WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological diversity conservation

  1. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. National report on sustainable forests—2015: conservation of biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Curtis Flather; Kurt H. Riitters; Carolyn Sieg; James D. Garner

    2015-01-01

    The National Report on Sustainable Forests—2015 relies on Montrèal Process Criteria and Indicators (C&I) for Forest Sustainability to organize and present data relevant to U.S. forests. The 2015 report addresses seven criteria, the first of which is Conservation of Biological Diversity, which is organized into nine indicators that address three sub-criteria:...

  3. The biological diversity conservation district: A rain forest conservation tool for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, M. [Columbus School of Law, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Over the next twenty years, the Earth`s rain forests may decrease by forty percent! This paper presents a revolutionary corporate entity for the protection of those forests, the biological diversity conservation district (biodistricts). The underlying cause of rain forest destruction is unfettered competition for limited resources. The competitors are many: farmers, business, local and national governments, the biotechnology and ecotourism industries, multinational companies, public utilities, and indigenous groups. To varying degrees, all compete within the marketplace. biodistricts will bring together two forces once thought to be antithetical: conservation an development. They will be set up in corporate form, owned and controlled by groups claiming access to the forest resources. Because the various groups will fight for the same resources habitats, ecosystems, and genetic diversity-each will prevent the others from destroying them. The district members will ensure that all businesses maintain sustainable development practices because the economic success of the district depends upon the area`s natural beauty and biological diversity. This paper analyzes the effects on the culture, politics, economy and conservation there. It will conclude that the comprehensive approach taken by biodistricts is the only method for solving the problem of rain forest destruction; that it is economically feasible, culturally viable, and ethically defensible. By March 1, 1995, the paper will represent not only the culmination of eighteen months of research, writing and interviews regarding biological diversity conservation, but also the impetus to push the thinking of environmentalists and business persons in a new direction, perhaps the only direction that will allow the nations of the world to protect their forests for the next twenty years and beyond.

  4. Conservation biological control and enemy diversity on a landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tscharntke, T.; Bommarco, R.; Clough, Y.; Crist, T.O.; Kleijn, D.; Rand, T.A.; Tylianakis, J.M.; Nouhuys, S.; Vidal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation biological control in agroecosystems requires a landscape management perspective, because most arthropod species experience their habitat at spatial scales beyond the plot level, and there is spillover of natural enemies across the crop–noncrop interface. The species pool in the

  5. An overview of the applicability of functional diversity in Biological Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, J. R.; Mantovani, W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functional diversity is increasingly pointed as a useful approach to reach Biological Conservation goals. Here, we provide an overview of the functional diversity approach status in the Biological Conservation field. We sought for peer-reviewed papers published over a period of twenty years (from 1994 to 2014). First we used the general topic “functional diversity” and then refined our search using the key-word “conservation”. We have identified the conservation strategies addressed,...

  6. An overview of the applicability of functional diversity in Biological Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J R; Mantovani, W

    2017-10-23

    Functional diversity is increasingly pointed as a useful approach to reach Biological Conservation goals. Here, we provide an overview of the functional diversity approach status in the Biological Conservation field. We sought for peer-reviewed papers published over a period of twenty years (from 1994 to 2014). First we used the general topic "functional diversity" and then refined our search using the key-word "conservation". We have identified the conservation strategies addressed, the organism studied, and the continent of study site in each paper. Thirteen classes of conservation strategies were identified. Plants were the most commonly studied organism group and most study-sites were located in Europe. The functional diversity approach was introduced in the Biological Conservation field in the early 2000's and its inclusion in conservation strategies is broadly advised. However, the number of papers that operationalise such inclusion by developing models and systems is still low. Functional diversity responds differently and eventually better than other measures to changes in land use and management, which suggests that this approach can potentially better predict the impacts. More studies are needed to corroborate this hypothesis. We pointed out knowledge gaps regarding identification of the responses for functional diversity about urban impacts and in research on the level of management intensity of land needed to maintain functional diversity. We recommend the use of functional diversity measures to find ecological indicators. Future studies should focus on the development of functional diversity measures of other taxa beyond plants as well as test hypothesis in tropical ecosystems.

  7. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Willis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009 highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  8. Biological and cultural diversity in the context of botanic garden conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Dunn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of global climate change, habitat loss, and other environmental changes on the world's biota and peoples continue to increase, especially on islands and in high elevation areas. Just as floristic diversity is affected by environmental change, so too are cultural and linguistic diversity. Of the approximately 7000 extant languages in the world, fully 50% are considered to be at risk of extinction, which is considerably higher than most estimates of extinction risks to plants and animals. To maintain the integrity of plant life, it is not enough for botanic gardens to consider solely the effects of environmental change on plants within the context of major conservation strategies such as the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Rather, botanic gardens should actively engage in understanding and communicating the broader impacts of environmental change to biological and cultural diversity.

  9. A small-scale land-sparing approach to conserving biological diversity in tropical agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Chandler; David I. King; Raul Raudales; Richard Trubey; Carlin Chandler; Víctor Julio. Arce Chávez

    2013-01-01

    Two contrasting strategies have been proposed for conserving biological diversity while meeting the increasing demand for agricultural products: land sparing and land sharing production systems. Land sparing involves increasing yield to reduce the amount of land needed for agriculture, whereas land-sharing agricultural practices incorporate elements of native...

  10. Use of inverse spatial conservation prioritization to avoid biological diversity loss outside protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareksela, Santtu; Moilanen, Atte; Tuominen, Seppo; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2013-12-01

    Globally expanding human land use sets constantly increasing pressure for maintenance of biological diversity and functioning ecosystems. To fight the decline of biological diversity, conservation science has broken ground with methods such as the operational model of systematic conservation planning (SCP), which focuses on design and on-the-ground implementation of conservation areas. The most commonly used method in SCP is reserve selection that focuses on the spatial design of reserve networks and their expansion. We expanded these methods by introducing another form of spatial allocation of conservation effort relevant for land-use zoning at the landscape scale that avoids negative ecological effects of human land use outside protected areas. We call our method inverse spatial conservation prioritization. It can be used to identify areas suitable for economic development while simultaneously limiting total ecological and environmental effects of that development at the landscape level by identifying areas with highest economic but lowest ecological value. Our method is not based on a priori targets, and as such it is applicable to cases where the effects of land use on, for example, individual species or ecosystem types are relatively small and would not lead to violation of regional or national conservation targets. We applied our method to land-use allocation to peat mining. Our method identified a combination of profitable production areas that provides the needed area for peat production while retaining most of the landscape-level ecological value of the ecosystem. The results of this inverse spatial conservation prioritization are being used in land-use zoning in the province of Central Finland. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. A 2018 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Butchart, Stuart H M; Connor, Ben; Culshaw, Caroline; Dicks, Lynn V; Dinsdale, Jason; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Roux, Xavier Le; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Mortimer, Diana; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Seymour, Colleen L; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Gleave, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community. Themes among these topics include new mechanisms driving the emergence and geographic expansion of diseases, innovative biotechnologies, reassessments of global change, and the development of strategic infrastructure to facilitate global economic priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Barnard, Phoebe; Broad, Steven; Clout, Mick; Connor, Ben; Côté, Isabelle M; Dicks, Lynn V; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Fox, Marie; Gaston, Kevin J; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Wintle, Bonnie C; Ockendon, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Applicability of Montreal Process Criterion 1 - conservation of biological diversity - to rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2000-01-01

    Nine indicators of biodiversity conservation have been defined by the nations participating in the Montreal Process for assessing sustainability of temperate and boreal forests. Five of these indicators address compositional and spatial diversity of ecosystems; two address species diversity; and two are indirect measures of genetic diversity. Our objective was to...

  14. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  15. Conserving forest biological diversity: How the Montreal Process helps achieve sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Guy Robertson; Kurt. Riitters

    2015-01-01

    Forests support a variety of ecosystems, species and genes — collectively referred to as biological diversity — along with important processes that tie these all together. With the growing recognition that biological diversity contributes to human welfare in a number of important ways such as providing food, medicine and fiber (provisioning services...

  16. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity - Indicator 9: Population levels of representative species from diverse habitats monitored across their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Curtis H. Flather; Noah Barstatis

    2003-01-01

    This indicator estimates population trends of selected species as a surrogate measure of genetic diversity. Decreases in genetic diversity as populations decline, particularly if associated with small populations, contribute to increased risk of extinction. This indicator also provides an important measure of general biodiversity, as changes in species abundances are a...

  17. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Peter; Adams, David B; Voracek, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world's zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides 'leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability'. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  18. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Economic development and conservation of biological and cultural diversity in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, R.C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Mosesso, J.P.; Zhang, X.

    2001-01-01

    Chinese and American scientists are co-operating to develop concepts, strategies, agreements, and proposals in support of an economic development and sustainable ecosystems project in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. Yunnan's Provincial Government has initiated a major programme to develop and further utilise its biological resources to help improve economic conditions for its citizens. They are co-operating with the US Geological Survey (USGS) on evaluation and management of biological resources so economic development will be compatible with sustainable ecological systems. Scientists from the USGS and co-operating universities will provide expertise on synthesising biological data, conducting a Gap Analysis for the Province, evaluating innovative economic opportunities, and designing an effective education, training, and outreach programme.

  20. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  1. Conservation of biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Rachel Riemann; Brent Dickinson; W. Keith Moser; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; James D. Garner

    2016-01-01

    People enjoy a variety of ecosystem services, or benefits, from forests, including water purification, recreation, income from tourism, timber products, and the cultural and economic benefits from hunting, fishing, and gathering (Shvidenko et al. 2005). Across the Northern United States, growing human populations will place increased service demands on forests for the...

  2. Some guiding concepts for conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David; Hunter, Malcolm

    2010-12-01

    The search for generalities in ecology has often been thwarted by contingency and ecological complexity that limit the development of predictive rules. We present a set of concepts that we believe succinctly expresses some of the fundamental ideas in conservation biology. (1) Successful conservation management requires explicit goals and objectives. (2) The overall goal of biodiversity management will usually be to maintain or restore biodiversity, not to maximize species richness. (3) A holistic approach is needed to solve conservation problems. (4) Diverse approaches to management can provide diverse environmental conditions and mitigate risk. (5) Using nature's template is important for guiding conservation management, but it is not a panacea. (6) Focusing on causes not symptoms enhances efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions. (7) Every species and ecosystem is unique, to some degree. (8) Threshold responses are important but not ubiquitous. (9) Multiple stressors often exert critical effects on species and ecosystems. (10) Human values are variable and dynamic and significantly shape conservation efforts. We believe most conservation biologists will broadly agree these concepts are important. That said, an important part of the maturation of conservation biology as a discipline is constructive debate about additional or alternative concepts to those we have proposed here. Therefore, we have established a web-based, online process for further discussion of the concepts outlined in this paper and developing additional ones. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Diversity, Biodiversity, Conservation, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Carlos Marques

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of diversity and biodiversity are analysed regarding their historical emergence, and their intrinsic meaning and differences are discussed. Through a brief synopsis, difficulties usually experienced by statisticians in capturing the dynamics of diversity are analysed and main problems identified. The shift from diversity to the more holistic biodiversity as a working concept is appraised in terms of the novelty involved. Through a number of examples, the way the two concepts capture natural cyclic changes is analysed, and their reciprocal and complementary relations are approached theoretically. The way diversity could develop from the stores of biodiversity as its active expression through selective and evolutionary processes is described. Through the use of a very simple dynamic model, the concepts of diversity and biodiversity are analysed in extremely opposite hypothetical scenarios. Comparisons with natural situations are made and the theoretical implications from the conservation point of view are discussed. These support the opinion that conservation undertaken in restricted and protected areas is not self-sustainable, needing permanent external intervention to regulate internal processes, and in the long run will most probably lead in the direction of obsolescence and extinction. Finally, the relations between diversity, biodiversity, and sustainability are approached. The vagueness of the sustainability concept is discussed. Preservation of biodiversity is then defended as one of the best available indicators to assist us in fixing boundaries which may help to provide a more precise definition of sustainability.

  4. Neglect of genetic diversity in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Laikre; Fred W. Allendorf; Laurel C. Aroner; C. Scott Baker; David P. Gregovich; Michael M. Hansen; Jennifer A. Jackson; Katherine C. Kendall; Kevin Mckelvey; Maile C. Neel; Isabelle Olivieri; Nils Ryman; Michael K. Schwartz; Ruth Short Bull; Jeffrey B. Stetz; David A. Tallmon; Barbara L. Taylor; Christina D. Vojta; Donald M. Waller; Robin S. Waples

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the foundation for all biological diversity; the persistence and evolutionary potential of species depend on it. World leaders have agreed on the conservation of genetic diversity as an explicit goal of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Nevertheless, actions to protect genetic diversity are largely lacking. With only months left to the...

  5. A functional overview of conservation biological control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Graham S; Cook, Samantha M; Dye, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is a sustainable approach to pest management that can contribute to a reduction in pesticide use as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy. CBC is based on the premise that countering habitat loss and environmental disturbance associated...... limitation to the development of effective CBC is due to a failure to adequately direct biological control services to achieve suppression of the target pests. By considering the performance of these and other components of CBC within the context of an integrated system, we believe that the limiting factors...... with intensive crop production will conserve natural enemies, thus contributing to pest suppression. The abundance and diversity of natural enemies increases in response to a variety of conservation measures, including plant and habitat diversification, a reduction in cropping intensity, and increased landscape...

  6. A fungal perspective on conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Barron, Elizabeth S; Boddy, Lynne; Dahlberg, Anders; Griffith, Gareth W; Nordén, Jenni; Ovaskainen, Otso; Perini, Claudia; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Halme, Panu

    2015-02-01

    Hitherto fungi have rarely been considered in conservation biology, but this is changing as the field moves from addressing single species issues to an integrative ecosystem-based approach. The current emphasis on biodiversity as a provider of ecosystem services throws the spotlight on the vast diversity of fungi, their crucial roles in terrestrial ecosystems, and the benefits of considering fungi in concert with animals and plants. We reviewed the role of fungi in ecosystems and composed an overview of the current state of conservation of fungi. There are 5 areas in which fungi can be readily integrated into conservation: as providers of habitats and processes important for other organisms; as indicators of desired or undesired trends in ecosystem functioning; as indicators of habitats of conservation value; as providers of powerful links between human societies and the natural world because of their value as food, medicine, and biotechnological tools; and as sources of novel tools and approaches for conservation of megadiverse organism groups. We hope conservation professionals will value the potential of fungi, engage mycologists in their work, and appreciate the crucial role of fungi in nature. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Conserving Phylogenetic Diversity Can Be a Poor Strategy for Conserving Functional Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Florent; Mooers, Arne O; Riva, Giulio Valentino Dalla; Pennell, Matthew W

    2017-11-01

    For decades, academic biologists have advocated for making conservation decisions in light of evolutionary history. Specifically, they suggest that policy makers should prioritize conserving phylogenetically diverse assemblages. The most prominent argument is that conserving phylogenetic diversity (PD) will also conserve diversity in traits and features (functional diversity [FD]), which may be valuable for a number of reasons. The claim that PD-maximized ("maxPD") sets of taxa will also have high FD is often taken at face value and in cases where researchers have actually tested it, they have done so by measuring the phylogenetic signal in ecologically important functional traits. The rationale is that if traits closely mirror phylogeny, then saving the maxPD set of taxa will tend to maximize FD and if traits do not have phylogenetic structure, then saving the maxPD set of taxa will be no better at capturing FD than criteria that ignore PD. Here, we suggest that measuring the phylogenetic signal in traits is uninformative for evaluating the effectiveness of using PD in conservation. We evolve traits under several different models and, for the first time, directly compare the FD of a set of taxa that maximize PD to the FD of a random set of the same size. Under many common models of trait evolution and tree shapes, conserving the maxPD set of taxa will conserve more FD than conserving a random set of the same size. However, this result cannot be generalized to other classes of models. We find that under biologically plausible scenarios, using PD to select species can actually lead to less FD compared with a random set. Critically, this can occur even when there is phylogenetic signal in the traits. Predicting exactly when we expect using PD to be a good strategy for conserving FD is challenging, as it depends on complex interactions between tree shape and the assumptions of the evolutionary model. Nonetheless, if our goal is to maintain trait diversity, the fact

  9. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  10. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  11. Applying the dark diversity concept to nature conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Rob; de Bello, Francesco; A Bennett, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Linking diversity to biological processes is central for developing informed and effective conservation decisions. Unfortunately, observable patterns provide only a proportion of the information necessary for fully understanding the mechanisms and processes acting on a particular population...... or community. We suggest conservation managers use the often overlooked information relative to species absences and pay particular attention to dark diversity (i.e., a set of species that are absent from a site but that could disperse to and establish there, in other words, the absent portion of a habitat......-specific species pool). Together with existing ecological metrics, concepts, and conservation tools, dark diversity can be used to complement and further develop conservation prioritization and management decisions through an understanding of biodiversity relativized by its potential (i.e., its species pool...

  12. Anuran distribution, diversity and conservation in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-02-05

    Feb 5, 1995 ... assess their conservation status. An associated requirement is an investigation of the efficiency of currently protected areas in ensuring the long-term preservation of biological diversity. South Africa contains six major terrestrial biomes: fynbos, forest, Nama-Karoo, Succulent Karoo, grassland and savanna.

  13. On nonepistemic values in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Bert; Holthuijzen, Wieteke

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology is a uniquely interdisciplinary science with strong roots in ecology, but it also embraces a value-laden and mission-oriented framework. This combination of science and values causes conservation biology to be at the center of critique regarding the discipline's scientific credibility-especially the division between the realms of theory and practice. We identify this dichotomy between seemingly objective (fact-based) and subjective (value-laden) practices as the measure-value dichotomy, whereby measure refers to methods and analyses used in conservation biology (i.e., measuring biodiversity) and value refers to nonepistemic values. We reviewed and evaluated several landmark articles central to the foundation of conservation biology and concepts of biodiversity with respect to their attempts to separate measures and values. We argue that the measure-value dichotomy is false and that conservation biology can make progress in ways unavailable to other disciplines because its practitioners are tasked with engaging in both the realm of theory and the realm of practice. The entanglement of measures and values is by no means a weakness of conservation biology. Because central concepts such as biodiversity contain both factual and evaluative aspects, conservation biologists can make theoretical progress by examining, reviewing, and forming the values that are an integral part of those concepts. We suggest that values should be included and analyzed with respect to the methods, results, and conclusions of scientific work in conservation biology. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Biodiversity, conservation biology, and rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    This paper critically discusses two areas of Sahotra Sarkar's recent work in environmental philosophy: biodiversity and conservation biology and roles for decision theory in incorporating values explicitly in the environmental policy process. I argue that Sarkar's emphasis on the practices of conservation biologists, and especially the role of social and cultural values in the choice of biodiversity constituents, restricts his conception of biodiversity to particular practical conservation contexts. I argue that life scientists have many reasons to measure many types of diversity, and that biodiversity metrics could be value-free. I argue that Sarkar's emphasis on the limitations of normative decision theory is in tension with his statement that decision theory can "put science and ethics together." I also challenge his claim that multi-criteria decision tools lacking axiomatic foundations in preference and utility theory are "without a rational basis," by presenting a case of a simple "outranking" multi-criteria decision rule that can violate a basic normative requirement of preferences (transitivity) and ask whether there may nevertheless be contexts in which such a procedure might assist decision makers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global priorities for conservation across multiple dimensions of mammalian diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Fernanda T; Graham, Catherine H; Costa, Gabriel C; Hedges, S Blair; Penone, Caterina; Radeloff, Volker C; Rondinini, Carlo; Loyola, Rafael; Davidson, Ana D

    2017-07-18

    Conservation priorities that are based on species distribution, endemism, and vulnerability may underrepresent biologically unique species as well as their functional roles and evolutionary histories. To ensure that priorities are biologically comprehensive, multiple dimensions of diversity must be considered. Further, understanding how the different dimensions relate to one another spatially is important for conservation prioritization, but the relationship remains poorly understood. Here, we use spatial conservation planning to ( i ) identify and compare priority regions for global mammal conservation across three key dimensions of biodiversity-taxonomic, phylogenetic, and traits-and ( ii ) determine the overlap of these regions with the locations of threatened species and existing protected areas. We show that priority areas for mammal conservation exhibit low overlap across the three dimensions, highlighting the need for an integrative approach for biodiversity conservation. Additionally, currently protected areas poorly represent the three dimensions of mammalian biodiversity. We identify areas of high conservation priority among and across the dimensions that should receive special attention for expanding the global protected area network. These high-priority areas, combined with areas of high priority for other taxonomic groups and with social, economic, and political considerations, provide a biological foundation for future conservation planning efforts.

  16. Global biological diversity, forests and ecosystem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent international reports and a paper published on Science stresses the lack of evidence about the reduction in the rate of biodiversity decline as expected as a consequence of political agreements on global environment. This decline is of particular concern not only with respect to the intrinsic value of the nature as such but also because it involves the reduction or loss of ecosystem services. This issue is distinctively relevant for forest ecosystems. The Ecosystem Approach proposed by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity might be a strategy to reverse the negative trend, promoting a fair conservation and sustainable use of natural resources on an operational level.

  17. The distribution, diversity, and conservation status ofCycasin China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Feng, Xiuyan; Gong, Xun

    2017-05-01

    As ancient gymnosperm and woody plants, cycads have survived through dramatic tectonic activities, climate fluctuation, and environmental variations making them of great significance in studying the origin and evolution of flora biodiversity. However, they are among the most threatened plant groups in the world. The principal aim of this review is to outline the distribution, diversity, and conservation status of Cycas in China and provide suggestions for conservation practices. In this review, we describe the taxonomy, distribution, and conservation status of Cycas in China. By comparing Chinese Cycas species with its relatives worldwide, we then discuss the current genetic diversity, genetic differentiation of Cycas, and try to disentangle the potential effects of Quaternary climate changes and topographical events on Cycas . We review conservation practices from both researchers and practitioners for these rare and endangered species. High genetic diversity at the species level and strong genetic differentiation within Cycas have been observed. Most Cycas species in southwest China have experienced population retreats in contrast to the coastal Cycas 's expansion during the Quaternary glaciation. Additionally, human activities and habitat fragmentation have pushed these endangered taxa to the brink of extinction. Although numerous efforts have been made to mitigate threats to Cycas survival, implementation and compliance monitoring in protection zones are currently inadequate. We outline six proposals to strengthen conservation measures for Cycas in China and anticipate that these measures will provide guidelines for further research on population genetics as well as conservation biology of not only cycads but also other endangered species worldwide.

  18. The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard P; Kenny, David E; Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Conservation biology is a relatively new (began in the 1980s), value-based discipline predicated on the belief that biological diversity-from genes to populations to species to communities to ecosystems-is good and extinction is bad. Conservation biology grew from the recognition that the Earth has entered its sixth great extinction event, one that differs from previous great extinctions in that a single species-Homo sapiens-has caused this biodiversity crisis. A diverse, interacting set of variables drive current extinctions. As such, to succeed, conservation efforts usually require broad-based, interdisciplinary approaches. Conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of contributions by veterinary science, among many other disciplines, to collaborative efforts aimed at stemming the loss of biodiversity. We argue that, to improve success rates, many wildlife conservation programs must incorporate veterinarians as part of an interdisciplinary team to assess and address problems. Ideally, veterinarians who participate in conservation would receive specialized training and be willing to work as partners as part of a larger team of experts who effectively integrate their work rather than work independently (i.e., work as interdisciplinary, as opposed to multidisciplinary, teams, respectively). In our opinion, the most successful and productive projects involve interdisciplinary teams involving both biological and nonbiological specialists. Some researchers hold multiple degrees in biology and veterinary medicine or the biological and social sciences. These experts can often offer unique insight. We see at least 3 major areas in which veterinarians can immediately offer great assistance to conservation efforts: (1) participation in wildlife capture and immobilization, (2) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife health issues, and (3) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues, including using wildlife as sentinels to identify new

  19. Biological Inoculants in Forage Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Peter Szucs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available 3rd generation biological inoculants –containing lactic acid bacteria and enzymes – are prefered nowadays in order to coordinate the fermentation in such a way that they increase lactic acid production by leaps and bounds at the beginning of the fermentation and improve the quality and stability of silage during the fermentation and feeding. The quality of raw material (maturity of plant, chop lenght, spreading of inoculant uniformly and the proper filling, compacting, covering and wrapping have a great influence on the effectiveness of the inoculant. The mycotoxin content of malfermented silages is an undesirable risk factor. The authors established, that the Lactobacillus buchneri and enzymes containing inoculant protected better the carotene content of low, medium- and high wilteed lucerne haylages (P<0,05 compare to untreated ones Aerobic stability experiment by Honnig 1990 method was carried out with medium wilted (36 % DM lucerne haylage which was treatedtreated before ensilage with , the dosage of 105 CFU/g Pediococcus acidilactici, 1,5x105 CFU/g Lactobacillus buchneri and cellulase and hemicellulase enzimes (20 000 CMC /g remained stabyle, unspoiled after 9 days exposure to the air, while the untreated haylages spoiled after 2;4;or 7days on aerobic condition. The different Lactobacillus plantarum strains (50.000 CFU of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 16568 + 50.000 CFU of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 4784/ g FM of maize applied together were able to improve the aerobic stability of silomaize silage.

  20. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  1. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  2. Diversity in soil seed bank of Sinai and implications for conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the diversity level of seed bank is important for designing conservation and restoration programs especially in arid ecosystems. A diverse of diversity indices has been used in evaluating seed communities regardless of its suitability to measure the ecological quality of the targeted biological community.

  3. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity - Indicator 8: The number of forest dependent species that occupy a small portion of their former range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Michael S. Knowles; Jason McNees

    2003-01-01

    This indicator measures the portion of a species' historical distribution that is currently occupied as a surrogate measure of genetic diversity. Based on data for 1,642 terrestrial animals associated with forests, most species (88 percent) were found to fully occupy their historic range - at least as measured by coarse state-level occurrence patterns. Of the 193...

  4. Conservation Biology and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Integrating Academic Disciplines for Better Conservation Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Drew

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biology and environmental anthropology are disciplines that are both concerned with the identification and preservation of diversity, in one case biological and in the other cultural. Both conservation biology and the study of traditional ecoloigcal knowledge function at the nexus of the social and natural worlds, yet historically there have been major impediments to integrating the two. Here we identify linguistic, cultural, and epistemological barriers between the two disciplines. We argue that the two disciplines are uniquely positioned to inform each other and to provide critical insights and new perspectives on the way these sciences are practiced. We conclude by synthesizing common themes found in conservation success stories, and by making several suggestions on integration. These include cross-disciplinary publication, expanding memberships in professional societies and conducting multidisciplinary research based on similar interests in ecological process, taxonomy, or geography. Finally, we argue that extinction threats, be they biological or cultural/linguistic are imminent, and that by bringing these disciplines together we may be able to forge synergistic conservation programs capable of protecting the vivid splendor of life on Earth.

  5. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Pilz; R. Molina

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem management is the dominant paradigm for managing the forests of the Pacific Northwest. It integrates biological, ecological, geophysical, and silvicultural information to develop adaptive management practices that conserve biological diversity and maintain ecosystem functioning while meeting human needs for the sustainable production of forest products. Fungi...

  7. How Should Beta-Diversity Inform Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, Jacob B; Gilroy, James J; Kunin, William E; Edwards, David P

    2016-01-01

    To design robust protected area networks, accurately measure species losses, or understand the processes that maintain species diversity, conservation science must consider the organization of biodiversity in space. Central is beta-diversity--the component of regional diversity that accumulates from compositional differences between local species assemblages. We review how beta-diversity is impacted by human activities, including farming, selective logging, urbanization, species invasions, overhunting, and climate change. Beta-diversity increases, decreases, or remains unchanged by these impacts, depending on the balance of processes that cause species composition to become more different (biotic heterogenization) or more similar (biotic homogenization) between sites. While maintaining high beta-diversity is not always a desirable conservation outcome, understanding beta-diversity is essential for protecting regional diversity and can directly assist conservation planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diversity Storage: Implications for tropical conservation and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F. Howe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The future of tropical biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes will be conservation and restoration of processes of seed dispersal by birds and mammals. Here the Diversity Storage Hypothesis posits that immense biological diversity resides within skewed species-abundance distributions of tropical trees, and further predicts that many species will adjust to increases of 1.5–3.0 °C anticipated from climate change by 2100. Common and widespread tropical trees (>100,000,000 individuals may shift ranges but are unlikely to face extinction. Many rare species (e.g. <1000 individuals have a more precarious future. The latter may be declining species bound for extinction, incipient species adjusting to environmental changes, or relics of past warmer and more seasonal climates that will be resurrected if processes of seed dispersal allow them to persist and spread. In fragmented agricultural landscapes, preserved or planted corridors, buffers and stepping-stone habitat patches around and between forest remnants are more vital than efforts to preserve or create contemporary forest compositions, dominance relations, and species-abundance distributions. An implication of Diversity Storage is that it is more important to facilitate migration into and out of changing landscapes to allow inherent diversity to adjust and coexist with agricultural economies than to resist change.

  9. Commentary India's Biological Diversity Act 2002

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    result of new developments in technology, in particular, biotechnology and information technology, and, secondly, the ongoing ... may render the act toothless. For example, any biological resource ... been arrived at as to how to put into effect the relevant provisions of the Convention on Biological. Diversity. Even if such an ...

