显示,6个景区空气微生物代谢基质主成分1的贡献度为58.7%,主成分2为28.5%;主成分1荷载0.55以上的基质有25种,主成分2只有7种.Biolog生态微平板技术能够客观、正确表征空气微生物碳代谢多样性的特征,是研究空气微生物群落功能多样性的较理想方法之一.%The community structure of the air microbes in Huangshan Scenic Spot was measured by the Biolog Eco plate to study the characters and differences of the carbon catabolic diversity of air microbes in different spots. The results showed the change patterns of the AWCD ( average well color development) in six scenic spots were different,mainly demonstrating in how the air microbes made use of the carbon sources and the abundance of the microbes. It may attribute to the height, the climate and the number of tourists, et al. Though the degree to which the air microbes in six scenic spots made use of 31 carbon sources of 6 types was different,in general, they made more use of the carboxylic acids and carbohydrates while making less use of other compounds. The PC A (principal component analysis) showed the contribution of the PCI of the air microbes metabolism substrates in six scenic spots was 58.7% ,PC2 was 28.5% ,and there were 25 types of substrates in PCI over 0. 55 of load, only 7 in PC2. The technology of the Biolog Eco plate is one of the effective approaches to study the

  15. The myth of the Humanities in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Terricabras

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Denying from the start that Humanities are in crisis, the author examines certain aspects of this statement, reflecting on what is meant by stating that the Humanities are in crisis, arguing for the growing interest in human sciences and looking more closely at the concept of myth and its use. From this basis, he examines the aim of this myth of the crisis in Humanities and reaches the conclusion that it may be used to discredit the Humanities as a knowledge system that stands alone and to subordinate them to science and technology and the principles of use and profitability controlled by power.Faced with this, Terricabras wonders how the debate on Humanities can be opened today whilst avoiding the error of identifying the Humanities in terms of the arts and creating conflict between the arts and the sciences, given that society, as it becomes more scientific and technological, needs more study into language, communication, history, philosophy, ethics, etc. This line of thought brings us ultimately to his recommending that, in contrary to the prejudices of specialisation, global understanding and a humanistic education be proposed which does not exclude mathematics, physics, biology or technology, as it is in the interrelation and the understanding of the difference that we can reencounter the sense of humanity.

  16. Crisis Communication Plans: Poor Predictors of Excellent Crisis Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francis J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that newly developed theory in crisis public relations suggests a shift is necessary in the way practitioners view crises. Notes that the new paradigm defines excellent crisis public relations very differently from the literature of the past 20 years. (RS)

  17. The Administration's Crisis Multiplied by the Crisis of the Administrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Livia NICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this work is the idea that the concept of “crisis” should be approached with no fear. It is necessary to understand it as the signal which attracts attention upon the fact that some changes are appropriate and that some rationally thought actions ought to be taken in order to soften the social phenomena occurring within a crisis period. We may say that in the core of the crisis lies impregnated the basic substance of progress and that the moment when a crisis is declared is as well the moment of a new start. It is necessary to anticipate the crisis, in order to prepare the adequate means able to soften up the shocks created by its incipit and to bring forward the progress through its action itself. One of the most necessary and useful instruments able to smooth down the crisis' effects is the early education provided to the citizens concerning the frame of the behavior to be adopted in case of crisis. The officials and the public servants are the social actors who constitute the interface between the citizen who is going to suffer the crisis and this latter's exerted pressure. The personnel from the public administration has to assume the hardest role in reducing the most possible the crisis' effects. Some possibilities are analysed that could reduce the effects of the economical, social and political crises, among which the most important is the quality of juridical norms. The Romanian legislation concerning the public charge is studied, in respect to its capacity to motivate the public servant to perform at his up most level, during crisis periods but not only then. The idea is emphasized that panic and uncontrolled social movements in case of a crisis might lead to the multiplying of the negative effects. The personnel from the public administration comes to a direct confrontation with the pressure of the negative effect of the crisis, as it is received by the public administration - understood as a structure

  18. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifie...

  19. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  20. La crisis de RTVE

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Radiotelevisión Española (RTVE), la televisión pública española de ámbito estatal, es una empresa en permanente crisis que, paradójicamente, ha dado a luz en estas últimas décadas una rentable industria audiovisual. Este artículo refleja la situación de RTVE en 1992, y a pesar del tiempo transcurrido encierra numerosas lecciones de cómo una empresa pública informativa puede llegar a ser desmantelada al tiempo que se insiste en su papel de servicio público esencial.

  1. Los medios ante la crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, Javier Dario

    1995-01-01

    La ponencia analiza el papel que los medios de comunicación deben cumplir en la actual crisis política que atraviesa Colombia. La actual crisis permite poner en duda la capacidad de los medios para encontrar y difundir solola verdad.

  2. A Third Wave of Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ If we label the sub-prime mortgage crisis that broke out in the United States in March 2007 and the financial meltdown triggered by Lehman Brothers'bankruptcy in August 2008 as the first two phases of the global financial crisis,then we're,without a doubt,entering a third phase.

  3. Organizational Learning and Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia

    2007-01-01

    The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…

  4. Evaluation of the metabolic diversity of microbial communities in four different filter layers of a constructed wetland with vertical flow by Biolog analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomo, S; Münch, C; Röske, I

    2009-10-01

    The community-level substrate utilization test based on direct incubation of environmental samples in Biolog EcoPlates is a suitable and sensitive tool to characterize microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of plant roots and soil structure on the metabolic diversity of microorganisms in a constructed wetland with vertical flow. Sediment samples were taken from different filter depths representing specific filter layers. The color development representing the substrate utilization was measured with the samples over a period of 10 days. The average well color development (AWCD) for all carbon sources was calculated as an indicator of total activity and in order to compensate the influence of the inoculum's density on the color development in the plates. After transformation by dividing by the AWCD, the optical density data were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). An analysis of the kinetic profile of the AWCD was carried out to increase the analytical power of the method. The corrected data have been successfully fit to the logistic growth equation. Three kinetic model parameters, the asymptote (K), the exponential rate of color change (p) and the time to the midpoint of the exponential portion of the curve (s), were used for statistical analysis of the physiological profile of the microbial community in the different filter layers of the constructed wetland. We found out that in the upper two horizons, which were rooted most densely, mainly easily degradable materials like specific carbohydrates were utilized, while in the lower layers, where only single roots occur, more biochemically inert compounds, e.g. 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, were utilized. Furthermore it could be shown that microorganisms in the surface layer benefited from the plant litter because they can utilize decay products of these. In the lower filter layers specialists took advantage because they had to cope with the biochemically inert materials and

  5. Credibility and Crisis Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Ong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Credibility is the bedrock of any crisis stress test. The use of stress tests to manage systemic risk was introduced by the U.S. authorities in 2009 in the form of the Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. Since then, supervisory authorities in other jurisdictions have also conducted similar exercises. In some of those cases, the design and implementation of certain elements of the framework have been criticized for their lack of credibility. This paper proposes a set of guidelines for constructing an effective crisis stress test. It combines financial markets impact studies of previous exercises with relevant case study information gleaned from those experiences to identify the key elements and to formulate their appropriate design. Pertinent concepts, issues and nuances particular to crisis stress testing are also discussed. The findings may be useful for country authorities seeking to include stress tests in their crisis management arsenal, as well as for the design of crisis programs.

  6. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifies and recognizes some options that can be developed in Christianity in relation to the environmental problem. It starts by analyzing the biblical dilemma provoked by both ecological and antiecological interpretations. Based on a reading of the Bible, testimonies from Christians and with a rememory of institutional structures, like the parish, the valué of the Christian message for mitigating the environmental crisis is analyzed.

  7. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  8. Crisis? What crisis? How European professionals handle crises and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verhoeven; R. Tench; A. Zerfass; A. Moreno; D. Verčič

    2013-01-01

    A broad study in 43 European countries shows that 70% of communication professionals encounter at least one crisis a year, mostly institutional, related to the performance of the organization or a crisis in management or leadership. Organizational response and image restoration approaches are mainly

  9. Crisis? What crisis? How European professionals handle crises and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.; Tench, R.; Zerfass, A.; Moreno, A.; Verčič, D.

    2014-01-01

    A broad study in 43 European countries shows that 70% of communication professionals encounter at least one crisis a year, mostly institutional, related to the performance of the organization or a crisis in management or leadership. Organizational response and image restoration approaches are mainly

  10. Teaching Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Young McChesney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is targeted to faculty teaching race and ethnicity, racism, diversity, and multicultural courses. Many students equate race with skin color. The premise of this article is that to teach students about the social construction of race, teachers must first know enough science to teach students that race is not biological. This article examines the biology of race by showing how advances in DNA sequencing led to genetics research that supports arguments that race is not biological. DNA comparisons show that all human populations living today are one species that came from Africa. The article explains the migration of humans out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and how they populated Australia, then Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The article shows how recent research maps the timing of the migration and admixture of specific population groups into Europe and India. The article shows how a mutation in one nucleotide can result in a trait like blue eyes, or Hemoglobin S (which confers resistance to malaria, which can be subject to evolution through natural selection. DNA comparisons show how natural selection shaped the genetics of human skin color to adapt to less UV light in the northern latitudes of Europe and Asia. The article shows that there is no relation between skin color or other “racial” characteristics and complex traits like intelligence. The science in this article will help teachers explain that as race is not biological, race is socially constructed and culturally enacted.

  11. School Crisis Management: A Model of Dynamic Responsiveness to Crisis Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze a school's crisis management and explore emerging aspects of its response to a school crisis. Traditional linear modes of analysis often fail to address complex crisis situations. The present study applied a dynamic crisis life cycle model that draws on chaos and complexity theory to a crisis management case,…

  12. Initial steps in extending crisis communication theory towards social media crisis dialogue: revisiting situational crisis communication framework

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Research Summary The main focus of this research is on the study of stakeholders' naturally occurring reactions to corporate crisis and crisis communication. The literature review aimed to combine situational crisis communication framework (SCCT) with the strategic public relations management theory to establish an idea of strategic two-way crisis communication. The case study evidence is drawn from the Toyota USA Facebook site in relation to the Toyota recall crisis in 2009-2011 and studi...

  13. Crisis or Confusion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Junsheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ While the whole world has been severely affected by the financial crisis that originated in the U.S., the governments of many western countries have injected enormous amounts of cash into their banking sectors in order to maintain financial stability. There is no denying that the U.S. economy has slipped into a recession. Meanwhile, according to the latest statistics, Britain's GDP growth fell 0.5% in the first three quarters this year--the longest consecutive plunge in 16 years, indicating that the U.K. economy is also on the verge of a recession. The pessimistic economic outlook has made cnterpriscs in these countries sacrifice employee benefits by way of pay cuts and downsizing--to stabilize their economics.

  14. Energy Crisis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pathak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impending energy crisis and climate change concerns coupled with the mounting oil prices and the depleting fossil fuel sources, have grabbed significant attention from around the globe toward the establishment of environment friendly, renewable, carbon-neutral alternative fuels to fulfil the growing energy demands. Bioenergy derived from the micro-organisms is of great interest in the present world‟s energy scenario due to its renewability. Fuel cells and batteries powered by various sources such as blood, urine, bacteria, viruses, mitochondria have been discussed herein. Energy from biomass and derived fuels like biodiesel, which is a promising candidate to replace fossil fuels as the primary transport energy source may also lead to an era of economic bloom and prosperity of the society. The batteries and fuels discussed in the composition could be the next-generation fuels and a breakthrough to a less polluted, better, greener society, the way we all dream our world to be!

  15. Research on Sichuan Cuisine Enterprises Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Nan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible to avoid crisis for Sichuan cuisine enterprises. On the basis of emphasizing the importance of the research of Sichuan cuisine enterprises crisis, the paper mainly analyzed the issue of Sichuan cuisine enterprises crisis from three aspects including formation mechanism of Sichuan cuisine enterprises crisis, the impact mechanism of Sichuan cuisine enterprises crisis and its response measures(such as principles, methods and strategiesin order to provide an important reference so that Sichuan cuisine enterprises have a correct understanding of the crisis, effectively response to the crisis, and strengthen crisis management so as to achieve their scientific development themselves. To some extent, the paper is helpful to cope with the crisis and promote the safety operation of the enterprises which are facing the crisis.

  16. The Roman Empire - The Third Century Crisis and Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    Ferrill, Arther. The Fall of the Oman Empire: the Military Explanation. London: Thames & Hudson , 1986. Gibbon, Edward. The History of the Decline and...Rankov, Boris. The Praetorian Guard. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1994. Scarre, Chris. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. London: Thames And Hudson , 1995...of the Roman Emperors (London: Thames And Hudson , 1995), 149, 197. 8. Srdan Milasinovic and Zelimir Kesetovic, "Crisis And Crisis Management - A

  17. A geospatial data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity in Costa Rica's San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnie, Steven E.

    Landcover change has substantially reduced the amount of tropical rain forest since the 1950s. Little is known about the extent of remaining forest types. A multivariate analysis of 144 forest plots across Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor resulted in eight floristically defined old-growth forest categories. Spectral separability was tested between categories using Landsat TM bands and vegetation indices for old-growth types, palm swamps, tree plantations and regrowth. Image filtering and NDVI increased spectral separability among categories by 30%. Separability tests resulted in seven well-discriminated forest categories. Factors driving forest beta-diversity are not well quantified for wet tropical environments. We examined the relationship between rain forest composition and environmental variation for a 3000 km2 area in northeastern Costa Rica. Mid- to upper-canopy tree species abundance and soil characteristics were measured from 127, 0.25-ha plots across Caribbean lowlands and foothills. Partial Mantel tests produced significant correlations between floristic distance and soil, terrain, and climate variables controlling the effects of geographical distance. Niche-factors showed a significant trend with forest composition more than dispersal limitation or disturbance related factors. Variables such as terrain features, climatic variation and Landsat TM bands associated with forest composition were assessed with two decision tree models. Thirty-two landcover types were compared for a 15-year time interval. Ten were floristic alliances from a cluster analysis of forest plots and wetland categories. A subset of 12 spectral and spatial predictor variables produced accuracies of 93%+/-7% and 83%+/-15% for QUEST and CRUISE classifiers, respectively. The QUEST classifier was accurate for habitat mapping and change detection important to biodiversity monitoring objectives. A 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited

  18. Las nuevas violencias en la crisis global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Tortosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo parte de la constatación de la complejidad que aqueja al fenómeno de las violencias, sea por sus muy diversos actores como por la heterogeneidad de los factores que inciden en ella, para pasar a describir someramente el conjunto de crisis (económica, medioambiental, alimentaria y energética que atraviesan al sistema mundial en la actualidad. A esto se añade la crisis de hegemonía de parte de Estados Unidos en dicho sistema. A partir de ello, se especula sobre el impacto que la combinación de ambos fenómenos puede tener en las violencias. El artículo termina con algunas observaciones sobre la fascinación con la violencia directa, sospechosa si tiene como función manifiesta o latente el ocultar la violencia estructural y la criminalidad de “guante blanco”.This article begins by confirming the complex nature of the various forms of violence that exist, due to the diversity of actors as well as the heterogeneous factors involved, and then goes on to describe the set of crises (economic, environmental, food and energy experienced by the current global system. To this must be added the crisis of hegemony on the part of the United States in said system. Based on this analysis, we speculate about the impact that the combination of these phenomena might have on forms of violence. The article ends with observations on the fascination with direct violence, a suspicious occurrence if its manifest or latent purpose is to conceal structural violence and white collar crime.

  19. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  20. CRISIS FOCUS: Stuck With Liquidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the risk of large-scale and systematic financial market crashes all but diminished, 2011 marks the beginning of the post-crisis era for the global economy and financial markets. But an old friend of 2010-

  1. The psychology behind the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia PANDELICA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extensive analysis of bought international business press andacademic literature in the field about crisis management and related fields. The paperis grounded on the premise that the psychology of the crisis is an important componentof the present international context and psychological factors play an important part inthe alteration of consumer’s behavior. The question that generated our researchapproach in such conditions was at what extent peoples’ behavior is determined byindividual rational choices. The central message of this paper is that in the presenteconomic crisis conditions the factors that are playing an important role in shapingpeople’s behaviour are: risk perception and risk attitude. We consider that at presentmanagers should understand how their clients react in crisis conditions and how theirbehavior changes in order to handle successfully the present situation.

  2. Regulating Finance After the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moschella, Manuela; Tsingou, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that regulatory failures contributed to the onset of the global financial crisis. Redressing such failures has, thus, been a key policy priority in the post-crisis reform agenda at both the domestic and international levels. This special issue investigates the process...... of post-crisis financial regulatory reform in a number of crucial issue areas, including the rules and arrangements that govern financial supervision, offshore financial centers and shadow banking, the financial industry's involvement in global regulatory processes, and macroeconomic modeling. In so doing......, the main purpose of this special issue is to shed light on an often understudied aspect in regulation literature: the variation in the dynamics of regulatory change. Contributors examine the different dynamics of regulatory change observed post-crisis and explain variations by accounting...

  3. Interviewing College Students in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Jeffrey B.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a five-step model of a crisis interview and the special considerations in working with the suicidal and assaultive student for use by college counseling professionals. Discusses the special cases of suicidal and homocidal/assaultive potential. (LLL)

  4. CRISIS FOCUS Looking to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The global financial crisis, which has plagued the world economy for two years, is nowhere near an end. Though a double-dip recession is unlikely, a fast and sound economic recovery is still out of reach.

  5. Mobile crisis management teams as part of an effective crisis management system for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Doug; Sherry, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Mobile crisis management teams provide crisis prevention and intervention services in community settings. The Appalachian Community Services crisis management program shows how such teams can be used to effectively serve rural communities.

  6. Alitalia's Crisis in the Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this investigation is to explore Alitalia and the Italian Government’s crisis response strategies (CRSs) implemented in three specific periods of 2008 to understand Alitalia and the Italian Government’s approach in communicating with media stakeholders as well as to exami...... the body of knowledge in crisis communication management and news coverage and offers some suggestions to manage effective media relations within the Italian media system....

  7. [Crisis of medicine and information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dri, P

    1998-01-01

    Western medicine is experiencing a period of crisis, which started in the middle of the twentieth century. Such crisis comes from three different directions: the lack of confidence in the capacity of physicians to solve medical problems; the difficulties in health system management, due to the need to find an equilibrium between costs and benefits; the physicians increasing specialization. Correct information and divulgation, together with evidence based medicine, represent possible ways to ameliorate this situation.

  8. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  9. Bordering on a crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ambroso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of ‘mixed migratory flows’ has long been recognised, this was the first time it applied to a large-scale displacement. It required a coordinated humanitarian response for a large and diverse group of displaced persons.

  10. General Aspects of the Economical Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ioan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the economic theories, crises does not follow a general model, each of them,presenting unique aspects, representing actually an accident, generated by specific factors, at a certainsocio-economic and political situation. Like a classification of the crisis we can specify: the crisis ofliquidity in the banking sector, external balance of payments crisis, currency crisis, external debtcrisis and the financial crisis. After we have analyze the causes of the major crisis in XIX-th and XXthcenturies, we broach the principal causes of the actual world crisis. The implications of the crisis inEst-Europe and in Romania are analyzed from the point of view of these economies vulnerability anda series of mistakes taken in the governance acts. The theory of State intervention in the adjustment ofeconomic mechanisms, due to J.M. Keynes, is bring like an argument for exceed the negative effectsof the crisis.

  11. Crisis Typologies Revisited: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena Björck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For effective crisis management and communication, a decision maker has to understand the causes and nature of a crisis and how it influences stakeholder perceptions. Identifying an organization’s vulnerabilities is essential for crisis prevention but practitioners often lack the ability to define crisis scenarios, especially the worst-case ones. A crisis typology is a structured approach to analyze crisis situations and to introduce measures for crisis prevention and containment. This paper aims to review recent literature on crisis classifications and to discuss their application. Because a single typology cannot capture the complexity and the interdisciplinary nature of a crisis, four relevant typologies from different disciplines are compared. Their combined application in an interdisciplinary framework is suggested. The paper discusses the need for typologies that reflect the cultural and contextual dimensions. Conclusions concerning the limitations and directions for further research are drawn.

  12. Normalidad, anormalidad y crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Báez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro preguntas para reactivar el debate sobre normalidad, anormalidad y crisis. Primera, ¿es posible una postura definitiva sobre lo normal y lo anormal en el plano de lo humano?; segunda, ¿de qué manera se puede plantear una salida razonable a la interacción entre lo particular y singular del sujeto y la generalidad y lo común a una sociedad humana?; tercera, ¿es el conocimiento, en especial el que emerge de la ciencia instituida desde la academia, tan aséptico e imparcial como se promulga?; y cuarta, ¿de qué manera se esconde lo político y la política en las posturas clínicas y curativas de las ciencias humanas y sociales? Sucintamente, las respuestas enuncian que no hay asidero, aún hoy, para dirimir con algún grado de seriedad, un criterio sobre lo normal y lo anormal; una salida razonable entre el sujeto y una sociedad, siempreencara un conflicto; la ciencia y el conocimiento que deviene de ella, son tan subjetivos como cualquier otro; la política y lo político, definen finalmente, los criterios de la salud.

  13. CAPITALIST CRISIS: BRIEF REMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudinei Lombardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the joint context of the theory of crises and the resultant theory of revolutions of Marx and Engels for the analysis of the genesis, development and death of Capitalism, a summary of the historical confronts from which relations of capital have been hegemonic in the XX and XXI centuries is presented. Within this same context, a synthesis of the debates on the structural crisis of Capitalism in the past years is made with an emphasis on its relevance and seriousness in history. It is emphasized that communism is not an idea to be implemented but a reality to be constructed by real men in struggles, conquests and defeats. The revolution of a way of production is not made by itself or by decree, but it is in fact the product of organized men. It is claimed that the maturing of a struggle may lead to the formation of a wide front to articulate anti-capitalist and revolutionary forces. It is observed the need for a tactic and strategic organization to overcome the logics of the Capital and the role each educationalist must play to expand and deepen the debate.

  14. Tres crisis alimentarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barkin

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios observados en la sociedad mexicana en los últimos decenios han provocado crisis alimentarias en el país. Este ensayo aborda esta problemática nacional que de alguna forma afecta también el desarrollo de las fronteras de México. El agro nacional se ha transformado en un emporio capitalista, perdiendo con ello su capacidad para proveer los productos básicos de consumo masivo y marginando con ellos a las mayorías campesinas. El sistema económico no ha sido capaz de ofrecer empleo o ingresos suficientes a amplios sectores de la sociedad, por lo que se ven obligados a consumir menos de lo necesario para sostener una vida sana. Incluso quienes tienen los medios están bombardeados con propaganda y limitados por los canales de distribución orillándolos a elegir productos que sistemáticamente deterioran los niveles nutricionales de su consumo diario.

  15. Systematization of the protein sequence diversity in enzymes related to secondary metabolic pathways in plants, in the context of big data biology inspired by the KNApSAcK motorcycle database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shun; Abe, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukiko; Kibinge, Nelson; Hirai Morita, Aki; Nakatani, Atsushi; Ono, Naoaki; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Nakamura, Kensuke; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-05-01

    Biology is increasingly becoming a data-intensive science with the recent progress of the omics fields, e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The species-metabolite relationship database, KNApSAcK Core, has been widely utilized and cited in metabolomics research, and chronological analysis of that research work has helped to reveal recent trends in metabolomics research. To meet the needs of these trends, the KNApSAcK database has been extended by incorporating a secondary metabolic pathway database called Motorcycle DB. We examined the enzyme sequence diversity related to secondary metabolism by means of batch-learning self-organizing maps (BL-SOMs). Initially, we constructed a map by using a big data matrix consisting of the frequencies of all possible dipeptides in the protein sequence segments of plants and bacteria. The enzyme sequence diversity of the secondary metabolic pathways was examined by identifying clusters of segments associated with certain enzyme groups in the resulting map. The extent of diversity of 15 secondary metabolic enzyme groups is discussed. Data-intensive approaches such as BL-SOM applied to big data matrices are needed for systematizing protein sequences. Handling big data has become an inevitable part of biology.

  16. Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Crisis Line Skip to Main Content SuicidePreventionLifeline.org Get Help Materials Get Involved Crisis Centers About Be There ... Line FAQs Veteran Suicide Welcome to the Veterans Crisis Line Website The Veterans Crisis Line connects Veterans ...

  17. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  18. Analysis of crisis intervention processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nina

    2002-01-01

    The remediation processes in psychosocial crisis intervention were modeled focusing on cognitive orientation. Frequent observations and subsequent process modeling constitute a novel approach to process research and reveal process-outcome associations. A sample of 40 inpatients who were assigned to treatment in a crisis intervention unit was monitored in order to study the process of crisis intervention. The process data consisted of patients' self-ratings of the variables mood, tension, and cognitive orientation, which were assessed three times a day throughout hospitalization (M = 22.6 days). Linear time series models (vector autoregression) of the process data were computed to describe the prototypical dynamic patterns of the sample. Additionally, the outcome of crisis intervention was evaluated by pre-post questionnaires. Linear trends were found pointing to an improvement of mood, a reduction of tension, and an increase of outward cognitive orientation. Time series modeling showed that, on average, outward cognitive orientation preceded improved mood. The time series models partially predicted the treatment effect, notably the outcome domain "reduction of social anxiety," yet did not predict the domain of symptom reduction. In conclusion, crisis intervention should focus on having patients increasingly engage in outward cognitive orientation in order to stabilize mood, reduce anxiety, and activate their resources.

  19. Worldwide spreading of economic crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Garas, Antonios; Rozenblat, Celine; Tomassini, Marco; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between the pair of countries, and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis which originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, like the recent crisis. Surprisingly we show that also countries with much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the {\\it k}-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of ``centrality'' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central countries. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12 only six are large economies, while the other six ar...

  20. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities.

  1. The Deconstruction and Interpretation of Convention on Biological Diversity from The Perspective of Environmental Ethics%环境伦理视域下《生物多样性公约》的解构与阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李擎

    2015-01-01

    作为国际法律框架的基石,伦理道德在国际法领域具有重要的作用。文章从两个方面论述了环境伦理和《生物多样性公约》的关系:一方面是伦理道德中的《生物多样性公约》,在分析道德的涵义和作为中级原则的正义的内涵和类别的基础上,以亚里士多德和罗马法的交换正义理论以及托马斯·阿奎那和约翰·洛克财产权分配正义理论为基础解构了《生物多样性公约》中的环境正义;另一方面是《生物多样性公约》中的伦理道德,从公约具体规范的角度阐释了隐含在其中的环境伦理,尤其是正义观念。%As the foundation of international legal framework, the ethics plays an important role in the field of international law. This article discussed the relationship between environmental ethics and the Convention on Biological Diversity from two aspects: (a) the Convention on Biological Diversity in terms of ethics, on the basis of analyzing the meaning of moral and the connotation and category of justice as the intermediate principles, according to the theory of justice exchange of Aristotle, and the Roman Law , as well as the theory of distributive justice of John Locke and Thomas Aquinas, this article deconstructed the environmental justice in the Convention on Biological Diversity. (b) the ethics in the Convention on Biological Diversity, from the perspective of the conventionˊs specific specifications, the article illustrated the environmental ethics implied in it, especially the concept of justice.

  2. Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (epac) : A Multidomain cAMP Mediator in the Regulation of Diverse Biological Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Dekker, Frank J.; Maarsingh, Harm

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and g

  3. LIQUIDITY RISK MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matis Eugenia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the liquidity risk we have developed an analysis model, based on stress-testing scenarios, that shows the ability of the bank to face different types of liquidity crisis. The scenarios were designed for each balance sheet position for assets and liabilities: Ordinary Course of Business, Name Crisis (Mild Name Crisis and Severe Name Crisis, Market Crisis (Mild Market Crisis and Severe Market Crisis that reflects banking sector crisis and persistent recession. This offers a dynamic image about the banks liquidity in report with different types of liquidity scenarios, but also about the time horizon of analyze. The research also wants to highlight the most significant features to consider in order to implement an effective liquidity risk management and to achieve a more integrated supervisory framework.

  4. How Should Generation Enterprises Deal with Crisis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Changyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Impact of financial crisis gradually spreading With the spread of international financial crisis,the situation of domestic power generation industry is becoming serious.China Datang Corporation suffered an overall loss for the first time in March 2008.

  5. Countermeasures against Crisis by Generation Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zongfa; Zhang Sufang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Negative effects on generation industry by financial crisis The negative impact of financial crisis on generation industry is reflected in the following aspects. First,the decline of the growth of electricity generation had accelerated.

  6. Using Crisis Simulations in Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veil, Shari R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.

  7. Le origini culturali della crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO RONCAGLIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After recalling the financial origin of the crisis and the persistent worldwide fragility of the financial sector, and after citing papers which before 2007 had pointed out the elements of systemic fragility of the US and world economy, the paper illustrates the cultural roots of the crisis, namely the economic views which favoured deregulation policies: the fallacy of the invisible hand of the market and a simplistic view of uncertainty, to which Keynesian uncertainty is opposed, with the consequent underevaluation of the risks of systemic instability.

  8. Enhancing the crisis management briefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel W; Volkmann, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Crisis Management Briefing (CMB) is a powerful and versatile crisis intervention tool, effective within a wide variety of populations, settings, and critical incidents. Initially proposed by Everly (2000), the CMB uniquely fills the factual information void following a critical incident. Additionally, a CMB provides essential information on effective coping strategies and available helping resources, tailored to the specific incident(s). The authors expand on the original CMB construct using their combined field experience, offering recommendations on team composition, strategic planning factors, using CISDs vs. CMBs, and specific enhancements for the four phases. They conclude with examples of specific interventions across a variety of events to illustrate their recommendations.

  9. How far is the crisis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晟

    2012-01-01

      Many readers may be interested on hous-ing price in China. Because it lets thousands of people become millionaires within several years. But the worth to the millionaires must be paid by someone. Which kind of payment should be paid and by who? Recently, Chinese government tries to control the housing price. Which methods are the most effective to control the housing price? If Chinese government could not handle it well, will it have serious fi-nancial crisis in China such like the sub-prime lending crisis in the US 2008. All these ques-tions will be discussed in the essay.

  10. Scorpion sting and hypertensive crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ratti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scorpion stings are very frequent in Centre-South America. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms are: local pain and redness, tachycardia, irritability, hypertensive crisis; but it differs with the scorpion species involved. CLINICAL CASE We describe a scorpion sting in a woman who came back from a holiday in Mexico. Consequently she had a hypertensive crisis treated with furosemide. DISCUSSION The scorpion sting can be very dangerous. There are many species which could be lethal; in these cases, identifying the exact species can be essential to save the patient’s life. The treatment consists of symptomatic measures, support of vital functions and i.v. antivenom.

  11. Trabajo, crisis global y salud

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Esta publicación presenta los principales resultados del 7º. Seminario Internacional Trabajo, Crisis Global y Salud coordinado por el Doctorado Interfacultades en Salud Publica, cuyo debate se centró en las condiciones del trabajo en un mundo globalizado, las consecuencias de la crisis global sobre las condiciones de trabajo y su impacto en la salud de las personas. Se contó con la presencia de líderes regionales en salud del trabajo y seguridad de países como Argentina, Uruguay, Perú, México...

  12. Crisis management in metallurgical enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of report analysis which presents situation in metallurgical sector after 2008 the range of changes implemented in management of metallurgical enterprises was characterised. A definition approach to crisis management was suggested as the process when the enterprise is managed during the breakdown period in market condition of the economy in the way directed towards preventing the negative effects of crisis inside enterprises. The publication presents the key aspects of enterprise management in the period of collapse of the balance between the supply and demand on the metallurgical market.

  13. Explaining quality of life with crisis theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.A.G.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the premises of crisis theory. we expected cancer patients in-crisis to report a poorer quality of life (QL) and cancer patients post-crisis to report a similar level of overall QL in comparison to healthy individuals. To explain these hypothesized findings, we expected the coping resources

  14. Exploring Internal Crisis Communication in Multicultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore managers’ perspectives on and practices of internal crisis communication in multicultural environments. Design/methodology/ approach: After a review of relevant literature on crisis, culture and internal communication to define the framework and relevance of this study, results...... into internal crisis communication in organisations with a multicultural environment....

  15. Crisis Management and Navy Organizational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    crisis management. It also presents critical case studies to illustrate how organizational culture can serve as an impediment to constructive crisis...My research concludes that the key to effective crisis management is an organizational culture which institutionalizes the use of ethical and constructive practices.

  16. Lecciones de las crisis mexicanas para Corea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.; Wengel, J. ter; Chalapati Rao, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Corean crisis in 1997-1998 resembled the Mexican crisis of 1982 more than it did the Mexican crisis of 1995, because it was more associated with international bank debt. It would help if government did not provide implict guarantees on this kind of debt.

  17. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  18. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  19. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources.

  20. 新疆克拉玛依资源开发与生物多样性问题和对策分析%Resource Development and Biological Diversity and Countermeasures in Karamay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷

    2011-01-01

    克拉玛依具有丰富的石油和天然气资源,还具有丰富的动植物资源,包括野生动物、野生植物以及230种中草药。对各种资源的开发利用在位克拉玛依带来巨大的经济效益的同时,也给克拉玛依的生物多样性问题带来了影响。本文结合克拉玛依资源和生物多样性现状,总结和分析了资源开发与生物多样性之间的问题,并提出了相关的对策和建议。%Karamay has rich oil and gas resources, but also has rich flora and fauna, including wild animals, wild plants and 230 kinds of herbs. The development and utilization of various resources to bring tremendous economic benefits Karamay reign, but also to the Karamay had an impact on biological diversity. In this paper, resources and biological diversity conservation in Karamay, summary and analysis of resources between development and biodiversity issues and put forward some countermeasures and suggestions.

  1. A review on bis-hydrazonoyl halides: Recent advances in their synthesis and their diverse synthetic applications leading to bis-heterocycles of biological interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sami Shawali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review covers a summary of the literature data published on the chemistry of bis-hydrazonoyl halides over the last four decades. The biological activities of some of the bis-heterocyclic compounds obtained from these bis-hydrazonoyl halides are also reviewed and discussed.

  2. Food crisis coverage by social and traditional media: A case study of the 2008 Irish dioxin crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran; Regan, Aine; De Brún, Aoife; Barnett, Julie; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Wall, Patrick; McConnon, Aine

    2014-11-01

    The world of communication has changed significantly in the last decade as a result of the evolution of social media. Food crisis managers and communicators should be cognizant of the messages presented to the public by all media channels during a crisis. Using the 2008 Irish dioxin contamination incident as an example, a quantitative content analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between social and traditional media. Messages published in printed newspapers (n = 141), blogs and forums (n = 107), and Twitter (n = 68) were analysed to investigate sourcing practice, story topic and use of tone. Results revealed that traditional media relied on diverse offline sources in reporting a wide range of topics. In comparison, social media responded faster and diminished faster, using offline and online media news messages as the primary sources in reporting very limited topics. No significant difference was found in the presence of negative tone across media.

  3. Trust and Financial Crisis Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob; Jansen, David-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Using eight annual household surveys for the Netherlands between 2006 and 2013, we find that respondents' personal adverse financial crisis experiences do not only reduce their trust in banks, but also have an immediate negative effect on generalized trust. Respondents who were customers of a bank t

  4. A Crisis in Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is a crisis in American civic education. Survey after survey shows that recent college graduates are alarmingly ignorant of America's history and heritage. They cannot identify the term lengths of members of Congress, the substance of the First Amendment, or the origin of the separation of powers. They do not know the Father of the…

  5. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  6. A Third Wave of Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Compared to conditions during the early months of the global financial crisis,today’s world is experiencing new recession-related symptoms-price hikes of agricultural products and other major commodities,and currency appreciations in emerging economies,to name a few.Sun Lijian

  7. Addressing the world water crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  8. Financial crisis and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, B.