  10. Exact Conservation Laws and Exclusion Principle of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2003-03-01

    Biological evolution is dynamics of diversity and complexity of living beings from cells to humans. Metabolism, which allows for entropy decrease, and mortality, which allows for natural selection, are its biological must. Their characteristics are known to yield approximate (and rather noisy) universal relations. I conjecture they are accurate for certain ("canonic") fractions of these characteristics. (The conjecture is verified with experimental tests of its counterintuitive predictions). A relation, which is conserved under (invariant to) transformations from one species in its living conditions to another, is a conservation law of biological evolution. Of course, all parameters of such transformations can hardly be comprehensively specified. However, when canonic fractions are additive, the very invariance of the law to an extraordinary wide class of transformations, with no other experimental data, in any given interval of canonic fraction values accurately predicts [1]: either their conservation law is linear, or the population is homogeneous with respect to their values (an "exclusion principle" of their heterogeneity in an otherwise heterogeneous population). To be specific. Metabolism conservation laws (e.g., the dependence of oxygen consumption at rest per heartbeat on the animal mass) are linear. They imply [2] the existence of fundamental biological constants, which are similar to those crucial in physics. Survivability conservation law (the relation between the probabilities to survive to any two given ages) is piecewise linear (with four linear intervals). At the intersections mortality is homogeneous, and its susceptibility to living conditions vanishes. The law predicts that a dominant canonic fraction of mortality in protected populations is reversible for species as different as humans and flies, and may be eliminated. All these predictions agree with experimental data. (For instance, mortality of Swedish females, born in 1916, at 48 years

  11. Shrines in Central Italy conserve plant diversity and large trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascaroli, Fabrizio; Bhagwat, Shonil; Guarino, Riccardo; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Sacred natural sites (SNS) are instances of biocultural landscapes protected for spiritual motives. These sites frequently host important biological values in areas of Asia and Africa, where traditional resource management is still upheld by local communities. In contrast, the biodiversity value of SNS has hardly been quantitatively tested in Western contexts, where customs and traditions have relatively lost importance due to modernization and secularization. To assess whether SNS in Western contexts retain value for biodiversity, we studied plant species composition at 30 SNS in Central Italy and compared them with a paired set of similar but not sacred reference sites. We demonstrate that SNS are important for conserving stands of large trees and habitat heterogeneity across different land-cover types. Further, SNS harbor higher plant species richness and a more valuable plant species pool, and significantly contribute to diversity at the landscape scale. We suggest that these patterns are related not only to pre-existent features, but also to traditional management. Conservation of SNS should take into account these specificities, and their cultural as well as biological values, by supporting the continuation of traditional management practices.

  12. Conservation of Biological Diversity and Indigenous Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical countries are rich in biodiversity. For centuries, local/indigenous populations have used biodiversity as food, medicines, building materials and for other purposes. Traditional knowledge has been practised and passed on from one generation to another, and is intertwined with cultural and spiritual values. However ...

  13. Scientists' opinions on the global status and management of biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A

    2011-12-01

    The large investments needed if loss of biological diversity is to be stemmed will likely lead to increased public and political scrutiny of conservation strategies and the science underlying them. It is therefore crucial to understand the degree of consensus or divergence among scientists on core scientific perceptions and strategies most likely to achieve given objectives. I developed an internet survey designed to elucidate the opinions of conservation scientists. Conservation scientists (n =583) were unanimous (99.5%) in their view that a serious loss of biological diversity is likely, very likely, or virtually certain. Scientists' agreement that serious loss is very likely or virtually certain ranged from 72.8% for Western Europe to 90.9% for Southeast Asia. Tropical coral ecosystems were perceived as the most seriously affected by loss of biological diversity; 88.0% of respondents familiar with that ecosystem type agreed that a serious loss is very likely or virtually certain. With regard to conservation strategies, scientists most often viewed understanding how people and nature interact in certain contexts and the role of biological diversity in maintaining ecosystem function as their priorities. Protection of biological diversity for its cultural and spiritual values and because of its usefulness to humans were low priorities, which suggests that many scientists do not fully support the utilitarian concept of ecosystem services. Many scientists expressed a willingness to consider conservation triage, engage in active conservation interventions, and consider reframing conservation goals and measures of success for conservation of biological diversity in an era of climate change. Although some heterogeneity of opinion is evident, results of the survey show a clear consensus within the scientific community on core issues of the extent and geographic scope of loss of biological diversity and on elements that may contribute to successful conservation strategies

  14. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of neotropical hot caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladle, Richard J; Firmino, João V L; Malhado, Ana C M; Rodríguez-Durán, Armando

    2012-12-01

    The term hot cave is used to describe some subterranean chambers in the Neotropics that are characterized by constantly high ambient temperatures generated by the body heat of high densities of certain bat species. Many of these species have limited geographic ranges, and some occur only in the hot-cave environment. In addition to the bats, the stable microclimate and abundant bat guano provides refuge and food for a high diversity of invertebrates. Hot caves have so far been described in the Caribbean and in a few isolated locations from Mexico to Brazil, although there is some evidence that similar caves may be present throughout the tropics. The existing literature suggests these poorly known ecosystems, with their unique combination of geomorphology and bat-generated microclimate, are particularly sensitive to disturbance and face multiple threats from urbanization, agricultural development, mining, and tourism. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. [The ethical implications of conserving biological samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzite, A; Roky, R; Avard, D

    2009-09-01

    The conservation and use of biological samples become more and more frequent all around the world. Biobanks of human body substances (blood, urine, DNA, tissues, cells, etc.), and personal data associated with them are created. They have a double character as they are collections of both human biological samples and personal data. In some cases, the gametes, reproductive tissues, embryos, foetal tissue after abortion or even specimens of dead donors are collected and conserved. Although biobanks raise hopes in both the development of new therapies, new drugs and their integration into clinical medicine, they also point to concerns related to ethical questions such as: the principles of information, the consent of the persons concerned, the confidentiality about the personal data, and in some cases discrimination and stigmatisation. Other ethical aspects could raise gradually as research advance. Research being carried out on human sample requires informed free consent from the person who should be able to consent. The donor must be sufficiently informed about the process of research, the purpose, benefits and the risks involved in participating in this research. In the case of persons unable to give consent such minors or persons with mental disabilities, special measures are undertaken. Once the consent was given, the right of withdrawal has been consistently supported by the various declarations and regulations, but some oppose this right for a number of reasons particularly in the case of research on the samples without risk of physical exposure. In this case the notion of human body integrity is different than in research involving therapeutic or clinical intervention. In the case of withdrawal of consent, the samples should be destroyed, but the anonymous results arising from them and their analysis are not affected. What is the case for future uses? Should the researcher obtain again the consent from the donor for a secondary use of the samples? This is a

  16. Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Blackledge, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Slight shifts in arrangement within biological photonic nanostructures can produce large color differences, and sexual selection often leads to high color diversity in clades with structural colors. We use phylogenetic reconstruction, electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and optical modeling to show an opposing pattern of nanostructural diversification accompanied by unusual conservation of blue color in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae). In contrast to other clades, blue coloration in phylogenetically distant tarantulas peaks within a narrow 20-nm region around 450 nm. Both quasi-ordered and multilayer nanostructures found in different tarantulas produce this blue color. Thus, even within monophyletic lineages, tarantulas have evolved strikingly similar blue coloration through divergent mechanisms. The poor color perception and lack of conspicuous display during courtship of tarantulas argue that these colors are not sexually selected. Therefore, our data contrast with sexual selection that typically produces a diverse array of colors with a single structural mechanism by showing that natural selection on structural color in tarantulas resulted in convergence on similar color through diverse structural mechanisms. PMID:26702433

  17. Conservation and diversity in flower land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrario, S.I.T.; Immink, R.G.H.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular regulation of flower development. In particular, homeotic genes that determine the identity of the floral organs have been characterised from different flowering plants, revealing considerable conservation among

  18. The conservation of diversity in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1988-01-01

    Deforestation, pollution, and climatic change threaten forest diversity all over the world. And because forests are the habitats for diverse organisms, the threat is extended to all the flora and fauna associated with forests, not only forest trees. In a worst case scenario, if the tropical forest in Latin America was reduced to the areas now set aside in parks and...

  19. Practising Conservation Biology in a Virtual Rainforest World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedlbauer, Jessica L.; Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The interdisciplinary science of conservation biology provides undergraduate biology students with the opportunity to connect the biological sciences with disciplines including economics, social science and philosophy to address challenging conservation issues. Because of its complexity, students do not often have the opportunity to practise…

  20. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  1. Conserved Gene Expression Programs in Developing Roots from Diverse Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Schiefelbein, John

    2015-08-01

    The molecular basis for the origin and diversification of morphological adaptations is a central issue in evolutionary developmental biology. Here, we defined temporal transcript accumulation in developing roots from seven vascular plants, permitting a genome-wide comparative analysis of the molecular programs used by a single organ across diverse species. The resulting gene expression maps uncover significant similarity in the genes employed in roots and their developmental expression profiles. The detailed analysis of a subset of 133 genes known to be associated with root development in Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that most of these are used in all plant species. Strikingly, this was also true for root development in a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii), which forms morphologically different roots and is thought to have evolved roots independently. Thus, despite vast differences in size and anatomy of roots from diverse plants, the basic molecular mechanisms employed during root formation appear to be conserved. This suggests that roots evolved in the two major vascular plant lineages either by parallel recruitment of largely the same developmental program or by elaboration of an existing root program in the common ancestor of vascular plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Literature review of giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) biology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-08-03

    This report reviews the available literature on giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) to compile existing information on this species and identify knowledge gaps that, if addressed, would help to inform conservation efforts for giant gartersnakes.  Giant gartersnakes comprise a species of semi-aquatic snake precinctive to wetlands in the Central Valley of California.  The diversion of surface water and conversion of wetlands to agricultural and other land uses resulted in the loss of more than 90 percent of natural giant gartersnake habitats.  Because of this habitat loss, giant gartersnakes are now listed by the United States and California Endangered Species Acts as Threatened.  Most extant populations occur in the rice-growing regions of the Sacramento Valley, which comprises the northern portion of the giant gartersnake’s former range.  The huge demand for water in California for agriculture, industry, recreation, and other human consumption, combined with periodic severe drought, places remaining giant gartersnake habitats at increased risk of degradation and loss.  This literature review summarizes the available information on giant gartersnake distribution, habitat relations, behavior, demography, and other aspects of its biology relevant to conservation.  This information is then compiled into a graphical conceptual model that indicates the importance of different aspects of giant gartersnake biology for maintaining positive population growth, and identifies those areas for which important information relevant for conservation is lacking.  Directing research efforts toward these aspects of giant gartersnake ecology will likely result in improvements to conserving this unique species while meeting the high demands for water in California.

  3. Diversity and Inclusion in Conservation: A Proposal for a Marine Diversity Network

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola S. Smith; Isabelle M. Côté; Lourdes Martinez-Estevez; Edward J. Hind-Ozan; Angela L. Quiros; Nathan Johnson; Stephanie J. Green; Leslie Cornick; David Shiffman; Luis Malpica-Cruz; Luis Malpica-Cruz; Allison Gleason Besch; Nikita Shiel-Rolle

    2017-01-01

    Low diversity among scientists and practitioners is rampant in conservation. Currently, conservation professionals do not reflect the same diversity of perspectives and experiences of the world as the communities who bear the largest burden for implementing—or adverse consequences for failing to implement—conservation action. Acknowledging and describing the problem is important. But policies and programmes must also be put in place to correct it. Here, we highlight some measurable benefits o...

  4. Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

  5. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  6. Diversity and Inclusion in Conservation: A Proposal for a Marine Diversity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola S. Smith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Low diversity among scientists and practitioners is rampant in conservation. Currently, conservation professionals do not reflect the same diversity of perspectives and experiences of the world as the communities who bear the largest burden for implementing—or adverse consequences for failing to implement—conservation action. Acknowledging and describing the problem is important. But policies and programmes must also be put in place to correct it. Here, we highlight some measurable benefits of workforce diversity, and give an overview of some of the barriers to inclusion in marine conservation that help perpetuate low workforce diversity. Importantly, we underscore actions that both individuals and groups can take to alleviate such barriers. In particular, we describe the establishment of an online Marine Diversity Network, which conference participants proposed during a focus group meeting at the 4th International Marine Conservation Congress. The network will serve to bring together people from across the globe, from a variety of backgrounds, and from all career stages, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas, to provide and receive mentorship in marine conservation, and to forge new collaborations. Removing barriers to diverse participation requires coordinated, mindful actions by individuals and organizations. We hope that the proposed network and other actions presented in this paper find widespread support, and that they might serve both as inspiration and guide to other groups concerned with increasing diversity and inclusivity.

  7. Systematic conservation planning for groundwater ecosystems using phylogenetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Asmyhr

    Full Text Available Aquifer ecosystems provide a range of important services including clean drinking water. These ecosystems, which are largely inaccessible to humans, comprise a distinct invertebrate fauna (stygofauna, which is characterized by narrow distributions, high levels of endemism and cryptic species. Although being under enormous anthropogenic pressure, aquifers have rarely been included in conservation planning because of the general lack of knowledge of species diversity and distribution. Here we use molecular sequence data and phylogenetic diversity as surrogates for stygofauna diversity in aquifers of New South Wales, Australia. We demonstrate how to incorporate these data as conservation features in the systematic conservation planning software Marxan. We designated each branch of the phylogenetic tree as a conservation feature, with the branch length as a surrogate for the number of distinct characters represented by each branch. Two molecular markers (nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I were used to evaluate how marker variability and the resulting tree topology affected the site-selection process. We found that the sites containing the deepest phylogenetic branches were deemed the most irreplaceable by Marxan. By integrating phylogenetic data, we provide a method for including taxonomically undescribed groundwater fauna in systematic conservation planning.

  8. Towards conserving regional mammalian species diversity: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Afr. Tydskr. Dierk. 1995,30(3). Towards conserving regional mammalian species diversity: a case study and data critique. Stefanie Freitag* and A.S. van Jaarsveld. Department of Zoology and Entomology. University of Pretoria. Pretoria 0002. South Africa. Received 3 March 1995; accepted 20 Ju/y 1995. Species richness ...

  9. Status of insect diversity conservation in Nigeria: A review | Kehinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, like most of the countries in the tropics is a treasure trove of insect diversity; however, limited information is available on the taxonomy, ecology, genetics and biogeography of its insect fauna. This dearth of background scientific knowledge impedes successful insect conservation policy and practice. Even though a ...

  10. Assessment of the genetic diversity conservation in three tall coconut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the genetic diversity conservation in three tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions regenerated by controlled pollination, using microsatellite markers. Saraka Didier Martial Yao, Konan Jean Louis Konan, N'Da Désiré Pokou, Kouamé Jean Noel Konan, Auguste Emmanuel Issali, Raoul Sylvère Sie, Bi Irié ...

  11. Biological diversity in the patent system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oldham

    Full Text Available Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL. We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on

  12. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  13. Insights from life history theory for an explicit treatment of trade-offs in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    As economic and social contexts become more embedded within biodiversity conservation, it becomes obvious that resources are a limiting factor in conservation. This recognition is leading conservation scientists and practitioners to increasingly frame conservation decisions as trade-offs between conflicting societal objectives. However, this framing is all too often done in an intuitive way, rather than by addressing trade-offs explicitly. In contrast, the concept of trade-off is a keystone in evolutionary biology, where it has been investigated extensively. I argue that insights from evolutionary theory can provide methodological and theoretical support to evaluating and quantifying trade-offs in biodiversity conservation. I reviewed the diverse ways in which trade-offs have emerged within the context of conservation and how advances from evolutionary theory can help avoid the main pitfalls of an implicit approach. When studying both evolutionary trade-offs (e.g., reproduction vs. survival) and conservation trade-offs (e.g., biodiversity conservation vs. agriculture), it is crucial to correctly identify the limiting resource, hold constant the amount of this resource when comparing different scenarios, and choose appropriate metrics to quantify the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. Insights from studies in evolutionary theory also reveal how an inadequate selection of conservation solutions may result from considering suboptimal rather than optional solutions when examining whether a trade-off exits between 2 objectives. Furthermore, the shape of a trade-off curve (i.e., whether the relationship between 2 objectives follows a concave, convex, or linear form) is known to affect crucially the definition of optimal solutions in evolutionary biology and very likely affects decisions in biodiversity conservation planning too. This interface between evolutionary biology and biodiversity conservation can therefore provide methodological guidance to

  14. Applications of landscape genetics in conservation biology: concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernot Segelbacher; Samuel A. Cushman; Bryan K. Epperson; Marie-Josee Fortin; Olivier Francois; Olivier J. Hardy; Rolf Holderegger; Stephanie Manel

    2010-01-01

    Landscape genetics plays an increasingly important role in the management and conservation of species. Here, we highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in using landscape genetic approaches in conservation biology. We first discuss challenges related to sampling design and introduce several recent methodological developments in landscape genetics (analyses...

  15. Split diversity in constrained conservation prioritization using integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomor, Olga; Minh, Bui Quang; Forest, Félix; Klaere, Steffen; Ingram, Travis; Henzinger, Monika; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a measure of biodiversity based on the evolutionary history of species. Here, we discuss several optimization problems related to the use of PD, and the more general measure split diversity (SD), in conservation prioritization.Depending on the conservation goal and the information available about species, one can construct optimization routines that incorporate various conservation constraints. We demonstrate how this information can be used to select sets of species for conservation action. Specifically, we discuss the use of species' geographic distributions, the choice of candidates under economic pressure, and the use of predator-prey interactions between the species in a community to define viability constraints.Despite such optimization problems falling into the area of NP hard problems, it is possible to solve them in a reasonable amount of time using integer programming. We apply integer linear programming to a variety of models for conservation prioritization that incorporate the SD measure.We exemplarily show the results for two data sets: the Cape region of South Africa and a Caribbean coral reef community. Finally, we provide user-friendly software at http://www.cibiv.at/software/pda.

  16. Integration of ecological-biological thresholds in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Borsuk, Mark E; Howarth, Richard B

    2016-12-01

    In the Anthropocene, coupled human and natural systems dominate and only a few natural systems remain relatively unaffected by human influence. On the one hand, conservation criteria based on areas of minimal human impact are not relevant to much of the biosphere. On the other hand, conservation criteria based on economic factors are problematic with respect to their ability to arrive at operational indicators of well-being that can be applied in practice over multiple generations. Coupled human and natural systems are subject to economic development which, under current management structures, tends to affect natural systems and cross planetary boundaries. Hence, designing and applying conservation criteria applicable in real-world systems where human and natural systems need to interact and sustainably coexist is essential. By recognizing the criticality of satisfying basic needs as well as the great uncertainty over the needs and preferences of future generations, we sought to incorporate conservation criteria based on minimal human impact into economic evaluation. These criteria require the conservation of environmental conditions such that the opportunity for intergenerational welfare optimization is maintained. Toward this end, we propose the integration of ecological-biological thresholds into decision making and use as an example the planetary-boundaries approach. Both conservation scientists and economists must be involved in defining operational ecological-biological thresholds that can be incorporated into economic thinking and reflect the objectives of conservation, sustainability, and intergenerational welfare optimization. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Evaluating children's conservation biology learning at the zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Millions of children visit zoos every year with parents or schools to encounter wildlife firsthand. Public conservation education is a requirement for membership in professional zoo associations. However, in recent years zoos have been criticized for failing to educate the public on conservation issues and related biological concepts, such as animal adaptation to habitats. I used matched pre- and postvisit mixed methods questionnaires to investigate the educational value of zoo visits for children aged 7-15 years. The questionnaires gathered qualitative data from these individuals, including zoo-related thoughts and an annotated drawing of a habitat. A content analysis of these qualitative data produced the quantitative data reported in this article. I evaluated the relative learning outcomes of educator-guided and unguided zoo visits at London Zoo, both in terms of learning about conservation biology (measured by annotated drawings) and changing attitudes toward wildlife conservation (measured using thought-listing data). Forty-one percent of educator-guided visits and 34% of unguided visits resulted in conservation biology-related learning. Negative changes in children's understanding of animals and their habitats were more prevalent in unguided zoo visits. Overall, my results show the potential educational value of visiting zoos for children. However, they also suggest that zoos' standard unguided interpretive materials are insufficient for achieving the best outcomes for visiting children. These results support a theoretical model of conservation biology learning that frames conservation educators as toolmakers who develop conceptual resources to enhance children's understanding of science. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Butterfly diversity in Kolkata, India: An appraisal for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnali Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An appraisal of butterfly species diversity was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Random sampling of rural, suburban, and urban sites in and around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 96 butterfly species, dominated by Lycaenidae (31.25% over Nymphalidae (28.13%, Hesperiidae (18.75%, Pieridae (12.50%, and Papilionidae (9.38%. Suburban sites accounted for 96 species, followed by rural (81 species and urban (53 species over the study period. The relative abundance of the butterflies varied with the site, month, and family significantly. It is apparent that the urban areas of Kolkata can sustain diverse butterfly species which includes species of requiring conservation effort. Considering the landscape of Kolkata, steps to enhance urban greening should be adopted to maintain butterfly diversity and sustain the ecosystem services derived from them.

  19. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are from the third symposium dedicated to management and conservation of black basses in the genus Micropterus. The first symposium was held in 1975 (R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Black Bass Biology and Management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute) followed 25 years later by Black Bass 2000 (D. P. Philipp and M. S. Ridgway. 2002. Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society). Although the previous books discussed conservation of genetic variation and distinct strains of basses, the bulk of the papers in those tomes emphasized management of largemouth and smallmouth bass. In contrast, this third symposium is focused on the rarer bass species and challenges for their successful management.

  20. Pollinator conservation — the difference between managing for pollination services and preserving pollinator diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senapathi, Deepa; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Breeze, T.; Kleijn, D.; Potts, S.G.; Carvalheiro, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Our review looks at pollinator conservation and highlights the differences in approach between managing for pollination services and preserving pollinator diversity. We argue that ecosystem service management does not equal biodiversity conservation, and that maintaining species diversity is crucial

  1. Targeting climate diversity in conservation planning to build resilience to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Nicole E.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Ackerly, David; Weiss, Stuart; Recinos, Amanda; Branciforte, Ryan; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Micheli, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is raising challenging concerns for systematic conservation planning. Are methods based on the current spatial patterns of biodiversity effective given long-term climate change? Some conservation scientists argue that planning should focus on protecting the abiotic diversity in the landscape, which drives patterns of biological diversity, rather than focusing on the distribution of focal species, which shift in response to climate change. Climate is one important abiotic driver of biodiversity patterns, as different climates host different biological communities and genetic pools. We propose conservation networks that capture the full range of climatic diversity in a region will improve the resilience of biotic communities to climate change compared to networks that do not. In this study we used historical and future hydro-climate projections from the high resolution Basin Characterization Model to explore the utility of directly targeting climatic diversity in planning. Using the spatial planning tool, Marxan, we designed conservation networks to capture the diversity of climate types, at the regional and sub-regional scale, and compared them to networks we designed to capture the diversity of vegetation types. By focusing on the Conservation Lands Network (CLN) of the San Francisco Bay Area as a real-world case study, we compared the potential resilience of networks by examining two factors: the range of climate space captured, and climatic stability to 18 future climates, reflecting different emission scenarios and global climate models. We found that the climate-based network planned at the sub-regional scale captured a greater range of climate space and showed higher climatic stability than the vegetation and regional based-networks. At the same time, differences among network scenarios are small relative to the variance in climate stability across global climate models. Across different projected futures, topographically heterogeneous areas

  2. Influence of ethnic traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Xiaodong; Caiji, Zhuoma; Yang, Jingbiao; Cui, Di; Cao, Guilan; Ma, Xiaoding; Han, Bing; Xue, Dayuan; Han, Longzhi

    2016-10-27

    Crop genetic resources are important components of biodiversity. However, with the large-scale promotion of mono-cropping, genetic diversity has largely been lost. Ex-situ conservation approaches were widely used to protect traditional crop varieties worldwide. However, this method fails to maintain the dynamic evolutionary processes of crop genetic resources in their original habitats, leading to genetic diversity reduction and even loss of the capacity of resistance to new diseases and pests. Therefore, on-farm conservation has been considered a crucial complement to ex-situ conservation. This study aimed at clarifying the genetic diversity differences between ex-situ conservation and on-farm conservation and to exploring the influence of traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation. The conservation status of rice landrace varieties, including Indica and Japonica, non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa) and glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa Matsum), was obtained through ethno-biology investigation method in 12 villages of ethnic groups from Guizhou, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China. The genetic diversity between 24 pairs of the same rice landraces from different times were compared using simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers technology. The landrace paris studied were collected in 1980 and maintained ex-situ, while 2014 samples were collected on-farm in southwest of China. The results showed that many varieties of rice landraces have been preserved on-farm by local farmers for hundreds or thousands of years. The number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei genetic diversity index (He) and Shannon information index (I) of rice landraces were significantly higher by 12.3-30.4 % under on-farm conservation than under ex-situ conservation. Compared with the ex-situ conservation approach, rice landraces under on-farm conservation programs had more alleles and higher genetic diversity. In

  3. Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Tara L; Manfredo, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    North American state wildlife agencies are increasingly faced with the challenge of effectively representing a diverse public. With increasing social conflict over wildlife issues, the future of wildlife conservation hinges on preparedness of the profession to respond to this challenge. In the interest of finding ways to improve response, 19 agencies in the western U.S. joined forces to initiate an investigation that would provide a better understanding of the diversity of wildlife-related interests in the region. Specific objectives, accomplished through use of a mail survey administered in 2004, were to categorize people on the basis of their value orientations toward wildlife and explore how different groups were distributed across states and to examine differences on sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward wildlife-related topics among groups. The focus was on two orientations: domination (view of wildlife that prioritizes human well-being over wildlife and treats wildlife in utilitarian terms); and mutualism (view of wildlife as capable of relationships of trust with humans and defined by a desire for companionship with wildlife). Four types of people were identified on the basis of these orientations. Types differed in their geographic distribution and wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors, revealing how value orientations can form the foundation for conflict on wildlife issues. Our characterizations of stakeholder groups offer a framework that can be applied over time and across geographic scales to improve conservation planning efforts and inform broader thinking about the social aspects of wildlife conservation.

  4. Phylogenetic diversity (PD and biodiversity conservation: some bioinformatics challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Faith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation addresses information challenges through estimations encapsulated in measures of diversity. A quantitative measure of phylogenetic diversity, “PD”, has been defined as the minimum total length of all the phylogenetic branches required to span a given set of taxa on the phylogenetic tree (Faith 1992a. While a recent paper incorrectly characterizes PD as not including information about deeper phylogenetic branches, PD applications over the past decade document the proper incorporation of shared deep branches when assessing the total PD of a set of taxa. Current PD applications to macroinvertebrate taxa in streams of New South Wales, Australia illustrate the practical importance of this definition. Phylogenetic lineages, often corresponding to new, “cryptic”, taxa, are restricted to a small number of stream localities. A recent case of human impact causing loss of taxa in one locality implies a higher PD value for another locality, because it now uniquely represents a deeper branch. This molecular-based phylogenetic pattern supports the use of DNA barcoding programs for biodiversity conservation planning. Here, PD assessments side-step the contentious use of barcoding-based “species” designations. Bio-informatics challenges include combining different phylogenetic evidence, optimization problems for conservation planning, and effective integration of phylogenetic information with environmental and socio-economic data.

  5. The impact of landsat satellite monitoring on conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimgruber, Peter; Christen, Catherine A; Laborderie, Alison

    2005-07-01

    Landsat 7's recent malfunctioning will result in significant gaps in long-term satellite monitoring of Earth, affecting not only the research of the Earth science community but also conservation users of these data. To determine whether or how important Landsat monitoring is for conservation and natural resource management, we reviewed the Landsat program's history with special emphasis on the development of user groups. We also conducted a bibliographic search to determine the extent to which conservation research has been based on Landsat data. Conservation biologists were not an early user group of Landsat data because a) biologists lacked technical capacity--computers and software--to analyze these data; b) Landsat's 1980s commercialization rendered images too costly for biologists' budgets; and c) the broad-scale disciplines of conservation biology and landscape ecology did not develop until the mid-to-late 1980s. All these conditions had changed by the 1990s and Landsat imagery became an important tool for conservation biology. Satellite monitoring and Landsat continuity are mandated by the Land Remote Sensing Act of 1992. This legislation leaves open commercial options. However, past experiments with commercial operations were neither viable nor economical, and severely reduced the quality of monitoring, archiving and data access for academia and the public. Future satellite monitoring programs are essential for conservation and natural resource management, must provide continuity with Landsat, and should be government operated.

  6. Bird diversity and conservation of Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla), Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla, Central Mexico) is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest. Data were obtained during 1666 hours of field work in 238 days from March 1998 to September 2000. Six permanent transect (3.5 km long and 100 m wide; 30 to 40 ha in each transect) were used to determine species richness in the study sites. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for each site and Sorensen's index was used to assess similarity between sites. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. A total of 128 species were recorded, Tepexco (n=75, H' = 3.76) and Puente Márquez (n=61, H' = 3.62) were the sites that showed the greatest specific richness and diversity. However, species richness and diversity seasonally patterns were similar among sites (ANOVA p > 0.05), with highest diversity during the rainy season. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats. Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores.