    2014-01-01

    Written in the midst of the Global Financial Crisis, the goal of this dissertation is to investigate causes of financial crises in general in order to provide empirical evidence of the driving forces of various crises types. Specifically, this thesis analyses the most common types of financial crise

  9. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  10. 分子生物学方法在土壤真菌多样性研究中的应用%Application of Molecular Biological Techniques in Fungal Diversity of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冀

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are important composition of ecology system.Nowadays it's very important to study the soil fungal diversity and community structure,especially in soil bioremediation by microbiological resources.Modern molecular biology techniques provide effective methods to study the soil fungal diversity.Several techniques were summarized,including RFLP,T-RFLP,DGGE,RAPD and 18S rDNA clone library,while their application to analyze soil fungal diversity were introduced.%真菌是生态系统的重要组成成分,研究土壤中真菌的多样性和群落结构对于开发利用微生物资源、进行土壤生物修复具有重要意义。现代分子生物学的发展为研究土壤真菌提供了行之有效的方法。主要综述了限制性片段长度多态性、末端限制性片段长度多态性、变性梯度凝胶电泳、随机引物扩增多态性DNA、18S rDNA文库构建等技术的原理及在土壤真菌多样性研究中的应用。

  11. Definition of crisis state of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Danich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the critical situation at the enterprise for early diagnosis and prediction the crises; development of methodical approaches to the solution of problems in this sphere taking into account the prediction of financial crisis for enterprises of different branches of the business activity. The results of analysis. The approaches to the definition of crisis have been analyzed in the article. The considered approaches to the definition of the crisis make it possible to formulate the definition of crisis state of an enterprise. In order to identify the crisis state of enterprises it is suggested to use comparative analysis. The evaluation and the analysis of crisis state are performed in five blocks. First phase of analysis of the crisis defines the probability of the expression of the crisis at the enterprise. It includes criteria for evaluation of generalized probability bankruptcy and comprehensive economic analysis of the efficiency of industrial and financial activity. This analysis is supplied by coefficient, rating and factor methods of diagnosis of crisis. In the practice of prediction of crisis at the enterprise it is proposed to use the model of automata theory. At the second stage it is proposed to identify the main causes of the onset of crisis. The causal connections of a crisis are required sources of forming the necessary information to determine the probability of a crisis in the company. The information database to form a forecasting model of crisis was defined. The next stage in the analysis of the crisis is analysis of costs of the crisis. It has been propose for involves the assessment of the loss, determining the amount of liabilities, estimates of expected financial impact of a crisis. Analyze available resources that can be produced to prevent or overcome the crisis. The analysis of crisis is the use of suggested methodological approach that makes it possible to

  12. Application of Molecular Biological Methods in the Study of AM Fungal Diversity%分子生物学技术在AM真菌多样性研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程春泉; 贺学礼; 赵丽丽; 陈伟燕

    2014-01-01

    丛枝菌根(arbuscular mycorrhiza,AM)真菌是一类能与高等植物形成菌根的古老共生真菌,由于AM真菌不能纯培养,因此通过传统形态学方法研究存在局限性和不稳定性。近年来,分子生物学方法已被广泛应用于AM真菌多样性的研究。从研究材料选择、DNA的提取、AM真菌特异性引物、分子生物学方法方面综述了分子生物学技术在AM真菌多样性研究中的一般过程以及重要应用,并展望了应用前景。%Arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)fungi are ancient obligate symbiotic endophytes,which have a rich diversity in the process of plant co-evolutionary.As AM fungi have not been cultured in vitro,there are significant limitations and instability using morphological methods. Recently, molecular biological methods have been widely used in the study of AM fungal diversity and have made remarkable achievements.The authors outline the process and significant use of molecular biological methods in the study of AM fungal diversity,discuss some related problems,and introduce present and future research trends.

  13. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  14. Temporal Diversity and Abundance Patterns of Parasitoids of Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in the Argentinean Yungas: Implications for Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martin; Rull, Juan; Ovruski, Sergio M

    2016-10-01

    A 4-yr study was done to analyze seasonal patterns underlying host plant-fruit fly-parasitoid interactions in a secondary forest in the Argentinean Yunga and its importance for the implementation of conservation and augmentative biological control. Larval-pupal hymenopteran parasitoids associated with all host plants and fruit fly species were identified and the seasonal occurrence of fruit, infestation levels, parasitism percentage, and relative parasitoid abundance were determined. Three fruit fly species in two genera were found in association with surveyed plants, two of which (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)) are of major economic importance. Infestation levels were strongly influenced by environmental factors and peak fruit availability. Five fruit fly parasitoid species were recovered from fly pupae, four braconid species, and one figitid. Time windows for fruit fly population growth were pinpointed. Based on results, the present analysis proposes an effective fruit fly biological control strategy tailored for the northwestern Argentinean citrus-producing area.

  15. Parametric scaling from species relative abundances to absolute abundances in the computation of biological diversity: a first proposal using Shannon's entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional diversity measures such as the Shannon entropy are generally computed from the species' relative abundance vector of a given community to the exclusion of species' absolute abundances. In this paper, I first mention some examples where the total information content associated with a given community may be more adequate than Shannon's average information content for a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next, I propose a parametric measure of statistical information that contains both Shannon's entropy and total information content as special cases of this more general function.

  16. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  17. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  18. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  19. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lina P; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Gongora, Carmenza E

    2006-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana by determining the effect of strain mixtures on coffee berry borer mortality compared to clonal isolates. Genomic DNA from 11 strains was characterized using internal transcribed spacers and beta-tubulin sequences as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Cluster analysis produced three genetic groups and confirmed the low but significant intraspecific genetic diversity present among the strains. Single strain virulence towards the coffee berry borer under laboratory conditions, using 1x10(6) conidia ml(-1), ranged between 89.9 and 57.5%. All the inoculations with mixtures resulted in coinfection events. Combinations of genetically similar strains showed no significant differences when their virulences were compared. However, mixtures of genetically different strains led to both antagonism and synergism. The lowest virulence percentage (57%) was obtained by putting together the most virulent strain of each group, contrary to the highest virulence percentage (93%) that resulted from mixing the three least virulent strains. The results indicate the promising potential of designing strain mixtures as an alternative for the biocontrol of Hypothenemus hampei and other pests and provide tools for the understanding of the ecological dynamics of entomopathogen populations under natural conditions.

  20. The Refugee Crisis as a European Democratic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssoula Kapartziani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The institutional European Union is facing two types of crisis. On the one hand, it needs to manage the current refugee’s influx efficiently and on the other hand it needs to deal with the democratic deficit that emerged by Europe’s incapacity to make the required decisions and gain the justification of its actions from its own people. This article aims firstly to highlight the legal framework (rule of law that governs the asylum and migration procedures as well as the democratic gap that these provisions created in the different member states, as a crystal clear example of how a national competence became supranational. Furthermore, it illustrates the refugee profile, as a human being with acquired human rights through the theories of H. Arendt and the U. Beck. Lastly, the cosmopolitan approach is suggested in order to overcome the refugee crisis but a well-established integration should be the long term goal of Europe.

  1. Crisis Management and Resolution:Lessons from the Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stijn Claessens; Oana Nedelescu; Katharine Seal

    2011-01-01

    @@ The recent crisis was unusual in its speed and breadth and the type of countries affected.Systemic crises, situations of significant stress in the financial sector, followed by significant policy interventions, often affect several countries at the same time.In the past, though, crises have been largely limited to specific regions or types of economies, the Nordic countries in the early 1990s, Latin America in the mid-1990s, Asia in the late 1990s, and the emerging market economies of the early 2000s.The recent crisis has been unusual in its global nature, affecting countries with a speed and virulence not seen since the Great Depression, with major advance countries and countries recently integrating with the European Union (EU) most affected.

  2. [The crisis of medicine or the antimedicine crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, M

    1976-01-01

    In this lecture, Professor Michel Foucault makes an in-depth study of the problems currently afflicting medical institutions and the medical practice. He deals with the thesis set forth by Ivan Illich in his book Medical Nemesis--The expropriation of Health, as well as the 1942 Beveridge Plan, but goes even further back in history to discover the origin of the medical crisis common throughout the world--back to the XVIII century roots of the social practice of medicine. He also describes the phases through which medical activity has passed from then until now and deals with what he calls the political economy of medicine. Finally, he reaches the conclusion that what matters is not so much the present crisis of medicine, which he considers to be a false concept, but the discipline's historical model dating from the XVIII century and serving to determine to what extent it can be modified.

  3. Mississippi River flood of 2008: observations of a large freshwater diversion on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of a shallow estuarine lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J R; Fulweiler, R W; Li, C Y; Bargu, S; Walker, N D; Twilley, R R; Green, S E

    2009-08-01

    High nitrogen (N) loading to coastal aquatic systems can be expressed as increased algal production and subsequent low dissolved oxygen. In April, 2008, predictions for extreme flood stage for the Lower Mississippi River triggered the opening of the Bonnet Carré Spillway, a major release valve for the river. The spillway diverted approximately 8 km3 of water over one month of operation into Lake Pontchartrain with a concomitant 10000 t of NO3-N. Satellite imagery, physical, water quality, and chlorophyll a (chl a) measurements show that the Mississippi River plume mixed with opening of the diversion. The potential removal of a total of 7.6% of the N load from the Mississippi River during the one month of flood level flow may have been a contributing factor in the lower than predicted hypoxia zone off the Louisiana coast during the summer of 2008.

  4. Marxist logic tells origin of current crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2009-01-01

    Since the Great Depression in 1929,economists have continued soul-searching for the lessons to be drawn from the crisis.But mainstream reflections have been misguided,conf ined to stereotypical targets of blame such as "lax regulation," "policy mistakes" and "underestimation of risks." Regretfully,understanding of the root cause of the current sub-prime crisis is as superficial as before.The reasons for both crises seem to be polar opposites:the Great Depression of 1929 was triggered by insufficient effective demand,while the ongoing sub-prime mortgage crisis was triggered by "excess" effective demand.In fact,however,the classic crisis and the modern crisis in the capitalist world essentially originate from the same thing:crisis of overproduction.The shift from classic crisis into modern crisis only kicks the ball from supply side to demand side.Given the intrinsic contradictions of the market economy that give rise to the crisis,the analytical framework of "risk and regulation" proves difficult to help us understand its nature.For this reason,we must turn to a Marxist questioning of the crisis.

  5. Bacterial Diversity Studies Using the 16S rRNA Gene Provide a Powerful Research-Based Curriculum for Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan E. Dutton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a ten-week curriculum for molecular biology that uses 16S ribosomal RNA genes to characterize and compare novel bacteria from hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. The 16S rRNA approach bypasses selective culture-based methods. Our molecular biology course offered the opportunity for students to learn broadly applicable methods while contributing to a long-term research project. Specifically, students isolated and characterized clones that contained novel 16S rRNA inserts using restriction enzyme, DNA sequencing, and computer-based phylogenetic methods. In both classes, students retrieved novel bacterial 16S rRNA genes, several of which were most similar to Green Nonsulfur bacterial isolates. During class, we evaluated student performance and mastery of skills and concepts using quizzes, formal lab notebooks, and a broad project assignment. For this report, we also assessed student performance alongside data quality and discussed the significance, our goal being to improve both research and teaching methods.

  6. Bacterial Diversity Studies Using the 16S rRNA Gene Provide a Powerful Research-Based Curriculum for Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Boomer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a ten-week curriculum for molecular biology that uses 16S ribosomal RNA genes to characterize and compare novel bacteria from hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. The 16S rRNA approach bypasses selective culture-based methods. Our molecular biology course offered the opportunity for students to learn broadly applicable methods while contributing to a long-term research project. Specifically, students isolated and characterized clones that contained novel 16S rRNA inserts using restriction enzyme, DNA sequencing, and computer-based phylogenetic methods. In both classes, students retrieved novel bacterial 16S rRNA genes, several of which were most similar to Green Nonsulfur bacterial isolates. During class, we evaluated student performance and mastery of skills and concepts using quizzes, formal lab notebooks, and a broad project assignment. For this report, we also assessed student performance alongside data quality and discussed the significance, our goal being to improve both research and teaching methods.

  7. FINANCIAL RENT, DEBT AND CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Ahmet UĞUR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises have some common features even if they come into being in different areas and countries with different income level. Especially due to the financial liberalization and entegration of world economies, they affect many countries with a domino effect. Internationalization of capital stregthens particularly financial markets in developed countries and leads to speculative opportunities and possibilities of very high profit rates. Ambition for higher profit, from time to time, gives rise to fictitious structures, eliminating rational market behaviors. Problems of higher indebtedness and current account deficit in large economies such as the US lead to speculative bubles supported by financial derivatives, making nonproductive short term portfolio investments profitable. Before crisis, it is observed that this type of financial structures become common and real estate prices rise. And following crisis it is observed that public finance discipline deteriorate.

  8. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation......The paper explores the linkages between Vietnam and the regional economy before and after the East Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998, indicating that the country is more closely associated with the region than normally assumed. Thus, key indicators, such as falling foreign direct investment...... (including a restructuring of the so-called 'flying geese' pattern) Vietnam's chances of benefitting from closer integration in the world economy will depend on a clearcut industrial and trade policy, rather than on embarking a so-called 'neutral trade regime'. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate...

  9. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  10. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... mediated, then online crises and their meanings are communicatively constructed. The chapter outlines how online conversations constitute discursive practices that make publics aware of critical situations of which they may or may not know and can even construct reputational crises. The chapter concludes...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices occurring...

  11. La crisis Colombiana y Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaias Rojas-Perez.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes Peruvian foreign and security policies regarding the Colombian conflict in the context of the discourses on securitization emerging in the region in the late twentieth century. Specifically, it compares the governments of Fujimori and Toledo to argue that, in spite of their differences in political genealogy (authoritarian and democratic, respectively), both governments have responded to the Colombian crisis in similar ways by following U.S. security discourses regarding...

  12. Systemic crisis and financial regulation

    OpenAIRE

    ULGEN, Faruk

    2010-01-01

    One of the privileged explanations of the current crisis is the sophistication and the weak transparency of financial markets which would have allowed speculative behavior to elude authorities’ supervision. This article develops a different view by putting the emphasis on the model of organization of financial systems. This is established on the predominance of micro-prudential supervision schemes following the hypothesis of free market efficiency. From 1980-90, prudential mechanisms have wor...

  13. Social Entrepreneurship and Capitalist Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Luise Li Langergaard

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the relation between social entrepreneurship and capitalism. In the wake of the crisis erupting in 2008, the political attention to social entrepreneurship has intensified and social entrepreneurship and social innovation has been presented as possible solutions to a number of societal problems. By linking different theoretical trends of social entrepreneurship to Boltanski and Chiapello’s three spirits of capitalism the paper elucidates different variations of social entr...

  14. CRISIS FOCUS: Risks to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A sustained recovery of the global economy at a slow but steady pace should be expected in the first quarter of 2010, according to the quarterly report on global economic and financial outlook compiled by the International Finance Research Institute of the Bank of China. But three risks stand out, the report said, that threaten recovery efforts: the sovereign credit crisis, growing inflation pressures and increasing numbers of small and medium-sized U.S. banks filing for bankruptcy.

  15. Hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Yanhong; Zhao, Liling; Mo, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hyperthyroidism is one of the major clinical causes of hypercalcaemia, however, hyperthyroidism-related hypercalcemic crisis is rare, only 1 case have been reported. The potential mechanisms are still not too clear. It may be related that thyroid hormone stimulate bone turnover, elevate serum calcium, increase urinary and fecal calcium excretion. Patient concerns: A 58-year-old female patient was found to have Graves’ disease, a marked elevated serum calcium level (adjusted serum calcium: 3.74 mmol/L), and reduced parathyroid hormone level. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism-associated hypercalcemic crisis. Interventions: Treatment with methimazole to correct the hyperthyroidism and treatment of the patient's hypercalcaemia was achieved by physiological saline, salmon calcitonin and furosemide. Outcomes: After treatment for hypercalcaemia and hyperthyroidism, her symptoms and serum calcium levels quickly returned to normal. Lessons: hyperthyroid-associated hypercalcaemia crisis is rare, however, the diagnosis should pay attention to screening for other diseases caused by hypercalcemia. Timely treatment of hypercalcaemia is a critical step for rapidly control of symptoms, and treatment of hyperthyroidism is beneficial to relief the symptoms and maintain the blood calcium level. PMID:28121960

  16. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-08

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin.

  17. THE CRISIS FROM THE EUROZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Trandafir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The implosion of the European financial system? The global financial crisis – which still fumes – completed by a series of adjectives: economic, moral, social, political, has shaken the intelectual and political elite causing strong debates and the analysis of the causes, effects and, especially, the solutions of this true ”cyclone”. Some preached even the end of the world for the beginning of another world! It is unanimous the idea according to which the fool monetary system of the world must be deeply re-formed/restructured, not only tamed. For the European Union, the critical problems appeared on the ground of national debt crisis. The countries burdened by national debts – Greece, Spain, Portugal etc – can break down in a conflict - caused by the dilemma who will pay: tax payers, bankers, public sector’s employees, investors! There is the major risk of breaking out a monetary and commercial ”war” as soon as governments face the population rage as consequence of the decrease of incomes and increase of unemployment. Eurozone and European Union are in danger. Profound crisis, institutional block and the lack of efficient solutions will become chronic, and the lack of trust of people in politicians and in the European project will increase.

  18. Effects of wood ash on the biologic diversity of the soil fauna. Final report; Effekter av vedaska paa biologisk maangfald hos markfaunan. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tryggve; Ahlstroem, Kerstin; Lindberg, Niklas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2005-06-01

    The aim was to assess long-term effects of wood-ash and lime application on the soil fauna diversity. The study was made at three sites, Oeringe and Torup in the county of Halland and Asa in the county of Smaaland, 20, 14 and 10 years after treatment, respectively. The soil fauna groups reported here are Enchytraeidae, Tardigrada and Oribatida. Different kinds of wood ash results in very different effects on soil pH despite similar dose. Non-hardened fresh ash increased pH as indicated by the liming potential (ca. 2 tonnes of CaCO{sub 3} correspond to 2,4 tonnes of loose ash). Hardened wood ash (at Asa) had a smaller effect on pH than corresponding amount of lime, and ca. 6 tonnes of ash/ha were needed to obtain the same effects as 3 tonnes of lime. Granulated wood ash (at Torup) had an even smaller effect on pH than the hardened ash at Asa. A preliminary estimate is that 6 tonnes/ha granulated ash correspond to 3 tonnes/ha of hardened ash, 1.5 tonnes/ha of non-hardened loose ash and 1 tonne/ha of CaCO{sub 3}. The results with regard to soil fauna show that individual numbers, species numbers and single species of Enchytraeidae and Oribatid mites are strongly dependent on the ash/lime effect on pH in the topsoil layer. Lime and ash appear to have similar effect on these animal groups provided that the pH effect is similar. Therefore, it is possible to extrapolate conclusions from liming trials to ash trials, provided that the pH effect is known. The Tardigrades did not seem to react on the treatments. We conclude that the effect of wood ash on the diversity of soil fauna investigated depends on the solubility of the wood ash and its effect on soil pH. Depending on the effect on pH, ash application results in (a) decreasing densities but increasing species numbers of enchytraeids, (b) decreasing densities but no change in species numbers of oribatid mites and (c) a strong change in the community structure of both enchytraeids and oribatid mites.