  7. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Markers in Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. Decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. In this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at functionally important genes is within reach for conservation programs. A key region of the genome that should be targeted for population genetic studies is the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). MHC genes, found in all jawed vertebrates, are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. They play key roles in immune function via immune-recognition and -surveillance and host-parasite interaction. Therefore, measuring levels of polymorphism at these genes can provide indirect measures of the immunological fitness of populations. The MHC has also been linked with mate-choice and pregnancy outcomes and has application for improving mating success in captive breeding programs. The recent discovery that genetic diversity at MHC genes may protect against the spread of contagious cancers provides an added impetus for managing and protecting MHC diversity in wild populations. Here we review the field and focus on the successful applications of MHC-typing for conservation management. We emphasize the importance of using MHC markers when planning and executing wildlife rescue and conservation programs but stress that this should not be done to the detriment of genome-wide diversity. PMID:21954351

  8. Variegated tropical landscapes conserve diverse dung beetle communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Conserving biodiversity in tropical landscapes is a major challenge to scientists and conservationists. Current rates of deforestation, fragmentation, and land use intensification are producing variegated landscapes with undetermined values for the conservation of biological communities and ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigate the importance of tropical variegated landscapes to biodiversity conservation, using dung beetle as focal taxa. Methods The study was carried out in 12 variegated landscapes where dung beetles were sampled using six pitfall traps, 30 m apart from each other, along a transect in each studied landscape use and cover classes—LUCC (forest fragment and corridor, coffee plantation, and pasture. We baited each pitfall trap with 30 g of human feces and left open for a 48 h period. We also measured three environmental variables reflecting structural differences among the studied classes: canopy cover, local vegetation heterogeneity and soil sand content. Results We collected 52 species and 2,695 individuals of dung beetles. We observed significant differences in the mean species richness, abundance and biomass among classes, with forest fragments presenting the highest values, forest corridors and coffee plantations presenting intermediate values, and pastures the lowest values. Regarding community structure, we also found significant differences among classes. Canopy cover was the only variable explaining variation in dung beetle species richness, abundance, biomass, and community structure. The relative importance of spatial turnover was greater than nestedness-resultant component in all studied landscapes. Discussion This study evaluated the ecological patterns of dung beetle communities in variegated tropical landscapes highlighting the importance of these landscapes for conservation of tropical biodiversity. However, we encourage variegation for the management of landscapes that have already been fragmented

  9. Seed plant phylogenetic diversity and species richness in conservation planning within a global biodiversity hotspot in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J B; Yu, Haiying; Li, Heng

    2015-12-01

    One of the main goals of conservation biology is to understand the factors shaping variation in biodiversity across the planet. This understanding is critical for conservation planners to be able to develop effective conservation strategies. Although many studies have focused on species richness and the protection of rare and endemic species, less attention has been paid to the protection of the phylogenetic dimension of biodiversity. We explored how phylogenetic diversity, species richness, and phylogenetic community structure vary in seed plant communities along an elevational gradient in a relatively understudied high mountain region, the Dulong Valley, in southeastern Tibet, China. As expected, phylogenetic diversity was well correlated with species richness among the elevational bands and among communities. At the community level, evergreen broad-leaved forests had the highest levels of species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region. Evergreen broad-leaved forests were phylogenetically overdispersed, whereas other vegetation types tended to be phylogenetically clustered. We suggest that communities with high species richness or overdispersed phylogenetic structure should be a focus for biodiversity conservation within the Dulong Valley because these areas may help maximize the potential of this flora to respond to future global change. In biodiversity hotspots worldwide, we suggest that the phylogenetic structure of a community may serve as a useful measure of phylogenetic diversity in the context of conservation planning. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TEACHING "MATH-LITE" CONSERVATION (BOOK REVIEW OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY WITH RAMAS ECOLAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is designed to serve as a laboratory workbook for an undergraduate course in conservation biology, environmental science, or natural resource management. By integrating with RAMAS EcoLab software, the book provides instructors with hands-on computer exercises that can ...

  12. Chondrichthyan Diversity, Conservation Status, and Management Challenges in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding key aspects of the biology and ecology of chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimeras, as well as the range of threats affecting their populations is crucial given the rapid rate at which some species are declining. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP, the lack of knowledge, unreliable (or non-existent landing statistics, and limited enforcement of existing fisheries regulations has hindered management and conservation efforts for chondrichthyan species. This review evaluated our current understanding of Costa Rican chondrichthyans and their conservation status. Specifically, we (1 provide an updated checklist on the species richness, habitat use, and distribution patterns, (2 summarize the most relevant chondrichthyan studies (scientific publications, theses, and official technical reports, (3 identify knowledge gaps, (4 discuss fisheries-related threats, and (5 highlight the management challenges and research needs to effectively protect their populations. A total of 99 chondrichthyan species are formally recorded in Costa Rican waters, from which 15% are threatened with extinction and 41% are “Data Deficient” based on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. A total of 121 studies were published between 1891 and 2017; 82% in the Pacific (24% from Isla del Coco and only 18% from the Caribbean Sea. These results highlight the need to redirect research efforts on specific taxonomic groups and geographic regions (i.e., Caribbean. Based on our review, improving the quality and quantity of fisheries landing statistics, as well as determining the degree of overlap between chondrichthyans and Costa Rican fisheries remains a priority. We proposed an adaptive management framework for chondrichthyan fisheries in data-poor countries where management goals/targets are clearly defined. This framework could strengthen the conservation of chondrichthyan populations in Costa Rica and the region.

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of specially protected areas for conservation of Antarctica's botanical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Ireland, Louise C; Convey, Peter; Fleming, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation is sparsely distributed over Antarctica's ice-free ground, and distinct plant communities are present in each of the continent's 15 recently identified Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs). With rapidly increasing human activity in Antarctica, terrestrial plant communities are at risk of damage or destruction by trampling, overland transport, and infrastructure construction and from the impacts of anthropogenically introduced species, as well as uncontrollable pressures such as fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) activity and climate change. Under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, the conservation of plant communities can be enacted and facilitated through the designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs). We examined the distribution within the 15 ACBRs of the 33 ASPAs whose explicit purpose includes protecting macroscopic terrestrial flora. We completed the first survey using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite remote sensing to provide baseline data on the extent of vegetation cover in all ASPAs designated for plant protection in Antarctica. Large omissions in the protection of Antarctic botanical diversity were found. There was no protection of plant communities in 6 ACBRs, and in another 6, area was included in an ASPA that protected vegetation. Protected vegetation cover within the 33 ASPAs totaled 16.1 km(2) for the entire Antarctic continent; over half was within a single protected area. Over 96% of the protected vegetation was contained in 2 ACBRs, which together contributed only 7.8% of the continent's ice-free ground. We conclude that Antarctic botanical diversity is clearly inadequately protected and call for systematic designation of ASPAs protecting plant communities by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties, the members of the governing body of the continent. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society

  14. Impacts of taxonomic inertia for the conservation of African ungulate diversity: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gippoliti, Spartaco; Cotterill, Fenton P D; Zinner, Dietmar; Groves, Colin P

    2018-02-01

    We review the state of African ungulate taxonomy over the last 120 years, with an emphasis on the introduction of the polytypic species concept and the discipline's general neglect since the middle of the 20th century. We single out negative consequences of 'orthodox' taxonomy, highlighting numerous cases of neglect of threatened lineages, unsound translocations that led to lineage introgression, and cases of maladaptation to local conditions including parasitic infections. Additionally, several captive breeding programmes have been hampered by chromosome rearrangements caused by involuntary lineage mixing. We advocate that specimen-based taxonomy should regain its keystone role in mammal research and conservation biology, with its scientific values augmented with genomic evidence. While integration with molecular biology, ecology and behaviour is needed for a full understanding of ungulate alpha diversity, we stress that morphological diversity has been neglected despite its tremendous practical importance for some groups of 'utilizers' such as trophy hunters, wildlife tourists and conservationists. We conclude that there is no evidence that purported 'taxonomic inflation' has adverse effects on ungulate conservation: rather, it is taxonomic inertia that has such adverse effects. We stress that sound science, founded on robust taxonomy, should underpin effective sustainable management (hunting, ranching, captive breeding and reintroduction programmes) of this unique African natural resource. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. DIVERSITY, ESTRUCTURE AND RICHNESS INDICATORS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF VEGETATION BIODIVERSITY IN RURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vite Cristóbal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient sampling techniques for the study of linear vegetation remnants in the Mexican tropics anthropised areas was the main premise for this research, in order to determine the diversity, richness and vegetation structure of rural landscapes according to its conservation value through efficient and representative linear sampling techniques. The biological characterization of plants was performed in an area of 4,096 m2, in eight components of the landscape, a total of 2260 ha. The vegetation consists of 144 species, 127 genera and 51 families. These were distributed at herbs 71.26%, shrubs 22.80%, trees 3.49%, and vines 2.45%. High values ​​of diversity and richness were found in hedgerows, stream shore, shore road, scrub and citrus growing. It is suggested to give priority to the conservation of stream bank that protects species such as Cedrela odorata and Sapium macrocarpum. The efficiency and representativeness of the sample was 95% through rarefaction given by the best fit of Chao 1 and ACE, highly significant linear correlation between true diversity and richness of species, and the high value of spare.

  16. A importância da ordem Ciconiiformes na cadeia epidemiológica de Salmonella spp. para a saúde pública e a conservação da diversidade biológica The role of order Ciconiiformes in the epidemiological chain of Salmonella spp. for public health and biological diversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade biológica é representada por todas as unidades da natureza e sua conservação diz respeito à sobrevivência da própria espécie humana. Uma das ameaças à sua conservação são as doenças infecciosas que afetam a fauna, dentre as quais se podee incluir a salmonelose como uma das mais importantes, especialmente para a avifauna. Aves de topo de cadeia alimentar como os Ciconiiformes podem ser potenciais reservatórios e disseminadores da Salmonella spp. para outras espécies silvestres e também para populações humanas e animais domésticos, podendo causar prejuízos à saúde pública e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se descrever a infecção ou doença por Salmonella sp., o seu agente etiológico e sua ocorrência em Ciconiiformes, bem como demonstrar a importância destas aves na cadeia epidemiológica silvestre desta zoonose, verificando os riscos para a saúde pública e para a conservação da diversidade biológica.Biological diversity is represented by all nature units and its conservation is about the survival of human beings. Infectious diseases are one of the possible threats for wildlife conservation, which includes salmonellosis as a most important disease, especially for the avifauna. Top alimentary chain birds such as Ciconiiformes can be reservoirs and disseminators of Salmonella spp. to other wild and domestic animals, and also for human populations, with serious risks to public and environmental health. This review describes infection by Salmonella spp., its etiological agent and occurrence in Ciconiiformes, as well as the importance of these wild birds for the epidemiological chain of the zoonosis, and discusses the risks for public health and biological diversity conservation.

  17. Increasing Diversity of Biological Membrane Fission Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Henri-François; Johannes, Ludger; Morsomme, Pierre

    2018-01-04

    Membrane fission is essential to life. It is required for many fundamental cellular processes, as diverse as cyto- and karyokinesis, organelle division, membrane repair, and membrane trafficking and endocytosis. While membrane fission was originally seen as resulting from the action of mechanoenzymes such as dynamin, it is clear that the reality is more complex. In this review, we propose an updated overview of fission mechanisms, and try to extract essential requirements for each. We also present examples of cellular processes that involve these fission mechanisms. Finally, we list pending questions, whether they are specific to a peculiar fission mechanism or more general to the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosocial Conservation: Integrating Biological and Ethnographic Methods to Study Human-Primate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Fairet, Emilie; Shutt, Kathryn; Waters, Siân; Bell, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings. Here, we review three different projects that confront this difficulty, integrating biological and ethnographic methods to study conservation problems. The first project involved wildlife foraging on crops around a newly established national park in Gabon. Biological methods revealed the extent of crop loss, the species responsible, and an effect of field isolation, while ethnography revealed institutional and social vulnerability to foraging wildlife. The second project concerned great ape tourism in the Central African Republic. Biological methods revealed that gorilla tourism poses risks to gorillas, while ethnography revealed why people seek close proximity to gorillas. The third project focused on humans and other primates living alongside one another in Morocco. Incorporating shepherds in the coproduction of ecological knowledge about primates built trust and altered attitudes to the primates. These three case studies demonstrate how the integration of biological and social methods can help us to understand the sustainability of human-wildlife interactions, and thus promote coexistence. In each case, an integrated biosocial approach incorporating ethnographic data produced results that would not otherwise have come to light. Research that transcends conventional academic boundaries requires the openness and flexibility to move beyond one's comfort zone to understand and acknowledge the legitimacy of "other" kinds of knowledge. It is

  19. Bird diversity and conservation of Alto Balsas (Southwestern Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Ramírez-Albores

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla, Central Mexico is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest. Data were obtained during 1666 hours of field work in 238 days from March 1998 to September 2000. Six permanent transect (3.5 km long and 100 m wide; 30 to 40 ha in each transect were used to determine species richness in the study sites. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for each site and Sorensen’s index was used to assess similarity between sites. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. A total of 128 species were recorded, Tepexco (n = 75, H´= 3.76 and Puente Márquez (n = 61, H´= 3.62 were the sites that showed the greatest specific richness and diversity. However, species richness and diversity seasonally patterns were similar among sites (ANOVA p > 0.05, with highest diversity during the rainy season. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats. Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 287-300. Epub 2007 March. 31.Este estudio describe la diversidad avifaunística en sitios del Alto Balsas (suroeste de Puebla en el Centro de México y examina la variación en la diversidad de las especies de aves. El estudio fue llevado a cabo en sitios con presencia de bosque tropical caducifolio. Los datos fueron obtenidos durante 1666 horas de trabajo de campo en 238 días de Marzo 1998 a Septiembre 2000. Se realizaron seis transectos permanentes (de 3.5 km de longitud y 100 m de ancho; de 30 a 40 ha en cada transecto para determinar la riqueza de especies en los sitios de estudio. Se

  20. Genes in the Field : On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Genes in the Field : On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Couverture du livre Genes in the Field : On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity. Directeur(s):. Stephen B. Brush. Maison(s) d'édition: IPGRI, Lewis Publishers, CRDI. 1 janvier 2000. ISBN : Épuisé. 300 pages. e-ISBN : 1552503275. Téléchargez le PDF.

  1. Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world's botanic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross; Smith, Paul; Brockington, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, an estimated 76% of species absent from living collections are tropical in origin. Furthermore, phylogenetic bias ensures that over 50% of vascular genera, but barely 5% of non-vascular genera, are conserved ex situ. While botanic gardens are discernibly responding to the threat of species extinction, just 10% of network capacity is devoted to threatened species. We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity.

  2. Whole-genome sequencing approaches for conservation biology: Advantages, limitations and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2017-10-01

    Whole-genome resequencing (WGR) is a powerful method for addressing fundamental evolutionary biology questions that have not been fully resolved using traditional methods. WGR includes four approaches: the sequencing of individuals to a high depth of coverage with either unresolved or resolved haplotypes, the sequencing of population genomes to a high depth by mixing equimolar amounts of unlabelled-individual DNA (Pool-seq) and the sequencing of multiple individuals from a population to a low depth (lcWGR). These techniques require the availability of a reference genome. This, along with the still high cost of shotgun sequencing and the large demand for computing resources and storage, has limited their implementation in nonmodel species with scarce genomic resources and in fields such as conservation biology. Our goal here is to describe the various WGR methods, their pros and cons and potential applications in conservation biology. WGR offers an unprecedented marker density and surveys a wide diversity of genetic variations not limited to single nucleotide polymorphisms (e.g., structural variants and mutations in regulatory elements), increasing their power for the detection of signatures of selection and local adaptation as well as for the identification of the genetic basis of phenotypic traits and diseases. Currently, though, no single WGR approach fulfils all requirements of conservation genetics, and each method has its own limitations and sources of potential bias. We discuss proposed ways to minimize such biases. We envision a not distant future where the analysis of whole genomes becomes a routine task in many nonmodel species and fields including conservation biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Captive-breeding and conservation of the European mammal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Gippoliti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the biological species concept, the intraspecific variability and true species richness of Palearctic mammals has often been overlooked, and therefore the need to conserve it. Recovery projects of endangered European mammals in Western Europe rely mainly upon translocation of conspecifics from viable populations in Central or Eastern Europe. From a wildlife management and restoration ecology point of view, many such recovery projects have been successful. However, from a biodiversity perspective it could be argued that they could have failed to protect the original European biodiversity. The increasing evidence of a complex phylogeographic pattern in many European mammals - especially in the Mediterranean region - has led to a reconsideration of the conservation unit and highlights the need for species-specific programmes for assuring the survival of threatened, distinctive populations. Such programs should also include captive breeding. It is therefore suggested that a two-level classification of captive breeding programmes is needed according to the degree of threat of concerned taxa, to maximise available resources without jeopardising in situ conservation. It is proposed to distinguish between a level I captive breeding programmes, which are part of the conservation strategy for seriously threatened taxa and need to be financed by state or federal agencies, and b "prophylactic" level II for vulnerable taxa or populations, and for which funds may be available mainly from the private sector. Available evidence suggests that given adequate husbandry techniques and pre-release training, even captive-bred carnivores can be successfully reintroduced to the wild. However, a closer collaboration among zoological gardens, zoologists and agencies involved in wildlife conservation is needed to avoid ill-conceived, potentially dangerous captive-breeding and re-introduction projects.

  4. Beyond biology: toward a more public ecology for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate purpose of conservation science is to inform and affect conservation policy. Therefore, conservation biologists and all the people who produce, review, and apply conservation research should evaluate the success of their knowledge according to its ability to influence conservation decisions. In addition to possessing conventional "scientific"...

  5. Molecular identification of livestock breeds: a tool for modern conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaro, Mohammed; Munyard, Kylie A; Stear, Michael J; Groth, David M

    2017-05-01

    Global livestock genetic diversity includes all of the species, breeds and strains of domestic animals, and their variations. Although a recent census indicated that there were 40 species and over 8000 breeds of domestic animals; for the purpose of conservation biology the diversity between and within breeds rather than species is regarded to be of crucial importance. This domestic animal genetic diversity has developed through three main evolutionary events, from speciation (about 3 million years ago) through domestication (about 12000 years ago) to specialised breeding (starting about 200 years ago). These events and their impacts on global animal genetic resources have been well documented in the literature. The key importance of global domestic animal resources in terms of economic, scientific and cultural heritage has also been addressed. In spite of their importance, there is a growing number of reports on the alarming erosion of domestic animal genetic resources. This erosion of is happening in spite of several global conservation initiatives designed to mitigate it. Herein we discuss these conservation interventions and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. However, pivotal to the success of these conservation initiatives is the reliability of the genetic assignment of individual members to a target breed. Finally, we discuss the prospect of using improved breed identification methodologies to develop a reliable breed-specific molecular identification tool that is easily applicable to populations of livestock breeds in various ecosystems. These identification tools, when developed, will not only facilitate the regular monitoring of threatened or endangered breed populations, but also enhance the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Biolog for the determination of diversity in microbial communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, different carbon source profiles were generated by inoculating Biolog GN and GP microtitre plates, with different dilutions of microbial communities. The high number of substrates utilised at the lower dilutions (10-1 and 10-2) indicated a high functional diversity in the communities tested. This, however, did not ...

  7. Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop C. van Lenteren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the "Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing". This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article, we summarize our concern about the effects of access and benefit sharing systems on the future of biological control.

  8. Translating conservation genetics into management: Pan-European minimum requirements for dynamic conservation units of forest tree genetic diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Schueler, Silvio; Kraigher, Hojka; Olrik, Ditte C.; Hubert, Jason; Longauer, Roman; Bozzano, Michele; Yrjänä, Leena; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Rotach, Peter; Vietto, Lorenzo; Bordács, Sándor; Myking, Tor; Eysteinsson, Thröstur

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a review of theoretical and practical aspects related to genetic management of forest trees. The implementation of international commitments on forest genetic diversity has been slow and partly neglected. Conservation of forest genetic diversity is still riddled with problems, and complexities of national legal and administrative structures. Europe is an example of a complex region where the dis- tribution ranges of tree species extend across large geographical areas with ...

  9. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  10. Communication, Education and Public Awareness in Support of Living in Harmony with Nature: The Convention on Biological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which came into force in 1993, encourages actions that will guide the way to a sustainable future. It pursues three main goals: (1) conservation of biodiversity; (2) sustainable use of biodiversity; and (3) fair and equitable sharing arising from the use of genetic resources. Article 13…

  11. Book review: Biology and conservation of North American tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David; Aiello, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    The charismatic North American tortoises hold a special place in our culture and natural history. Despite the perseverance of these tortoises over millions of years, biologists now question their ability to persist into the future. In light of documented declines, habitat loss, and numerous threats to tortoise populations, the editors gathered a diverse group of researchers to review what we have learned about this group after decades of study, to summarize gaps in the literature, and to reflect on how we may use the current state of knowledge to conserve these fascinating species. Initially intended as a focused review of the two most well-studied species in the genus Gopherus, G. agassizii (Mohave Desert Tortoise) and G. polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise), the book developed into a comprehensive treatment of the entire genus. The editors offer the work as a resource to professional biologists and agencies working with North American tortoises as well as a teaching aid, hobbyist’s reference, and casual read for nature-lovers—although we presume that the former group is more likely to benefit than the latter. Although the book’s size appears modest, the content delivers an in-depth look at the five recognized tortoise species.

  12. Access and benefit sharing (ABS) under the convention on biological diversity (CBD): implications for microbial biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers and implementers of biological control are confronted with a variety of scientific, regulatory and administrative challenges to their biological control programs. One developing challenge will arise from the implementation of provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) co...

  13. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Production of rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid B in Ti transformed Salvia miltiorrhiza cell suspension cultures. Process Biochem. 34: 777-784. Clarke GM, Dwyer CO (2000). Genetic variability and population structure of the endangered golden sun moth, Synemon plana. Biol. Conserv. 92: 371- 381.

  14. Applying the dark diversity concept to nature conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, R. J.; de Bello, Francesco; Bennett, J. A.; Fibich, P.; Finerty, G. E.; Götzenberger, Lars; Hiiesalu, Inga; Kasari, L.; Lepš, J.; Májeková, M.; Mudrák, Ondřej; Riibak, K.; Ronk, A.; Rychtecká, T.; Vítová, A.; Pärtel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-47 ISSN 0888-8892 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : absent species * completeness * conservation ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.842, year: 2016

  15. Doublesex: a conserved downstream gene controlled by diverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene at the bottom of the sex-determination cascade is the best characterized candidate so far, and is conserved from worms (mab3 of Caenorhabditis elegans) to mammals (Dmrt-1). Studies of dsx homologues from insect species belonging to different orders position them at the bottom of ...

  16. Waterfowl populations of conservation concern: learning from diverse challenges, models, and conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Slattery, Stuart; Clark, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    There are 30 threatened or endangered species of waterfowl worldwide, and several sub-populations are also threatened. Some of these species occur in North America, and others there are also of conservation concern due to declining population trends and their importance to hunters. Here we review conservation initiatives being undertaken for several of these latter species, along with conservation measures in place in Europe, to seek common themes and approaches that could be useful in developing broad conservation guidelines. While focal species may vary in their life histories, population threats and geopolitical context, most conservation efforts have used a systematic approach to understand factors limiting populations and o identify possible management or policy actions. This approach generally includes a priori identification of plausible hypotheses about population declines or status, incorporation of hypotheses into conceptual or quantitative planning models, and the use of some form of structured decision making and adaptive management to develop and implement conservation actions in the face of many uncertainties. A climate of collaboration among jurisdictions sharing these birds is important to the success of a conservation or management programme. The structured conservation approach exemplified herein provides an opportunity to involve stakeholders at all planning stages, allows for all views to be examined and incorporated into model structures, and yields a format for improved communication, cooperation and learning, which may ultimately be one of the greatest benefits of this strategy.

  17. Defining conservation priorities for freshwater fishes according to taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Angela; Olden, Julian D.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2011-01-01

    To date, the predominant use of systematic conservation planning has been to evaluate and conserve areas of high terrestrial biodiversity. Although studies in freshwater ecosystems have received recent attention, research has rarely considered the potential trade-offs between protecting different dimensions of biodiversity and the ecological processes that maintain diversity. We provide the first systematic prioritization for freshwaters (focusing on the highly threatened and globally distinct fish fauna of the Lower Colorado River Basin, USA) simultaneously considering scenarios of: taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity; contemporary threats to biodiversity (including interactions with nonnative species); and future climate change and human population growth. There was 75% congruence between areas of highest conservation priority for different aspects of biodiversity, suggesting that conservation efforts can concurrently achieve strong complementarity among all types of diversity. However, sizable fractions of the landscape were incongruent across conservation priorities for different diversity scenarios, underscoring the importance of considering multiple dimensions of biodiversity and highlighting catchments that contribute disproportionately to taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity in the region. Regions of projected human population growth were not concordant with conservation priorities; however, higher human population abundance will likely have indirect effects on native biodiversity by increasing demand for water. This will come in direct conflict with projected reductions in precipitation and warmer temperatures, which have substantial overlap with regions of high contemporary diversity. Native and endemic fishes in arid ecosystems are critically endangered by both current and future threats, but our results highlight the use of systematic conservation planning for the optimal allocation of limited resources that incorporates

  18. Conservation of Agroecosystem through Utilization of Parasitoid Diversity: Lesson for Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Ecosystem Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMAYANTI BUCHORI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years, agricultural intensification and exploitation has resulted in biodiversity loss and threaten ecosystem functioning. Developing strategies to bridge human needs and ecosystem health for harmonization of ecosystem is a major concern for ecologist and agriculturist. The lack of information on species diversity of natural enemies and how to utilize them with integration of habitat management that can renovate ecological process was the main obstacle. Parasitoids, a group of natural enemies, play a very important role in regulating insect pest population. During the last ten years, we have been working on exploration of parasitoid species richness, how to use it to restore ecosystem functions, and identifying key factors influencing host-parasitoid interaction. Here, we propose a model of habitat management that is capable of maintaining agricultural biodiversity and ecosystem functions. We present data on parasitoid species richness and distribution in Java and Sumatera, their population structure and its impact toward biological control, relationship between habitat complexes and parasitoid community, spatial and temporal dynamic of parasitoid diversity, and food web in agricultural landscape. Implications of our findings toward conservation of agroecosystem are discussed.

  19. Coral-Associated Bacterial Diversity is Conserved Across Two Deep-Sea Anthothela Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Nichole Lawler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water corals, similar to tropical corals, contain diverse and complex microbial assemblages. These bacteria provide essential biological functions within coral holobionts, facilitating increased nutrient utilization and production of antimicrobial compounds. To date, few cold-water octocoral species have been analyzed to explore the diversity and abundance of their microbial associates. For this study, 23 samples of the family Anthothelidae were collected from Norfolk (n = 12 and Baltimore Canyons (n = 11 from the western Atlantic in August 2012 and May 2013. Genetic testing found that these samples comprised two Anthothela species (Anthothela grandiflora and Anthothela sp. and Alcyonium grandiflorum. DNA was extracted and sequenced with primers targeting the V4-V5 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing with GS FLX Titanium chemistry. Results demonstrated that the coral host was the primary driver of bacterial community composition. Al. grandiflorum, dominated by Alteromonadales and Pirellulales had much higher species richness, and a distinct bacterial community compared to Anthothela samples. Anthothela species (A. grandiflora and Anthothela sp. had very similar bacterial communities, dominated by Oceanospirillales and Spirochaetes. Additional analysis of core-conserved bacteria at 90% sample coverage revealed genus level conservation across Anthothela samples. This core included unclassified Oceanospirillales, Kiloniellales, Campylobacterales, and genus Spirochaeta. Members of this core were previously recognized for their functional capabilities in nitrogen cycling and suggest the possibility of a nearly complete nitrogen cycle within Anthothela species. Overall, many of the bacterial associates identified in this study have the potential to contribute to the acquisition and cycling of nutrients within the coral holobiont.

  20. Genetic Divergence, Implication of Diversity, and Conservation of Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhusan Bindroo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is critical to success in any crop breeding and it provides information about the quantum of genetic divergence and serves a platform for specific breeding objectives. It is one of the three forms of biodiversity recognized by the World Conservation Union (IUCN as deserving conservation. Silkworm Bombyx mori, an economically important insect, reported to be domesticated over 5000 years ago by human to meet his requirements. Genetic diversity is a particular concern because greater genetic uniformity in silkworm can increase vulnerability to pests and diseases. Hence, maintenance of genetic diversity is a fundamental component in long-term management strategies for genetic improvement of silkworm which is cultivated by millions of people around the worlds for its lusture silk. In this paper genetic diversity studies carried out in silkworm using divergent methods (quantitative traits and biochemical and molecular markers and present level of diversity and factors responsible for loss of diversity are discussed.

  1. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  2. Genetic diversity and conservation of Mexican forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wehenkel; S. Mariscal-Lucero; J.P. Jaramillo-Correa; C.A. López-Sánchez; J.J. Vargas Hernández; C. Sáenz-Romero

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 200 years, humans have impacted the genetic diversity of forest trees. Because of widespread deforestation and over-exploitation, about 9,000 tree species are listed worldwide as threatened with extinction, including more than half of the ~600 known conifer taxa. A comprehensive review of the floristic-taxonomic literature compiled a list of 4,331...

  3. Distribution, diversity and conservation of the genus Aloe in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Aloe is common in Kenya, with about 60 taxa recognised. Observations from this study indicate that most of the taxa have a restricted distribution, with only Aloe secundiflora var. secundiflora being widespread in the country. The diversity patterns indicate a high concentration of taxa in three areas that are ...

  4. Doublesex: a conserved downstream gene controlled by diverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... somatic sexual differentiation culminated with its functional analysis through transgenesis and knockdown experiments in diverse species of ... us to understand the evolution of genes involved in sex de- termination in ...... splicing of the doublesex gene in the economically important pest species Lucilia ...

  5. Genetic diversity analysis and conservation of the Chinese herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an economically important floral herb. However, little work has been conducted to further our understanding of the genetics of this herb. In this study, a representative set of germplasm of. S. miltiorrhiza populations was used to analyze genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  6. Integrating biological and social values when prioritizing places for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Amy L; Kujala, Heini; Ives, Christopher D; Gordon, Ascelin; Lentini, Pia E; Wintle, Brendan A; Nicholson, Emily; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    The consideration of information on social values in conjunction with biological data is critical for achieving both socially acceptable and scientifically defensible conservation planning outcomes. However, the influence of social values on spatial conservation priorities has received limited attention and is poorly understood. We present an approach that incorporates quantitative data on social values for conservation and social preferences for development into spatial conservation planning. We undertook a public participation GIS survey to spatially represent social values and development preferences and used species distribution models for 7 threatened fauna species to represent biological values. These spatially explicit data were simultaneously included in the conservation planning software Zonation to examine how conservation priorities changed with the inclusion of social data. Integrating spatially explicit information about social values and development preferences with biological data produced prioritizations that differed spatially from the solution based on only biological data. However, the integrated solutions protected a similar proportion of the species' distributions, indicating that Zonation effectively combined the biological and social data to produce socially feasible conservation solutions of approximately equivalent biological value. We were able to identify areas of the landscape where synergies and conflicts between different value sets are likely to occur. Identification of these synergies and conflicts will allow decision makers to target communication strategies to specific areas and ensure effective community engagement and positive conservation outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Can we manage for biological diversity in the absence of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauger, D.L.; Hall, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Conservation of biological diversity is dependent on sound scientific information about underlying ecological processes. Current knowledge of the composition, distribution, abundance and life cycles of most species of plants and animals is incomplete, insufficient, unreliable, or nonexistent. Contemporary managers are also confronted with additional levels of complexity related to varying degrees of knowledge and understanding about interactions of species and ecosystems. Consequently, traditional species-oriented management schemes may have unintended consequences and ecosystem-oriented management initiatives may fail in the face of inadequate or fragmentary information on the structure, function, and dynamics of biotic communities and ecological systems. Nevertheless, resource managers must make decisions and manage based on the best biological information currently available. Adaptive resource management may represent a management paradigm that allows managers to learn something about the species or systems that they are managing while they are managing, but potential pitfalls lurk for such approaches. In addition to lack of control over the primary physical, chemical, and ecological processes, managers also lack control over social, economic, and political parameters affecting resource management options. Moreover, appropriate goals may be difficult to identify and criteria for determining success may be elusive. Some management responsibilities do not lend themselves to adaptive strategies. Finally, the lessons learned from adaptive management are usually obtained from a highly situational context that may limit applicability in a wider range of situations or undermine confidence that problems and solutions were properly diagnosed and addressed. Several scenarios are critically examined where adaptive management approaches may be inappropriate or ineffective and where management for biological diversity may be infeasible or inefficient without a sound

  8. Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009. The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%, intensity (I% and degree of attack (GA% have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%, and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%. The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg, and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg. The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 şi HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.

  9. Bird diversity in northern Myanmar and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Xia; Kyaw, Myint; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Le; Swa, Kyaw; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2017-01-01

    We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species (Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s. l. was higher than species richness at higher elevations. Our results suggest that the current protected areas in this region should be expanded to lower elevations to cover critical conservation gaps. PMID:29181901

  10. Plant diversity and conservation in China: planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongwen

    2011-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries for plant diversity with approximately 33 000 vascular plant species, ranking second in the world. However, the plant diversity in China is increasingly threatened, with an estimated 4000–5000 plant species being threatened or on the verge of extinction, making China, proportionally, one of the highest priorities for global plant biodiversity conservation. Coming in the face of the current ecological crisis, it is timely that China has launched China's Strategy for Plant Conservation (CSPC). China has increasingly recognized the importance of plant diversity in efforts to conserve and sustainably use its plant diversity. More than 3000 nature reserves have been established, covering approximately 16% of the land surface of China. These natural reserves play important roles in plant conservation, covering more than 85% of types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, 40% of types of natural wetlands, 20% of native forests and 65% of natural communities of vascular plants. Meanwhile, the flora conserved in botanical gardens is also extensive. A recent survey shows that the 10 largest botanical gardens have living collections of 43 502 taxa, with a total of 24 667 species in ex situ conservation. These provide an important reserve of plant resources for sustainable economic and social development in China. Plant diversity is the basis for bioresources and sustainable utilization. The 21st century is predicted to be an era of bio-economy driven by advances of bioscience and biotechnology. Bio-economy may become the fourth economy form after agricultural, industrial, and information and information technology economies, having far-reaching impacts on sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, environmental protection, light industry, food supply and health care and other micro-economy aspects. Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21st century is of

  11. On the Biological and Genetic Diversity in Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Ellis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a parasite regarded a major cause of foetal loss in cattle. A key requirement to an understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of N. caninum is knowledge of the biological characteristics of the species and the genetic diversity within it. Due to the broad intermediate host range of the species, worldwide geographical distribution and its capacity for sexual reproduction, significant biological and genetic differences might be expected to exist. N. caninum has now been isolated from a variety of different host species including dogs and cattle. Although isolates of this parasite show only minor differences in ultrastructure, considerable differences have been reported in pathogenicity using mainly mouse models. At the DNA level, marked levels of polymorphism between isolates were detected in mini- and microsatellites found in the genome of N. caninum. Knowledge of what drives the biological differences that have been observed between the various isolates at the molecular level is crucial in aiding our understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite and, in turn, the development of efficacious strategies, such as live vaccines, for controlling its impact. The purpose of this review is to document and discuss for the first time, the nature of the diversity found within the species Neospora caninum.

  12. Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Roberts, David R; Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Nielsen, Scott E; Stralberg, Diana; Hamann, Andreas; Mcrae, Brad H; Wang, Tongli

    2017-11-01

    As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different environmental diversity metrics differed substantially from each other and from priorities based on spatiotemporal metrics such as climatic velocity. Refugia identified by diversity or velocity metrics were not strongly associated with the current protected area system, suggesting the need for additional conservation measures including protection of refugia. Despite the inherent uncertainties in predicting future climate, we found that variation among climatic velocities derived from different general circulation models and emissions pathways was less than the variation among the suite of environmental diversity metrics. To address uncertainty created by this variation, planners can combine priorities identified by alternative metrics at a single resolution and downweight areas of high variation between metrics. Alternately, coarse-resolution velocity metrics can be combined with fine-resolution diversity metrics in order to leverage the respective strengths of the two groups of metrics as tools for identification of potential macro- and microrefugia that in combination maximize both transient and long-term resilience to climate change. Planners should compare and integrate approaches that span a range of model complexity and spatial scale to match the range of ecological and physical processes influencing persistence of biodiversity and identify a conservation network resilient to threats operating at

  13. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...... not consistently increase the coverage of target species than when using less taxonomically diverse indicator groups. However, indicator groups chosen solely from one taxon were outperformed by taxonomically diverse groups. Second, we found that taxonomic diversity of the indicator did not influence the taxonomic...... diversity of the covered target species (in terms of number of represented families, orders, etc.) Thus, taxonomic diversity per se only had a marginal influence on the performance of indicator groups. Distributional characteristics, such as the proportion of species with narrow range sizes, had a larger...

  14. Genetic diversity and germplasm conservation of three minor Andean tuber crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malice M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Andean agrosystems, three minor tuber crop species are of regional or local importance: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz and Pav.. Genetic diversity within these species is very large and could result from the high ecological and cultural variability that characterizes the Andean area. Nowadays, many anthropic or ecological factors cause the loss of diversity and contribute to genetic erosion. The development of conservation strategies for genetic resources of Andean tubers, in situ as well as ex situ, includes a better knowledge of diversity in addition to the study of Andean farming strategies linked to this genetic diversity.

  15. Reconsideration for conservation units of wild Primula sieboldii in Japan based on adaptive diversity and molecular genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Honjo, Masanori; Kitamoto, Naoko; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2009-08-01

    Primula sieboldii E. Morren is a perennial clonal herb that is widely distributed in Japan, but in danger of extinction in the wild. In a previous study, we revealed the genetic diversity of the species using chloroplast and nuclear DNA and used this information to define conservation units. However, we lacked information on adaptive genetic diversity, which is important for long-term survival and, thus, for the definition of conservation units. In order to identify adaptive traits that showed adaptive differentiation among populations, we studied the genetic variation in six quantitative traits within and among populations for 3 years in a common garden using 110 genets from five natural populations from three regions of Japan. The number of days to bud initiation was adaptive quantitative trait for which the degree of genetic differentiation among populations (QST) was considerably larger than that in eight microsatellite markers (FST). The relationship between this trait and environmental factors revealed that the number of days to bud initiation was negatively correlated, with the mean temperature during the growing period at each habitat. This suggests that adaptive differentiation in the delay before bud initiation was caused by selective pressure resulting from temperature differences among habitats. Our results suggest that based on adaptive diversity and neutral genetic diversity, the Saitama population represents a new conservation unit.

  16. The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Duffy, J Emmett; Zavaleta, Erika

    2012-06-15

    Ecosystems worldwide are rapidly losing taxonomic, phylogenetic, genetic, and functional diversity as a result of human appropriation of natural resources, modification of habitats and climate, and the spread of pathogenic, exotic, and domestic plants and animals. Twenty years of intense theoretical and empirical research have shown that such biotic impoverishment can markedly alter the biogeochemical and dynamic properties of ecosystems, but frontiers remain in linking this research to the complexity of wild nature, and in applying it to pressing environmental issues such as food, water, energy, and biosecurity. The question before us is whether these advances can take us beyond merely invoking the precautionary principle of conserving biodiversity to a predictive science that informs practical and specific solutions to mitigate and adapt to its loss.

  17. Functional annotation of chemical libraries across diverse biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Li, Sheena C; Deshpande, Raamesh; Simpkins, Scott W; Nelson, Justin; Yashiroda, Yoko; Barber, Jacqueline M; Safizadeh, Hamid; Wilson, Erin; Okada, Hiroki; Gebre, Abraham A; Kubo, Karen; Torres, Nikko P; LeBlanc, Marissa A; Andrusiak, Kerry; Okamoto, Reika; Yoshimura, Mami; DeRango-Adem, Eva; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Brown, Grant W; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-genetic approaches offer the potential for unbiased functional annotation of chemical libraries. Mutations can alter the response of cells in the presence of a compound, revealing chemical-genetic interactions that can elucidate a compound's mode of action. We developed a highly parallel, unbiased yeast chemical-genetic screening system involving three key components. First, in a drug-sensitive genetic background, we constructed an optimized diagnostic mutant collection that is predictive for all major yeast biological processes. Second, we implemented a multiplexed (768-plex) barcode-sequencing protocol, enabling the assembly of thousands of chemical-genetic profiles. Finally, based on comparison of the chemical-genetic profiles with a compendium of genome-wide genetic interaction profiles, we predicted compound functionality. Applying this high-throughput approach, we screened seven different compound libraries and annotated their functional diversity. We further validated biological process predictions, prioritized a diverse set of compounds, and identified compounds that appear to have dual modes of action.

  18. MYC Cofactors: Molecular Switches Controlling Diverse Biological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC has fundamental roles in proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and stem cell pluripotency. Over the last 30 years extensive information has been gathered on the numerous cofactors that interact with MYC and the target genes that are regulated by MYC as a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling its diverse roles. Despite significant advances and perhaps because the amount of information learned about MYC is overwhelming, there has been little consensus on the molecular functions of MYC that mediate its critical biological roles. In this perspective, the major MYC cofactors that regulate the various transcriptional activities of MYC, including canonical and noncanonical transactivation and transcriptional repression, will be reviewed and a model of how these transcriptional mechanisms control MYC-mediated proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis will be presented. The basis of the model is that a variety of cofactors form dynamic MYC transcriptional complexes that can switch the molecular and biological functions of MYC to yield a diverse range of outcomes in a cell-type- and context-dependent fashion. PMID:24939054

  19. Antibody to a conserved antigenic target is protective against diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Skurnik, David; Zaidi, Tanweer; Roux, Damien; Deoliveira, Rosane B; Garrett, Wendy S; Lu, Xi; O'Malley, Jennifer; Kinzel, Kathryn; Zaidi, Tauqeer; Rey, Astrid; Perrin, Christophe; Fichorova, Raina N; Kayatani, Alexander K K; Maira-Litràn, Tomas; Gening, Marina L; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Pelton, Stephen I; Golenbock, Douglas T; Pier, Gerald B

    2013-06-11

    Microbial capsular antigens are effective vaccines but are chemically and immunologically diverse, resulting in a major barrier to their use against multiple pathogens. A β-(1→6)-linked poly-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) surface capsule is synthesized by four proteins encoded in genetic loci designated intercellular adhesion in Staphylococcus aureus or polyglucosamine in selected Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. We report that many microbial pathogens lacking an identifiable intercellular adhesion or polyglucosamine locus produce PNAG, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens, as well as protozoa, e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Plasmodium berghei, and sporozoites and blood-stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Natural antibody to PNAG is common in humans and animals and binds primarily to the highly acetylated glycoform of PNAG but is not protective against infection due to lack of deposition of complement opsonins. Polyclonal animal antibody raised to deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG and a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that both bind to native and deacetylated glycoforms of PNAG mediated complement-dependent opsonic or bactericidal killing and protected mice against local and/or systemic infections by Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, Candida albicans, and P. berghei ANKA, and against colonic pathology in a model of infectious colitis. PNAG is also a capsular polysaccharide for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and nontypable Hemophilus influenzae, and protects cells from environmental stress. Vaccination targeting PNAG could contribute to immunity against serious and diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, and the conserved production of PNAG suggests that it is a critical factor in microbial biology.

  20. Volatile compound diversity and conserved alarm behaviour in Triatoma dimidiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Concha, Irving; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-02-06

    specific, while those from the MG were not. Discriminant and cluster analysis of BG + MG compounds indicate significant separation among the three haplogroups, while alarm response compounds were similar between h2 and h3, both distinct from h1. This latter haplogroup is ancestral phylogenetically to the other two. Our results suggest that alarm responses are a conserved behaviour in the Triatoma dimidiata complex.

  1. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS ON GENETIC DIVERSITY IN NATURAL POPULATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOMONITORING AND ECOTOXICOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conservation of genetic diversity has emerged as one of the central issues in conservation biology. Although researchers in the areas of evolutionary biology, population management, and conservation biology routinely investigate genetic variability in natural populations, onl...

  2. Incorporating phylogenetic information for the definition of floristic districts in hyper-diverse Amazon forests: implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, J.E.; Pitman, N.C.A.; ter Steege, H.; Mogollón, H.; Ceron, C.; Palacios, W.; Oleas, N.; Fine, P.V.A.

    2017-01-01

    Using complementary metrics to evaluate phylogenetic diversity can facilitate the delimitation of floristic units and conservation priority areas. In this study, we describe the spatial patterns of phylogenetic alpha and beta diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and evolutionary distinctiveness of the

  3. Introduction to symposium: Arthropods and wildlife conservation: synergy in complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The symposium will discuss the effects of arthropods and other stressors on wildlife conservation programs. Speakers with affiliations in wildlife biology, parasitology and entomology will be included in the program. Research of national and international interest will be presented....

  4. The role of ecological compensation areas in conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological compensation areas (ECAs), defined as all natural vegetation and non-crop plants within the rural landscape, are considered an important tool in multifunctional agriculture. In particular, ECAs are crucial in enhancing functional biodiversity for pest suppression and for the conservation

  5. Niche Specialization and Conservation Biology of Cicindela Nevadica Lincolniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Tierney R.

    2010-01-01

    As with many organisms across the globe, "Cicindela nevadica lincolniana" is threatened with extinction. Understanding ecological factors that contribute to extinction vulnerability and what methods aid in the recovery of those species is essential in developing successful conservation programs. Here we examine behavioral mechanisms for niche…

  6. Genetic diversity and conservation of Picea chihuahuana Martínez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... The conservation of genetic diversity in tree populations is an essential component of sustainable forest management. Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic conifer species in Mexico and is considered to be endangered. P. chihuahuana covers a total area of no more than 300 ha at the Sierra.

  7. Large-scale patterns of plant diversity and conservation priorities in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, S.T.; Brummitt, N.A.; Kok, de R.P.J.; Utteridge, T.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a complete floristic inventory, conservation priorities within South East Asia must often be based on incomplete knowledge or a rough approximation of diversity such as habitat cover. To help overcome this, a database containing distribution data for all 3 523 known flowering plant

  8. Diversity in soil seed bank of Sinai and implications for conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Sinai, soil seed bank, arid environments, diversity indices, conservation, restoration. INTRODUCTION. Soil seed banks are ... In arid ecosystems soil seed banks are characterized by high spatial and temporal ...... Germinable alkali sacaton seed content of soils in the Rio Puerco Basin, West Central New Mexico.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of locally adapted South African chicken lines: Implications for conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle-Koster, van E.; Hefer, C.A.; Nel, L.H.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study microsatellite markers were applied to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the six local chicken lines kept in the “Fowls for Africa” program, for better clarification of parameters for breed differentiation and genetic conservation of this valuable resource.

  10. Genetic diversity and conservation of Picea chihuahuana Martínez ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conservation of genetic diversity in tree populations is an essential component of sustainable forest management. Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic conifer species in Mexico and is considered to be endangered. P. chihuahuana covers a total area of no more than 300 ha at the Sierra Madre Occidental, ...

  11. Synthetic biology and conservation of nature: wicked problems and wicked solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent H Redford

    Full Text Available So far, conservation scientists have paid little attention to synthetic biology; this is unfortunate as the technology is likely to transform the operating space within which conservation functions, and therefore the prospects for maintaining biodiversity into the future.

  12. Airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy to map forest trait diversity and guide conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, G P; Martin, R E; Knapp, D E; Tupayachi, R; Anderson, C B; Sinca, F; Vaughn, N R; Llactayo, W

    2017-01-27

    Functional biogeography may bridge a gap between field-based biodiversity information and satellite-based Earth system studies, thereby supporting conservation plans to protect more species and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. We used airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy with environmental modeling to derive large-scale, multivariate forest canopy functional trait maps of the Peruvian Andes-to-Amazon biodiversity hotspot. Seven mapped canopy traits revealed functional variation in a geospatial pattern explained by geology, topography, hydrology, and climate. Clustering of canopy traits yielded a map of forest beta functional diversity for land-use analysis. Up to 53% of each mapped, functionally distinct forest presents an opportunity for new conservation action. Mapping functional diversity advances our understanding of the biosphere to conserve more biodiversity in the face of land use and climate change. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Integrating population genetics and conservation biology in the era of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouborg, N Joop

    2010-02-23

    As one of the final activities of the ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, a conference entitled 'Integrating Population Genetics and Conservation Biology' was held at Trondheim, Norway, from 23 to 26 May 2009. Conference speakers and poster presenters gave a display of the state-of-the-art developments in the field of conservation genetics. Over the five-year running period of the successful ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, much progress has been made in theoretical approaches, basic research on inbreeding depression and other genetic processes associated with habitat fragmentation and conservation issues, and with applying principles of conservation genetics in the conservation of many species. Future perspectives were also discussed in the conference, and it was concluded that conservation genetics is evolving into conservation genomics, while at the same time basic and applied research on threatened species and populations from a population genetic point of view continues to be emphasized.

  14. The trajectory of dispersal research in conservation biology. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Banks, Sam C; Barton, Philip S; Ikin, Karen; Lentini, Pia; Lindenmayer, David B; Smith, Annabel L; Berry, Laurence E; Burns, Emma L; Edworthy, Amanda; Evans, Maldwyn J; Gibson, Rebecca; Heinsohn, Rob; Howland, Brett; Kay, Geoff; Munro, Nicola; Scheele, Ben C; Stirnemann, Ingrid; Stojanovic, Dejan; Sweaney, Nici; Villaseñor, Nélida R; Westgate, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal knowledge is essential for conservation management, and demand is growing. But are we accumulating dispersal knowledge at a pace that can meet the demand? To answer this question we tested for changes in dispersal data collection and use over time. Our systematic review of 655 conservation-related publications compared five topics: climate change, habitat restoration, population viability analysis, land planning (systematic conservation planning) and invasive species. We analysed temporal changes in the: (i) questions asked by dispersal-related research; (ii) methods used to study dispersal; (iii) the quality of dispersal data; (iv) extent that dispersal knowledge is lacking, and; (v) likely consequences of limited dispersal knowledge. Research questions have changed little over time; the same problems examined in the 1990s are still being addressed. The most common methods used to study dispersal were occupancy data, expert opinion and modelling, which often provided indirect, low quality information about dispersal. Although use of genetics for estimating dispersal has increased, new ecological and genetic methods for measuring dispersal are not yet widely adopted. Almost half of the papers identified knowledge gaps related to dispersal. Limited dispersal knowledge often made it impossible to discover ecological processes or compromised conservation outcomes. The quality of dispersal data used in climate change research has increased since the 1990s. In comparison, restoration ecology inadequately addresses large-scale process, whilst the gap between knowledge accumulation and growth in applications may be increasing in land planning. To overcome apparent stagnation in collection and use of dispersal knowledge, researchers need to: (i) improve the quality of available data using new approaches; (ii) understand the complementarities of different methods and; (iii) define the value of different kinds of dispersal information for supporting management

  15. The trajectory of dispersal research in conservation biology. Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A Driscoll

    Full Text Available Dispersal knowledge is essential for conservation management, and demand is growing. But are we accumulating dispersal knowledge at a pace that can meet the demand? To answer this question we tested for changes in dispersal data collection and use over time. Our systematic review of 655 conservation-related publications compared five topics: climate change, habitat restoration, population viability analysis, land planning (systematic conservation planning and invasive species. We analysed temporal changes in the: (i questions asked by dispersal-related research; (ii methods used to study dispersal; (iii the quality of dispersal data; (iv extent that dispersal knowledge is lacking, and; (v likely consequences of limited dispersal knowledge. Research questions have changed little over time; the same problems examined in the 1990s are still being addressed. The most common methods used to study dispersal were occupancy data, expert opinion and modelling, which often provided indirect, low quality information about dispersal. Although use of genetics for estimating dispersal has increased, new ecological and genetic methods for measuring dispersal are not yet widely adopted. Almost half of the papers identified knowledge gaps related to dispersal. Limited dispersal knowledge often made it impossible to discover ecological processes or compromised conservation outcomes. The quality of dispersal data used in climate change research has increased since the 1990s. In comparison, restoration ecology inadequately addresses large-scale process, whilst the gap between knowledge accumulation and growth in applications may be increasing in land planning. To overcome apparent stagnation in collection and use of dispersal knowledge, researchers need to: (i improve the quality of available data using new approaches; (ii understand the complementarities of different methods and; (iii define the value of different kinds of dispersal information for supporting

  16. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  17. Actinobacteria from Arid and Desert Habitats: Diversity and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Wink, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability. At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia, and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria obtained from arid ecosystems

  18. Diverse biological effects of electromagnetic-treated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Chumseng, Suchintana; Yoohat, Kirana; Srila, Witsanu

    2014-07-01

    The effects of water treated with an electromagnetic field (EMF) were investigated on two biological systems, humans and plants. Purified de-ionised water was treated by (1) boiling, (2) exposure to microwave radiation, and (3) low frequency electromagnetic oscillation molecular resonance effect technology (MRET), before being used to prepare media for culturing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from three healthy females. Our results indicated that PBMC culture in MRET-activated medium showed significantly less oxidative metabolism when compared to media prepared from other types of water. As for the effects on soybean, our results indicated that both MRET- and microwave-treated water greatly enhanced the length of the root. These results suggested that electromagnetic-treated water can have diverse biological effects on both animal and plant cells. Since these effects are related to the 'Memory of Water', hypothesis which has been suggested as an explanation of the action of high homeopathic dilutions, our finding warrant a further investigation on the mechanisms of various types of physically conditioned water on specific cellular activities. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bringing genetic diversity to the forefront of conservation policy and management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoban, S. M.; Hauffe, H. C.; Pérez-Espona, S.; Arntzen, J. W.; Bertorelle, G.; Bryja, Josef; Frith, K.; Gaggiotti, O. E.; Galbusera, P.; Godoy, J. A.; Hoelzel, A. R.; Nichols, R. A.; Primmer, C. R.; Russo, I.-R.; Segelbacher, G.; Siegismund, H. R.; Sihvonen, M.; Vernesi, C.; Vila, C.; Bruford, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2013), s. 593-598 ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conservation genetics * Aichi target 13 * ConGRESS * Biodiversity management * Biodiversity policy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2013

  20. Plant diversity in a changing world: Status, trends, and conservation needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Corlett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of plants has not generated the sense of urgency—or the funding—that drives the conservation of animals, although plants are far more important for us. There are an estimated 500,000 species of land plants (angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns, lycophytes, and bryophytes, with diversity strongly concentrated in the humid tropics. Many species are still unknown to science. Perhaps a third of all land plants are at risk of extinction, including many that are undescribed, or are described but otherwise data deficient. There have been few known global extinctions so far, but many additional species have not been recorded recently and may be extinct. Although only a minority of plant species have a specific human use, many more play important roles in natural ecosystems and the services they provide, and rare species are more likely to have unusual traits that could be useful in the future. The major threats to plant diversity include habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation, overexploitation, invasive species, pollution, and anthropogenic climate change. Conservation of plant diversity is a massive task if viewed globally, but the combination of a well-designed and well-managed protected area system and ex situ gap-filling and back-up should work anywhere. The most urgent needs are for the completion of the global botanical inventory and an assessment of the conservation status of the 94% of plant species not yet evaluated, so that both in and ex situ conservation can be targeted efficiently. Globally, the biggest conservation gap is in the hyperdiverse lowland tropics and this is where attention needs to be focused.

  1. Guiding conservation efforts in the Hantam–Tanqua–Roggeveld (South Africa using diversity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga van der Merwe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hantam–Tanqua–Roggeveld subregion falls within the Succulent Karoo and Fynbos Biomes, which are both recognised as global biodiversity hotspots that should be conserved. The objective of this study was to gather baseline biodiversity information that can be used to guide conservation efforts. A total of 40 Whittaker plots were surveyed in the subregion and the various diversity parameters calculated from the data were compared across the subregion and to available data for the Succulent Karoo and Fynbos Biomes. Species richness per 1000 m2 ranged from nine to 100 species across the subregion. Species richness for all plot sizes < 1000 m2 was significantly lower for the Tanqua Karoo than for both the Winter Rainfall Karoo and Mountain Renosterveld. The latter two areas did not differ significantly from each other with regard to species richness. Species richness was significantly higher only at the 1000 m2 scale in the Mountain Renosterveld compared to the Winter Rainfall Karoo. Evenness and Shannon and Simpson indices did not differ significantly between the Mountain Renosterveld and Winter Rainfall Karoo; however, these values were significantly higher than for the Tanqua Karoo. A principal coordinate analysis of species richness data at seven plot sizes produced three distinct clusters. One cluster represented the Tanqua Karoo, with low species richness, evenness, and Shannon and Simpson indices. Another cluster represented mostly Mountain Renosterveld vegetation, which was characterised by a high species richness, evenness, and Shannon and Simpson indices. The third cluster was formed by the remaining Mountain Renosterveld plots as well as the Winter Rainfall Karoo plots. The high species richness values found in the various vegetation units can add valuable information to the conservation planning arena by providing information on biodiversity parameters and their spatial distribution. This information can assist with conservation

  2. Faunistic diversity of Maltese pocket sandy and shingle beaches: are these of conservation value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika J. Gauci

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The littoral fauna of Maltese sandy and shingle beaches is generally regarded as impoverished and consequently of little conservation interest. The fauna of three sandy and three shingle beaches was systematically sampled by coring, standardised searching and pitfall traps. Diversity and population density were highest at the surface for sandy beaches, but were highest below the surface for shingle. The two beach types had distinct suites of species and individual beaches were faunistically distinct. Maltese sandy and shingle beaches are of conservation importance for their habitat-restricted species, some of which have limited local and regional distributions, and are internationally protected.

  3. Impact of biology knowledge on the conservation and management of large pelagic sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Ijima, Hirotaka; Ohshimo, Seiji; Yokawa, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    Population growth rate, which depends on several biological parameters, is valuable information for the conservation and management of pelagic sharks, such as blue and shortfin mako sharks. However, reported biological parameters for estimating the population growth rates of these sharks differ by sex and display large variability. To estimate the appropriate population growth rate and clarify relationships between growth rate and relevant biological parameters, we developed a two-sex age-str...

  4. Breeding biology and conservation of the Marsh Seedeater Sporophila palustris

    OpenAIRE

    Vizentin-Bugoni, J; Areta, JI; Di Giacomo, AG; Di Giacomo, AS; Jacobs, F; Coimbra, MAA; Dias, RA

    2013-01-01

    The Marsh Seedeater Sporophila palustris is one of the most endangered and least known of the capuchino seedeaters. Breeding populations are patchy, occurring in north-east Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay. We present data on the breeding biology of the species, and describe nests and eggs, behaviour (including courtship, nesting, incubation and parental care), breeding sites and food items. Marsh Seedeaters breed in well-preserved grasslands with wet soils and tall vegetation. In gene...

  5. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas

    2005-08-18

    Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.

  6. Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-02-01

    The muscles that power vertebrate locomotion are associated with springy tissues, both within muscle and in connective tissue elements such as tendons. These springs share in common the same simple action: they stretch and store elastic strain energy when force is applied to them and recoil to release energy when force decays. Although this elastic action is simple, it serves a diverse set of functions, including metabolic energy conservation, amplification of muscle power output, attenuation of muscle power input, and rapid mechanical feedback that may aid in stability. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms and importance of biological springs in locomotion has advanced significantly, and it has been demonstrated that elastic mechanisms are essential for the effective function of the muscle motors that power movement. Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of elastic mechanisms, with an emphasis on two proposed organizing principles. First, we review the evidence that the various functions of biological springs allow the locomotor system to operate beyond the bounds of intrinsic muscle properties, including metabolic and mechanical characteristics, as well as motor control processes. Second, we propose that an energy-based framework is useful for interpreting the diverse functions of series-elastic springs. In this framework, the direction and timing of the flow of energy between the body, the elastic element and the contracting muscle determine the function served by the elastic mechanism (e.g. energy conservation vs power amplification). We also review recent work demonstrating that structures such as tendons remodel more actively and behave more dynamically than previously assumed.

  7. Genetic diversity of the critically endangered Verbascum davidoffii Murb. (Scrophulariaceae and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova, G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum davidoffii Murb. (Scrophulariaceae, one of the rarest plant species in Bulgarian flora, is a local endemic, protected by the National Biodiversity Act, included in the Red List of vascular plants, as well as in the Red Data Book of Bulgaria with conservation status “Critically Endangered”. Its distribution is limited due to anthropogenic pressure, specific ecological requirements and low reproductive capability. In this study, we aimed to measure the genetic diversity level in the unique single world population of Verbascum davidoffii located in Pirin National Park, Bulgaria. We found high genetic diversity in the excitant population of the species. The present study indicates that the primary objective in conservation of Verbascum davidoffii is to preserve as much as possible of its evolutionary potential

  8. Effects of Conservation Agriculture and Fertilization on Soil Microbial Diversity and Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Habig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities perform critical functions in ecosystem processes. These functions can be used to assess the impact of agricultural practices on sustainable crop production. In this five-year study, the effect of various agricultural practices on soil microbial diversity and activity was investigated in a summer rainfall area under South African dryland conditions. Microbial diversity and activity were measured in the 0–15 cm layer of a field trial consisting of two fertilizer levels, three cropping systems, and two tillage systems. Using the Shannon–Weaver and Evenness diversity indices, soil microbial species richness and abundance were measured. Microbial enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and urease, were used to evaluate ecosystem functioning. Cluster analysis revealed a shift in soil microbial community diversity and activity over time. Microbial diversity and activity were higher under no-till than conventional tillage. Fertilizer levels seemed to play a minor role in determining microbial diversity and activity, whereas the cropping systems played a more important role in determining the activity of soil microbial communities. Conservation agriculture yielded the highest soil microbial diversity and activity in diversified cropping systems under no-till.