  19. Plant population processes in the course of forest succession in abandoned meadows. I. Variability and diversity of floristic compositions, and biological mechanisms of species turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Falińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within Białowieża Forest the studies on the rate and nature of changes in meadow vegetation on the sites no longer mown were conducted for 15 years (1974-1988. The successional processes were analysed at various organizational levels by applying hierarchi­cal system of study areas, varying in size (Figs. 1, 2. Changes in plant landscape were studied on 15 ha, those in phytocoenoses - 4 × 1 ha, populations - 24 × 200 ml, and those in the individual development - 6 × 25 m2. Forest re-colonized abandoned meadows at a various rate through: a gradual transformation of meadow phytocoenoses into tall­herb, and later brushwood communities, which went on for c. 15 years; b formation of the mosaic of monospecific aggregations of a few, among 124, components of meadow communities, such aggregations persisted for 5-15 years; c the development of tree biogroups (forest outpost directly in the meadow sod. This diversity resulted from the habitat heterogeneity (microrelief, water level and variety of colonization strategies among the species present prior to the succession. They vary in their role in the successional process and can: I stimulate the changes in the structure of meadow phytocoenoses and lead to the formation of new communities (promotors, 2 limit species turnover due to their long-lived aggregations (inhibitors, 3 play no crucial role in the vegetation transformation (indifferents.

  20. Incorporation of post-translational modified amino acids as an approach to increase both chemical and biological diversity of conotoxins and conopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiritu, Michael J; Cabalteja, Chino C; Sugai, Christopher K; Bingham, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive peptides from Conus venom contain a natural abundance of post-translational modifications that affect their chemical diversity, structural stability, and neuroactive properties. These modifications have continually presented hurdles in their identification and characterization. Early endeavors in their analysis relied on classical biochemical techniques that have led to the progressive development and use of novel proteomic-based approaches. The critical importance of these post-translationally modified amino acids and their specific assignment cannot be understated, having impact on their folding, pharmacological selectivity, and potency. Such modifications at an amino acid level may also provide additional insight into the advancement of conopeptide drugs in the quest for precise pharmacological targeting. To achieve this end, a concerted effort between the classical and novel approaches is needed to completely elucidate the role of post-translational modifications in conopeptide structure and dynamics. This paper provides a reflection in the advancements observed in dealing with numerous and multiple post-translationally modified amino acids within conotoxins and conopeptides and provides a summary of the current techniques used in their identification.

  1. Mobilization of the south against food crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Delcourt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available “Creemos que a esta crisis alimentaria hay que darle un nombre más exacto. Todavía no damos con ese nombre. Pero no es una crisis de alimentos,es una crisis de valores en las empresas transnacionales, en los gobiernos y en la cooperación internacional”, Sinforiano Cáceres, presidente de la Federación nacional de cooperativas, Nicaragua (Envío, 2008.

  2. Resolving the International Monetary Fund's Legitimacy Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Since the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998 the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) has been embroiled in an international crisis of legitimacy. Assertions of a crisis are premised on the notions that the Fund's voting system is unfair, and that the Fund enforces homogenous policies onto...... borrowing member states and that loan programs tend to fail. Seen this way, poor institutional and policy design has led to a loss of legitimacy. But institutionalised inequalities or policy failure is not in itself sufficient to constitute an international crisis of legitimacy. This article provides...

  3. Why Jimmy Isn't Failing: The Myth of the Boy Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okopny, Cara

    2008-01-01

    A recent flurry of reporting in mainstream media argues that boys are drowning in a female-centered U.S. education system. According to proponents of the boy crisis argument, boys are just biologically and developmentally different from girls, and it is educators' responsibility to teach to this perceived difference. The U.S. education system,…

  4. [Midlife crisis: crisis in the middle of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, K

    1991-12-17

    Since ancient times man tried to understand the roots of his obviously often irrational behaviour. According to the prevailing "Zeitgeist", hypotheses for it ranged from demonical possession, psychological schools of thought to the role of transmitter substances at the synaptic level. For ages it has been observed and described, that men goes in his development through typical and predictable phases with their typical crises. Poets knew and wrote about it since the dawn of culture but science got interested in it only in this century. Elliot coined the term "midlife crisis" in 1965, turning attention to an age-group which was before practically ignored by psychology. He pointed out that due to a collision between developmental factors and a static identity a crisis occurred in human beings, characterized by a feeling of despair, goallessness, fatigue and consciousness of significant basic anxiety. In response to such pressures a change of comportment takes place which puzzles the people closest to the stricken. Established patterns of behaviour seem to dissipate in favour of unusual, unexpected, adolescent or even crazy actions. Many examples from history, ranging from Dante to Gauguin seem to prove the point. Realizing the presence of the crisis and its origin and interpreting it as a call for change, reorientation and new definition of priorities present a great chance to adjust one's life at this important turn. It is of great importance to recognize, that changes must take place in one's inner values and that trying to escape into frenzied activities leads nowhere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Why there is no crisis of the "spin crisis"

    CERN Document Server

    Bradamante, F

    2016-01-01

    In a recent eprint [1] it is argued that the experimental determinations of the spin-dependent structure function g1 have been done incorrectly and that a reanalysis of those data suggests that the original motivation to argue fora "spin crisis", namely the small contribution of quark spins to the nucleon spin, is invalid. In a subsequent note [2] the theoretical understanding, as it has evolved from almost 30 years of theoretical and experimental scrutiny, has been shortly summarised. In this short note, arguments are presented that the line of reasoning in Ref. [1] does not apply, at least not for the Compass data.

  6. From the Crisis of Corporatism to the Crisis of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    the cause and as a reaction to the protracted series of crises characterizing (Western) Europe and the rest of the Western world from the 1970s to the recent financial crisis. On this background, this paper examines the close link between societal crises and the evolution of intermediary institutions...... of society. This gives them a strategic location in society insofar as they can be understood as central sites of societal integration. But this location also implies that they are sites where tendencies of de-differentiation between societal processes of e.g. an economic, political, religious and scientific...

  7. Supervision Experiences of Professional Counselors Providing Crisis Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Madeleine; Echterling, Lennis G.; Meixner, Cara; Anderson, Robin; Kielty, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors explored supervision experiences of 13 licensed professional counselors in situations requiring crisis counseling. Five themes concerning crisis and supervision were identified from individual interviews. Findings support intensive, immediate crisis supervision and postlicensure clinical supervision.

  8. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  9. Application of Biolog to Study of Environmental Microbial Function Diversity%Biolog法在环境微生物功能多样性研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雅楠; 王红旗

    2011-01-01

    微生物是生态系统的重要组成部分,它不仅要受到外界环境的影响,其自身的结构和功能变化也会对环境产生持续的作用,而这种作用主要是通过群落代谢功能差异来实现的,因此研究微生物群落功能多样性更能够揭示微生物与环境间相互作用的内在机制.Biolog法是目前已知的研究微生物代谢功能多样性的很有力的方法.为了使该项技术在更大范围上得以推广,使其为环境微生物群落功能多样性分析更好的服务,为环境工作者进一步剖析环境与微生物间相关关系提供方法,该文从Biolog法应用原理、数据处理、在环境微生物群落功能多样性中的应用及存在的问题几方面对其进行了详细阐述.通过对应用现状的探讨本文得出应引起今后重视的研究方向,主要包括:探讨不同的数据处理方法以寻求更为适宜的数据处理方法、注重方法改进以期早日形成规范的操作流程、注重新领域应用的探索、针对特殊情况形成专用研究微平板等方面.%Microorganism as an important part of the ecosystem is affected by the external environment and its structure and function will have a continuing effect on environment which is mainly achieved by difference among microbial communities,thus the study on microbial communities function diversity can reveal the interaction between microbiology and environment. The method of Biolog is known as one of the most useful analysis of biology function diversity at present. In order to facilitate the technology to a wider extent, to make it serve for analysis of the functional diversity of environmental microbial communities and to provide a method for analysis of the relationship between environment and microorganism, the principle of the Biolog application, data processing, application in functional diversity of environmental microbial community were discussed. The research directions were also proposed

  10. Diversidad de Agaricomycetes clavarioides en la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México Diversity of clavarioid Agaricomycetes at the Chamela Biological Station, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Ramírez-López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio es una contribución al conocimiento de la diversidad y estructura de los Agaricomycetes clavarioides que se desarrollan en los bosques tropicales de la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México. Las recolecciones se realizaron durante la temporada de lluvias de los años 2005 a 2008; se registraron datos de hábitat y morfología de los basidiomas, tipo de vegetación y sustrato donde se desarrollan, así como del patrón de crecimiento, área de distribución, abundancia y orientación e inclinación de las laderas donde se localizaron. Los 86 ejemplares registrados corresponden a 17 especies, de las cuales Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata y Scytinopogon scaber son nuevos registros para México. Scytinopogon pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 y Thelephora sp. fueron las más abundantes y 6 especies se registraron sólo 1 vez. Los datos obtenidos indican que la frecuencia con la que se hallan los basidiomas de los clavarioides en los distintos hábitats no es aleatoria, sino que su producción se da preferentemente en las laderas sur con inclinación de 21° a 30° y en el bosque tropical subperennifolio.This study is a contribution to the biodiversity and community structure of clavarioid Agaricomycetes in the tropical forests of the Chamela Biological Station, in Jalisco, Mexico. The collections were made during the rainy seasons from 2005 to 2008 during which we recorded the morphological and ecological information, including basidiocarp morphology and patterns of growth. Likewise, records were also taken for habitat preferences, types of substrate, orientation, slope inclination, range of distribution and abundance. The 86 specimens recorded, corresponded to 17 different species, from which Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata and Scytinopogon scaber are new records for Mexico. The species S. pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 and Thelephora sp. were the most abundant, while other 6 species

  11. Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise; Villeseche, Florence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the identity and diversity literatures and discuss how a better understanding of the theoretical connections between the two informs both diversity research and diversity management practices. Design/methodology/approach – Literature...... review followed by a discussion of the theoretical and practical consequences of connecting the identity and diversity literatures. Findings – The authors inform future research in three ways. First, by showing how definitions of identity influence diversity theorizing in specific ways. Second......, the authors explore how such definitions entail distinct foci regarding how diversity should be analyzed and interventions actioned. Third, the authors discuss how theoretical coherence between definitions of identity and diversity perspectives – as well as knowledge about a perspective’s advantages...

  12. Transnational Solidarity Networks and the Transformations of a Crisis : the Balkan Crisis of 1875-1878

    OpenAIRE

    Egner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    If we look at the Greek budget crisis today, we can see how an economic crisis changed into a political one for the whole EU. This is just a brief example how crises and especially their public perception transform themselves in various ways. The Balkan Crisis of 1875-1878 is an exceptional example for the variability of crises. It shows how the change of people’s perception of a crisis can modify expressions of solidarity, which in turn transforms the phenomenon of crisis itself. published

  13. [Financial crisis and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2010-01-01

    Most studies investigating the effects of the economic crisis on the quality of life indicate a correlation between unemployment or other economic indexes and the general levels of death rates, depression, and suicide tendencies. The most common effects of an economic crisis are unemployment, spending power cuts, general insecurity and public spending retrenchment, including health related budget cuts. Under conditions of economic crisis, the poor represent a high risk group since they are the first ones to be put at risk. At the same time, due to their pre-existing functionality reduction, individuals already experiencing psychiatric diseases also represent a high risk group, thus creating a vice circle where poverty nurtures psychiatric disorders and vice-versa. For every country in the midst of a recession, protecting high risk target groups is the first priority. In these cases, research showcases that social security networks' reinforcement represents the first strategic priority. Other factors, for instance personality features related to increased vulnerability to psychosocial threat -such as low tolerance to frustration or low self esteem- also play an important role. At the organizational level, one has to research practices and policies that employers use to respond to changing conditions. An economic recession is a chance to revamp essential services toward weaker populations that need to be protected. This translates into a buttressing of the social welfare system while promoting timely interventions. Amongst others, the registration of high risk population groups, the rehabilitation and social inclusion of unemployed individuals and individuals with psychiatric problems, the training of first responders and primary care physicians, the tracing and curing of depression and other usual disorders, as well as an improved access to the psychiatric-health provision system.

  14. El Raval en crisis, la crisis del Raval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Martinez-Rigol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hablar sobre la crisis del Raval es hacer referencia al hecho que, desde como mínimo la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, éste ha sido un barrio asociado constantemente a la crisis. Esta asociación ha significado la construcción, a través de diversos medios de comunicación o de textos, de una imagen y un discurso que han sobreexpuesto unas partes de la realidad del barrio, mientras que otras han sido escondidas, subexpuestas o ignoradas. Además, esta sobreexposición ha coincidido normalmente con la creación de una necesidad de intervención, sobre todo urbanística. Pero el proyecto urbano, basado en la intervención arquitectónica, intervención sobre la piedra, no ha cambiado las dinámicas sociales. Este ha sido, también, el gran fracaso en el Raval.

  15. ¿Crisis internacional o crisis del capitalismo?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hawkins.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present global recession that sprung out of the US banking and Real Estate sectors in 2007 has its roots in the massive State and financial upheavals implemented in the face of the 1970s crisis of over accumulation. These transformations had as their objective the reneging of the Keynesian, tripartite model of regulation and its association with the ‘Welfare State’. As such, the post-1970 neo-liberal financial order can be best seen as a ‘class project’ to reassert the dominance of grand capital, especially financial capital, both in the political and economic fields. Examining the intricate links between the present crisis and the structural governance changes enacted over the past 30 years, principally in the United States, the fallacies of ultra-growth and the speculative model become obvious as do their class dimensions and impact. However, despite the seeming ideological death of neo-liberalism, on close inspection, the policies so far enacted by the Obama administration make no concerted move out of the past era of financial sector hegemony.

  16. La crisis del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez; Clemencia Camacho Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a...

  17. Welcome to the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author provides an overview of several articles on the impact of the energy crisis which examine key ideas, emerging theories, findings, and methodologies that are guiding current social research. The articles deal with energy policy and how energy conservation fits into national policy, the social psychological context for energy conservation research on behavior and attitudes, and how to facilitate the adoption of conservation measures that increase the efficiency of energy use. The papers review psychological theory on the adoption of innovations, and offer modifications and extensions that tailor it to fit the adoption of energy-conserving innovations. 7 references.

  18. [Hypertensive crisis: pathogenesis, clinic, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertkin, A L; Topolianskiĭ, A V; Abdullaeva, A U; Alekseev, M A; Shakhmanaev, Kh A

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary data on mechanisms of development, types, and clinical picture of hypertensive crisis (HC) are presented. Algorithms of rational therapy of uncomplicated and complicated HC are considered. Appropriateness of the use in HC of antihypertensive drugs with multifactorial action is stressed. These drugs include urapidil - an antihypertensive agent with complex mechanism of action. Blocking mainly the postsynaptic 1-adrenoreceptors urapidil attenuates vasoconstrictor effect of catecholamines and decreases total peripheral resistance. Stimulation of 5HT1-receptors of medullary vasculomotor center promotes lowering of elevated vascular tone and prevents development of reflex tachycardia.

  19. [Hypertensive crisis in kidney patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Jacopo; Giuliani, Anna; Pettorini, Laura; Punzo, Giorgio; Mene', Paolo; Pirozzi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The classification and management of hypertensive crisis have been recently reviewed in the context of both European and American guidelines. The key points for proper blood pressure control in severe arterial hypertension are: 1 - Distinction between urgent intervention and emergencies 2 - Choice of the best drug(s) 3 - Choice of the correct route of administration. In patients with renal disease, beside the common causes of hypertension/ hypertensive crises, kidney-specific causes should be taken into account such as renal parenchymal hypertension, renovascular hypertension, sclerodermic crises, and preeclampsia.

  20. CRISIS FOCUS The First Attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. dollar’s status as a reserve currency sowed the seeds for the present worldwide financial crisis.Zhou Xiaochuan,Governor of the People’s Bank of China,issued a challenge to America’s dominance of the global economy last month when he pro-posed that a super-sovereign international currency replace the dollar.Xu Xiaonian,Professor of Economics and Finance at the China Europe International Business School,discussed this proposal in a recent article in Caijing magazine.Edited excerpts follow:

  1. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...

  2. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance....... Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  3. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José M; Plaza, César; Polo, Alfredo; Plante, Alain F

    2012-01-01

    matter, showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Results obtained support the hypothesis of a potential link between the thermal and biological stability of the studied organic materials, and consequently the ability of thermal analysis to characterize the maturity of municipal organic wastes and composts.

  4. Discursive Strategies for Crisis Management:A Case Study of the John-son & Johnson TYLENOL® Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-ran

    2016-01-01

    Being able to respond effectively in the event a crisis is relevant to an organization’s survival. Whether or not an orga-nization is prepared for a potential crisis depends upon communications. Corporations with established crisis management com-munication strategies are able to communicate and respond promptly at the advent of a crisis. This paper focuses on how to han-dle management crisis effectively from discursive perspective via a case study of the Johnson and Johnson TYLENOL® crisis.

  5. Talking about a Crisis - Italian Bloggers' Perceptions of Alitalia's Crisis Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania

    In this study we intend to examine the way in which bloggers and blog readers framed a company performance during a crisis, but looking at the most discussed crisis's themes, at the sources of their statements and at their evaluations. To facilitate that, we focused on a specific crisis case, the......, the Alitalia's one, as this case shows some specificities that have influenced the contents of the communicative discourses among bloggers and blog readers on the organization's response to its crisis.......In this study we intend to examine the way in which bloggers and blog readers framed a company performance during a crisis, but looking at the most discussed crisis's themes, at the sources of their statements and at their evaluations. To facilitate that, we focused on a specific crisis case...

  6. [Application of genetic diversity in the researches on rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Yang, Chun-Wen; Xu, Yan-Chun; Jin, Zhi-Min; Ma, Jian-Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Genetic diversity is the base of the species diversity and ecosystem diversity, and also the foundation for biological evolution and species differentiation. Furthermore, genetic diversity is important evidence for evaluation of biological resources of nature. The genetic diversity data from a wide variety of rodents have many complex applications. We summarized the application of rodent prevention, the origin and differentiation including evolutionary history of rodents, the potential adaptation of rodents, the dynamics of population and regulatory mechanisms, and the conservation biology of rodents. Researches in the future should focus on the systematic study on the relationships between population dynamics and genetic diversity, and long-term monitoring of genetic diversity of rodents.

  7. Crisis Communications in a Digital World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being…

  8. Financial Management during Crisis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Financial Management During Crisis KidsHealth > For Parents > Financial Management During Crisis Print A A A What's in ... certified financial counselors who help families examine their financial ... in their formal debt management program, in which case you would send one ...

  9. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  10. Crisis Management's New Role in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    From natural disasters to the financial debacle, it is clear to the educational community that crises know no boundaries. Far from a passing fad, crisis planning must be an integrated part of effective school district leadership. Two studies explore the status of crisis management in selected public school systems and offer recommendations for…

  11. Crisis,Predicament after"High Fever"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2009-01-01

    @@ Undoubtedly,2009 is still shrouded in the woeful atmosphere of the 2008 crisis,unable to extricate itself from the predicament.This year has witnessed the world economy seeking the "bosom"journey in full swing.But after sweeping all the enthusiasm of the shipping industry,this split-year crisis has started to spread throughout the whole industrial chain.

  12. CRISIS DE LA CONTABILIDAD :CONTEXTOS Y DIMENSIONES

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Rivera, Marco Antonio

    2010-01-01

    En un contexto de crisis del mundo actual en sus diversas expresiones (mundo social,economico, de la educacion,las organizaciones,profesionales y disciplinas),la contabilidad tambien presenta un diagnostico de crisis en sus diversas dimensiones  ( externa e interna).

  13. Creating Your School's Crisis Management Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Bruce T.

    2001-01-01

    Schools can reduce their vulnerability to violence and other hazards by analyzing foreseeable risks, assembling a broad-based crisis-management team (CMT), providing adequate staff training, and developing a crisis manual. Common response problems concerning decision-making authority, communication, and performance expectations for CMTs are…

  14. Network centric operations in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, J. van de; Rijk, R. van; Essens, P.; Frinking, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the approach to implement network centric operations (NCO) in the Dutch crisis management domain. NCO resolves a number of important shortcomings related to the supply and flow of information experienced in current verbal communication-based crisis management. First, we provide

  15. Topological scaling and gap filling at crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, K. Gabor [Department of Mathematics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, Budapest, H-1518, (Hungary); Lai, Ying-Cheng [Department of Mathematics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tel, Tamas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, Budapest, H-1518, (Hungary); Grebogi, Celso [Institute for Plasma Research, Department of Mathematics, and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Scaling laws associated with an interior crisis of chaotic dynamical systems are studied. We argue that open gaps of the chaotic set become densely filled at the crisis due to the sudden appearance of unstable periodic orbits with extremely long periods. We formulate a scaling theory for the associated growth of the topological entropy. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. Electronic Gaming and the Obesity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…

  17. The European Crisis Management: An Organizational Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kaplánová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The debate of scholars in the field of international relations in last years has put the European Union’s role into the consideration. The European Foreign and Security Policy has positioned itself through its development to the constructive and normative line of research of world politics. With this respect, this article examines a character of crisis management of the European Common Foreign Policy based on the institutional development. Besides the European Union does not possess a unified foreign and security policy, regardless one army and single institutional mechanism, the recent crisis management actions have shaped the policies into a comprehensive nature. The paper overviews briefly the history of Common Foreign and Security Policy as well as Common Security and Defence Policy and focuses on crisis management of civilian and military missions. The author claims that the development has a significant impact on a character of crisis management analyzed from the institutional and financial capacities of the European Security and Defence Policy. Consequently, the character of crisis management performs complex mechanisms of responsive, political/administrative, legal, economic and human help to crisis-affected territories in the world. Respectfully, the character of crisis management has thus more pre-crisis nature of a resilience.

  18. Eastern's Employee Communication Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha

    1988-01-01

    Explores communication behaviors and reactions of employees during crisis periods, using a qualitative case study of Eastern Airlines pilots. Finds that useful theories for crisis communication can be developed only after sufficient inquiry into the communication needs and behaviors of message receivers. (MS)

  19. Somos parte de la crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeniería e Investigación Revista

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Muchos años estuvimos resistiéndonos a aceptar la difícil situación que en todos los órdenes vivía el país. Finalmente, y como consecuencia de intereses ajenos a los que realmente debían guiarnos, estalló o quizá sea mejor decir, se agudizo la crisis del sistema. El tema no es nuevo, y recabar sobre el mismo, no pasaría, en el mejor de los casos, de ser un simple mea-culpa que dudamos aporte luces a la solución del problema. Sin embargo, pretender cerrar los ojos frente a la crisis, también resulta imposible, y mas aun, cuando la consecuencia directa de ella se refleja en la perdida, cada vez mayor, de confianza de la ciudadanía en todos los estamentos de la nación, pero fundamentalmente porque institucionalmente somos parte de ella.

  20. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  1. Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of diversity management which, in the context of organizations, consists in the strategic process of harnessing the potential of all employees to create an inclusive environment and, at the same time, contribute to meeting organizational goals. The entry first...... describes the complex construct of diversity that has been variously conceptualized in the literature, embracing multiple social and informational diversity dimensions such as gender, age, culture, values, and workstyle. This is followed by illustration of the historical development of diversity-management...... discourse and practice, and possible overarching approaches guiding organizations. It goes on to elucidate elements linked to the implementation of diversity management: positive and negative outcomes, most spread practices including communication, and contingency factors shaping the understanding...

  2. The socio-economic drivers of bushmeat consumption during the West African Ebola crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelovic, Mimi; Boesch, Lukas; Gatiso, Tsegaye; Grimes, Trokon; Kuehl, Hjalmar S.; Lormie, Menladi; Stephens, Colleen; Tweh, Clement; Junker, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Bushmeat represents an important source of animal protein for humans in tropical Africa. Unsustainable bushmeat hunting is a major threat to wildlife and its consumption is associated with an increased risk of acquiring zoonotic diseases, such as Ebola virus disease (EVD). During the recent EVD outbreak in West Africa, it is likely that human dietary behavior and local attitudes toward bushmeat consumption changed in response to the crisis, and that the rate of change depended on prevailing socio-economic conditions, including wealth and education. In this study, we therefore investigated the effects of income, education, and literacy on changes in bushmeat consumption during the crisis, as well as complementary changes in daily meal frequency, food diversity and bushmeat preference. More specifically, we tested whether wealthier households with more educated household heads decreased their consumption of bushmeat during the EVD crisis, and whether their daily meal frequency and food diversity remained constant. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models to analyze interview data from two nationwide household surveys across Liberia. We found an overall decrease in bushmeat consumption during the crisis across all income levels. However, the rate of bushmeat consumption in high-income households decreased less than in low-income households. Daily meal frequency decreased during the crisis, and the diversity of food items and preferences for bushmeat species remained constant. Our multidisciplinary approach to study the impact of EVD can be applied to assess how other disasters affect social-ecological systems and improve our understanding and the management of future crises. PMID:28282378

  3. 基于Biolog-ECO技术不同退耕年限苜蓿地土壤微生物功能多样性分析%Analysis on Functional Diversity of Edaphon Communities in Medicago sativa Fields of Different Growth Years Based on Biolog-ECO Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董立国; 蒋齐; 蔡进军; 张源润; 许浩; 李生宝

    2011-01-01

    运用Biolog-ECO技术,分析半干旱黄土丘陵区不同生长年限紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)地和坡耕地土壤微生物功能多样性。结果表明:①在0~15 cm土层,平均吸光值总体变化趋势为生长旺盛苜蓿地显著优于极度退化苜蓿地、退化苜蓿地和坡耕地,坡耕地最差;在15~30 cm土层,平均吸光值总体变化趋势为极度退化苜蓿地平均吸光值最大,即活性最强,退化苜蓿地最低。②0~15 cm土壤微生物Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou均匀度指数、Simpson指数、丰富度指数总体趋势,苜蓿地高于坡耕地%In this paper,the Biolog-ECO plates(Biolog,USA) were used to study the functional diversity of edaphon communities in Medicago sativa fields of different growth years in a semiarid loess hilly region.The results are as follows:(1) In the 0-15 cm soil layer,the average absorbance value in vigorous Medicago sativa fields was significantly higher than that in the severely degenerated Medicago sativa fields,degenerated Medicago sativa fields and slope farmland,especially the slope farmland;in the 15-30 cm soil layer,the average absorbance value of severely degenerated Medicago sativa fields was the highest,and it was the lowest in degenerated Medicago sativa fields;(2) In the 0-15 cm soil layer,the Shannon-Wiener index,Pielou index,Simpson index and richness index of Medicago sativa fields were holistically higher than those of slope farmland.In the 15-30 cm soil layer,the diversity index of edaphon of slope farmland was similar to that of severely degenerated Medicago sativa fields but higher than that of degenerated Medicago sativa fields and vigorous Medicago sativa fields,and that of degenerate Medicago sativa fields was the lowest;(3) Principal component analysis(PCA) of functional diversity of edaphon reveals that the functional diversity of edaphon in soil layers of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm of slope farmland was similar to that of degenerated

  4. CRISIS AWARENESS OF THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICT RESIDENTS: IMPLICATION FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Tej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This main aim of the study is to examine the crisis (emergency awareness of the population (forming an integral part of overall crisis preparedness and its role in crisis management. Frequency and impact of emergencies and disasters in recent years induce the need for effective crisis management. Although it is impossible to prevent disasters from happening, it is possible to have control over prevention and local actors' preparedness.Methodology/Approach: Primary data collection was carried out on the basis of a questionnaire survey which monitors the overall crisis awareness among the population of Kosice district, specifically awareness of concepts related to crisis management and actions within collective protection of the population. For the analysis have been chosen three areas related to crisis management processes in terms of collective protection at the discretion of local self-governments, namely evacuation, hygiene, and communication.Findings: The results showed relatively good but still not sufficient level of population awareness about concepts related to crisis management and public (civil protection activities. In response to the survey results are conceived proposals and recommendations.Research Limitation/implication: In Slovakia, the issue of crisis management is most elaborated in the business area, the area of public administration lags behind. Examination of crisis (emergency preparedness is not the current practice in our country.Originality/Value of paper: The originality and value of the study lies in the fact that it conceptually develops a theoretical framework for monitoring and assessment of residents' crisis awareness and evaluating effectiveness of crisis communication within self-government. The study represents one of the rare attempts to find out how residents of large cities (with increased population density currently perceive the necessity of knowledge in the field of crisis management.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF 2008 GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS ON BORROWING RATES OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES: PRE-CRISIS AND CRISIS COMPARISON

    OpenAIRE

    Dömbekci, Berna

    2014-01-01

    The global economic crisis of 2008 has affected more or less every country. Governments have to take special precautions to ease the severe effects of the crisis in their financial and real sectors. The interest rate is an important indicator of economic stability and should be maintained at a level where the economic agents do not decide to postpone their growth plans. For this reason, this article will focus on the effects of the 2008 global economic crisis on the borrowing rates of Turkish...

  6. Everyday Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Journal has been an important forum for discussing issues around cultural diversity. Articles on cultural diversity have been present in virtually every issue of the journal. These have ranged from conceptual pieces on cosmopolitanism, identity, dialogue, prejudice, pluralism, cultural and social capital and social inclusion, to articles embedded in empirical research on ethnic precincts and segregation in cities, experiences of religious minorities, immigrant entrepreneurs, and more. Over its five year history, the journal has also had themed editions on cultural diversity issues, including one on embracing diversity in sport, and another on the Chinese in Australian politics. The scope of this work has been wide, and authors have brought a range of disciplinary and methodological approaches to the journal.   The purpose of this paper is to draw together some of the work that has been published around cultural diversity, particularly relating to everyday experiences of cosmopolitanism and racism. Focusing on everyday social relations has been an important part of recent scholarship on cultural diversity in Australia (e.g. Wise and Velayutham 2009. In contrast to research framed around multicultural policy or mediated representations of diversity, the scholarship of the ‘everyday’ aims to explore people’s lived experiences and daily interactions with others.

  7. ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN THE EUROPEAN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Mihuţ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European economy still faces today, one of the worst economic and financial crisis since the Second World War. Economic and financial crisis has spread worldwide with maximum speed, the economies of all Member States of the European Union encountering serious difficulties, both in the banking system and real economy. Romanian economic crisis started in 2008 and the uncertain deadline, is a matter of concern for many people. It is true that today we are witnessing the worst crisis in 80 years. We have an official explanation of the crisis, provided by public institutions, that the problem stems from inappropriate behavior of economic agents: selfishness, greed, speculation and market unable to function smoothly, ensuring proper allocation of resources: information asymmetry, liquidity trap , deflation, etc.On the other hand, most researchers, members of the academic, and private sector analysts argue that state intervention just planted seeds of financial turmoil that cross the present. The recipe prescribed by the authorities can result in mitigation of economic difficulties but, in contrary to their aggravation. The economic crisis is the result of several factors, which mainly include monetary policy errors, distorted economic incentives and pathology of the banking and financial regulatory policy.This paper is to highlight what triggered today's crisis in the Romanian economy, hoping to find a remedy to the problems of the economic, social and political that we face.

  8. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a…

  9. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  10. FISCAL POLICY AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim GASHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to analyze the fiscal policy and to suggest fiscal policy measures as very crucial instrument to market economy during the global financial crisis. Decision makers of monetary and financial policy in Kosovo currently are not under taking significant measures to promote growth and development. Public spending is excessive; the public debt is constantly growing, current account deficit also. In addition unemployment is high, capital investments in public and private sectors are insufficient, as well as investments in science and education. Market infrastructure in Kosovo is not functional and market laws are not enforced. The central government in Kosovo is facing trade of between market liberalization and challenges with public spending. Therefore fiscal policy measures are insufficient and cannot stimulate economic growth.

  11. Social Entrepreneurship and Capitalist Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Li Langergaard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the relation between social entrepreneurship and capitalism. In the wake of the crisis erupting in 2008, the political attention to social entrepreneurship has intensified and social entrepreneurship and social innovation has been presented as possible solutions to a number of societal problems. By linking different theoretical trends of social entrepreneurship to Boltanski and Chiapello’s three spirits of capitalism the paper elucidates different variations of social entrepreneurship. It argues that whereas classic entrepreneurship is theoretically closely connected to capitalism and seen by innovation theory as the major driving force of economic development, social entrepreneurship is sometimes linked to non-capitalist understandings of the economy and as part of a capitalist-critical movement.

  12. La crisis Colombiana y Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Rojas-Perez.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Peruvian foreign and security policies regarding the Colombian conflict in the context of the discourses on securitization emerging in the region in the late twentieth century. Specifically, it compares the governments of Fujimori and Toledo to argue that, in spite of their differences in political genealogy (authoritarian and democratic, respectively, both governments have responded to the Colombian crisis in similar ways by following U.S. security discourses regarding the "war on drugs" and the "global war on terrorism". However, while Fujimori attempted to mobilize the Colombian conflict as part of his strategy to remain in power for an unconstitutional third term, Toledo has used it to assure the survival of his constitutional mandate.

  13. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  14. Crisis de esclerodermia renal normotensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Villaverde

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de sexo masculino de 60 años con esclerosis sistémica que evolucionó con crisis de esclerodermia renal normotensiva. Tenía compromiso poliarticular, esofágico, pulmonar y cutáneo. Antes de internarse en nuestro hospital recibió tratamiento con altas dosis de corticoides, lo que probablemente precipitó el daño renal que presentó en su evolución, caracterizado por falla renal, anemia hemolítica microangiopática sin elevación de la presión arterial. La ausencia de hipertensión se observa sólo en el 10% de los casos de esclerodermia renal. Recibió tratamiento con enalapril y hemodiálisis. Evolucionó en forma desfavorable, sin respuesta a la terapeútica y falleció a los siete días de internado.A 60 year old male patient having systemic scleroderma and normotensive scleroderma renal crisis was admitted in our hospital. He presented polyarticular, esophagic, lung and skin compromise. Before admission he had been treated with high doses of corticosteroids. We believe corticosteroids led to the worsening of renal damage with renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia without high blood pressure. The 10% of these cases have normal blood pressure. The patient was treated with enalapril and hemodyalisis. There was no favourable response to this treatment and he died seven days after admission.

  15. CRISIS Y CRÉDITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Trillo de Leyva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El deseo de hacer más objetivos los criterios de valoración, tanto en la docencia como en la investigación, han introducido términos económicos en el vocabulario universitario cuando asistimos al peor momento de una crisis económica global. La unificación de los criterios se ha producido a la baja, nos ha llevado a valorar más la cantidad que la calidad y la pasividad más que la actividad.En esta situación nos enfrentamos a la reforma de los planes de estudio conforme a las directivas de la reunión de Bolonia, reforma que debemos aprovechar para reconsiderar y mejorar la situación actual. El debate se produce en torno a los significados de los términos: transversalidad, coordinación, integración, compactación, esponjamiento, actividad, simultaneidad y secuenciaSUMMARY The desire to make evaluation criteria more objective, in both teaching and research, has introduced economic terms into the university vocabulary when we are in the middle of a global, economic crisis. The unification of the criteria has produced a downturn and has led us to value quantity more than quality and passivity more than activity.In this situation we approach the reform of the curricula according to the directives of the meeting in Bologna, a reform which we must use to reassess and to improve the present situation. The debate takes place around the meaning of the terms: transversality, coordination, integration, compaction, absorption, activity, simultaneousness and sequence.