  9. Faunistic diversity of Maltese pocket sandy and shingle beaches: are these of conservation value?

    OpenAIRE

    Marika J. Gauci; Alan Deidun; Patrick J. Schembri

    2005-01-01

    The littoral fauna of Maltese sandy and shingle beaches is generally regarded as impoverished and consequently of little conservation interest. The fauna of three sandy and three shingle beaches was systematically sampled by coring, standardised searching and pitfall traps. Diversity and population density were highest at the surface for sandy beaches, but were highest below the surface for shingle. The two beach types had distinct suites of species and individual beaches were faunistically d...

  10. The Microbiome of Animals: Implications for Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bahrndorff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the human microbiome has become a growing area of research and it is becoming clear that the microbiome of humans plays an important role for human health. Extensive research is now going into cataloging and annotating the functional role of the human microbiome. The ability to explore and describe the microbiome of any species has become possible due to new methods for sequencing. These techniques allow comprehensive surveys of the composition of the microbiome of nonmodel organisms of which relatively little is known. Some attention has been paid to the microbiome of insect species including important vectors of pathogens of human and veterinary importance, agricultural pests, and model species. Together these studies suggest that the microbiome of insects is highly dependent on the environment, species, and populations and affects the fitness of species. These fitness effects can have important implications for the conservation and management of species and populations. Further, these results are important for our understanding of invasion of nonnative species, responses to pathogens, and responses to chemicals and global climate change in the present and future.

  11. Genes in the Field: On-Farm Conservation of Crop Diversity | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The diversity of crop plants is one of our most important biological resources, and the most important source of crop genes are the fields of peasant farmers in regions where crop domestication and evolution have occurred. Today, however, crop genes are threatened by social and technological change such as human ...

  12. Linking diversity and distribution to understand biodiversity gradients and inform conservation assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Villalobos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Broad-scale patterns of species richness result from differential coexistence among species in distinct regions of the globe, determined by the species’ ranges and their properties such as size, shape and location. Thus, species richness and ranges are inherently linked. These two biodiversity features also yield primary information for conservation assessments. However, species richness and range size have been usually studied separately and no formal analytical link has been established. In my PhD thesis, I applied and extended a recently developed conceptual and methodological framework to study geographical association among species and similarity among sites. This range–diversity framework, along with stochastic simulation modelling, allowed me to jointly evaluate the relationship between diversity and distribution, to infer potential processes underlying composite patterns of phyllostomid bats, and to use this approach to inform conservation assessments for the Mexican avifauna. I highlight the need to explore composite patterns for understanding biodiversity patterns and show how combining diversity and distributional data can help describe complex biogeographical patterns, providing a transparent and explicit application for initial conservation assessments.

  13. The role of DNA barcodes in understanding and conservation of mammal diversity in southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is recognized as a region of very high biodiversity, much of which is currently at risk due to habitat loss and other threats. However, many aspects of this diversity, even for relatively well-known groups such as mammals, are poorly known, limiting ability to develop conservation plans. This study examines the value of DNA barcodes, sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, to enhance understanding of mammalian diversity in the region and hence to aid conservation planning. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA barcodes were obtained from nearly 1900 specimens representing 165 recognized species of bats. All morphologically or acoustically distinct species, based on classical taxonomy, could be discriminated with DNA barcodes except four closely allied species pairs. Many currently recognized species contained multiple barcode lineages, often with deep divergence suggesting unrecognized species. In addition, most widespread species showed substantial genetic differentiation across their distributions. Our results suggest that mammal species richness within the region may be underestimated by at least 50%, and there are higher levels of endemism and greater intra-specific population structure than previously recognized. CONCLUSIONS: DNA barcodes can aid conservation and research by assisting field workers in identifying species, by helping taxonomists determine species groups needing more detailed analysis, and by facilitating the recognition of the appropriate units and scales for conservation planning.

  14. Optimizing Conservation Strategies for a Threatened Tree Species: In Situ Conservation of White Ash (Fraxinus americana L. Genetic Diversity through Insecticide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Flower

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources face numerous threats that require costly management. Hence, there is an increasing need for data-informed strategies to guide conservation practices. The introduction of the emerald ash borer to North America has caused rapid declines in ash populations (Fraxinus spp. L.. Natural resource managers are faced with a choice of either allowing ash trees to die, risking forest degradation and reduced functional resilience, or investing in conserving trees to preserve ecosystem structure and standing genetic diversity. The information needed to guide these decisions is not always readily available. Therefore, to address this concern, we used eight microsatellites to genotype 352 white ash trees (Fraxinus americana L. across 17 populations in the Allegheny National Forest; a subset of individuals sampled are part of an insecticide treatment regimen. Genetic diversity (number of alleles and He was equivalent in treated and untreated trees, with little evidence of differentiation or inbreeding, suggesting current insecticidal treatment is conserving local, neutral genetic diversity. Using simulations, we demonstrated that best practice is treating more populations rather than more trees in fewer populations. Furthermore, through genetic screening, conservation practitioners can select highly diverse and unique populations to maximize diversity and reduce expenditures (by up to 21%. These findings will help practitioners develop cost-effective strategies to conserve genetic diversity.

  15. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  16. THE BIOLOGICAL VALUES AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF SACRED GROVES IN THE BALASORE WILDLIFE DIVISION, ODISHA: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kishore MOHANTA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, the existing Sacred Groves (SGs are based on ancestral worship and focus on the conservation of forest patches. Sacred groves are distributed over a wide ecosystem and help in the conservation of rare and endemic species. Well preserved sites are store houses of biological, ecological, medicinal, ethno-cultural and religious values. We documented the state of 13 Sacred Groves in Balasore, Odisha during March 2011. For a detailed investigation, sample areas were set, for the assessment of floral and faunal diversity, ethno-cultural values and management status. A total of 58 floral species and 13 faunal species were recorded. In Balasore, Sacred Groves are small in size and can act as starting points for any long term conservation plan of biodiversity. The communities have kept their faith and traditions linked to these mini nuclei of rich biodiversity in the landscape. Therefore, any conservation program can begin from local communities, by taking them into consideration as trustworthy awareness building factors.

  17. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Claudia; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Pindo, Massimo; Dallago, Chiara; Rovero, Francesco; Cavalieri, Duccio; Tuohy, Kieran Michael; Hauffe, Heidi Christine; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2015-10-07

    The expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. The Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in Africa. Primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. We sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbed vs. undisturbed) in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. While Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae dominated in all individuals, reflecting their role in extracting energy from folivorous diets, analysis of genus composition showed a marked diversification across habitats, with gut microbiota α-diversity significantly higher in the undisturbed forest. Functional analysis suggests that such variation may be associated with food plant diversity in natural versus human-modified habitats, requiring metabolic pathways to digest xenobiotics. Thus, the effects of changes in gut microbiota should not be ignored to conserve endangered populations.

  18. Biology, History, Status and Conservation of Sacramento Perch, Archoplites interruptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K Crain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the biology of Sacramento perch (Archoplites interruptus based mainly on recent studies of their distribution, ecology, physiology, and genetics. The Sacramento perch is the only member of the family Centrarchidae that is endemic to California. It is most closely related to the rock basses (Ambloplites spp. and is thought to have split from its eastern cousins during the Middle Miocene Period (15.5 to 5.2 million years ago, MYA. Their native range includes the Central Valley, Pajaro and Salinas rivers, tributaries to the San Francisco Estuary (e.g., Alameda Creek, and Clear Lake (Lake County. Today, they are most likely extirpated from all of their native range. They are known to persist in 28 waters outside their native range: 17 in California, nine in Nevada, and one each in Utah and Colorado. Disappearance from their native range coincided with massive changes to aquatic habitats in the Central Valley and with the introduction of alien species, including other centrarchids. Unfortunately, many populations established outside their native range have also disappeared and are continuing to do so.

  19. Genetic diversity of native potatoes (Solanumspp. conserved in landraces from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Soto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the genetic diversity of 79 accessions of native potato varieties (Solanum spp. using 18 microsatellite markers. A random sample from Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica and Puno from "chacras" of farmers who collaborated with the "In situ conservation of native crops and wild relatives" were used. 17 markers amplified one single polymorphic locus, the mean number of alleles per locus was 8.79. The mean similarity was 0.62 and clustering indexes varied between 0.41 and 0.98. 19 loci showed a total of 166 alleles. Cuzco had the highest number of alleles (130 alleles. Of the 166 characterized alleles, 72 alleles (43.37% were common or shared with 5 sampling sites. Puno had the highest number of exclusive alleles (8 alleles. The 42 varieties of S. tuberosum subsp. andigena showed a mean diversity of 0.74 and 18 varieties of S. x chauchaan average diversity of 0.70. Polymorphism (PIC = 0.55 to 0.85 and genetic diversity indices show that microsatellites evaluated can identify high levels of genetic diversity, but also are not sufficient to discriminate differentiated by origin or species groups. Our analyzes indicate a high genetic diversity and are consistent with inventories and morphological characterizations performed in situ, we can also conclude that there would be a common pool of genes would be found widely distributed among the regions studied.

  20. Diversity and conservation status of the herpetofauna for an area from north of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Badillo-Saldaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation measures currently lack adequate information to assign some species of amphibians and reptiles in the categories of protection. In this study we analyzed and compared the herpetofauna of mountain cloud forest (MCF and tropical evergreen forest (TEF in an area north of Hidalgo. For this study, we conducted fieldwork (24 sites and a literature review. In addition, the conservation status of species was analyzed. The herpetofauna of the municipality of Tepehuacan de Guerrero, Hidalgo, Mexico consists of 70 species (20 amphibians and 50 reptiles, nine of which are historical records that were not found in the present study. Cloud forest was more diverse (39 species than TEF (37 species. There are discrepancies between national and international agencies of conservation regarding the threatened status of these species. The high biodiversity recorded in MCF and TEF in the study area indicates the importance of this area for conservation. In this study, we propose to reassess the conservation category of Hidalgo state herpetofauna.

  1. Development of a cost-effective diversity-maximising decision-support tool for in situ crop genetic resources conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Aurelia F.; Drucker, Adam G.; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2013-01-01

    can be conserved based on a clustering of cacao species (Theobroma cacao L.). A conservation budget allocation model applied across a set of ten clusters and nine subclusters of cacao, together with the use of alternative diversity and risk measures, allowed for an evaluation of a range of potential...... conservation outcomes. Alternative risk measures generally resulted in the allocation of conservation funds to the same priority clusters of cacao (Criollo and Curaray). However, the use of the number of locally common alleles as an alternative to the original Weitzman diversity measure produced a markedly...

  2. Biology Teachers' Conceptions of the Diversity of Life and the Historical Development of Evolutionary Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paloma Rodrigues; de Andrade, Mariana A. Bologna Soares; de Andrade Caldeira, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Biology is a science that involves study of the diversity of living organisms. This diversity has always generated questions and has motivated cultures to seek plausible explanations for the differences and similarities between types of organisms. In biology teaching, these issues are addressed by adopting an evolutionary approach. The aim of this…

  3. Genomic diversity guides conservation strategies among rare terrestrial orchid species when taxonomy remains uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; Supple, Megan A; Aitken, Nicola C; Cantrill, David J; Borevitz, Justin O; James, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Species are often used as the unit for conservation, but may not be suitable for species complexes where taxa are difficult to distinguish. Under such circumstances, it may be more appropriate to consider species groups or populations as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). A population genomic approach was employed to investigate the diversity within and among closely related species to create a more robust, lineage-specific conservation strategy for a nationally endangered terrestrial orchid and its relatives from south-eastern Australia. Four putative species were sampled from a total of 16 populations in the Victorian Volcanic Plain (VVP) bioregion and one population of a sub-alpine outgroup in south-eastern Australia. Morphological measurements were taken in situ along with leaf material for genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and microsatellite analyses. Species could not be differentiated using morphological measurements. Microsatellite and GBS markers confirmed the outgroup as distinct, but only GBS markers provided resolution of population genetic structure. The nationally endangered Diuris basaltica was indistinguishable from two related species ( D. chryseopsis and D. behrii ), while the state-protected D. gregaria showed genomic differentiation. Genomic diversity identified among the four Diuris species suggests that conservation of this taxonomically complex group will be best served by considering them as one ESU rather than separately aligned with species as currently recognized. This approach will maximize evolutionary potential among all species during increased isolation and environmental change. The methods used here can be applied generally to conserve evolutionary processes for groups where taxonomic uncertainty hinders the use of species as conservation units. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Remotely sensed indicators of habitat heterogeneity and biological diversity: A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc; Sisk, Thomas; Milne, Anthony; Morgan, Garth; Orr, Tony

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between habitat area, spatial dynamics of the landscape, and species diversity is an important theme in population and conservation biology. Of particular interest is how populations of various species are affected by increasing habitat edges due to fragmentation. Over the last decade, assumptions regarding the effects of habitat edges on biodiversity have fluctuated wildly, from the belief that they have a positive effect to the belief that they have a clearly negative effect. This change in viewpoint has been brought about by an increasing recognition of the importance of geographic scale and a reinterpretation of natural history observations. In this preliminary report from an ongoing project, we explore the use of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to further our understanding of how species diversity and population density are affected by habitat heterogeneity and landscape composition. A primary feature of this study is the investigation of SAR for making more rigorous investigations of habitat structure by exploiting the interaction between radar backscatter and vegetation structure and biomass. A major emphasis will be on the use of SAR data to define relative structural types based on measures of structural consolidation using the vegetation surface area to volume ratio (SA/V). Past research has shown that SAR may be sensitive to this form of structural expression which may affect biodiversity.

  5. Conservation and Unscripted Development: Proximity to Park Associated with Development and Financial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Baird

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research on the social dynamics of biodiversity conservation has shown that parks and protected areas have added hardship to rural communities throughout much of the developing world. Nonetheless, some recent studies have found evidence of poverty alleviation near protected areas. To build on these conflicting accounts, I use a comparative, mixed-methods design to examine opportunistic, unplanned, i.e., unscripted, development in indigenous communities near Tarangire National Park (TNP in northern Tanzania. I ask the questions: (1 How is proximity to TNP related to community-level infrastructural development? (2 How has the process of development changed over time? and (3 How is proximity to TNP related to infrastructure-related social outcomes at the household-level? Results from semistructured interviews show that, compared with distant communities, communities near TNP have developed more extensive education and water infrastructure in the past decade by procuring financial support from a greater diversity of external organizations, including wildlife-related organizations. Correspondingly, household survey results show that education measures are positively associated with proximity to TNP, controlling for other factors. These findings support the notion that development can accrue near protected areas in ways that are diverse, uncoordinated, and opportunistic, and correspondingly distinct from heralded community-based conservation, community-based natural resource management, and integrated conservation and development project initiatives.

  6. Molecular diversity in Coffea canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize accessions that represent the C. canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil. A total of 130 accessions from germplasm banks of IAC (São Paulo, UFV (Minas Gerais and also collected in plantations of the State of Espírito Santo and Rondônia were evaluated with a set of 20 new microsatellite primers. Multivariate methods were used to estimate the relationship among the accessions. High level of polymorphism and two major diversity clusters were identified. First cluster was composed by the accessions conserved in the IAC and UFV collections and the second was formed by accessions collected in areas under cultivation. Accessions from Espírito Santo and Rondônia were clear separated, composing two subclusters. Despite the great polymorphism found in Brazilian plantations, the diversity may be increased, because a new threshold in the genetic gains is expected on breeding programs with the intensification of the use of conserved germplasm.

  7. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.: Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Florence Sandrine Ngo Ngwe

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  8. Inter-progenitor pool wiring: An evolutionarily conserved strategy that expands neural circuit diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takumi; Sato, Makoto

    2017-11-15

    Diversification of neuronal types is key to establishing functional variations in neural circuits. The first critical step to generate neuronal diversity is to organize the compartmental domains of developing brains into spatially distinct neural progenitor pools. Neural progenitors in each pool then generate a unique set of diverse neurons through specific spatiotemporal specification processes. In this review article, we focus on an additional mechanism, 'inter-progenitor pool wiring', that further expands the diversity of neural circuits. After diverse types of neurons are generated in one progenitor pool, a fraction of these neurons start migrating toward a remote brain region containing neurons that originate from another progenitor pool. Finally, neurons of different origins are intermingled and eventually form complex but precise neural circuits. The developing cerebral cortex of mammalian brains is one of the best examples of inter-progenitor pool wiring. However, Drosophila visual system development has revealed similar mechanisms in invertebrate brains, suggesting that inter-progenitor pool wiring is an evolutionarily conserved strategy that expands neural circuit diversity. Here, we will discuss how inter-progenitor pool wiring is accomplished in mammalian and fly brain systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity of bryophytes in priority areas for conservation in the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest is the region with the greatest diversity of bryophytes in the country. However, knowledge about bryophytes is irregularly distributed among Brazilian regions. Therefore, we aimed to contribute to knowledge about bryophytes on a regional scale in the northeastern Atlantic forest, to identify the centers of bryophyte diversity in that region, and to reiterate the importance and identify locations for which new protected areas should be created. We built a database of bryophytes in 23 locations of the region, based on a literature review and new floristic inventories. To identify the locations of greatest relevance to bryophyte conservation, we considered 1 total and endemic species richness, 2 phylogenetic diversity (PD, and 3 functional diversity (proportion of shade specialists. The northeastern Atlantic rainforest contains 396 spp., representing 26% of the taxa occurring in the country, 13 of which are endemic. Generalist species predominated (164 spp., followed by shade (133 spp. and sun (92 spp. specialists. The Murici Ecological Station had the highest richness, number of endemic species, and phylogenetic diversity.

  10. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.): Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo Ngwe, Marie Florence Sandrine; Omokolo, Denis Ndoumou; Joly, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Yams (Dioscorea spp.) consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD) approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  11. Introduction to Northeast Pacific Shark Biology, Research, and Conservation, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shawn E; Lowry, Dayv

    Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators and concern over the stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation around the world in recent decades. The populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States reside in one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. Volume 78 of Advances in Marine Biology (AMB) is a companion to Volume 77, which focused primarily on NEP shark biodiversity, organismal biology, and ecology. Volume 78 highlights fisheries and the conservation implications of fisheries management; shark population modelling and the conservation impacts of these models given that many life history metrics of NEP sharks necessary to accurately run these models are still unknown; the value of captive sharks to the biology, outreach, and conservation of NEP sharks; and the conservation value of citizen science and shark ecotourism. Together these volumes encapsulate the current state of the knowledge for sharks in the NEP and lay the foundation for protecting, managing, and learning from these species in the face evolving natural conditions and societal opinions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  12. Fengshui forests conserve genetic diversity: a case study of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y J; Liu, Y J; Shen, A H; Lin, X C

    2015-03-20

    Fengshui forests (sacred groves) are important in traditional Chinese culture and home to many endangered species. These forests may provide protection for some endangered plant species outside the nature reserves, but little is known about their role in genetic conservation. Using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, we compared the genetic diversity of 6 populations of Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang, a commercially important woody species, which is under second-class national protection and endemic to China. Samples were collected from the nature reserves and Fengshui forests in southern China. Herein, we show that Fengshui forest populations are capable of maintaining some level of genetic diversity. For nature reserve populations, the average NA and NE were 1.58 and 1.39, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 1.39 and 1.12, respectively. For nature reserve populations, Nei's gene diversity (H) and Shannon's index (I) were 0.32 and 0.11, respectively; and for Fengshui forests, they were 0.22 and 0.07, respectively. We discuss the reasons for the genetic differences between populations of the Fengshui forests and nature reserves and propose conservation strategies for the Fengshui forest.

  13. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  14. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, V; Gristina, M; Attrill, M J; Fiorentino, F; Garofalo, G

    2015-08-14

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world's sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. N deposition as a threat to the World's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, A.; Hicks, W.K.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the world's protected areas (PAs) under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), common classification systems of ecosystem conservation status, and current knowledge on ecosystem responses to nitrogen (N) deposition to determine areas most at risk. The results show that 40% (approx. 11% of total area) of PAs currently receive >10 kg N/ha/yr with projections for 2030 indicating that this situation is not expected to change. Furthermore, 950 PAs are projected to receive >30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030 (approx. twice the 2000 number), of which 62 (approx. 11,300 km 2 ) are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions; with forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia particularly at risk. Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide. Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Highlights: → Significant areas of the Protected Areas Programme under the CBD will likely be under threat of high N deposition levels by the year 2030.→ Approx. 950 PAs are projected to receive N deposition levels of more than 30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030.→ 62 of these sites are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions, where forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia will be particularly at risk.→ Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide → Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Significant areas of the UNEP Protected Areas Programme under the CBD receive high N deposition rates that are likely to increase in the future, especially in Asia, and may pose a significant threat to biodiversity.

  16. The Influence of the Academic Conservation Biology Literature on Endangered Species Recovery Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stinchcombe

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the volume of the academic conservation biology literature, there is little evidence as to what effect this work is having on endangered species recovery efforts. Using data collected from a national review of 136 endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we evaluated whether recovery plans were changing in response to publication trends in four areas of the academic conservation biology literature: metapopulation dynamics, population viability analysis, conservation corridors, and conservation genetics. We detected several changes in recovery plans in apparent response to publication trends in these areas (e.g., the number of tasks designed to promote the recovery of an endangered species shifted, although these tasks were rarely assigned a high priority. Our results indicate that, although the content of endangered species recovery plans changes in response to the literature, results are not uniform across all topics. We suggest that academic conservation biologists need to address the relative importance of each topic for conservation practice in different settings. [See Erratum

  17. Conservation Compromises: The MAB and the Legacy of the International Biological Program, 1964–1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleper, Simone

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO’s well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two

  18. Environmental philosophy 2.0: ethics and conservation biology for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbaugh, Jay

    2014-03-01

    In this essay, I critically engage Sahotra Sarkar's Environmental Philosophy. The several topics include the conceptual foundations of conservation biology and traditional philosophy of science, naturalism and its implications, and ethical theory and specifically the status of human welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biolog for the determination of diversity in microbial communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... be related to the functional diversity of the species present in the community. ... The hypothesis is that the more substrates utilised, the higher the diversity, due to the collective action of individual species. Any one organism will not necessarily utilise all the ..... biofouling control in industrial water systems.

  20. The distribution of cultural and biological diversity in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Joslin L; Manne, Lisa; Brooks, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    sub-Saharan Africa, cultural diversity and vertebrate species diversity exhibit marked similarities in their overall distribution. In addition, we show that 71% of the observed variation in species richness and 36% in language richness can be explained on the basis of environmental factors, suggesting...

  1. Exploring spatial patterns of vulnerability for diverse biodiversity descriptors in regional conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Ruppert; Pluvinet, Pascal; Sacca, Céline; Mazagol, Pierre-Olivier; Etlicher, Bernard; Thompson, John D

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we developed a multi-criteria assessment of spatial variability of the vulnerability of three different biodiversity descriptors: sites of high conservation interest by virtue of the presence of rare or remarkable species, extensive areas of high ecological integrity, and landscape diversity in grid cells across an entire region. We assessed vulnerability in relation to (a) direct threats in and around sites to a distance of 2 km associated with intensive agriculture, building and road infrastructure and (b) indirect effects of human population density on a wider scale (50 km). The different combinations of biodiversity and threat indicators allowed us to set differential priorities for biodiversity conservation and assess their spatial variation. For example, with this method we identified sites and grid cells which combined high biodiversity with either high threat values or low threat values for the three different biodiversity indicators. In these two classes the priorities for conservation planning will be different, reduce threat values in the former and restrain any increase in the latter. We also identified low priority sites (low biodiversity with either high or low threats). This procedure thus allows for the integration of a spatial ranking of vulnerability into priority setting for regional conservation planning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potato diversity at height: multiple dimensions of farmer-driven in-situ conservation in the Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.

    2009-01-01

    In-situ conservation Two types of in-situ conservation of crop genetic resources can be distinguished: farmer-driven and externally driven. The first is subject of this thesis and refers to the persistence of potato genetic resources in areas where everyday practices of farmers maintain diversity

  3. Tropical rain forest conservation and the twin challenges of diversity and rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Data from a global network of large, permanent plots in lowland tropical forests demonstrate (1) that the phenomenon of tropical tree rarity is real and (2) that almost all the species diversity in such forests is due to rare species. Theoretical and empirically based reasoning suggests that many of these rare species are not as geographically widespread as previously thought. These findings suggest that successful strategies for conserving global tree diversity in lowland tropical forests must pay much more attention to the biogeography of rarity, as well as to the impact of climate change on the distribution and abundance of rare species. Because the biogeography of many tropical tree species is poorly known, a high priority should be given to documenting the distribution and abundance of rare tropical tree species, particularly in Amazonia, the largest remaining tropical forested region in the world.

  4. Identification and conservation application of signal, noise, and taxonomic effects in diversity patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleishman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing research on butterflies and birds in the Great Basin has identified biogeographic patterns while elucidating how dynamic measures of diversity (species richness and turnover affect inferences for conservation planning and adaptive management. Nested subsets analyses suggested that processes influencing predictability of assemblage composition differ among taxonomic groups, and the relative importance of those processes may vary spatially within a taxonomic group. There may be a time lag between deterministic environmental changes and a detectable faunal response, even for taxonomic groups that are known to be sensitive to changes in climate and land cover. Measures of beta diversity were sensitive to correlations between sampling resolution and local environmental heterogeneity. Temporal and spatial variation in species composition indicated that spatially extensive sampling is more effective for drawing inferences about biodiversity responses to environmental change than intensive sampling at relatively few, smaller sites.

  5. [Improvement of diversity, trade and conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radusiene, Jolita; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2004-01-01

    The significance of medicinal and aromatic plant selection has risen in recent years due to increasing requirements on quality, safety, and efficiency of herbal products. Only selected varieties could guaranty the homogeneity of raw material. The chemical diversity of spontaneous populations is one of the main directions of investigations on medicinal and aromatic plants at the Institute of Botany. The target species under research are following: Origanum vulgare, Thymus spp., Hypericum spp., Achillea millefolium, and Helichrysum arenarium. The analysis of trade figures pointed out that the imported raw material mainly supplies the demands of pharmaceutical industry in Lithuania. The cultivated production covers only 4-6% of the demand for raw material. Wild plant material represents about 29% of total volume used in pharmaceutics. The trade in wild plant species and their resources is regulated by the legislations. In situ and ex situ conservation methods are used to avoid potential danger and existing threats to genetic diversity of medicinal plant species.

  6. REVIEW: Species Diversity of Local Fruit Trees in Kalimantan: Problems of Conservation and Its Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAID SIREGAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in population of local fruit trees due to the forest destruction in some places in Kalimantan is a worrying trend.The genetic diversity of fruits in Kalimantan has been saved partly through indigenous agroforestry, as species cultivated from generation to generation by indigenous people have created miniature forests in the village agroecosystem. However, there is no doubt that the existence of local fruit trees has been threatened by the introduction of a superior fruit cultivars and other commercial plant species such as coconuts (Cocos nucifera, oil palm (Elaeis guinensis and rubber trees (Hevea braziliensis. An ex-situ conservation program is proposed for the maintenance of diversity amongst local fruit species.

  7. Orchid diversity in China’s Hainan Island: Distribution and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu, X. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are widely distributed in many terrestrial ecosystems except for polar and desert areas and constitute a “flagship group” in biological conservation. As the largest tropical island of China, Hainan has five tropical forest vegetation types, namely deciduous monsoon forest, lowland rainforest, montane rainforest, montane evergreen forest, and montane cloud forest. There are 317 orchid species in the island, including 33 endemic, 158 epiphytic, 148 terrestrial, and 11 saprophytic species. Most orchids, which are mainly located in central and southern parts of the island, are generally distributed in damp tropical forests in mountains at an altitude of 500–1500 m. Highest level of endemism is also centred in these areas. Orchids are especially threatened by habitat fragmentation because they grow in small populations, and fragmentation may block gene flow and result in lower genetic diversity. In addition, due to their ornamental and medicinal value, many orchids are over-collected. Therefore, orchid conservation in Hainan Island is very urgent. The aim of this article is to determine the distribution pattern of orchids and expound research and conservation status in Hainan Island, and to propose conservation strategies for the future.Las Orchidaceae se distribuyen ampliamente en muchos ecosistemas terrestres con excepción de las zonas polares y desérticas, y constituyen una suerte de «buque insignia» de la conservación biológica. Siendo como es la mayor isla tropical de China, Hainan tiene cinco formaciones vegetales de bosques tropicales, a saber, bosque monzónico caducifolio, selva tropical de tierras bajas, bosque pluvial montano, bosque siempreverde montano y bosque mesófilo de montaña. Hay 317 especies de orquídeas en la isla, incluyendo 33 endémicas, 158 epífitas, 148 terrestres y 11 especies saprófitas. La mayoría de las orquídeas, que se localizan principalmente en el centro y el sur de la isla, se

  8. Composite conserved promoter-terminator motifs (PeSLs) that mediate modular shuffling in the diverse T4-like myoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M; Arbiol, Christine; Krisch, Henry M

    2014-06-19

    The diverse T4-like phages (Tquatrovirinae) infect a wide array of gram-negative bacterial hosts. The genome architecture of these phages is generally well conserved, most of the phylogenetically variable genes being grouped together in a series hyperplastic regions (HPRs) that are interspersed among large blocks of conserved core genes. Recent evidence from a pair of closely related T4-like phages has suggested that small, composite terminator/promoter sequences (promoterearly stem loop [PeSLs]) were implicated in mediating the high levels of genetic plasticity by indels occurring within the HPRs. Here, we present the genome sequence analysis of two T4-like phages, PST (168 kb, 272 open reading frames [ORFs]) and nt-1 (248 kb, 405 ORFs). These two phages were chosen for comparative sequence analysis because, although they are closely related to phages that have been previously sequenced (T4 and KVP40, respectively), they have different host ranges. In each case, one member of the pair infects a bacterial strain that is a human pathogen, whereas the other phage's host is a nonpathogen. Despite belonging to phylogenetically distant branches of the T4-likes, these pairs of phage have diverged from each other in part by a mechanism apparently involving PeSL-mediated recombination. This analysis confirms a role of PeSL sequences in the generation of genomic diversity by serving as a point of genetic exchange between otherwise unrelated sequences within the HPRs. Finally, the palette of divergent genes swapped by PeSL-mediated homologous recombination is discussed in the context of the PeSLs' potentially important role in facilitating phage adaption to new hosts and environments. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Local Ecological Knowledge and Biological Conservation: Post-normal Science as an Intercultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorje Ignacio Zalles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From a natural sciences perspective, efforts directed at the conservation of biodiversity are based upon what is known as conservation biology. Given its epistemological assumptions, conservation biology faces obstacles in the incorporation of wisdom originating in local ecological knowledge, that which a local population has gained about the local environment which it is surrounded by and due to its direct contact with this local environment, instead of the result of a product of a positivist scientific inquiry. Post-normal science has emerged in recent decades as an alternative for public management that aims to complement the search for knowledge by means of empirical approaches through the inclusion of understandings based on the everyday experiences and the subjective interpretation of natural phenomena, transcending the compartmentalization associated with scientific traditions born out of modernity. This article discusses the integration of local ecological knowledge and conservation biology from the perspective of post normal science, illustrating different forms of intercultural communication that would make the requisite dialogue of knowledges possible.