  16. [Pediatric emergency: adrenal insufficiency and adrenal crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Alicia; Pasqualini, Titania; Stivel, Mirta; Heinrich, Juan Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is defined by impaired secretion of adrenocortical hormones. It is classified upon the etiology in primary and secondary. Rapid recognition and therapy of adrenocortical crisis are critical to survival. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms: anorexia, vomiting, weakness, fatigue and lethargy. They are followed by hypotension, shock, hypoglicemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. All patients with adrenal insufficiency require urgent fluid reposition, correction of hypoglycemia and glucocorticoid replacement, in order to avoid serious consequences of adrenal crisis. After initial crisis treatment, maintenance dose of corticoids should be indicated. Mineralocorticoids replacement, if necessary, should also be initiated.

  17. La crisi: aspetti economici e sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Quadrio Curzio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the introduction to the meeting on the financial crisis held in February at the Accademia dei Lincei, by Alberto Quadro Curzio, president of the division of Moral Sciences of the Accademia. The introduction deals with three main topics: a brief account of the crisis, the relevance of a distinctively European and Italian approach to political economy, the historical development within the Accademia of a critical and constructive thought in the field of the socio-economic sciences.   JEL Codes: E44, E60, G01Keywords: Cultura economica, crisi finanziaria, regole

  18. [Suicide crisis, psychological suffering and advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Bordage, Catherine; Cornec, Gwenole; Berrouiguet, Sofian; Walter, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Bound to the idea of a crisis and the brutal intrusion of psychological suffering, the suicide drama rarely lends itself to a direct analysis which can highlight the different stages of its process. Taking into account increasing quantities of scientific data from current research and the spirit of crisis interventions is fundamental for allowing hopes of effective prevention. Speaking the same language by using the same conceptual basis, that of the suicide crisis, is a prerequisite in pedagogical terms for the current care management of suicidal patients.

  19. Global integration in times of crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    to reconcile these findings by testing a number of hypothesis about global integration strategies in the context of the global financial crisis and how it affected exporting among multinational subsidiaries operating out of Turkey. Controlling for the impact that depreciations and exchange rate volatility has...... integration strategies throughout the course of the global financial crisis.......Past research suggests that a financial crisis event has a dual and ambiguous effect on the exporting strategy of subsidiaries of multinational firms in a value chain and offshoring perspective. From a total volume perspective exports are expected to contract due to a decline in demand (demand...

  20. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. CHIRILA DONCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has had a severe impact on the economy worldwide. The investment activity has strongly felt the crisis and caused dramatic changes in the hierarchy of large investors. The financial system did not have availability for credits and funding from companies' own resources was extremely limited in terms of reducing profits. The purpose of the paper is the analysis of global foreign direct investment under the effect of the largest financial and economic crisis. The research results show a dramatic decline in foreign direct investments flows perceived and generated in 2009, and the fact that since 2010 there has been an easy comeback.

  1. La sociologia della crisi in Alain Touraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Villa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dal punto di vista sociologico, una crisi economica non è solo causa di dolorose conseguenze per le persone: essa rappresenta l’effetto di una più ampia crisi politica e sociale. Con questo presupposto, Alain Touraine prova a guardare al dopo crisi e, attraverso una situazione definita post-sociale, offre strumenti per l’osservazione di nuovi attori. L’articolo descrive alcuni passaggi essenziali di questa analisi, inquadrandoli nel disegno teorico che caratterizza il pensiero del sociologo francese.

  2. GLOBAL ENERGY CRISIS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Piechota

    2013-01-01

    The sudden development of the mankind at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries brought along the growth in importance of exploiting the energy of different type. When uninterruptedly a demand for the energy is growing, and abilities of increasing the supply for her are limited, we can deal with the occurrence of an energy crisis. The article is moving the subject matter of an global energy crisis. A definition of an energy crisis, his genesis and effects were included in it for world econom...

  3. Understanding Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDaan van Knippenberg is Professor of Organizational Behavior at RSM Erasmus University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. His research interests include work group performance, especially work group diversity and group decision making, leadership, in particular the roles of

  4. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  5. La crisis de las crisis : una mirada global y holística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Christian Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad de este artículo no es escoger cuál es la crisis más importante, cuál es la más televisada o cuál es la que cuesta más. Mi propuesta es que estas crisis son simplemente manifestaciones de una sola crisis, una holística y terminal.

  6. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  7. The Euro Crisis in Online Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Kaun, Anne

    2013-01-01

    While Scandinavian countries may be coping with the Euro crisis relatively better than most other European countries, they are far from unaffected. Nonetheless, the mainstream media have represented Scandinavia and Sweden as prime examples of resilience at a governmental level (i.e. the ability...... of a national economy to withstand, adapt and overcome the financial crisis), disregarding the consequences of growing inequalities and the dismantling of welfare state. Consequently, reports on resilience at the civil society level (i.e. the ability of citizens and communities to withstand, adapt and overcome...... the financial crisis) remain largely absent from mainstream media reports. Instead, civil society initiatives that respond to the consequences of the crisis have to rely on self-representation and sharing of resources in online media. One example is the Swedish grassroots organisation, Megafonen....

  8. Crisis homes for adult psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Freiesleben, Michael; Foldager, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Inspired by the Crisis Home programme in Madison, we have adapted and evaluated the programme at the Community Mental Health (CMH) Centre in Tønder, Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Procedures and schedules from the Crisis Home programme were applied in this open trial. Questionnaire...... data concerning satisfaction with the stay and registration data concerning the admissions and bed days two years before and two years after the first stay were obtained. RESULTS: During four years, 52 different patients had a total of 187 stays in a crisis home. Twenty (38.5%) of the patients were...... attached to the ACT team. The average duration of the stays was 4.0 days. The number of readmissions and bed days after the first stay showed a significant downward tendency for the subgroup of patients with a more severe mental disorder, but not for the whole group. The patients, the crisis homes families...

  9. UN Says AIDS Crisis Is Getting Worse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 邹国如

    2004-01-01

    The fifteenth International AIDS Conference ends Fridav in Bangkok, Thailand.There has not been much good news. In fact,the United Nations AIDS program reported last week that the crisis (危机) is getting worse.

  10. ARC Code TI: Crisis Mapping Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Crisis Mapping Toolkit (CMT) is a collection of tools for processing geospatial data (images, satellite data, etc.) into cartographic products that improve...

  11. Crisis, Resilience and Communication in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2012-01-01

    of the limitations of this approach and the organizations' inability to foresee all potential crises in a world of constant change, the concept of resilience is starting to gain ground in crisis studies (cf. Weick & Sutcliff, 2007; Somers, 2009; Powley, 2009). This ncreased interest in resilience can be traced back...... its currency in light of the global financial crisis and the crisis rhetoric that follows, therefore, it is still discussed in scientific literature how crises are handled in the best possible way (cf. Weick & Sutcliff, 2007). Nevertheless, in literature, resilience is often taken for granted...... as a distinct characteristic of the organizational system which can be activated and used whenever necessary, with little reflection on how it got there in the first place. Thus the purpose of this paper is to investigate 1) which understanding of the phenomenon of resilience that characterizes the crisis field...

  12. Debussy and the Crisis of Tonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Roland

    1979-01-01

    This article is abstracted from the author's forthcoming book, "Debussy: The Crisis of Tonality," wherein Claude Debussy's influence on the mainstream composers of the first half of the twentieth century is discussed. (KC)

  13. What kind of crisis for capitalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This week's meeting of the International Monetary Fund at Toronto will avoid an immediate crisis. But more international credit will not allow rich and poor to behave as if they live on different planets.

  14. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  15. CRISIS FOCUS Fundamentals,Confidence and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Entering the third year of the most serious economic crisis since the Great Depression, the world economy is still bogged down on the muddy road to recovery. The latest edition of Standard Chartered Bank’s monthly report, Global Focus,

  16. The Euro Crisis in Online Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Kaun, Anne

    2013-01-01

    While Scandinavian countries may be coping with the Euro crisis relatively better than most other European countries, they are far from unaffected. Nonetheless, the mainstream media have represented Scandinavia and Sweden as prime examples of resilience at a governmental level (i.e. the ability...... the financial crisis) remain largely absent from mainstream media reports. Instead, civil society initiatives that respond to the consequences of the crisis have to rely on self-representation and sharing of resources in online media. One example is the Swedish grassroots organisation, Megafonen....... of a national economy to withstand, adapt and overcome the financial crisis), disregarding the consequences of growing inequalities and the dismantling of welfare state. Consequently, reports on resilience at the civil society level (i.e. the ability of citizens and communities to withstand, adapt and overcome...

  17. An Identity Crisis of Architectural Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Tsiambaos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three years Greece has been facing one of its worst crises since the 1950s, a crisis which most understand to be a financial one. The word crisis (from the Greek κρίσις has a double meaning in the Greek language. Its first meaning indicates a radical — usually negative — change in the sum of conditions or flow of events, while its second refers to an opinion, a theory, a personal judgment or point of view towards a specific subject. I will argue that the current crisis is not just financial, but deeply cultural. An examination of the history of architectural discourse in Greece will help us better understand the cultural identity of the recent crisis by illuminating its core: the ambivalent relationship between Greece and Europe, from the establishment of the Greek state until today.

  18. Class Handles "Crisis" in PR Simulation Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivins, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a two-week corporate public relations simulation that allowed students, acting as media representatives, to experience the frustrations of dealing with a typical company during a crisis. (HOD)

  19. CRISIS IMPACT UPON THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius GUST

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating the economic and financial crisis impact which has occurred in the Romanian economy, upon the Romanian companies since 2008. Specifically, its effects are taken into account regarding the number of economic players, the labor force, and the results of business performance: enterprise turnover or gross outcomes. Additionally, this research paper aims at assessing the crisis consequences on corporate behavior in the insecure environment of the crisis regarding the investment process and the value rendered by enterprises. The investigation is made exclusively on the secondary and tertiary sectors of the Romanian economy: industry, construction, trade and services, both from an overall and a sectoral perspective. The analysis also envisages the correlation of progress per the aforementioned economic segments with the overall development of the Romanian economy in terms of economic and financial crisis.

  20. The debt crisis: a re-appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cinquetti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1980s' debt crisis is a landmark in developing economies' growth and stabilization. According to the most quoted empirical articles, external shocks and vicissitudes gave rise to crisis just because of delays in stabilization policies, engendered by internal conflicts and institutional immaturity. I review some of these papers, and find out some problems - in the measurement of shocks and foreign indebtedness, namely - whose corrections lead to opposite results: external shocks and foreign indebtedness explain that crisis regardless of domestic policies. At the same time, the strong correlation of income distribution to terms of trade changes and foreign indebtedness suggest that inequality may have contributed differently to that crisis: either through an economic channel, or through a political channel based on delays in reforms.

  1. CORPORATIONS CRISIS - BEYOND THE FRONTIERS OF MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu NEAMTU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis registered on international markets can be seen simply as corporate crisis as a result of that crash is the effect of large financial institutions and companies in the field of goods and services. Corporate crisis is a process that develops in nearly 10 years on the international market falling to the level of maximum development and producing her effects for 10 years hence. The paper tries to follow the stages of evolution of this crisis together with factors such as management and the economic environment characterized current economy. Also the relationship between companies management and "macroeconomic management" that generates these developments should be defined so that for future periods to be offered the best solutions to balance the market domestically and internationally

  2. CRISIS FOCUS:Recovering but Still Vulnerable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    One year after the onset of the financial crisis, the world economy appears to be rebounding sharply. Major economic figures are showing signs of improvement, a clear indicator that the worst has passed. The emerging markets, in

  3. Democratic Citizenship and the “Crisis in Humanities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A. Spencer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the recent global recession, a new “crisis in the humanities” has been declared, and ideas of how best to defend the humanities have been vigorously debated. Placing this “crisis” in the context of neoliberal reforms to higher education since the 1980s, I examine the argument expounded by Martha Nussbaum that the very foundation of democratic citizenship is at stake. I indicate a number of problems with Nussbaum’s case. First, to resist the neoliberal agenda that pits disciplines against one another, I maintain that we need to understand the humanities broadly to include the social sciences. Second, I indicate that the humanities are not just important to democracies, but are a vital aspect of any society because they form a crucial part of human existence. Third, I argue that the humanities are important to democratic societies not merely because they promote critical thinking about our political processes and sympathetic understanding as Nussbaum argues. More fundamentally, the diversity of the humanities in both their content and approaches to knowledge is central to freedom. Finally, I warn against framing the challenges facing the humanities in terms of a crisis discourse that deprecates freedom in accord with the neoliberal agenda.

  4. Civilian Crisis Response Models (Dagstuhl Seminar 13041)

    OpenAIRE

    Katzy, Bernhard; Lechner, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 13041 "Civilian Crisis Response Models". The vulnerability of modern societies to the threats of man made and natural disaster increases and scale and number of disasters are expected to rise. The earthquakes of Haiti with its subsequent Cholera epidemics, the natural disasters in Pakistan as well as the ongoing situation in Japan illustrate the need for effective and efficient crisis and disaster response organization...

  5. HUMAN RESOURCE COMPENSATION IN TIME OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu George BOCEAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and financial crisis persists and is aggravated by poor rates of economic growth recorded in 2011 and 2012. Considerable decrease in production due to reduced exports and domestic demand compression generating new unemployment and lower earnings. This paper presents the impact of the crisis on average and minimum wages in the European Union and Euro zone. Using the International Monetary Fund (IMF predictions on GDP, the paper tries to predict the future trends of wages in the European Union.

  6. La crisi: aspetti economici e sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO QUADRIO CURZIO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the introduction to the meeting on the financial crisis held in February at the Accademia dei Lincei, by Alberto Quadro Curzio, president of the division of Moral Sciences of the Accademia. The introduction deals with three main topics: a brief account of the crisis, the relevance of a distinctively European and Italian approach to political economy, the historical development within the Accademia of a critical and constructive thought in the field of the socio-economic sciences.

  7. Setting up a crisis recovery plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, N L

    1986-01-01

    When companies, institutions, or for that matter even nations suddenly find themselves face to face with a disaster, more often than not the necessary forces can be quickly marshaled to deal with the matter at hand. However, when the dust begins to settle, the after shocks are often more devastating and costly to the organization over the long term than the original crisis. That is why crisis recovery planning should be a part of any strategic planning process.

  8. Keynes’ Business Cycle: Animal Spirits and Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    John Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Today, we are in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. Recovery has not been swift, and policymakers and citizens throughout the globe have turned to economists for answers. While in the mainstream, the general opinion is that the collapse was unpredictable and caused by exogenous events (i.e., poor policy decisions), those in the Post-Keynesian school not only raised voices of concern well before the crisis struck, but they have argued consistently that the probl...

  9. Percepciones venezolanas sobre la crisis de colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Kornblith.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of the Colombian conflict in Venezuela and the perceptions of threat of the country's leading political actors regarding Colombia's security crisis. The author discusses the tangible consequences of the Colombian conflict in Venezuela. Second, the ways in which the security crisis has been perceived and politically maneuvered by the Venezuelan government is explored. Finally, the article traces the interaction been the securitization of security and defense iss...

  10. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  11. Crisis And Opportunities Of The Sales Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There have been disputes on the financial crisis upon the auto market in 2009.An expert held that the growth rate could stay at 5 percent. We do not have to argue whether the judgment is correct.There has been phi- losophy between crisis and opportunities. And if we adopt the logic in analyzing the sales networks,some detailed coun- termeasures can be worked out.

  12. BENCHMARK AS INSTRUMENT OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Haievskyi, Vladyslav

    2017-01-01

    In the article is determined the essence of a question's benchmark through synthesis of such concepts as “benchmark”, “crisis management” as an instrument of crisis management, the powerful tool which the entity carries out the comparative analysis of processes and effective activities and allows to reduce costs for production's of products in case of limitation's resources, to raise profit and to achieve success in optimization of strategy's activities of the entity.

  13. The global governance of crisis migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Betts

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is no coherent or unified global governance framework for the different areas that have been subsumed under the umbrella of ‘crisis migration’. This is not to say that when new challenges or labels arise new institution-building is necessarily required. Addressing emerging protection gaps such as those related to crisis migration requires creativity in making existing institutions work better across implementation, institutionalisation and international agreements.

  14. The global governance of crisis migration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    There is no coherent or unified global governance framework for the different areas that have been subsumed under the umbrella of ‘crisis migration’. This is not to say that when new challenges or labels arise new institution-building is necessarily required. Addressing emerging protection gaps such as those related to crisis migration requires creativity in making existing institutions work better across implementation, institutionalisation and international agreements.

  15. Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    JFQ 76, 1st Quarter 2015 Finch 15 Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth By James P. Finch T ensions in the South and East China seas have...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bringing Space Crisis Stability Down to Earth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information.

  17. Crisis interventions in online psychological counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Amaral Medeiros da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world's population is often assailed by crises of various orders. Disasters caused by nature and by humans themselves also impact on people's mental health. Psychological crises, such as suicide attempts, represent a growing problem in mental health. When faced with such scenarios, specific strategies of crisis intervention are both appropriate and necessary. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature dealing with online psychological crisis intervention, describing and discussing their operational design, specific characteristics and applications. Method: A systematic review of literature indexed on the PubMed, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases identified by searches conducted from January to June of 2014. Results: The searches identified 17 empirical studies about online crisis interventions which were reviewed. Three crisis contexts emerged: 1 disasters, 2 risk/prevention of suicide, and 3 trauma. Eleven different intervention programs were described and the predominant treatment approach was cognitive behavioral therapy. The results showed that research into online psychological crisis intervention has been conducted in several different countries, especially the Netherlands and Australia, and that the users of these tools benefit from them. Conclusion: Online crisis interventions have been developed and researched in many countries around the world. In Brazil, there is still a lack of investment and research in this area.

  18. Educational Reflections on the ``Ecological Crisis'': EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-08-01

    There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the “ecological crisis” as a fundamental reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of present cultural attitudes which frame our relationships with others and the natural world. To evaluate previous cultural thinking and associated traditions of Euro-West society, Chet Bowers asserts that we ought to analyze how assumptions are carried forward as metaphors, which are associated with attitudes towards science, technology, and nature. This pedagogy is called ecojustice education and serves to conserve and sustain cultural diversity and the biodiversity of Earth’s ecosystems, which are threatened and vulnerable. But, also carried forward in the language of ecojustice philosophy (and other ecological works) is a presumption that feeds into scientifically proving that a crisis exists, which is associated with organizing schools around an implicit shock doctrine of fear and urgency. This paper explores these assumptions and others associated with a supposition of ecological crisis. The ecological crisis has the potential to marginalize many diverse people who are needed during these times of increasing ecological awareness and uncertainties. Situating education (and the world) in the frenzy associated with crisis, versus the assertion that schools should increase awareness around the belief that a more sustainable lifestyle is beneficial for the individual, the community and the environment is a worthwhile debate and is rich with respect to research opportunities in education.

  19. 《生物多样性公约》传统知识议题的背景、进展与趋势%Background, progress and prospect of traditional knowledge under the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵富伟; 武建勇; 薛达元

    2013-01-01

    传统知识之所以成为《生物多样性公约》等国际公约的热点议题,主要源于其重要的研究价值、经济潜力以及特定的社会历史背景.《生物多样性公约》签署至今,在传统知识议题方面取得了许多进展,如:设立专门的传统知识工作组,为履行公约相关条款制定了工作方案和行动计划,推动特殊制度的谈判,达成一系列道德行为准则,以及通过了《生物多样性公约关于获取遗传资源和公正公平分享其利用所产生惠益的名古屋议定书》.根据公约第十次和第十一次缔约方大会达成的相关决议,习惯性可持续利用(customary sustainable use)、特殊制度(sui generis systems)、传统知识归还(repatriation)等将成为今后传统知识谈判的重点.我国需要加强生物多样性保护和知识产权等主管部门之间的协作,协调我国在不同国际法框架中传统知识议题的谈判立场;还需要开展习惯性可持续利用、特殊制度体系、传统知识就地或者活态保护(living protection)的研究.%Due to its scientific value, economic potential, and social background basis, traditional knowledge (TK) is valued of great importance under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and by other international fora. The Convention has made enormous efforts for the protection of TK relevant to biodiversity. For instance, an ad hoc working group on Article 8(j) and related provisions was established; programmes of work and action plans on the implementation of Article 8(j) and related provisions were developed and implemented; the negotiation of sui generis system of TK was promoted; and several voluntary guidelines plus the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity were adopted. According to decisions from the 10th and 11th meetings of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the

  20. Analysing English metaphors of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo-Enrico Cardini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The present article reports the findings of an investigation into the metaphorical expressions adopted by English-language magazines to describe the latest economic/financial crisis. The corpus used for the investigation was about 100,000 words large, with texts taken from The Economist and from The International Economy. All the articles selected from these two magazines were published between Fall 2008 and Winter 2012. The main aim of the inquiry was to offer a more detailed and comprehensive classification of economic-crisis-metaphors than those proposed in previous research. In this respect, a total number of forty different types of such metaphors was identified. Alongside the theoretical classification, a quantitative analysis of the data was also carried out in order to find out which kinds of metaphorical expression are used most frequently. Results suggest that the economic/financial crisis is predominantly conceptualized in terms of something negative about a human being, about an object, and about a motion. In particular, viewing a state of economic/financial crisis as a damaged or destroyed object appears to be the most widely adopted metaphor. Results also suggest that different economics magazines can vary significantly in the amount of metaphorical language used.Keywords: metaphor, economic crisis, semantics, pragmatics, journalistic styles.  Sommario – Questo articolo riporta i risultati di una ricerca sulle metafore adottate da riviste in lingua inglese per descrivere la recente crisi economica e finanziaria. Il corpus utilizzato per l’indagine è stato di circa 100.000 parole, con testi reperiti dal The Economist e dal The International Economy. Tutti gli articoli selezionati da queste due riviste sono stati pubblicati tra l’autunno 2008 e l’inverno 2012. Lo scopo principale dell’indagine è stato quello di fornire una classificazione delle metafore della crisi economica più dettagliata ed esauriente di

  1. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  2. Crisis management and warning procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie November

    2009-03-01

    territoriale du risque s’avère nécessaire.Based on two flood events that recently affected new housing areas in very different political, organisational and hydrological contexts, this article examines the practices of actors involved in emergency and crisis situations in Switzerland. In both cases, the actors are identified – through their role and their position in the various procedures related to crisis management – and an inventory is made of the documents used. The study examines how the flood events were managed, identifies the organisational changes that followed the crises, and determines how the risk was conceived and to what extent it was formalised by the different actors both before and after the floods. Finally new forecasting and warning procedures that were set up following the events are described. The study shows that floods have a decisive impact on the production of knowledge, but that this phenomenon varies according to the actors. Events such as floods also sometimes reveal the existence of "latent" knowledge, or knowledge that is available but has not yet been integrated into institutional procedures. In terms of both forecasting and crisis management, these events also provide the opportunity to test information channels and to identify and correct any problems relating to organisation, cooperation or the reliability of means of communication. Among other things, the risks and crises related to flooding modify the dynamics and policies of the local area as a result of readjustments in the networks of actors. The introduction of emergency and crisis management measures appears more effective, however, than the reorganisation of planning and development procedures, a process which generally takes a lot longer. Nevertheless, since the recollection of events tends to fade with time, it is important that risks find a more concrete form of spatial expression on the landscape.

  3. Crisis of Legitimacy in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Palestinian society is geographically separated and politically fragmented. This is attributed to partisan affiliation and alignment, absence of conceptual and professional framework of civil society, unethical approach of Palestinian political leaders, and unconstitutional political institutions. Such polarization and division have created political antagonism within elites and between factions. The broad objective of this research is to investigate the legitimacy crisis in Palestine, the current political dilemma in the Palestinian Authority, and the public response to the situation. The research introduces direct and thorough understanding of the developing political context surrounding these issues; taking into consideration that growing deficit in legitimacy could create potentially dire consequences, particularly if present trends on the ground continue. The research promotes an analytical perspective based on legitimacy theory and exploring recent public opinion polls. This study formulates a constructive analysis of the failure of the Palestinian political institutions at the leadership level to meet the basic expectations of the Palestinian people and the unproductive methodology of hampering the implementation of the Basic Law concerning the Palestinian political system. It reviews the empirical dilemmas of the Palestinian Authority and eliminates several assumptions of Fatah and Hamas’s - main parties - political and domestic priorities. The possibility of a new Palestinian political phenomena emerging is in the context of a new popular mobilisation lessened by the fact that both movements (Fatah and Hamas are firmly enmeshed in the very fabric of Palestinian society through patronage networks.

  4. Plans that Work: (Excerpt from "Before Crisis Hits: Building a Strategic Crisis Plan")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry L.; Millar, Dan P.

    2005-01-01

    There are close to 1,200 community colleges in the United States, and their level of crisis preparation ranges from very thorough to not prepared at all. A survey of American Association of Community Colleges membership found a number of community colleges that not only had good crisis plans but were proud of the work that had gone into them and…

  5. Crisis in the Curriculum? New Counselors' Crisis Preparation, Experiences, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carrie A. Wachter; Minton, Casey A. Barrio

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors are responsible for providing crisis assessment, referral, and intervention (Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, 2009); however, little is known about their preparation and experiences in these areas. This study examined new professional counselors' (N= 193) crisis intervention…

  6. Helping Crisis Managers Protect Reputational Assets: Initial Tests of the Situational Crisis Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, W. Timothy; Holladay, Sherry J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains a comprehensive, prescriptive, situational approach for responding to crises and protecting organizational reputation: the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). Notes undergraduate students read two crisis case studies from a set of 13 cases and responded to questions following the case. Validates a key assumption in SCCT and…

  7. Chaos and Crisis: Propositions for a General Theory of Crisis Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Matthew W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization. Explores…

  8. Values of financial services professionals and the global financial crisis as a crisis of ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, André van

    2013-01-01

    Many attribute the global financial crisis (GFC) to the ethical values of the people involved, financial services professionals (FSPs) such as stockbrokers or fund managers. The crisis-of-ethics debate is important, concerning one of the main policy challenges of our times, but is based on popular l

  9. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a country or several countries simultaneously. We believe that it is difficult to appreciate that a traditional model might explain a financial crisis, given that every context of occurrence, conditions of development and crisis settlement programs are unique and unrepeatable. Every crisis has in its structure certain issues that may be capitalized and can lead to success. Perhaps more obvious are the ways that can lead to total failure of the organization. Finding and capitalizing the potential success is the essence of the crisis management. The essence of the mismanagement of the crisis is to worse situation. The successful management of a crisis involves admitting that you are facing a crisis, taking reasonable measures to remedy the situation, to be seen taking them and heard saying the right words. The issue at this stage of crisis management is that perception becomes true reality. Crisis management is a set of factors designed to combat the crisis and reduce the damage caused by the crisis. In other words, crisis management attempts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of the crisis and protect the organization, the public involved and the specific field by the possible damages. The effective management of the crisis includes crisis communication. This is an essential component through which the organization faced with the difficult situation can rehabilitate it’s publicly image or even to improve it. The crisis communication occurs between the organization and

  10. THE CURRENCY CRISIS TRIGGER OF THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SOVIANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the ways the financial crisis started to manifest into the Romanian Financial System, through the exchange rate channel. The focus of this Paper is on how the Romanian decision makers contributed in triggering the financial crisis (that would have been triggered anyway. The paper will determine the trigger (the first obvious event for the Romanian Financial Crisis (the debut and it will prove that the consequences of this trigger could have been anticipated - it is in line with similar triggers for the debut in other currency crises. Therefore, one of the main conclusions of this paper is that while a global crisis starts to manifest the local economy should limit the exuberance of the decision makers in order to smooth the effects of the crisis.

  11. ACTIONS OF THE CENTRAL BANKS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CRISIS AND POST CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Niculina APETRI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the international financial crisis, the external environment was an important source of risks and uncertainties, the banking and financial markets of most of the states were marked by successive waves of turbulence, central banks reverted the task of ensuring financial stability to the states and not only achieving the objective of price stability, a primary objective considered fundamental in the operating statutes of central banks. In this context, most of the monetary authorities responded to the challenges of the crisis by implementing restrictive monetary policies during the process of worsening of the financial crisis, and later to resort to relax monetary policy measures, but nevertheless adopting a cautious conduct of monetary policy. This study particularly examines the actions and measures implemented by the National Bank of Romania during the manifestation of the crisis and post crisis regarding the application of the monetary policy in order to ensure the financial stability.

  12. Diversity's Calling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a Harvard-educated scholar of English and poetry, Dr. M. Lee Pelton puts a prominent face on changes that are underway at Boston's Emerson College. Faced with a public controversy over its limited faculty diversity, Emerson College has responded with a spate of hirings and promotions of minorities, capped by the…

  13. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  14. Crisis y Derecho del Trabajo: viejos conocidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ermida Uriarte

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Buenas noches: Mi papel aquí es el de hacer una presentación general del tema que sirva de introducción a lo que luego profundizarán los Profesores Rosenbaun y Loustaunau, tanto en lo que tiene que ver con la negociación colectiva, como en lo relacionado con las experiencias concretas que se han dado en nuestro país.Para hacer ese planteamiento panorámico inicial, vamos a tratar cinco puntos: Primeramente, abordaremos la crisis y el Derecho del trabajo como una relación que de algún modo es vieja y conocida, aunque cada vez se plantea con alguna novedad. En segundo lugar haremos referencia a algunas particularidades de la crisis actual. En tercer lugar, señalaremos los efectos específicos de las crisis económicas sobre el Derecho del trabajo. En cuarto término, intentaremos introducir una sistematización de los instrumentos laborales de enfrentamiento a la crisis, respondiendo a la pregunta ¿qué instrumentos tiene el Derecho del trabajo para enfrentar la crisis? Y en quintolugar, nos referiremos a las medidas extra laborales de enfrentamiento de la crisis, es decir, aquello que se puede hacer para enfrentar las crisis, no solo desde el Derecho del trabajo, sino desde fuera del Derecho del Trabajo.

  15. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis.

  16. The Financial Crisis: Origins, Causes And Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Permeti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in recent years took start in response to a crisis of the real estate market in the United States in 2007. The year 2009 has seen an economic crisis and between 2010 and 2011 it was known the spreading of the crisis sovereign debt and public finances of many countries. The financial markets failed in their main task: the allocation of risk. The products and services traded in the financial market are characterized by the immateriality and legal complexity. It means a high uncertainty degree and a high risk. Therefore is very important to protect the investors and this means: give them the right information, right legislation, market confidence and a product that respond to their needs. The crisis causes are: weaknesses in the regulatory, malfunction of the rating agencies, political errors and conflicts of interest. This means that we need: more rules, more capital, less debt, more transparency. The financial markets and the economy have always moved in harmony and savers have undertaken a countercyclical behavior, against trend or against the cycle and for investing in financial markets with the probability in favor we need a map that comes from the statistics.

  17. The Greek crisis: Causes and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamis Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financial turmoil. Although Greece is the country member of the eurozone that has been in the middle of this ongoing debt crisis, since November 2009 when it was made clear that its budget deficit and mainly its public debt were not sustainable, Greece’s fiscal crisis is not directly linked to the 2007 US subprime mortgage loan market crisis. As a result of this negative downturn the Greek government happily accepted a rescue plan of 110 billion euros designed and financed by the European Union and the IMF. A lengthy austerity programme and a fiscal consolidation plan have been put forward and are to be implemented in the next three years.

  18. Crisis management teams in health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V

    2012-01-01

    Crisis management teams (CMT) are necessary to ensure adequate and appropriate crisis management planning and response to unforeseen, adverse events. This study investigated the existence of CMTs, the membership of CMTs, and the degree of training received by CMTs in Australian health and allied health organisations. This cross-sectional study draws on data provided by executive decision makers in a broad selection of health and allied health organisations. Crisis management teams were found in 44.2 per cent of the health-related organisations surveyed, which is ten per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. Membership of these CMTs was not ideal and did not conform to standard CMT membership profiles. Similarly, the extent of crisis management training in health-related organisations is 20 per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. If organisations do not become pro-active in their crisis management practices, the onus is on government to improve the situation through regulation and the provision of more physical, monetary and skill resources to ensure that the health services of Australia are sufficiently prepared to respond to adverse events.

  19. Climate change issue in Convention on Biological Diversity: negotiations and focuses%《生物多样性公约》下的气候变化问题:谈判与焦点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军; 张称意; 徐海根

    2011-01-01

    近年来,生物多样性与气候变化的关系逐渐成为《生物多样性公约》下的焦点议题,各缔约方就此问题展开了激烈的多边谈判.本文梳理了《生物多样性公约》下气候变化问题谈判的发展历程,探讨了其中的焦点问题及各方的主要立场,指出以欧盟为代表的发达国家和以巴西、哥伦比亚、中国为代表的发展中生物多样性大国是针锋相对的两大主要谈判集团.谈判焦点问题主要包括:(1)气候变化问题的扩大化.欧盟希望将气候变化问题扩大化,使其全面渗透到《生物多样性公约》下的各议题中,并促进《生物多样性公约》、《联合国气候变化框架公约》和《联合国防治荒漠化公约》(简称里约三公约)之间的联合;而发展中国家对此比较谨慎和保守.(2)地球工程(geoengineering)和海洋施肥(ocean fertilization).欧盟提出全面禁止地球工程,并建立全球管制框架;而发展中国家认为可遵循“预先防范”原则.(3)减少森林砍伐和森林退化的碳排放机制.欧盟要求为该机制建立“生物多样性保障”制度,而发展中国家表示反对.两大集团产生分歧的原因主要是发展中国家担心欧盟的快速推进会使自己将来受到制约,这也反映了在环境领域发达国家和发展中国家之间的固有矛盾,而这种矛盾未来还会继续深化.本文最后还就我国的应对策略和工作方向提出了建议:(1)要加强国内相关主管部门之间的沟通与协调;(2)要总结和宣传我国在气候变化领域成功的做法和经验;(3)要加强对减少森林砍伐和森林退化的碳排放机制的研究.%Recently, the issue of biodiversity and climate change is becoming a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and parties to the convention have carried out heavy multilateral negotiations on the issue. This paper reviews the background pertaining to biodiversity and climate

  20. Diverse Tools, One Goal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YUNLING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Begional cooperative frameworks in East Asia were established after the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis in 1997. When the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) invited three Northeastern Asian countries-China, Japan and South Korea-to join the efforts to cope with the financial crisis, frameworks that stretched beyond ASEAN's initial scope were created.

  1. [Economic crisis, poverty and childhood. What are the expected short- and long-term effects for the "children of the crisis"? SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Manuel; García-Gómez, Pilar; Zunzunegui, María-Victoria

    2014-06-01

    The way a person will develop over the lifespan is largely determined by the first few years of life. A substantial share of the inequalities in health and socioeconomic status observed in adult life originate during childhood (and even while in utero). In this paper, we first review the literature on the impact of childhood conditions throughout the life cycle. We next discuss some of the social and biological mechanisms behind the transmission of the effects of poverty during the prenatal period, childhood, and adulthood. We then analyze several international experiences aimed at reducing intergenerational transmission of poverty. The article ends with some critical thoughts and policy recommendations to avoid the possible long-term effects of the current crisis on the health and socioeconomic status of the "children of the crisis" in Spain.

  2. A partial ordering approach for functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo; Szeidl, Laszlo; Moretti, Marco; Blasi, Carlo

    2011-09-01

    Functional diversity is generally regarded as the constituent of biological diversity that considers how the species functional traits affect ecosystem processes. Due to its ecological relevance, a number of indices of functional diversity have been proposed to date based on distinct objectives and motivations. Such proliferation of indices can be at least partially overcome by a more fundamental mathematical approach. In this paper we propose an intrinsic ordering approach for abundance-weighted measures of functional diversity that is similar to the Lorenz curves used by ecologists for ordering evenness measures. We then discuss the relevance of a number of functional diversity indices that have a behavior compatible with the proposed partial ordering.

  3. Troubling Diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on the cultural encounter between nurses and ethnic minority patients in Danish hospitals, this paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of nursing discourses on cultural difference and intercultural contact. Articles from the Danish professional journal ‘The Nurse......', published in the period from 2000 to 2008, pertaining to cultural contact and intercultural understanding have been analyzed in order to uncover nurses' experience of ethnic and cultural diversity and the ways, in which these experiences challenge their cultural and professional expertise. Results...... are related to recent contributions to diversity management theory and intercultural communication theory, calling for a strengthened focus on the historical, political, and social dimensions of intercultural contact. In continuation of these trends, an alternative, theoretical framework...