  10. The Effect of Community-Based Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Abundance and Diversity of Soil Macroinvertebrates in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Welemariam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation (SWC practices in the northern highlands of Ethiopia have important implications for land restoration and biodiversity recovery. The present study determined soil macroinvertebrate (SMI abundance and diversity in response to spatial conditions i.e., generated by different conservation practices, soil depth, and temporal seasonality with the wet and dry season. The SWC practices considered were exclosure + terrace, exclosure alone, terraces, and non-conserved grazing lands. Each SWC measure was selected in three sites that were considered as replications due to low heterogeneity in terms of human and livestock disturbances and biophysical factors. Soil macroinvertebrates were collected using a monolith according to tropical soil biology and fertility (TSBF method. The highest density (55% of SMI was found in exclosures followed by terraces 26%. Non-conserved communal grazing lands account for only 19% of the total. Shannon diversity index was significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.21 in the exclosures supported with terraces and the lowest (0.9 was observed in the non-conserved communal grazing lands. Diversity was also significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.26 in wet than dry season (0.70. The highest (41% Sorensen similarity index among SMI was found between exclosures with terraces and exclosures alone during the wet season. The lowest (20% Sorensen similarity index was found between terraces alone and exclosures with terraces in dry season. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was higher in upper (0–10 cm than lower (10–20 and 20–30 cm soil depth. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was positively and strongly correlated with soil moisture (R2 = 0.85 and soil organic carbon stock (R2 = 0.95. However, it was negatively (R2 = −0.71 correlated with bulk density. Generally, the abundance and diversity of SMI increased as exclosures and communal grazing lands are supported with terraces.

  11. Reduced genetic diversity in endemic Brazilian Lymania spp (Bromeliaceae) populations and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamponét, V C C; Alves, T F; Martinez, R A; Corrêa, R X; Gaiotto, F A

    2013-10-10

    We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of two sympatric species of Lymania (Bromeliaceae), both endemic to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia (Brazil). Lymania azurea has a restricted occurrence, while Lymania smithii has a wider distribution. Our aim was to provide genetic data to contribute to the design of more efficient conservation strategies for these bromeliads, possibly justifying inclusion in the official Brazilian list of Endangered Species. Up to now, L. azurea has been classified by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment as "data deficient". We sampled four populations of L. azurea throughout its distribution area in southern Bahia and two populations of L. smithii in the same region. Genotyping was performed with 48 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Based on the Jaccard genetic similarity index, L. smithii has greater diversity than L. azurea. An analysis of molecular variation showed greater genetic variance within than between populations for both species. L. azurea was found to have 20% inbreeding, probably due to population fragmentation, with L. smithii showing only 10%. When we analyzed pairs of populations of L. azurea within a conservation unit, we found low population structure (ФST = 0.098), apparently due to a large degree of gene flow between them. In disturbed areas, we found a higher ФST (0.372). We found low genetic variability for L. azurea, probably as a consequence of habitat fragmentation, supporting the need for its inclusion in the Brazilian list of endangered flora.

  12. Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção–Albuquerque, M. J. T.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘EU Council conclusions on biodiversity post–2010′ re–enforced Europe’s commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. Identifying areas of high–value for biodiversity conservation is an important issue to meet this target. We investigated the geographic pattern of terrestrial vertebrate diversity status in Europe by assessing the species richness, rarity, vulnerability (according to IUCN criteria, and a combined index of the three former for the amphibians, reptiles, bird and mammals of this region. We also correlated the value of all indices with climate and human influence variables. Overall, clear geographic gradients of species diversity were found. The combined biodiversity index indicated that high–value biodiversity areas were mostly located in the Mediterranean basin and the highest vulnerability was found in the Iberian peninsula for most taxa. Across all indexes, the proportion of variance explained by climate and human influence factors was moderate to low. The results obtained in this study have the potential to provide valuable support for nature conservation policies in Europe and, consequently, might contribute to mitigate biodiversity decline in this region.

  13. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Fishes of River Bharathapuzha, Kerala, India: diversity, distribution, threats and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bijukumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here a comprehensive account of the diversity, distribution, threats, and suggest conservation measures for the fishes of Bharathapuzha, the largest west flowing river in the southern Indian state of Kerala. A total of 117 species under 43 families and 81 genera were recorded from the river, of which 98 were primary freshwater and 19 were secondary freshwater and/or diadromous species. Six species of non-native fish were also recorded, of which three were exotic to the country and three were transplanted from the gangetic plains. Twenty-eight percent (S = 33 of species that occur in the Bharathapuzha are endemic to the Western Ghats, while three species (Balitora jalpalli, Mesonoemacheilus remadevii and Pseudolaguvia austrina are restricted in their distribution to the river system. A little more than one-tenth (11%; S = 13 of species that occur in the river are listed under various threatened categories on the IUCN Red List. As part of this study, we also extend the distribution range of Osteochilichthys longidorsalis to the Bharathapuzha River system, based on its collection from the Thoothapuzha tributary. Several anthropogenic stressors including deforestation and loss of riparian cover, dams and other impoundments, pollution, sand mining, non-native species and destructive fishing practices are threatening the rich ichthyofaunal diversity and endemism in the Bharathapuzha. There is hence an urgent need to develop and implement conservation plans, some of which are discussed.

  14. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  15. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loos

    Full Text Available European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation

  16. Accessing Nature's diversity through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jason R; Edgar, Steven; Qiao, Kangjian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective, we highlight recent examples and trends in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology that demonstrate the synthetic potential of enzyme and pathway engineering for natural product discovery. In doing so, we introduce natural paradigms of secondary metabolism whereby simple carbon substrates are combined into complex molecules through "scaffold diversification", and subsequent "derivatization" of these scaffolds is used to synthesize distinct complex natural products. We provide examples in which modern pathway engineering efforts including combinatorial biosynthesis and biological retrosynthesis can be coupled to directed enzyme evolution and rational enzyme engineering to allow access to the "privileged" chemical space of natural products in industry-proven microbes. Finally, we forecast the potential to produce natural product-like discovery platforms in biological systems that are amenable to single-step discovery, validation, and synthesis for streamlined discovery and production of biologically active agents.

  17. Functional diversity of home gardens and their agrobiodiversity conservation benefits in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedomon, Rodrigue Castro; Salako, Valère Kolawolé; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Idohou, Alix Frank Rodrigue; Glèlè Kakaї, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem

    2017-11-25

    Understanding the functional diversity of home gardens and their socio-ecological determinants is essential for mainstreaming these agroforestry practices into agrobiodiversity conservation strategies. This paper analyzed functional diversity of home gardens, identified the socio-ecological drivers of functions assigned to them, and assessed the agrobiodiversity benefits of home gardens functions. Using data on occurring species in home garden (HG) and functions assigned to each species by the gardeners, the study combined clustering and discriminant canonical analyses to explore the functional diversity of 360 home gardens in Benin, West Africa. Next, multinomial logistic models and chi-square tests were used to analyze the effect of socio-demographic characteristics of gardeners (age, gender, and education level), agro-ecological zones (humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid), and management regime (single and multiple managers) on the possession of a functional type of home gardens. Generalized linear models were used to assess the effect of the functions of home gardens and the determinant factor on their potential in conserving agrobiodiversity. Seven functional groups of home gardens, four with specific functions (food, medicinal, or both food and medicinal) and three with multiple functions (more than two main functions), were found. Women owned most of home gardens with primarily food plant production purpose while men owned most of home gardens with primarily medicinal plant production purposes. Finding also showed that multifunctional home gardens had higher plant species diversity. Specifically, crops and crop wild relatives occurred mainly in home gardens with food function while wild plant species were mostly found in home gardens with mainly medicinal function. Home gardening is driven by functions beyond food production. These functions are mostly related to direct and extractive values of home gardens. Functions of home gardens were gendered, with women

  18. Biologically Inspired Waveform Diversity for Synthetic Autonomous Navigation Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    navigation, collision avoidance, ambiguity SUMMARY Echolocating mammals such as bats , whales and dolphins have been using waveform diversity for...we have adopted. Mammals such as bats use echolocation to perform autonomous navigation (or more strictly orientation), detection and classification...understand how bats exploit echolocation for autonomous navigation and collision avoidance we can then begin to build this into synthetic systems

  19. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

    2011-01-01

    , Enterobacter asburiae, was able to exit the root and colonize the rhizosphere. Conservation and diversity in Zea-microbe relationships are discussed in the context of ecology, crop domestication, selection and migration. PMID:21673982

  20. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johnston-Monje

    isolate, Enterobacter asburiae, was able to exit the root and colonize the rhizosphere. Conservation and diversity in Zea-microbe relationships are discussed in the context of ecology, crop domestication, selection and migration.

  1. Microbial culture collections as pillars for promoting fungal diversity, conservation and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Lara Durães; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Rodrigues, André

    2013-11-01

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with an overall global number of 1.5M up to 3.3M species on Earth. Besides their ecological roles as decomposers, fungi are important in several aspects of applied research. Here, we review how culture collections may promote the knowledge on diversity, conservation and biotechnological exploitation of fungi. The impact of fungi diversity on biotechnological studies is discussed. We point out the major roles of microbial repositories, including fungal preservation, prospecting, identification, authentication and supply. A survey on the World Data Center for Microorganisms (WDCM) powered by the World Federation for Culture Collections and on the Genetic Heritage Management Council (CGEN) database revealed that 46 Brazilian culture collections registered in these databases are dedicate to preserving fungi. Most of these culture collections are located in the Southeast of Brazil. This scenario also demonstrates that Brazil has many collections focused on fungal strains, but the lack of up-to-date information in WDCM as well as of a solid national platform for culture collections registration do not allow accurate assessment of fungal preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  3. Modeling and analysis of modular structure in diverse biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Gerges, Sherif; Olsman, Noah; Ormerod, Christopher; Piliouras, Georgios; Ormerod, John; Zinn, Kai

    2017-06-07

    Biological networks, like most engineered networks, are not the product of a singular design but rather are the result of a long process of refinement and optimization. Many large real-world networks are comprised of well-defined and meaningful smaller modules. While engineered networks are designed and refined by humans with particular goals in mind, biological networks are created by the selective pressures of evolution. In this paper, we seek to define aspects of network architecture that are shared among different types of evolved biological networks. First, we developed a new mathematical model, the Stochastic Block Model with Path Selection (SBM-PS) that simulates biological network formation based on the selection of edges that increase clustering. SBM-PS can produce modular networks whose properties resemble those of real networks. Second, we analyzed three real networks of very different types, and showed that all three can be fit well by the SBM-PS model. Third, we showed that modular elements within the three networks correspond to meaningful biological structures. The networks chosen for analysis were a proteomic network composed of all proteins required for mitochondrial function in budding yeast, a mesoscale anatomical network composed of axonal connections among regions of the mouse brain, and the connectome of individual neurons in the nematode C. elegans. We find that the three networks have common architectural features, and each can be divided into subnetworks with characteristic topologies that control specific phenotypic outputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological diversity, ecological integrity, and neotropical migrants: New perspectives for wildlife management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Maurer

    1993-01-01

    New initiatives in wildlife management have come from the realization that birds can be used as indicators of ecosystem health. Conceptually, biological diversity includes processes working at all scales in biological hierarchies that compose the natural world. Recent advances in the understanding of ecological systems suggest they are nonequilibrium systems, and must...

  5. Orchidaceae in the anthropogenic landscape of central Poland: Diversity, extinction and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewicz Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are considered one of the largest and most endangered plant families worldwide. We analyzed the status of conservation of orchid sites in Central Poland, which serves as a model area for heavily transformed environments in moderate climate. In the area under study, 26 orchid species from 54 taxa existing in Poland were reported, 17 of them with fewer than 20 localities, 59% of which have not been confirmed since 2000. Spatial analysis of all localities has shown that Central Poland exhibits considerable diversity as regards the incidence of Orchidaceae. It has been shown that contemporary protection methods have failed to prevent the demise of these species in forest, meadow and bog habitats, which incidentally comprised most of those whose localities have been unconfirmed since 2000.

  6. Derivation of the extrinsic values of biological diversity from its intrinsic value and of both from the first principles of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter S

    2013-12-01

    Conservation ethics have been based on 2 philosophical value systems: extrinsic value (defined broadly to include all values that derive from something external to the thing valued) and intrinsic value. Valuing biological diversity on the basis of an extrinsic value system is problematic because measurement is often difficult; extrinsic value changes as spatial or temporal scales change; extrinsic value differs on the basis of external factors; some species have trivial or negative extrinsic values; and extrinsic value varies across human cultures and societies and with such factors as socioeconomic conditions, individual experiences, and educational backgrounds. Valuing biological diversity on the basis of an intrinsic value system also poses challenges because intrinsic value can be seen as a disguised form of human extrinsic value; intrinsic value is initially ambiguous as to which objects or characteristics of biological diversity are to being valued; all aspects of biological diversity (e.g., species and ecosystems) are transitory; species and ecosystems are not static concrete entities; and intrinsic value of one species is often in conflict with the intrinsic value of other species. Extrinsic and intrinsic value systems share a common origin, such that extrinsic values are always derived from intrinsic value and life mutely expresses both intrinsic and extrinsic values-these are derived from and are products of biological evolution. Probing the values that underlie conservation helps the community clearly articulate its aims. Derivación de los Valores Extrínsecos de la Biodiversidad a Partir de sus Valores Intrínsecos y de Ambos a Partir de los Primeros Principios de la Evolución. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M White

    Full Text Available As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown.We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km(2 area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions.Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across environmental gradients and minimizing urbanization may have a

  8. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Angela M; Zipkin, Elise F; Manley, Patricia N; Schlesinger, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees) are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown. We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km(2) area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions. Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across environmental gradients and minimizing urbanization may have a greater benefit to

  9. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, and tridecadepsipeptides have been isolated from fungi. These metabolites are mainly reported from the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Fusarium, Isaria, Metarhizium, Penicillium, and Rosellina. They are known to exhibit various biological activities such as cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumoral and enzyme-inhibitory activities. Some CDPs (i.e., PF1022A, enniatins and destruxins have been applied as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

  10. Evolutionary biology in biodiversity science, conservation, and policy: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Lohmann, Lúcia G; Conti, Elena; Cracraft, Joel; Crandall, Keith A; Faith, Daniel P; Häuser, Christoph; Joly, Carlos A; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Larigauderie, Anne; Magallón, Susana; Moritz, Craig; Tillier, Simon; Zardoya, Rafael; Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène; Walther, Bruno A; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Donoghue, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long endeavored to document how many species exist on Earth, to understand the processes by which biodiversity waxes and wanes, to document and interpret spatial patterns of biodiversity, and to infer evolutionary relationships. Despite the great potential of this knowledge to improve biodiversity science, conservation, and policy, evolutionary biologists have generally devoted limited attention to these broader implications. Likewise, many workers in biodiversity science have underappreciated the fundamental relevance of evolutionary biology. The aim of this article is to summarize and illustrate some ways in which evolutionary biology is directly relevant. We do so in the context of four broad areas: (1) discovering and documenting biodiversity, (2) understanding the causes of diversification, (3) evaluating evolutionary responses to human disturbances, and (4) implications for ecological communities, ecosystems, and humans. We also introduce bioGENESIS, a new project within DIVERSITAS launched to explore the potential practical contributions of evolutionary biology. In addition to fostering the integration of evolutionary thinking into biodiversity science, bioGENESIS provides practical recommendations to policy makers for incorporating evolutionary perspectives into biodiversity agendas and conservation. We solicit your involvement in developing innovative ways of using evolutionary biology to better comprehend and stem the loss of biodiversity.

  11. Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bankova, Vassya; Popova, Milena; Trusheva, Boryana

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived...

  12. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohan Wang; Xiao Gong; Peng Li; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cycli...

  13. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  14. The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ross; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Barnes, Ian; Cooper, Alan

    2006-09-07

    Understanding the phylogeographic processes affecting endangered species is crucial both to interpreting their evolutionary history and to the establishment of conservation strategies. Lions provide a key opportunity to explore such processes; however, a lack of genetic diversity and shortage of suitable samples has until now hindered such investigation. We used mitochondrial control region DNA (mtDNA) sequences to investigate the phylogeographic history of modern lions, using samples from across their entire range. We find the sub-Saharan African lions are basal among modern lions, supporting a single African origin model of modern lion evolution, equivalent to the 'recent African origin' model of modern human evolution. We also find the greatest variety of mtDNA haplotypes in the centre of Africa, which may be due to the distribution of physical barriers and continental-scale habitat changes caused by Pleistocene glacial oscillations. Our results suggest that the modern lion may currently consist of three geographic populations on the basis of their recent evolutionary history: North African-Asian, southern African and middle African. Future conservation strategies should take these evolutionary subdivisions into consideration.

  15. Conservation status affects elevational gradient in bird diversity in the Himalaya: A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Paudel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding diversity patterns along altitudinal gradients, and their underlying causes are important for conserving biodiversity. Previous studies have focused on climatic, energetic, and geographic variables (e.g., mid-domain effects, with less attention paid to human-induced habitat modifications. We used published data of bird distributions along an elevational gradient (0–4900 m in the Nepalese Himalaya and interpolated species presence between elevational limits. The relationship between species richness and environmental variables was analyzed using generalized linear models. A low plateau relationship between bird richness and elevation was observed, with a main peak at intermediate elevations (2800 m. Across the total gradient, interpolated bird species richness had a unimodal relationship to maximum monthly precipitation and a linear response to seasonal variation in temperature, proportion of forest cover, and proportion of protected area. In lower elevations (0–2800 m, interpolated species richness had a positive and linear response to the proportion of Ramsar sites and a unimodal response to habitat heterogeneity. At higher elevations (2900–4900 m, interpolated bird richness had a positive linear response to monthly variation in temperature and a negative linear response to proportion forest cover. We conclude that factors related to human management are important drivers of elevational gradients in bird species richness. Keywords: Elevational gradient, Biogeography, Bird species richness, Conservation, Himalaya, Nepal

  16. Avian Communities in the Amazonian Cangas Vegetation: Biogeographic Affinities, Components of Beta-Diversity and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO H. BORGES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Amazonian cangas is a vegetation type distributed as patches of open vegetation embedded in a matrix of tropical forest and that grows over iron-rich soils in the Serra dos Carajás region. To characterize cangas avifauna, we surveyed birds in eight patches varying from 43 to 1,366 hectares. Cangas avifauna has compositional affinities with savannas widespread throughout the Amazon and other biomes, and we estimate that more than 200 bird species occurs in this habitat. Species composition was relatively homogeneous, and the similarity among cangas patches was the dominant component of the beta-diversity. Bird communities in cangas patches exhibited statistically significant nested structure in respect to species richness and patch size. In contrast, the nested site arrangement was not affected by the isolation of patches. Number of species and composition are moderately affected by the area of cangas patches but not by its degree of isolation. To conserve this unique habitat are necessary a strict protection of carefully chosen patches of cangas and an investigation of the conservation value of secondary vegetation recovered by the mining companies.

  17. A tree of life based on ninety-eight expressed genes conserved across diverse eukaryotic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jayaswal

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies have resulted in the accumulation of large data sets in the public domain, facilitating comparative studies to provide novel insights into the evolution of life. Phylogenetic studies across the eukaryotic taxa have been reported but on the basis of a limited number of genes. Here we present a genome-wide analysis across different plant, fungal, protist, and animal species, with reference to the 36,002 expressed genes of the rice genome. Our analysis revealed 9831 genes unique to rice and 98 genes conserved across all 49 eukaryotic species analysed. The 98 genes conserved across diverse eukaryotes mostly exhibited binding and catalytic activities and shared common sequence motifs; and hence appeared to have a common origin. The 98 conserved genes belonged to 22 functional gene families including 26S protease, actin, ADP-ribosylation factor, ATP synthase, casein kinase, DEAD-box protein, DnaK, elongation factor 2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphatase 2A, ras-related protein, Ser/Thr protein phosphatase family protein, tubulin, ubiquitin and others. The consensus Bayesian eukaryotic tree of life developed in this study demonstrated widely separated clades of plants, fungi, and animals. Musa acuminata provided an evolutionary link between monocotyledons and dicotyledons, and Salpingoeca rosetta provided an evolutionary link between fungi and animals, which indicating that protozoan species are close relatives of fungi and animals. The divergence times for 1176 species pairs were estimated accurately by integrating fossil information with synonymous substitution rates in the comprehensive set of 98 genes. The present study provides valuable insight into the evolution of eukaryotes.

  18. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, M.A. (Environmental Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Meganck, R.A. (United Nations Environment Programme for the Wider Caribbean, Kingston (Jamaica))

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO[sub 2] in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: Carbon sequestration, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives and is centered around: Preservation of primary forest, intensified use of nontimber resources, agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry. 89 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Diversity, abundance and conservation of birds in an agroecosystem in the Ica desert, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letty Salinas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigates the impact of the agricultural activity in the Peruvian coast on the biodiversity of birds. The study includes the monitoring of birds in asparagus and grapes farms of Ica valley, from January-2004 to January-2006. We evaluated eight types of habitats distributed in a total of 1288 has. Throughout the period of study we registered 93 species of birds. The abundance, richness and diversity were greater in the summers. The greater abundance happened in the habitats of land of asparagus, river brushwood and live fences. The greater richness and diversity happened in January-2006 in alfalfa cultures with huarangos and live fences. The most abundant species were the residents, as Zenaida meloda (6,6 ind./it has, Pygochelidon cyanoleuca (5,9 and the migratory Hirundo rustica (5,9. We registered 12 migratory species. From the conservationist point of view, the number of species catalogued in some degree of threat, at national and international level, is very high. We can emphasize the vulnerable Xenospingus concolor, the Peruvian endemic Colaptes atricollis and the species of desert Geositta peruviana, Sporophila simplex and Burhinus superciliaris. This study demonstrates the importance of agroecosystems in the conservation of the Peruvian Coastal Desert biodiversity, in particular if the enterprise carries out a policy of respect to environment.

  20. Genetic diversity estimates point to immediate efforts for conserving the endangered Tibetan sheep of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Brijesh; Arora, Reena; Ahlawat, Sonika; Mishra, A K; Tantia, M S

    2016-06-01

    Tibetan is a valuable Himalayan sheep breed classified as endangered. Knowledge of the level and distribution of genetic diversity in Tibetan sheep is important for designing conservation strategies for their sustainable survival and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Thus, for the first time, genetic variability in the Tibetan population was accessed with twenty five inter-simple sequence repeat markers. All the microsatellites were polymorphic and a total of 148 alleles were detected across these loci. The observed number of alleles across all the loci was more than the effective number of alleles and ranged from 3 (BM6506) to 11 (BM6526) with 5.920 ± 0.387 mean number of alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was less than the expected heterozygosity. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.150 (BM1314) to 0.9 (OarCP20) with an overall mean of 0.473 ± 0.044 and from 0.329 (BM8125) to 0.885 (BM6526) with an overall mean 0.672 ± 0.030, respectively. The lower heterozygosity pointed towards diminished genetic diversity in the population. Thirteen microsatellite loci exhibited significant (P scientific management of the population so as to increase the population hand in hand with retaining the founder alleles to the maximum possible extent.

  1. Conservation of gene cassettes among diverse viruses of the human gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Minot

    Full Text Available Viruses are a crucial component of the human microbiome, but large population sizes, high sequence diversity, and high frequencies of novel genes have hindered genomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing. Here we investigate approaches to metagenomic assembly to probe genome structure in a sample of 5.6 Gb of gut viral DNA sequence from six individuals. Tests showed that a new pipeline based on DeBruijn graph assembly yielded longer contigs that were able to recruit more reads than the equivalent non-optimized, single-pass approach. To characterize gene content, the database of viral RefSeq proteins was compared to the assembled viral contigs, generating a bipartite graph with functional cassettes linking together viral contigs, which revealed a high degree of connectivity between diverse genomes involving multiple genes of the same functional class. In a second step, open reading frames were grouped by their co-occurrence on contigs in a database-independent manner, revealing conserved cassettes of co-oriented ORFs. These methods reveal that free-living bacteriophages, while usually dissimilar at the nucleotide level, often have significant similarity at the level of encoded amino acid motifs, gene order, and gene orientation. These findings thus connect contemporary metagenomic analysis with classical studies of bacteriophage genomic cassettes. Software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/optitdba/.

  2. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  3. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Maarten van; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  4. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.: application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1 improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs; and (2 formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could

  5. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins: Evaluation of biological conservation by immune cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Daniela Regina; Souza, Fernanda Nunes; Meissner, Gabriel Otto; Morgon, Adriano Marcelo; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Boia-Ferreira, Mariana; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Gremski, Waldemiro; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea

    2015-12-15

    Loxosceles spiders are responsible for serious human envenomations worldwide. The collection of symptoms found in victims after accidents is called loxoscelism and is characterized by two clinical conditions: cutaneous loxoscelism and systemic loxocelism. The only specific treatment is serum therapy, in which an antiserum produced with Loxosceles venom is administered to the victims after spider accidents. Our aim was to improve our knowledge, regarding the immunological relationship among toxins from the most epidemiologic important species in Brazil (Loxosceles intermedia, Loxosceles gaucho and Loxosceles laeta). Immunoassays using spider venoms and L. intermedia recombinant toxins were performed and their cross-reactivity assessed. The biological conservation of the main Loxosceles toxins (Phospholipases-D, Astacin-like metalloproteases, Hyaluronidase, ICK-insecticide peptide and TCTP-histamine releasing factor) were investigated. An in silico analysis of the putative epitopes was performed and is discussed on the basis of the experimental results. Our data is an immunological investigation in light of biological conservation throughout the Loxosceles genus. The results bring out new insights on brown spider venom toxins for study, diagnosis and treatment of loxoscelism and putative biotechnological applications concerning immune conserved features in the toxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A review on biological and chemical diversity in Berberis (Berberidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sharad; Srivastava, Manjoosha; Misra, Ankita; Pandey, Garima; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Berberis is an important genus and well known in the Indian as well as European systems of traditional medicine. It is used since ancient times for curing eye disease, fever, jaundice, rheumatism, vomiting during pregnancy, kidney and gall balder stones and various other ailments due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid berberine. Action of the root extracts of few species are believed to be as powerful as quinine in the treatment of malarial fever. A plethora of literature pertaining to the taxonomy, biology, chemistry, traditional and ethnic uses of Berberis in different countries and indigenous cultures was collected by both offline (library, journals, textbooks etc.) and online mode (electronic search of available databases). In addition to this, books on traditional medicine and ethno pharmacological knowledge were also referred to extract ancient uses of Berberis in different traditional medicine systems. Most of the folklore, traditional and ethno botanical claims about Berberis species were validated by broad spectrum in vitro and vivo pharmacological studies. The present article summarizes its usage in eye and liver disorder, fever, kidney and gall stones along with anticancer activity. This comprehensive review will not only help researchers for further evaluation but also provide substantial information for future exploitation of species to develop novel herbal formulations. PMID:26535033

  7. Conservation of the C-type lectin fold for massive sequence variation in a Treponema diversity-generating retroelement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coq, Johanne; Ghosh, Partho (UCSD)

    2012-06-19

    Anticipatory ligand binding through massive protein sequence variation is rare in biological systems, having been observed only in the vertebrate adaptive immune response and in a phage diversity-generating retroelement (DGR). Earlier work has demonstrated that the prototypical DGR variable protein, major tropism determinant (Mtd), meets the demands of anticipatory ligand binding by novel means through the C-type lectin (CLec) fold. However, because of the low sequence identity among DGR variable proteins, it has remained unclear whether the CLec fold is a general solution for DGRs. We have addressed this problem by determining the structure of a second DGR variable protein, TvpA, from the pathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola. Despite its weak sequence identity to Mtd ({approx}16%), TvpA was found to also have a CLec fold, with predicted variable residues exposed in a ligand-binding site. However, this site in TvpA was markedly more variable than the one in Mtd, reflecting the unprecedented approximate 10{sup 20} potential variability of TvpA. In addition, similarity between TvpA and Mtd with formylglycine-generating enzymes was detected. These results provide strong evidence for the conservation of the formylglycine-generating enzyme-type CLec fold among DGRs as a means of accommodating massive sequence variation.