  4. Doing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Christiansen, Tanja Juul

    2012-01-01

    Questions of agency in text–audience relations are less studied than other aspects of rhetorical agency. We suggest conceptualizing and analyzing the relationship between texts and audiences from the perspective of performativity, as it has been developed by Judith Butler. Thus, we argue that tex...... demonstrate the explanatory potential of the performative framework. Subsequently, we discuss how the concept of personae may provide a basis for alternatives to the restrictive positioning that currently dominates diversity management rhetoric....

  5. The Global Coral Reef Crisis: Trends and Solutions (Coral Reefs: Values, Threats, and the Marine Aquarium Trade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuman, Craig S. (Reef Check, UCLA)

    2003-02-05

    Second only to tropical rainforests, coral reefs support one of the world's most diverse natural habitats. Over 350 million individuals depend on coral reef resources for food and income. Unfortunately, the Earth is in the midst of a coral reef crisis. Anthropogenic impacts including overfishing, destructive fishing practices, sedimentation and pollution, as well as global climate change, have served to disrupt the natural processes that maintain the health of these ecosystems. Until recently, however, the global extent of the coral reef crisis was unknown. Reef Check was developed in 1996 as a volunteer, community-based monitoring protocol designed to measure the health of coral reefs on a global scale. With goals of education, monitoring, and management, Reef Check has activities in over 60 countries and territories. They have not only provided scientific evidence of the global extent of the coral reef crisis, but have provided the first community based steps to alleviate this urgent situation.

  6. Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred methods of crisis intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle

    2014-08-01

    The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences.

  7. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages and functional feeding groups in Neotropical Savanna headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of ...

  8. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhaber, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  9. Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160307.html Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity Michigan city ... MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The water crisis in Flint, Mich., has cost $395 million in ...

  10. How is the Financial Crisis Affecting China's Exhibition Industry?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the financial crisis, which was caused by the American subprime crisis, spreads across the globe, some countries and regions including the Unit-ed States, Japan and the European Union have plunged into economic recession.

  11. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in crisis, find a facility near you. Spread the Word Download logos, Web ads, and materials and ... from Veterans Health Administration Veterans Crisis Line -- After the Call see more videos from Veterans Health Administration ...

  12. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition.

  13. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammert, Stefan; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Many shear flows follow a route to turbulence that has striking similarities to bifurcation scenarios in low-dimensional dynamical systems. Among the bifurcations that appear, crisis bifurcations are important because they cause global transitions between open and closed attractors, or indicate drastic increases in the range of the state space that is covered by the dynamics. We here study exterior and interior crisis bifurcations in direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace. We trace the state space dynamics from the appearance of the first three-dimensional exact coherent structures to the transition from an attractor to a chaotic saddle in an exterior crisis. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. The bifurcations contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space.

  14. Crisis rural, pobreza y hambre en Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villafuerte Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis y la pobreza en el México actual se expresan con claridad en las entidades tradicionalmente más pobres (Chiapas, Guerrero y Oaxaca, que en 2012 sumaron cerca de cuatro millones de personas con hambre. En Chiapas, aun con una reducción de 5.6 puntos porcentuales de la población que padece hambre, la situación adquiere rasgos más complejos porque entre las causas del levantamiento del EZLN figuran la pobreza y el hambre. En este artículo se analizan la crisis en el campo, la pobreza y el hambre, con sustento en la teoría de la crisis y datos de dependencias federales.

  15. Cominciamo a parlare della prossima crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards radical reforms of financial regulation is weakening as financial firms seem to be returning to calmer waters. The proposals that now appear to be having a higher probability of adoption leave the financial structure and its regulation substantially unchanged. An analysis of the systemic crises, or potential ones, that, starting from the 1970s, have interested countries at every stage of development, suggests that the current crisis is the last manifestation of an evolution that has produced an endogenous push to increasing financial fragility. A more radical approach to regulatory reforms is then required if we want to lessen the probability of a new major crisis within the next ten years, a period that will find the official authorities with depleted ammunition to fight it.  JEL Codes: E44, G1, G18, G28Keywords: Cultura economica, Crisi finanziaria, Regole

  16. Heterogeneity in Firm Performance During Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What happens to firms during periods of deep economic crisis? Did different types of firms perform differently under the economic crisis? With the aid of a rich database and focusing on the literature regarding the growth of firms, this paper investigates the relative profitability performance of Italian firms during the current economic crisis, exploring those factors, which help certain firms to do relatively better even in the slowdown period. Some preliminary results show that the Italian firms that are relatively young in age, with relatively better current liquidity and more focused on domestic market have performed better than other firms. Furthermore, firms operating in high-tech and in highly concentrated sectors have enjoyed a better performance in this period.

  17. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zammert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace reveal several interior and exterior crisis bifurcations. They appear in the upper branch that emerges in a saddle-node bifurcation near $Re_{SN}=641$ and then undergoes several bifurcations into a chaotic attractor. Near $Re_{XC}=785.95$ the attractor collides with the lower-branch state and turns into a chaotic saddle in a exterior crisis, with a characteristic $(Re-Re_{XC})^{-\\delta}$ variation in lifetimes. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. They contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space. The exterior crisis marks the onset of transient turbulence in this subspace of plane Poiseuille flow.

  18. Recommendable Practices for Effective Nuclear Crisis Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    'Crisis communication' refers one of the activities done by the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations (NROs) in order to protect the public and the environment from the possible harmful effects. As denoted by the BMU, German NRO, crisis communication is not only 'public information' or 'information for the public', but also communication between authorities in order to guarantee that public information is consistent. This study proposes some recommendable practices for developing a guideline of well-prepared nuclear crisis communication system, including its management framework, and for introducing good insights, based on the study of international aspects provided by relevant OECD/NEA WPGC (Working Group on Public Communication for Nuclear Regulatory Organizations)i working group

  19. [Hypertensive crisis in infancy and childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbelauer, J; Strotmann, J; Kirchhoff, A; Darge, K; Thomas, W

    2008-01-01

    The extended physical examination of a patient includes measurement of blood pressure. In infancy and childhood the blood pressure measurement may be difficult due to an uncooperative and restless patient. In a 16-month-old girl apparently unmeasurable blood pressure was a hypertensive crisis with systolic blood pressure of more than 200 mmHg. The cause of the hypertension was found to be a nephroblastoma. In the case of rapidly progressive arterial hypertension in another 16-month-old girl with left ventricular dilatation and reduced function was a consequence of kidney dysplasia. Headache attacks lead to diagnosis of a subtotal coarctation of the aortic isthmus in a 17-year-old boy. Hypertensive crisis in infancy, childhood and adolescence is discussed based on these case reports. Special features of blood pressure measurement in the pediatric age group, pathogenesis of hypertensive crisis and the potential therapies are discussed incorporating a brief review of the literature.

  20. Crisis as Discourse and Narrative. Educational Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mendel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to analyse the situation of social crises in ritual and linguistic terms, as suspension of narratives concerning social processes which leads to uncontrollable, rhizomatic proliferation of meanings (in Deleuze’s and Guattari’s sense. Overcoming crisis is possible on the condition that pre-critical discursive structures of articulation of social symbols and demands are reinvented so that new narrative trajectories can be built. This can be done by subjecting rhizomatic structures conceived in liminal conditions of the crisis to the logic of hegemony (in Laclau’s terms. This ontological structure is used to analyse the pedagogical reception of Jacques Rancière’s, though as an attempt to rearticulating the meaning of education. Those theoretical attempts have the potential to change the narratives of (inequality and create perspectives for re-thinking education beyond the current crisis of public schooling and educational theory.

  1. Greece Financial Crisis and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechili, Aggelos E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Kaitelidou, Dafni; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The last six years the global community is facing an economic crisis that first appeared in USA. This crisis has a lot of impacts especially in health sector. Unemployment, job insecurity and the loss of disposable income have a significant impact in health too. The main objective of this research was to investigate the quality of life of the general population in Greece during the financial crisis. To collect the data it has been used the Greek version of Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36v2). In general, income, level of education, cohabitation and parenthood had a significant impact in quality of life. As a conclusion, unemployed participants' score was lower in the entire dimensions and in the two summary scales too.

  2. Labor, Welfare and Coping with the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis......The aim of this paper is to raise a number of questions on the impacts and responses of the crisis in a comparative perspective with focus on the Nordic experience and ROK. It asks the following questions: Where have the Nordic approach versus the Korean models delivered strong results, and what...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach guiding...

  3. Integracion monetaria, crisis y austeridad en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Partiendo de un análisis de la construcción neoliberal de la integración monetaria europea se analizan la crisis económica griega y las políticas de austeridad de corte hayekiano que se están utilizando para enfrentarla. Tras caracterizar teóricamente dichas políticas, se analiza cómo su generalización en Europa contribuye a profundizar la crisis europea comprometiendo la reactivación de la economía mundial. No obstante, la causa de la crisis es la pérdida de soberanía monetaria de cada país ...

  4. Integracion monetaria, crisis y austeridad en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Guillén Romo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de un análisis de la construcción neoliberal de la integración monetaria europea se analizan la crisis económica griega y las políticas de austeridad de corte hayekiano que se están utilizando para enfrentarla. Tras caracterizar teóricamente dichas políticas, se analiza cómo su generalización en Europa contribuye a profundizar la crisis europea comprometiendo la reactivación de la economía mundial. No obstante, la causa de la crisis es la pérdida de soberanía monetaria de cada país y el financiamiento del Estado se sustenta a través de los inversionistas financieros bancarios y no bancarios.

  5. Exploring Internal Crisis Communication in Multicultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    , especially when it comes to employees located in other countries. Line managers and local communicators are key in the adaptation of verbal and non-verbal communicative features. Employees are also seen as active sensemakers and communicators. Research implications: Findings show how demographic......Purpose: To explore managers’ perspectives on and practices of internal crisis communication in multicultural environments. Design/methodology/ approach: After a review of relevant literature on crisis, culture and internal communication to define the framework and relevance of this study, results...... from qualitative interviews with seven Danish managers are presented. Findings: Interviewees acknowledge the relevance of the cultural backgrounds of employees in relation to internal communication, especially in crisis situations. Cultural aspects affect message framing and employee sensemaking...

  6. Macroeconomie in crisi e macroeconomie in ripresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic crisis brings to a reconsideration of macroeconomics: as it happened in the past, after the Great Crash of 1929 as well as after the Second World War and after the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971 and the subsequent oil crisis. A brief critical survey of mainstream macroeconomics (the neoclassical synthesis and its variants, and its criticisms on the side of Keynesians and Sraffians is followed by a brief survey of the elements of alternative macroeconomic analysis developed by Keynes and Kalecki, Minsky and Sylos Labini, and others.   JEL Codes: B22, E00, E12, E13Keywords: Macroeconomie; crisi; ripresa

  7. GLOBAL CRISIS – AN ECOLONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Popescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the evolution of life of the whole living, "crisis is a natural manifestation, a form of thesystemic wisdom homeostasis ". Interpreted in terms of Hawa-yen philosophy, life of the "whole living" whichincludes economic and social life as well, crisis stands for excesses and deficits beyond the homeostasis "criticalmass" that disturbs due to the dangers generated by the harmony of integrated integers .As it encompasses both threats and opportunities that encourage creative destruction, crisis heightensawareness of a behavioural change for the sake of a new harmony. The current global crisis, in accordance with theholistic vision, is a systemic crisis a cultural, moral, spiritual and intellectual one that affects negatively all segmentsof life, such the natural, the economic, the social and their interactions, too.As a science of man-made environmental health, ecolonomy interprets the global crisis construed as a deviation ofhuman behaviour and institutional development from the requirements expressed by the harmony of "integratedintegers", the nature of the tunes, coherence and resonance.Deficits of love, authentic knowledge, faith in certainty of hope, wisdom, of education on the meaning oflife and for life, compassion and selflessness, etc, as well as excesses of selfishness, greed, power, domination,poverty, ignorance, waste, freedom without responsibility, etc., engender through their actions human and socialbehaviours which threaten social life and cut through homeostasis.The transformation of the dangers into opportunities- the backward evolution, is a process of whichmetanoia is occurring inside human being where the paradigms find " a nice nest" due to which we come to know,understand, we relate and act.

  8. THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CAPITAL TO AGRIBUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrendsen, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    The global economy has continued to experience lingering effects of the global financial crisis that began in 2007. Although attention was initially given to the liquidity crisis and survival of some the world’s largest corporations and institutions, the financial crisis is likely to have long-lasting implications for agribusiness. As the world slowly recovers from the crisis, another round of problems are emerging as governments and international institutions attempt to unwind the position...

  9. Geographies of Monetary Economy and the European economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the geographies of the European economic crisis that had its origins in the global financial crisis of 2008-09. The crisis pushed many European economies into a deep recession and caused a mass unemployment in many countries. The crisis is analysed in a monetary economy framework that builds upon the post-Keynesian economic theories such as the monetary theory of production and the chartalist theory of money. These theories focus on the operational realities of banking, c...

  10. Logistics and logistics support in crisis management and citizen protection

    OpenAIRE

    HOLEJŠOVSKÝ, Jan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRAKT LOGISTICS AND LOGISTICS SUPPORT IN CRISIS MANAGEMENT AND CITIZEN PROTECTION The graduation thesis on topic ``Logistics and logistics support in crisis management and citizen protection" is divided into several chapters, which in summary are a material presenting information about logistics and logistics support in crisis management and citizen protection. This was one of the aims at this work. Chapters I., II., III., IV. describe logistics and logistics support, crisis management, ci...

  11. The Role of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Crisis Response

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2008-01-01

    Crisis response poses many of the most difficult information technology in crisis management. It requires information and communication-intensive efforts, utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. In this paper, we explore the benefits of artificial intelligence technologies in crisis response. This paper discusses the role of artificial intelligence technologies; namely, robotics, ontology and semantic web, and multi-agent systems in crisis response.

  12. Controlling crisis-induced intermittency using its relation with a boundary crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Marino, Ines P; Sanjuan, Miguel A F [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: samuel.zambrano@urjc.es, E-mail: ines.perez@urjc.es, E-mail: miguel.sanjuan@urjc.es

    2009-02-15

    In this paper, we show that there is a simple and intuitive relation between crisis-induced intermittency and a boundary crisis in unimodal maps and in a family of chaotic flows with strong volume contraction. This point of view allows us to identify a set of 'target points' directly from the time series of the considered system that can be used to tame crisis-induced intermittency. To do this, we use an advantageous adaptation of a control scheme that was typically used in the context of control of transient chaos. We illustrate here these ideas with the quadratic map and Roessler flow.

  13. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine.

  14. Caring for adolescents and families in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cindy

    2003-03-01

    Nurses are likely to see adolescents and their families in a variety of practice settings. Recognizing the youth and family at risk is significant in helping them resolve a stressful situation by mobilizing resources and strengthening coping and problem-solving skills. This article has focused on several areas, including suicide and depression, sex-related issues, substance abuse, and poor academic performance. Helping the youth and family in crisis challenges the nurse to use astute assessment skills that support a patient-centered crisis intervention model. During a time when cost-effective mental health care is a necessity, this model offers nurses an opportunity to provide quality health care.

  15. International Handbook of Organizational Crisis Management

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, Christine M M; Clair, Judith A A

    2007-01-01

    Best-managed crises can bring positive recognition and enhance an organization's value; worst-managed crises can snuff its viability. Numerous books have been written on the topic, but many lack rigor: prescriptions are untested and quick fixes are based on elevating the readers' fears. The International Handbook of Organizational Crisis Management reflects the latest understanding of this field from prominent scholars and practitioners around the globe. Pushing the boundaries of crisis management research and practice, this book offers new frameworks and findings that capture insights and gui

  16. Vapor layers reduce drag without the crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan; Berry, Joseph; Chan, Derek; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2016-11-01

    The drag of a solid sphere moving in fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number, Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re 3 ×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect, can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as 600. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length captures the observed drag reduction and wake shape.

  17. Frame Complexity and the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Jan; Schultz, Friederike; Oegema, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    . The financial crisis in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany (2007–2012) offers an example. An automated content analysis was applied to over 160,000 newspaper articles. Frame complexity decreased until the spotlight fell on the demise of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers (2008). The subsequent...... gradual recovery was only partly interrupted by the euro crisis. A Vector AutoRegression time series analysis shows that increasing frame complexity may indeed have fostered the recovery of financial markets and consumer confidence....

  18. Aripiprazole-induced oculogyric crisis (acute dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotik T Bhachech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the third generation atypical antipsychotic and a dopamine serotonin system stabilizer (DSS effective against positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It has a low propensity for extrapyramidal side effects, causes minimal weight gain or sedation, produces no elevation in serum prolactin levels, and does not cause prolongation of QTc interval. This case report is of a patient suffering from schizophrenia (paranoid. The patient developed oculogyric crisis (acute dystonia with aripiprazole dose uptitration. Dystonic reaction resolved with promethazine administration. Naranjo′s causality assessment reveals probable association of aripiprazole with oculogyric crisis. A thorough workup and vigilance is required prior to initiation of aripiprazole in the case of schizophrenia.

  19. Las nuevas violencias en la crisis global

    OpenAIRE

    Tortosa Blasco, José María

    2010-01-01

    El artículo parte de la constatación de la complejidad que aqueja al fenómeno de las violencias, sea por sus muy diversos actores como por la heterogeneidad de los factores que inciden en ella, pasa luego a describir someramente el conjunto de crisis (económica, medioambiental, alimentaria y energética) que atraviesan al sistema mundial en la actualidad. A esto se añade la crisis de hegemonía de parte de Estados Unidos en dicho sistema. A partir de ello, se especula sobre el impacto que la co...

  20. Las nuevas violencias en la crisis global

    OpenAIRE

    José María Tortosa

    2010-01-01

    El artículo parte de la constatación de la complejidad que aqueja al fenómeno de las violencias, sea por sus muy diversos actores como por la heterogeneidad de los factores que inciden en ella, para pasar a describir someramente el conjunto de crisis (económica, medioambiental, alimentaria y energética) que atraviesan al sistema mundial en la actualidad. A esto se añade la crisis de hegemonía de parte de Estados Unidos en dicho sistema. A partir de ello, se especula sobre el impacto que la co...