  8. Biological conservation law as an emerging functionality in dynamical neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Jusup, Marko; Tiganj, Zoran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Buldú, Javier M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2017-11-07

    Scientists strive to understand how functionalities, such as conservation laws, emerge in complex systems. Living complex systems in particular create high-ordered functionalities by pairing up low-ordered complementary processes, e.g., one process to build and the other to correct. We propose a network mechanism that demonstrates how collective statistical laws can emerge at a macro (i.e., whole-network) level even when they do not exist at a unit (i.e., network-node) level. Drawing inspiration from neuroscience, we model a highly stylized dynamical neuronal network in which neurons fire either randomly or in response to the firing of neighboring neurons. A synapse connecting two neighboring neurons strengthens when both of these neurons are excited and weakens otherwise. We demonstrate that during this interplay between the synaptic and neuronal dynamics, when the network is near a critical point, both recurrent spontaneous and stimulated phase transitions enable the phase-dependent processes to replace each other and spontaneously generate a statistical conservation law-the conservation of synaptic strength. This conservation law is an emerging functionality selected by evolution and is thus a form of biological self-organized criticality in which the key dynamical modes are collective.

  9. Dawning of Herpetological Conservation and Biology: A special welcome to your new journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R. Bruce; McCallum, Malcolm L.; Trauth, Stanley E.; Saumure, Raymond A.

    2006-01-01

    Inception of a new journal in herpetology is a rare event. The first discussion of developing a journal with an emphasis on natural history and conservation occurred among a subset of us (McCallum, others), while at the 2005 joint annual meeting of the SSAR/HL/ASIH in Tampa, Florida. Some of the initial questions we posed for a new herpetological journal were as follows: (1) is there a need; (2) audience; and (3) support? If any one of these did not exist, then the concept should be abandoned or modified. We critically examined these questions through discussions with many individuals and informal surveys performed on the Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) listserver (parc@listserv.uga.edu) and other forums. Early on, it was obvious to us that there was strong demand for an outlet serving natural history, field ecology and conservation studies, especially descriptive investigations and management case studies that appeared to lack a home in other journals. The road traveled since those discussions has been fast paced, culminating in this 2006 launch of Herpetological Conservation and Biology (HCB).

  10. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of the Cyclodipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodipeptides, called 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs, are obtained by the condensation of two amino acids. Fungi have been considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive cyclodipeptides. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal cyclodipeptides with the literature covered up to July 2017. A total of 635 fungal cyclodipeptides belonging to the groups of tryptophan-proline, tryptophan-tryptophan, tryptophan–Xaa, proline–Xaa, non-tryptophan–non-proline, and thio-analogs have been discussed and reviewed. They were mainly isolated from the genera of Aspergillus and Penicillium. More and more cyclodipeptides have been isolated from marine-derived and plant endophytic fungi. Some of them were screened to have cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, vasodilator, radical scavenging, antioxidant, brine shrimp lethal, antiviral, nematicidal, antituberculosis, and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications in agriculture, medicinal, and food industry.

  11. Molecular and biological diversity of HIV-1 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Couto-Fernandez

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the genomic polymorphism and biological properties present in HIV-1 Brazilian isolates, were analyzed five viral isolates obtained from patients residing in Rio de Janeiro (P1 and P5, São Paulo (P3 and Bahia (P2 and P4 states. For each viral isolate in vitro characteristics such as replication rate, syncytium-inducing capacity and cell death were observed in lymphoblastoid (H9, CEM and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as monocytoid (U937 cells. In addition, the evaluation of the restriction fragment lenght polymorphism of these isolates was also performed using a panel of endonucleases such as Hind III, Bgl II, Sac I, Pst I, Kpn I and Eco RI. One of the isolates (P1, showed the highest phenotypic and genotypic divergence, when compared to others. The results found suggest a HIV heterogeneity in Brazil similar to that already described in other regions of the world.

  12. Macroevolution and the biological diversity of plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futuyma, Douglas J; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2009-10-27

    Terrestrial biodiversity is dominated by plants and the herbivores that consume them, and they are one of the major conduits of energy flow up to higher trophic levels. Here, we address the processes that have generated the spectacular diversity of flowering plants (>300,000 species) and insect herbivores (likely >1 million species). Long-standing macroevolutionary hypotheses have postulated that reciprocal evolution of adaptations and subsequent bursts of speciation have given rise to much of this biodiversity. We critically evaluate various predictions based on this coevolutionary theory. Phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states has revealed evidence for escalation in the potency or variety of plant lineages' chemical defenses; however, escalation of defense has been moderated by tradeoffs and alternative strategies (e.g., tolerance or defense by biotic agents). There is still surprisingly scant evidence that novel defense traits reduce herbivory and that such evolutionary novelty spurs diversification. Consistent with the coevolutionary hypothesis, there is some evidence that diversification of herbivores has lagged behind, but has nevertheless been temporally correlated with that of their host-plant clades, indicating colonization and radiation of insects on diversifying plants. However, there is still limited support for the role of host-plant shifts in insect diversification. Finally, a frontier area of research, and a general conclusion of our review, is that community ecology and the long-term evolutionary history of plant and insect diversification are inexorably intertwined.

  13. [Vectors of malaria: biology, diversity, prevention, and individual protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, F; Orlandi-Pradines, E; Corbel, V

    2007-03-01

    Only the Anopheles mosquitoes are implicated in the transmission of malaria. Among the numerous species of anopheles, around fifty are currently involved in the transmission. 20 are responsible for most of the transmission in the world. The diversity of behavior between species and in a single species of anopheles as well as climatic and geographical conditions along with the action of man on the environment condition the man vector contact level and the various epidemiological aspects of malaria. The anopheles are primarily rural mosquitoes and are less likely to be found in city surroundings in theory. But actually, the adaptation of some species to urban surroundings and the common habit of market gardening in big cities or in the suburbs is responsible for the de persistence of Anopheles populations in town. Except for South-East Asia, urban malaria has become a reality. The transmission risk of malaria is heterogeneous and varies with time. There is a great variation of risk within a same country, a same zone, and even within a few kilometers. The transmission varies in time according to seasons but also according to years and to the level of climatic events. For the traveler, prevention at any time relies on the strict application of individual protection, as well in rural than in urban surroundings.

  14. Aquatic Plant Diversity in Italy: Distribution, Drivers and Strategic Conservation Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolpagni, Rossano; Laini, Alex; Stanzani, Chiara; Chiarucci, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Italy is recognized as one of the prominent hot spot areas for plant diversity at regional and global scale, hosting a rich range of ecosystems and habitat types. This is especially true considering aquatic habitats, which represent a major portion of the total water surfaces in the Mediterranean region. Nevertheless, only a scant attention was paid to clarify the species richness of aquatic plant and its contribution to the total diversity at the country scale, despite such plants are seriously threatened at multiple scales. This paper provided the first comprehensive inventory of aquatic plants at the whole country scale, collecting data on species' distribution, trends, and explanatory determinants of species richness. We confirmed the key contribution of Italy to the regional and global aquatic plant diversity with a total of 279 species recorded since 2005, equal to the 88.5%, 55.9% and ∼10% of the richness estimated at European/Mediterranean, Palearctic and global scale, respectively. Ten species are considered extinct in the wild [among which Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., Caldesia parnassifolia (Bassi ex L.) Parl., Helosciadium repens (Jacq.) W.J.D. Koch, and Pilularia globulifera L.], four were doubt [among which Luronium natans (L.) Raf., Utricularia intermedia Hayne, and U. ochroleuca R.W. Hartman.], and eight were erroneously reported in the past, among which Isoëtes lacustris L., Myosotis rehsteineri Wartm., and Ranunculus aquatilis L. Only 18 species - mainly helophytes (14) - were present in all the 20 Italian regions, whereas hydrophytes showed most scanty regional frequencies. Temperature, latitude, area and water resources availability are the main drivers of aquatic plant spatial arrangement and diversity. Furthermore, the number of inhabitants per km 2 well described the number of "lost species" since 2000. The findings of the present survey call for an urgent elaboration of large-scale strategies to ensure the survival of aquatic plants

  15. The Association Between Biological Subtype and Isolated Regional Nodal Failure After Breast-Conserving Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wo, Jennifer Y.; Taghian, Alphonse G.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Raad, Rita Abi; Sreedhara, Meera B.A.; Bellon, Jennifer R.; Wong, Julia S.; Gadd, Michele A.; Smith, Barbara L.; Harris, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of isolated regional nodal failure (RNF) among women with invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiation therapy (RT) and to determine factors, including biological subtype, associated with RNF. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 1,000 consecutive women with invasive breast cancer who received breast-conserving surgery and RT from 1997 through 2002. Ninety percent of patients received adjuvant systemic therapy; none received trastuzumab. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was done in 617 patients (62%). Of patients with one to three positive nodes, 34% received regional nodal irradiation (RNI). Biological subtype classification into luminal A, luminal B, HER-2, and basal subtypes was based on estrogen receptor status-, progesterone receptor status-, and HER-2-status of the primary tumor. Results: Median follow-up was 77 months. Isolated RNF occurred in 6 patients (0.6%). On univariate analysis, biological subtype (p = 0.0002), lymph node involvement (p = 0.008), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.02), and Grade 3 histology (p = 0.01) were associated with significantly higher RNF rates. Compared with luminal A, the HER-2 (p = 0.01) and basal (p = 0.08) subtypes were associated with higher RNF rates. The 5-year RNF rate among patients with one to three positive nodes treated with tangents alone was 2.4%; we could not identify a subset of these patients with a substantial risk of RNF. Conclusions: Isolated RNF is a rare occurrence after breast-conserving therapy. Patients with the HER-2 (not treated with trastuzumab) and basal subtypes appear to be at higher risk of developing RNF although this risk is not high enough to justify the addition of RNI. Low rates of RNF in patients with one to three positive nodes suggest that tangential RT without RNI is reasonable in most patients.

  16. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  18. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  19. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles C.; Robb, Joseph R.; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  20. Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

  1. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the Irrawaddy River in China: changes, threats and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompletely known fish assemblages and species diversity are substantial obstacles in fish conservation, particularly when their aquatic habitats are under threat due to rapid human-induced changes. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the upper Irrawaddy River in China (the Dulong, Daying and Ruili rivers were examined based on field collections and literature resources. The newly compiled fish assemblage recorded 85 species (in 8 orders, 20 families and 51 genera distributed in the upper Irrawaddy. The fish compositions in the Daying (67 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 7 orders and Ruili rivers (65 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 8 orders were more similar to each other and more speciose than that in the Dulong River (14 species, 10 genera, 4 families, 3 orders. Two indices of taxonomic diversity (the average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+, and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were used to discriminate four collections spanning a ten-year period. A decrease in taxonomic diversity and an increase in unevenness of the fish assemblages were found in both the Daying River and Ruili rivers, which indicated that the impacts were accumulated gradually during this decade, when dams and the spread of non-native species were major threats. Comparatively speaking, the Dulong River is still in a near-natural state, and thus the fish community has experienced less disturbance. In situ conservation (nature reserves and tributary protection and ex situ conservation (artificial propagation and release should be combined and managed to promote fish conservation in the future.

  2. Medicinal, Aromatic and Cosmetic (MAC) plants for community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Bali, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, Liesbeth Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of this ethno-botanical study is to document, describe and analyse the Balinese community members’ knowledge, belief and practices with regard to medicinal, aromatic and cosmetic (MAC) plants in relation to community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation of MAC plants. This

  3. Application and Optimization of Biolog EcoPlates in Functional Diversity Studies of Soil Microbial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenhuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological diversity contributes to many aspects of human well-being and ecosystem function, however, we have known very little about microbial diversity due to the limitations of appropriate methodology underneath it. The development of biotech have brought revolutionary progress in the study of microbial diversity in which Biolog required to pay a lot of attention due to its ability of reflecting the metabolic situation of living microbial communities and have used widely in the study of soil microbial communities. However, there are some controversies during its operation procedure and incubation process, handling large data during the analysis might have also caused trouble in the overall process. The approach based on uses of “absolute used”, “INDIRECT” function in Excel could greatly optimize the data analysis, and the increase of principle components in Principle Component Analysis (PCA were able to extract more information from original data. Besides, the method that through “Taylor” and “logic” transformation for original data before PCA analysis could achieve data analysis optimization. This paper have presented the applications and optimization of Biolog EcoPlates in studies of functional diversity of microbial communities, presented its inherent biases and prospects, provided some reference for the applications and popularization of Biolog EcoPlates for microbial study and finally, the results imply improving the knowledge of biotech in study of soil microbial functional diversity.

  4. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

    2012-03-01

    The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  5. Race and diversity in U.S. Biological Anthropology: A decade of AAPA initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Malhi, Ripan S; Fuentes, Agustín

    2018-01-01

    Biological Anthropology studies the variation and evolution of living humans, non-human primates, and extinct ancestors and for this reason the field should be in an ideal position to attract scientists from a variety of backgrounds who have different views and experiences. However, the origin and history of the discipline, anecdotal observations, self-reports, and recent surveys suggest the field has significant barriers to attracting scholars of color. For a variety of reasons, including quantitative research that demonstrates that diverse groups do better science, the discipline should strive to achieve a more diverse composition. Here we discuss the background and underpinnings of the current and historical dearth of diversity in Biological Anthropology in the U.S. specifically as it relates to representation of minority and underrepresented minority (URM) (or racialized minority) scholars. We trace this lack of diversity to underlying issues of recruitment and retention in the STEM sciences generally, to the history of Anthropology particularly around questions of race-science, and to the absence of Anthropology at many minority-serving institutions, especially HBCUs, a situation that forestalls pathways to the discipline for many minority students. The AAPA Committee on Diversity (COD) was conceived as a means of assessing and improving diversity within the discipline, and we detail the history of the COD since its inception in 2006. Prior to the COD there were no systematic AAPA efforts to consider ethnoracial diversity in our ranks and no programming around questions of diversity and inclusion. Departmental survey data collected by the COD indicate that undergraduate majors in Biological Anthropology are remarkably diverse, but that the discipline loses these scholars between undergraduate and graduate school and systematically up rank. Our analysis of recent membership demographic survey data (2014 and 2017) shows Biological Anthropology to have less

  6. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  7. Conserving Tropical Tree Diversity and Forest Structure: The Value of Small Rainforest Patches in Moderately-Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruedas, Manuel A.; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Meave, Jorge A.; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez, Esteban; Jamangapé, Gilberto; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Santos, Bráulio A.

    2014-01-01

    Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (<100 ha) can be highly valuable for the conservation of tree diversity and forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity), independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services. PMID:24901954

  8. Conserving tropical tree diversity and forest structure: the value of small rainforest patches in moderately-managed landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Hernández-Ruedas

    Full Text Available Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (<100 ha can be highly valuable for the conservation of tree diversity and forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity, independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services.

  9. Correlating novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with significant biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Mark

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico study to determine characteristics of novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein from previously reported H3N2 strains isolated from Hong Kong from 1968–1999 to predict viral motifs involved in significant biological functions. Results 14 MEME blocks were generated and comparative analysis of the MEME blocks identified blocks 1, 2, 3 and 7 to correlate with several biological functions. Analysis of the different Hemagglutinin sequences elucidated that the single block 7 has the highest frequency of amino acid substitution and the highest number of co-mutating pairs. MEME 2 showed intermediate variability and MEME 1 was the most conserved. Interestingly, MEME blocks 2 and 7 had the highest incidence of potential post-translational modifications sites including phosphorylation sites, ASN glycosylation motifs and N-myristylation sites. Similarly, these 2 blocks overlap with previously identified antigenic sites and receptor binding sites. Conclusion Our study identifies motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with different amino acid substitution frequencies over a 31 years period, and derives relevant functional characteristics by correlation of these motifs with potential post-translational modifications sites, antigenic and receptor binding sites.

  10. Diversity, threats and conservation of catfish fauna of the Krishna River, Sangli District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kumbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of freshwater catfish species of the Krishna River, Sangli District was studied from June 2009 to July 2012. The study area covered 105km from Karad City where the Koyna tributary joins the Krishna River up to Mhaishal, the state border of Maharashtra. It was divided into three streams for convenience, i.e., the upper stream starts from Karad and goes up to Takari, the middle stream from Takari to Bhilawadi and downstream from Bhilawadi to Mhaishal. A total of 13 species of catfish belonging to five families and 10 genera were recorded. The Bagridae family was dominant with six species, whereas Siluridae, Schilbidae and Clariidae had two species each and Sisoridae with one species. We have provided range extension for an endemic and threatened sisorid catfish Glyptothorax poonaensis. The occurrence and distribution of catfishes was more or less equal in number along the study area. The maximum number of species recorded was nine from the upper stream, whereas the middle and down streams had eight and seven species respectively. The distribution of catfish along the Krishna River system may be due to the slow and steady state water movement and its width that ensure the continuous availability of nutrition. It is suggested that the Krishna River would be a suitable habitat for the conservation of freshwater catfish if the threats are minimized.

  11. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  12. Relationships, origin, and diversity of Galapagos tomatoes: implications for the conservation of natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez, Fernando; Prohens, Jaume; Blanca, José M

    2004-01-01

    Endemic Galápagos tomatoes (Lycopersicon cheesmanii) are of great value for cultivated tomato (L. esculentum) breeding, and therefore their conservation is of significance. Although within L. cheesmanii there is heterogeneity for many traits and formal infraspecific classification is not justified, here we distinguish three forms, without taxonomic significance, of L. cheesmanii that are of interest to breeders because of their distinctive morphology and habitat preferences: L. cheesmanii 'short' (one- to two-pinnate leaves, short internodes, and coastal habitats), L. cheesmanii 'long' (one- to two-pinnate leaves, long internodes, and inland habitats), and L. cheesmanii forma minor (three- to four-pinnate leaves, short internodes, and coastal habitats). In a recent survey of tomato populations in the Galápagos Islands, we found that several populations of L. cheesmanii reported 30-50 years earlier had disappeared, mostly as a consequence of human activity. In addition, a previously unreported invasive wild red-fruited form, which we named L. esculentum 'Gal cer,' was found on the island of Santa Cruz. The total diversity (estimated with amplified fragment length polymorphisms [AFLPs]) within L. cheesmanii (H(T) = 0.051) is almost as high as that for the mainland wild species L. pimpinellifolium (H(T) = 0.072). Lycopersicon esculentum 'Gal cer,' on the other hand, has a much lower diversity (H(T) = 0.014). Comparison of AFLP fragments shared by L. esculentum 'Gal cer' with other species showed that it is closely related to weedy tomato L. esculentum var. cerasiforme and, therefore, likely of recent origin. Genetic differentiation among the three native L. cheesmanii forms is low (G(ST) = 0.235), indicating that they share a common genetic background. Nonetheless, L. cheesmanii 'short' is about twice as diverse as L. cheesmanii 'long' or L. cheesmanii f. minor. UPGMA cluster and principal components analysis distinguish four groups within Eulycopersicon: L

  13. Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas J.; Azizi, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    The muscles that power vertebrate locomotion are associated with springy tissues, both within muscle and in connective tissue elements such as tendons. These springs share in common the same simple action: they stretch and store elastic strain energy when force is applied to them and recoil to release energy when force decays. Although this elastic action is simple, it serves a diverse set of functions, including metabolic energy conservation, amplification of muscle power output, attenuation...

  14. Landscape ecosystems of the University of Michigan Biological Station: Ecosystem diversity and ground-cover diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsall, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this research is to provide an understanding of the three-dimensional (air-earth-organism) units of the landscape of the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) that the author calls landscape ecosystem types, or simply ecosystems. Specifically, he has focused on the kinds, spatial location and patterns, and composition (physiography, soil, vegetation) of the local landscape ecosystem types of UMBS and Colonial Point. Future research on the functioning of these ecosystems together with inventories of their plant and animal life will add significantly to the landscape ecology research that has been initiated. A major reason for this research is to provide the conceptual basis and baseline data for understanding ecosystem change. Although it is popular to speak of climate change, entire ecosystems change; some components change faster than others.

  15. Legume diversity patterns in West Central Africa: influence of species biology on distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Estrella, Manuel; Mateo, Rubén G; Wieringa, Jan J; Mackinder, Barbara; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of species richness for conservation planning. Using Maxent, SDMs based on a suite of 14 environmental predictors were generated for 185 West Central African Leguminosae species, each categorised according to one of five vegetation types: Afromontane, coastal, non-flooded forest, open formations, or riverine forest. The relative contribution of each environmental variable was compared between different vegetation types using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by a post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis Paired Comparison contrast. Legume species diversity patterns were explored initially using the typical method of stacking all SDMs. Subsequently, five different ensemble models were generated by partitioning SDMs according to vegetation category. Ecological modelers worked with legume specialists to improve data integrity and integrate expert opinion in the interpretation of individual species models and potential species richness predictions for different vegetation types. Of the 14 environmental predictors used, five showed no difference in their relative contribution to the different vegetation models. Of the nine discriminating variables, the majority were related to temperature variation. The set of variables that played a major role in the Afromontane species diversity model differed significantly from the sets of variables of greatest relative important in other vegetation categories. The traditional approach of stacking all SDMs indicated overall centers of diversity in the region but the

  16. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa: Influence of Species Biology on Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Estrella, Manuel; Mateo, Rubén G.; Wieringa, Jan J.; Mackinder, Barbara; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of species richness for conservation planning. Methodology Using Maxent, SDMs based on a suite of 14 environmental predictors were generated for 185 West Central African Leguminosae species, each categorised according to one of five vegetation types: Afromontane, coastal, non-flooded forest, open formations, or riverine forest. The relative contribution of each environmental variable was compared between different vegetation types using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by a post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis Paired Comparison contrast. Legume species diversity patterns were explored initially using the typical method of stacking all SDMs. Subsequently, five different ensemble models were generated by partitioning SDMs according to vegetation category. Ecological modelers worked with legume specialists to improve data integrity and integrate expert opinion in the interpretation of individual species models and potential species richness predictions for different vegetation types. Results/Conclusions Of the 14 environmental predictors used, five showed no difference in their relative contribution to the different vegetation models. Of the nine discriminating variables, the majority were related to temperature variation. The set of variables that played a major role in the Afromontane species diversity model differed significantly from the sets of variables of greatest relative important in other vegetation categories. The traditional approach of stacking all SDMs indicated overall

  17. Hydrogen, metals, bifurcating electrons, and proton gradients: the early evolution of biological energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2012-03-09

    Life is a persistent, self-specified set of far from equilibrium chemical reactions. In modern microbes, core carbon and energy metabolism are what keep cells alive. In very early chemical evolution, the forerunners of carbon and energy metabolism were the processes of generating reduced carbon compounds from CO(2) and the mechanisms of harnessing energy as compounds capable of doing some chemical work. The process of serpentinization at alkaline hydrothermal vents holds promise as a model for the origin of early reducing power, because Fe(2+) in the Earth's crust reduces water to H(2) and inorganic carbon to methane. The overall geochemical process of serpentinization is similar to the biochemical process of methanogenesis, and methanogenesis is similar to acetogenesis in that both physiologies allow energy conservation from the reduction of CO(2) with electrons from H(2). Electron bifurcation is a newly recognized cytosolic process that anaerobes use generate low potential electrons, it plays an important role in some forms of methanogenesis and, via speculation, possibly in acetogenesis. Electron bifurcation likely figures into the early evolution of biological energy conservation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Farmers’ contributions to the conservation of tree diversity in the Groundnut Basin, Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambou, Antoine; Sambou, Bienvenu; Ræbild, Anders

    2017-01-01

    the diversity and structure of the tree vegetation across landscape classes. Inventories were carried out in three villages in the Groundnut Basin in Senegal, assessing tree diversity, density and crown cover. Tree diversity as assessed by species accumulation curves was high in forests, but cultivated...

  19. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  20. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-P?rez, Leopoldo; Rodr?guez-Zaragoza, Fabi?n Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Maga?a, Am?lcar Lev?; Carriquiry, Jose D.; R?os-Jara, Eduardo; Rodr?guez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; Garc?a-Rivas, Mar?a del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity...

  1. Effects of tillage on the activity density and biological diversity of carabid beetles in spring and winter crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Timothy D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Labonte, James R; Guy, Stephen O; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2007-04-01

    The effects of tillage regimen (conventional [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) on the activity density and diversity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied by pitfall trapping within a rain-fed cropping system in northwestern Idaho, 2000-2002. The cropping rotation consisted of a spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2000 and 2001; and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in 2002), spring dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) 2000-2002, and wheat (T. aestivum), spring in 2000 and 2001, and winter in 2002. A total of 14,480 beetles comprised of 30 species was captured, with five numerically dominant species [Poecilus scitulus L., Poecilus lucublandus Say, Microlestes linearis L., Pterostichus melanarius Ill., and Calosoma cancellatum (Eschscholtz)], accounting for 98% of all captures. All species including the dominants responded idiosyncratically to tillage regimen. Adjusting for trapping biases did not significantly change seasonal activity density of Poecilus spp. or Pt. melanarius to tillage. More beetles were captured in CT than in NT crops because of the dominance of P. scitulus in CT, whereas species richness and biological diversity were generally higher in NT crops. Observed patterns suggest that direct effects of tillage affected some species, whereas indirect effects related to habitat characteristics affected others. CT may provide habitat preferable to xerophilic spring breeders. A relationship was found between beetle species size and tillage regimen in pea and to a lesser extent across all spring crops, with large species (>14 mm) conserved more commonly in NT, small species (tillage systems.

  2. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    of the upstream watershed to the Sr isotope ratio. Our results provide the first reported otolith microchemical reconstruction of Brachyplatystoma migratory movements in the Amazon Basin. Our results indicate that juveniles exhibit diverse rearing strategies, rearing in both upstream and estuary environments. This contrasts with the prevailing understanding that juveniles rear in the estuary before migrating upstream; however, it is supported by some fisheries data that has indicated the presence of alternate spawning and rearing life-histories. The presence of alternate juvenile rearing strategies may have important implications for conservation and management of the fisheries in the region.

  3. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Hegg

    the geology of the upstream watershed to the Sr isotope ratio. Our results provide the first reported otolith microchemical reconstruction of Brachyplatystoma migratory movements in the Amazon Basin. Our results indicate that juveniles exhibit diverse rearing strategies, rearing in both upstream and estuary environments. This contrasts with the prevailing understanding that juveniles rear in the estuary before migrating upstream; however, it is supported by some fisheries data that has indicated the presence of alternate spawning and rearing life-histories. The presence of alternate juvenile rearing strategies may have important implications for conservation and management of the fisheries in the region.

  4. Conserving tropical tree diversity and forest structure: the value of small rainforest patches in moderately-managed landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruedas, Manuel A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Meave, Jorge A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Martínez, Esteban; Jamangapé, Gilberto; Melo, Felipe P L; Santos, Bráulio A

    2014-01-01

    Rainforests are undergoing severe deforestation and fragmentation worldwide. A huge amount of small forest patches are being created, but their value in conserving biodiversity and forest structure is still controversial. Here, we demonstrate that in a species-rich and moderately-managed Mexican tropical landscape small rainforest patches (forest structure. These patches showed diverse communities of native plants, including endangered species, and a new record for the country. Although the number of logged trees increased in smaller patches, patch size was a poor indicator of basal area, stem density, number of species, genera and families, and community evenness. Cumulative species-area curves indicated that all patches had a similar contribution to the regional species diversity. This idea also was supported by the fact that patches strongly differed in floristic composition (high β-diversity), independently of patch size. Thus, in agreement with the land-sharing approach, our findings support that small forest patches in moderately-managed landscapes should be included in conservation initiatives to maintain landscape heterogeneity, species diversity, and ecosystem services.

  5. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  6. Microbialites and microbial communities: Biological diversity, biogeochemical functioning, diagenetic processes, tracers of environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Camoin, Gilbert; Gautret, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Editorial; This special issue is dedicated to microbialites and microbial communities and addresses their biological diversity, their biogeochemical functioning, their roles in diagenetic processes and their environmental significance. It is the logical successor of the special issue that one of us edited after the workshop on “Microbial mediation in carbonate diagenesis” which was held in Chichilianne (France) in 1997 (Camoin, G., Ed., 1999. Microbial mediation in carbonate diagenesis. Sedim...

  7. Genetic diversity of the conserved motifs of six bacterial leaf blight resistance genes in a set of rice landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Basabdatta; Sengupta, Samik; Prasad, Manoj; Ghose, Tapas Kumar

    2014-07-12

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by the vascular pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious diseases leading to crop failure in rice growing countries. A total of 37 resistance genes against Xoo has been identified in rice. Of these, ten BLB resistance genes have been mapped on rice chromosomes, while 6 have been cloned, sequenced and characterized. Diversity analysis at the resistance gene level of this disease is scanty, and the landraces from West Bengal and North Eastern states of India have received little attention so far. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity at conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes in a set of 22 rice accessions including landraces and check genotypes collected from the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and West Bengal. In this study 34 pairs of primers were designed from conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes; Xa1, xa5, Xa21, Xa21(A1), Xa26 and Xa27. The designed primer pairs were used to generate PCR based polymorphic DNA profiles to detect and elucidate the genetic diversity of the six genes in the 22 diverse rice accessions of known disease phenotype. A total of 140 alleles were identified including 41 rare and 26 null alleles. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) value was 0.56/primer pair. The DNA profiles identified each of the rice landraces unequivocally. The amplified polymorphic DNA bands were used to calculate genetic similarity of the rice landraces in all possible pair combinations. The similarity among the rice accessions ranged from 18% to 89% and the dendrogram produced from the similarity values was divided into 2 major clusters. The conserved domains identified within the sequenced rare alleles include Leucine-Rich Repeat, BED-type zinc finger domain, sugar transferase domain and the domain of the carbohydrate esterase 4 superfamily. This study revealed high genetic diversity at conserved domains of six BLB resistance genes in a set of 22

  8. Diversity Generator Mechanisms Are Essential Components of Biological Systems: The Two Queen Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Muraille

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is widely known to fuel adaptation and evolutionary processes and increase robustness at the population, species and ecosystem levels. The Neo-Darwinian paradigm proposes that the diversity of biological entities is the consequence of genetic changes arising spontaneously and randomly, without regard for their usefulness. However, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that the evolutionary process has shaped mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, meiosis and the adaptive immune system, which has resulted in the regulated generation of diversity among populations. Though their origins are unrelated, these diversity generator (DG mechanisms share common functional properties. They (i contribute to the great unpredictability of the composition and/or behavior of biological systems, (ii favor robustness and collectivism among populations and (iii operate mainly by manipulating the systems that control the interaction of living beings with their environment. The definition proposed here for DGs is based on these properties and can be used to identify them according to function. Interestingly, prokaryotic DGs appear to be mainly reactive, as they generate diversity in response to environmental stress. They are involved in the widely described Red Queen/arms race/Cairnsian dynamic. The emergence of multicellular organisms harboring K selection traits (longer reproductive life cycle and smaller population size has led to the acquisition of a new class of DGs that act anticipatively to stress pressures and generate a distinct dynamic called the “White Queen” here. The existence of DGs leads to the view of evolution as a more “intelligent” and Lamarckian-like process. Their repeated selection during evolution could be a neglected example of convergent evolution and suggests that some parts of the evolutionary process are tightly constrained by ecological factors, such as the population size, the generation time and

  9. Diversity Generator Mechanisms Are Essential Components of Biological Systems: The Two Queen Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraille, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Diversity is widely known to fuel adaptation and evolutionary processes and increase robustness at the population, species and ecosystem levels. The Neo-Darwinian paradigm proposes that the diversity of biological entities is the consequence of genetic changes arising spontaneously and randomly, without regard for their usefulness. However, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that the evolutionary process has shaped mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, meiosis and the adaptive immune system, which has resulted in the regulated generation of diversity among populations. Though their origins are unrelated, these diversity generator (DG) mechanisms share common functional properties. They (i) contribute to the great unpredictability of the composition and/or behavior of biological systems, (ii) favor robustness and collectivism among populations and (iii) operate mainly by manipulating the systems that control the interaction of living beings with their environment. The definition proposed here for DGs is based on these properties and can be used to identify them according to function. Interestingly, prokaryotic DGs appear to be mainly reactive, as they generate diversity in response to environmental stress. They are involved in the widely described Red Queen/arms race/Cairnsian dynamic. The emergence of multicellular organisms harboring K selection traits (longer reproductive life cycle and smaller population size) has led to the acquisition of a new class of DGs that act anticipatively to stress pressures and generate a distinct dynamic called the "White Queen" here. The existence of DGs leads to the view of evolution as a more "intelligent" and Lamarckian-like process. Their repeated selection during evolution could be a neglected example of convergent evolution and suggests that some parts of the evolutionary process are tightly constrained by ecological factors, such as the population size, the generation time and the intensity of

  10. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yuanping; Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya'an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi.

  11. What makes grassroots conservation organizations resilient? An empirical analysis of diversity, organizational memory, and the number of leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Nabin

    2013-03-01

    Conservation Area Management Committees (CAMCs)-the functional decision-making units consisting entirely of local villagers-are grassroots organizations legally established to manage the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. These committees suffered due to the decade-long Maoist insurgency, but they survived. The paper attempts to test what factors contributed to their resiliency. For this, I surveyed 30 CAMCs during the summer of 2007 and conducted semi-structured interviews of 190 executive members of the CAMCs and 13 park officials who closely monitor the CAMCs. Regression results showed that the number of leaders (b = 0.44, t = 2.38, P = .027) was the most critical variable for building the resilience of CAMCs to the Maoist insurgency, i.e., retaining the same function, structure, and identity of the committees. As there were no reported conflicts among leaders and they were involved in negotiations and devising contingency plans, CAMCs actually benefited from having more leaders. Of the three diversity indices, the quadratic terms of age diversity (b = -5.42, t = 1.95, P = .064) and ethnic diversity (b = -4.05, t = 1.78, P = .075) had a negative impact on the CAMCs' resilience. Skill diversity and organizational memory had no significant influence on the CAMCs' resilience (t  .10). These results have important implications for building resilience in community-based conservation.

  12. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  13. The composite insect trap: an innovative combination trap for biologically diverse sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo

    Full Text Available Documentation of insect diversity is an important component of the study of biodiversity, community dynamics, and global change. Accurate identification of insects usually requires catching individuals for close inspection. However, because insects are so diverse, most trapping methods are specifically tailored to a particular taxonomic group. For scientists interested in the broadest possible spectrum of insect taxa, whether for long term monitoring of an ecosystem or for a species inventory, the use of several different trapping methods is usually necessary. We describe a novel composite method for capturing a diverse spectrum of insect taxa. The Composite Insect Trap incorporates elements from four different existing trapping methods: the cone trap, malaise trap, pan trap, and flight intercept trap. It is affordable, resistant, easy to assemble and disassemble, and collects a wide variety of insect taxa. Here we describe the design, construction, and effectiveness of the Composite Insect Trap tested during a study of insect diversity. The trap catches a broad array of insects and can eliminate the need to use multiple trap types in biodiversity studies. We propose that the Composite Insect Trap is a useful addition to the trapping methods currently available to ecologists and will be extremely effective for monitoring community level dynamics, biodiversity assessment, and conservation and restoration work. In addition, the Composite Insect Trap will be of use to other insect specialists, such as taxonomists, that are interested in describing the insect taxa in a given area.

  14. Bird Diversity, Birdwatching Tourism and Conservation in Peru: A Geographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; S??ksj?rvi, Ilari E.

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential...

  15. Incorporating historical ecosystem diversity into conservation planning efforts in grass and shrub ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Ganguli; Johathan B. Haufler; Carolyn A. Mehl; Jimmie D. Chew

    2011-01-01

    Understanding historical ecosystem diversity and wildlife habitat quality can provide a useful reference for managing and restoring rangeland ecosystems. We characterized historical ecosystem diversity using available empirical data, expert opinion, and the spatially explicit vegetation dynamics model SIMPPLLE (SIMulating Vegetative Patterns and Processes at Landscape...

  16. Conservation of biodiversity in sugar pine: effects of the blister rust epidemic on genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Bohun B. Kinloch; Robert D. Westfall

    1992-01-01

    Genetic diversity in sugar plne will be severely reduced by the blister rust pandemic predicted within the next 50 to 75 years. We model effects of the epidemic on genetic diversity at the stand and landscape levels for both natural and artificial regeneration. In natural stands, because natural frequencies of the dominant gene (R) for resistance are low, the most...

  17. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Puhakka

    Full Text Available In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1.

  18. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1).

  19. Bird Diversity, Birdwatching Tourism and Conservation in Peru: A Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1). PMID:22132078

  20. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the annual cycle: Linking policy alternatives, landowner decisions, and biological population outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  1. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine A.; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  2. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G; Ribic, Christine A; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  3. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Drum

    Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  4. Quantifying Conservation Biological Control for Management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoet, Timothy F; Ellsworth, Peter C; Carrière, Yves; Naranjo, Steven E

    2018-03-13

    Conservation biological control can be an effective tactic for minimizing insect-induced damage to agricultural production. In the Arizona cotton system, a suite of generalist arthropod predators provides critical regulation of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (MEAM1) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and other pests. Arthropod predator and B. tabaci populations were manipulated with a range of broad-spectrum and selective insecticide exclusions to vary predator to prey interactions in a 2-yr field study. Predator to prey ratios associated with B. tabaci densities near the existing action threshold were estimated for six predator species found to be negatively associated with either adult and/or large nymphs of B. tabaci [Misumenops celer (Hentz) (Araneae: Thomisidae), Drapetis nr divergens (Diptera: Empididae), Geocoris pallens Stäl (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Chrysoperla carnea s.l. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Collops spp. (Coleoptera: Melyridae)] with the first three most consistently associated with declining B. tabaci densities. Ratios ranged from 1 M. celer per 100 sweeps to 1 B. tabaci adult per leaf to 44 D. nr. divergens per 100 sweeps to 1 large nymph per leaf disk. These ratios represent biological control informed thresholds that might serve as simple-to-use decision tool for reducing risk in the current B. tabaci integrated pest management strategy. The identification of key predators within the large, flexible food web of the cotton agro-ecosystem and estimation of predator to B. tabaci ratios clarifies the role of key predators in B. tabaci suppression, yielding potential decision-making advantages that could contribute to further improving economic and environmental sustainability of insect management in the cotton system.

  5. Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Zhang, J.T.; Bai, X.; Shedayi, A.A.; Tariq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry. (author)

  6. Impacts of Bush Encroachment on Wildlife Species Diversity, Composition, and Habitat Preference in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Laikipia, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus M. Kavwele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannah ecosystems are currently facing a biome shift that changes grasslands to woody dominated landscapes, attributable to habitat degradation. In Ol Pejeta Conservancy (OPC, Euclea divinorum, an unpalatable and invasive woody species, is expanding to former savannah ecosystems with potential effects on herbivores key resources, wildlife species diversity, composition, and habitat use. We investigated wildlife species diversity, composition, and habitat preference or avoidance by wildlife in the conservancy. Infrared camera traps were deployed at the centroids of 2 km by 2 km, 50 cm above ground surface for 14 days and nights with 9 camera traps in each habitat type. Shannon wiener index revealed that wildlife species diversity was highest in E. divinorum dominated habitats and lowest in open grassland. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed level of similarity in wildlife species composition between E. divinorum and mixed bushland. Jacobs index revealed that E. divinorum and mixed bushland were avoided by all guilds; however E. divinorum was significantly avoided while A. drepanolobium and open grassland were both preferred by all guilds. However, A. drepanolobium dominated habitats were significantly preferred compared to open grasslands. The findings are useful in management of sustainable ecosystems.

  7. The biology and ecology of Valencia letourneuxi Sauvage 1880 (Valenciidae - Prospects for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BARBIERI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Data are provided on the distribution, abundance, early development and biology of the endangered Greek endemic species Valencia letourneuxi Sauvage 1880, along with a record of its occurrence at new localities. V. letourneuxi is a small-bodied and short-lived insectivorous species, exhibiting cryptic colouration and sexual dimorphism. It matures in the first year of life, reproduces serially in late spring and summer, and deposits spherical eggs, around 2 mm, on aquatic plants. Most morphometric characters show size-specific trends, which complicate comparisons among populations or with other species. Of specific systematic importance is the relative position of the anal and dorsal fins, which remains almost unaltered throughout development, and allows safe distinction from A. fasciatus. The species was found mostly in deep areas with clean and slow running water, usually associated with freshwater springs. Rich submerged vegetation is the prominent ecological feature of all sites in which the species was found. Using as criteria of rarity the limited geographic distribution, the confinement of the species in few localities of each aquatic system and the low local densities, V. letourneuxi can be characterised as a "restricted and locally rare species". The restricted distribution, coupled with the narrow ecological requirements, makes the species vulnerable to extinction. Its disappearance from at least four aquatic systems and the serious population decline in a number of other systems seems to be connected with habitat loss or degradation caused by human activities. The prospects of conservation are discussed.

  8. Insect Diversity of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site: An Important Site for Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Kyerematen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of species diversity of insects of the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site, with special reference to species of conservation concern, was carried out as part of an evaluation of changes in the ecological character of the site, twenty years after designation. Samples were taken from two protected areas within the Ramsar site, in the wet (July, dry (January, and intermediate (June seasons. Community diversity was characterized in terms of number of species accumulated, species richness, Shannon-Weiner indices of diversity, Pielou’s evenness, and Bray-Curtis similarity. A total of 134 families from 19 insect orders were recorded during the entire study period. Yenku Block A recorded the highest species richness (98 and the highest diversity index (14.97, corroborated by the highest Margalef index of 3.82 with a relatively even distribution of species (0.834 during the intermediate season, and recorded the lowest diversity (6.957 and species richness (41 during the dry season. On the whole, the Muni-Pomadzi Ramsar site showed a high diversity of insect species. The presence of species such as Junonia oenone and Papilio demodocus which are specialized in degraded habitats at Yenku Block A in large numbers is a clear indication of degradation of the forest, but the presence of forest species such as Salamis anacardii and Euphaedra crokeri is an indication that some parts of this reserve are still in good shape. A comparison of the butterfly species recorded with findings in a 1997 survey showed a marked increase in numbers from 75 to 130; this may be attributed to the habitat changes that have taken place at the site offering more diverse habitat types.

  9. Reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Vamizi island, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Rita; Santos, Camila; Lopes, Cardoso; Moreira, Helena; Souto, Luis; Ferrão, Jorge; Garnier, Julie; Pereira, Mário J

    2014-01-01

    Vamizi, an Island located in the Western Indian Ocean, is visited by a small and not fully characterized green turtle (Chelonia mydas (L.)) population. This population is threatened by natural hazards and several human activities, which are used to identify conservation priorities for marine turtles. It was our aim to contribute to the knowledge of marine turtles that nest in Vamizi, with respect to its regional management, and to an area that may possibly be included on the UNESCO World Heritage List due to its potential Outstanding Universal Value. Here, we evaluate the nesting parameters (incubation period, clutch size, hatching and emergence successes rates) and patterns over an 8-year (2003 - 2010) conservation program. We also present the results of genetic diversity based on the analysis of approximately an 850 pb fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region. We found that Vamizi beaches host a small number of nesting females, approximately 52 per year, but these have shown a reduction in their length. High hatching success (88.5 ± SD 17.2%, N = 649), emergence success rates (84.5 ± SD 20.4%, N = 649) were observed, and genetic diversity (N = 135), with 11 haplotypes found (7 new). It was also observed, in the later years of this study, a reduction in the incubation period, a dislocation of the nesting peak activity and an increase in the number of flooded nests and an increase of the number of nests in areas with lower human activity. Some resilience and behavioral plasticity seems to occur regarding human territory occupancy and climate changes. However, regardless of the results, aspects like what seems to be the reduction of some cohorts, the number of flooded nests and the diminishing of the incubation period (East and South facing beaches), show that conservation efforts have to be improved.

  10. Conservation actions based on red lists do not capture the functional and phylogenetic diversity of birds in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hidasi-Neto

    Full Text Available Red Lists of threatened species play a critical role in conservation science and practice. However, policy-making based on Red Lists ignores ecological and evolutionary consequences of losing biodiversity because these lists focus on species alone. To decide if relying on Red Lists alone can help to conserve communities' functional (FD and phylogenetic (PD diversity, it is useful to evaluate whether Red List categories represent species with diverse ecological traits and evolutionary histories. Additionally, local scale analyses using regional Red Lists should represent more realistic pools of co-occurring species and thereby better capture eventual losses of FD and PD. Here, we used 21 life-history traits and a phylogeny for all Brazilian birds to determine whether species assigned under the IUCN global Red List, the Brazilian national, and regional Red Lists capture more FD and PD than expected by chance. We also built local Red Lists and analysed if they capture more FD and PD at the local scale. Further, we investigated whether individual threat categories have species with greater FD and PD than expected by chance. At any given scale, threat categories did not capture greater FD or PD than expected by chance. Indeed, mostly categories captured equal or less FD or PD than expected by chance. These findings would not have great consequences if Red Lists were not often considered as a major decision support tool for policy-making. Our results challenge the practice of investing conservation resources based only on species Red Lists because, from an ecological and evolutionary point of view, this would be the same as protecting similar or random sets of species. Thus, new prioritization methods, such as the EDGE of Existence initiative, should be developed and applied to conserve species' ecological traits and evolutionary histories at different spatial scales.

  11. Conservation and function of Rab small GTPases in Entamoeba: annotation of E. invadens Rab and its use for the understanding of Entamoeba biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Husain, Afzal; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2010-11-01

    Entamoeba invadens is a reptilian enteric protozoan parasite closely related to the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica and a good model organism of encystation. To understand the molecular mechanism of vesicular trafficking involved in the encystation of Entamoeba, we examined the conservation of Rab small GTPases between the two species. E. invadens has over 100 Rab genes, similar to E. histolytica. Most of the Rab subfamilies are conserved between the two species, while a number of species-specific Rabs are also present. We annotated all E. invadens Rabs according to the previous nomenclature [Saito-Nakano, Y., Loftus, B.J., Hall, N., Nozaki, T., 2005. The diversity of Rab GTPases in Entamoeba histolytica. Experimental Parasitology 110, 244-252]. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that the fundamental vesicular traffic machinery is well conserved, while there are species-specific protein transport mechanisms. We also reviewed the function of Rabs in Entamoeba, and proposed the use of the annotation of E. invadens Rab genes to understand the ubiquitous importance of Rab-mediated membrane trafficking during important biological processes including differentiation in Entamoeba. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying regional landscapes for conservation planning: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fairbanks, DHK

    2000-08-30

    Full Text Available The application of landscape ecology in conservation biology has rarely occurred in the context of defined landscapes. Conservation planning has focussed on representation of species diversity patterns and assumed that ecosystems, landscapes...

  13. Species diversity vs. morphological disparity in the light of evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Two indicators of a clade's success are its diversity (number of included species) and its disparity (extent of morphospace occupied by its members). Many large genera show high diversity with low disparity, while others such as Euphorbia and Drosophila are highly diverse but also exhibit high disparity. The largest genera are often characterized by key innovations that often, but not necessarily, coincide with their diagnostic apomorphies. In terms of their contribution to speciation, apomorphies are either permissive (e.g. flightlessness) or generative (e.g. nectariferous spurs). Except for Drosophila, virtually no genus among those with the highest diversity or disparity includes species currently studied as model species in developmental genetics or evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). An evo-devo approach is, however, potentially important to understand how diversity and disparity could rapidly increase in the largest genera currently accepted by taxonomists. The most promising directions for future research and a set of key questions to be addressed are presented in this review. From an evo-devo perspective, the evolution of clades with high diversity and/or disparity can be addressed from three main perspectives: (1) evolvability, in terms of release from previous constraints and of the presence of genetic or developmental conditions favouring multiple parallel occurrences of a given evolutionary transition and its reversal; (2) phenotypic plasticity as a facilitator of speciation; and (3) modularity, heterochrony and a coupling between the complexity of the life cycle and the evolution of diversity and disparity in a clade. This simple preliminary analysis suggests a set of topics that deserve priority for scrutiny, including the possible role of saltational evolution in the origination of high diversity and/or disparity, the predictability of morphological evolution following release from a former constraint, and the extent and the possible

  14. Predicting and setting conservation priorities for Bolivian mammals based on biological correlates of the risk of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda, Diego A; Simonetti, Javier A

    2015-06-01

    The recognition that growing proportions of species worldwide are endangered has led to the development of comparative analyses to elucidate why some species are more prone to extinction than others. Understanding factors and patterns of species vulnerability might provide an opportunity to develop proactive conservation strategies. Such comparative analyses are of special concern at national scales because this is the scale at which most conservation initiatives take place. We applied powerful ensemble learning models to test for biological correlates of the risk of decline among the Bolivian mammals to understand species vulnerability at a national scale and to predict the population trend for poorly known species. Risk of decline was nonrandomly distributed: higher proportions of large-sized taxa were under decline, whereas small-sized taxa were less vulnerable. Body mass, mode of life (i.e., aquatic, terrestrial, volant), geographic range size, litter size, home range, niche specialization, and reproductive potential were strongly associated with species vulnerability. Moreover, we found interacting and nonlinear effects of key traits on the risk of decline of mammals at a national scale. Our model predicted 35 data-deficient species in decline on the basis of their biological vulnerability, which should receive more attention in order to prevent their decline. Our results highlight the relevance of comparative analysis at relatively narrow geographical scales, reveal previously unknown factors related to species vulnerability, and offer species-by-species outcomes that can be used to identify targets for conservation, especially for insufficiently known species. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Temporal correlations in population trends: Conservation implications from time-series analysis of diverse animal taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Keith; H. Resit Akcakaya; Stuart H.M. Butchart; Ben Collen; Nicholas K. Dulvy; Elizabeth E. Holmes; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Doug Keinath; Michael K. Schwartz; Andrew O. Shelton; Robin S. Waples

    2015-01-01

    Population trends play a large role in species risk assessments and conservation planning, and species are often considered threatened if their recent rate of decline meets certain thresholds, regardless how large the population is. But how reliable an indicator of extinction risk is a single estimate of population trend? Given the integral role this decline-...

  16. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  17. Diversity at stake : a farmers' perspective on biodiversity and conservation in western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, P.R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study seeks to contribute to the scientific debate on biodiversity conservation in protected natural areas that are inhabited by local farming communities. More specifically, by combining rural sociological and community forestry theory it aims at understanding the farmers' role in

  18. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity - Indicator 6: The number of forest dependent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Taylor H. Ricketts; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Michael S. Knowles; John P. Fay; Jason McNees

    2003-01-01

    This indicator monitors the number of native species that are associated with forest habitats. Because one of the more general sign of ecosystem stress is a reduction in the variety of organisms inhabiting a given locale, species counts are often used in assessing ecosystem wellbeing. Data on the distribution of 689 tree and 1,486 terrestrial animal species associated...

  19. Using dark diversity and plant characteristics to guide conservation and restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; Clausen, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    diversity was computed and logistically regressed against variables representing its ecological preferences (e.g. nutrient availability), strategies (competitor, stress tolerant, ruderal), mycorrhizal relationships, establishment capacities (seed mass) and dispersal abilities. 3. Forty-six percent...... ruderals and stress intolerant. 5. Synthesis and applications. Characterising species that are more often absent from suitable sites than others (dark diversity species) has important implications for the planning and management of natural ecosystems. From our study, practitioners gain insight...... dispersal and establishment as well as spatial connectivity in fragmented habitats are central to consider in nature management although assisted migration might also aid poor dispersers. Finally, nutrient-poor localities are probably important ‘islets’ allowing nitrophobic dark diversity plant species...

  20. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  1. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem El-Shazly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available information on the present status (literature up to early 2014 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Boraginaceae and summarizes the topics structure, distribution, chemistry, chemotaxonomic significance, and biological properties.

  2. Progress towards the Conventionon Biological Diversity terrestrial2010 and marine 2012 targets forprotected area coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Lauren; Burgess, Neil David; Fish, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Protected area coverage targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for both terrestrial and marine environments provide a major incentive for governments to review and upgrade their protected area systems. Assessing progress towards these targets will form an important component...... of the work of the Xth CBD Conference of Parties meeting to be held in Japan in 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the largest assembly of data on the world's terrestrial and marine protected areas and, as such, represents a fundamental tool in tracking progress towards protected area...

  3. Exploring the potential of second-generation sequencing in diverse biological contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise

    studies, and thus the principle aim of this thesis research was to explore and improve methods for SGS of non-conventional and/or challenging templates. These templates include forensic blood samples for short tandem repeat characterization, ancient RNA from maize kernels, and predominantly 2009 pandemic...... H1N1 influenza A virus genomes. The results of these studies demonstrate the power of SGS for gaining insight into the genetic variation of diverse biological samples and highlight the importance of using optimized protocols for sequencing non-conventional samples....

  4. A review of the biology, fisheries and conservation of the whale shark Rhincodon typus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, D; Brooks, K S

    2012-04-01

    Although the whale shark Rhincodon typus is the largest extant fish, it was not described until 1828 and by 1986 there were only 320 records of this species. Since then, growth in tourism and marine recreation globally has lead to a significant increase in the number of sightings and several areas with annual occurrences have been identified, spurring a surge of research on the species. Simultaneously, there was a great expansion in targeted R. typus fisheries to supply the Asian restaurant trade, as well as a largely un-quantified by-catch of the species in purse-seine tuna fisheries. Currently R. typus is listed by the IUCN as vulnerable, due mainly to the effects of targeted fishing in two areas. Photo-identification has shown that R. typus form seasonal size and sex segregated feeding aggregations and that a large proportion of fish in these aggregations are philopatric in the broadest sense, tending to return to, or remain near, a particular site. Somewhat conversely, satellite tracking studies have shown that fish from these aggregations can migrate at ocean-basin scales and genetic studies have, to date, found little graphic differentiation globally. Conservation approaches are now informed by observational and environmental studies that have provided insight into the feeding habits of the species and its preferred habitats. Notwithstanding these advances, there remain notable gaps in the knowledge of this species particularly with respect to the life history of neonates and adults who are not found in the feeding aggregations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  6. Biodiversity and Archeological Conservation Connected: Aragonite Shell Middens Increase Plant Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplank, Sula E; Mata, Sergio; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-03-01

    Natural and cultural heritage sites frequently have nonoverlapping or even conflicting conservation priorities, because human impacts have often resulted in local extirpations and reduced levels of native biodiversity. Over thousands of years, the predictable winter rains of northwestern Baja California have weathered calcium from the clam shells deposited by indigenous peoples in middens along the coast. The release of this calcium has changed soil properties, remediated sodic and saline soils, and resulted in a unique microhabitat that harbors plant assemblages very different from those of the surrounding matrix. Native plant biodiversity and landscape heterogeneity are significantly increased on the anthropogenic soils of these shell middens. Protection of this cultural landscape in the Anthropocene will further both archeological and biodiversity conservation in these anthropogenic footprints from the Holocene. Along these coasts, natural and cultural heritage priorities are overlapping and mutually beneficial.

  7. The genus Scrophularia: a source of iridoids and terpenoids with a diverse biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasdaran, Ardalan; Hamedi, Azadeh

    2017-12-01

    Scrophularia genus (Scrophulariaceae) includes about 350 species commonly known as figwort. Many species of this genus grow wild in nature and have not been cultivated yet. However, some species are in danger of extinction. This paper reviews the chemical compounds, biological activities and the ethnopharmacology of some Scrophularia species. All information was obtained through reported data on bibliographic database such as Scopus, United States National Agricultural Library, Biological Abstracts, EMBASE, PubMed, MedlinePlus, PubChem and Springer Link (1934-2017). The information in different Pharmacopoeias on this genus was also gathered from 1957 to 2007. The structures of 204 compounds and their biological activity were presented in the manuscript: glycoside esters, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoids are the most common compounds in this genus. Among them, scropolioside like iridoids have shown potential for anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and wound healing activity. Among the less frequently isolated compounds, resin glycosides such as crypthophilic acids have shown potent antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. The Scrophularia genus seems to be a rich source of iridoids and terpenoids, but isolation and identification of its alkaloids have been a neglected area of scientific study. The diverse chemical compounds and biological activities of this genus will motivate further investigation on Scrophularia genus as a source of new therapeutic medications.

  8. Patterns of ancestry and genetic diversity in reintroduced populations of the slimy sculpin: Implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, David D.; Miller, Loren M.; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    Reintroductions are a common approach for preserving intraspecific biodiversity in fragmented landscapes. However, they may exacerbate the reduction in genetic diversity initially caused by population fragmentation because the effective population size of reintroduced populations is often smaller and reintroduced populations also tend to be more geographically isolated than native populations. Mixing genetically divergent sources for reintroduction purposes is a practice intended to increase genetic diversity. We documented the outcome of reintroductions from three mixed sources on the ancestral composition and genetic variation of a North American fish, the slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). We used microsatellite markers to evaluate allelic richness and heterozygosity in the reintroduced populations relative to computer simulated expectations. Sculpins in reintroduced populations exhibited higher levels of heterozygosity and allelic richness than any single source, but only slightly higher than the single most genetically diverse source population. Simulations intended to mimic an ideal scenario for maximizing genetic variation in the reintroduced populations also predicted increases, but they were only moderately greater than the most variable source population. We found that a single source contributed more than the other two sources at most reintroduction sites. We urge caution when choosing whether to mix source populations in reintroduction programs. Genetic characteristics of candidate source populations should be evaluated prior to reintroduction if feasible. When combined with knowledge of the degree of genetic distinction among sources, simulations may allow the genetic diversity benefits of mixing populations to be weighed against the risks of outbreeding depression in reintroduced and nearby populations.

  9. The Vallarta Botanical Garden's advancements in conserving the diversity of native Mexican oaks and magnolias

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.A. Gerlowski; M.A. Muñiz-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Mexico is both an oak (Quercus) biodiversity hotspot (over 160 described species) and the western hemisphere's leader in magnolia (Magnolia) diversity (36 described species). In the face of myriad threats to these groups, including climate change, habitat loss/fragmentation, overharvesting, and plant pests/pathogens, the...

  10. Low genetic diversity and minimal population substructure in the endangered Florida manatee: implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Austin, James D.; Clark, Ann Marie; Beck, Cathy A.; McGuire, Peter M.; Oli, Madan K.

    2012-01-01

    Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (Ne). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.

  11. Uses and conservation of plant diversity in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Van Sam

    2009-01-01

    Ben En National Park is one of the 30 National Parks in Vietnam. In this study its botanical wealth has been comprehensively inventoried as well as the very important roles that plants play in the daily life and economy of the people inhabiting the Park. Floristic diversity - In our survey 1389

  12. Longterm changes in plant diversity of grasslands under agricultural and conservation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.; Naus, N.; Verhulst, J.; Ruijven, van J.; Schaffers, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Question In many industrialized countries biodiversity is declining. Although changes in species composition and species richness have been documented for many individual systems, little long-term research has been done on a regional scale. We compared the temporal patterns of plant diversity over

  13. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  14. Hummingbird conservation: discovering diversity patterns in southwest U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Wethington; George C. West; Barbara A. Carlson

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained in 2002 and 2003 from sites in the Hummingbird Monitoring Network, we investigated the effect of geographic factors—latitude, longitude, and elevation—and year on hummingbird diversity patterns in Southwestern U.S.A. In California, none of these factors affected hummingbird richness but elevation significantly affected abundance. In southeastern...

  15. Frequent fire promotes diversity and cover of biological soil crusts in a derived temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Katharine E; Prober, Suzanne Mary; Lunt, Ian D; Eldridge, David J

    2009-04-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts that species diversity is maximized at moderate disturbance levels. This model is often applied to grassy ecosystems, where disturbance can be important for maintaining vascular plant composition and diversity. However, effects of disturbance type and frequency on cover and diversity of non-vascular plants comprising biological soil crusts are poorly known, despite their potentially important role in ecosystem function. We established replicated disturbance regimes of different type (fire vs. mowing) and frequency (2, 4, 8 yearly and unburnt) in a high-quality, representative Themeda australis-Poa sieberiana derived grassland in south-eastern Australia. Effects on soil crust bryophytes and lichens (hereafter cryptogams) were measured after 12 years. Consistent with expectations under IDH, cryptogam richness and abundance declined under no disturbance, likely due to competitive exclusion by vascular plants as well as high soil turnover by soil invertebrates beneath thick grass. Disturbance type was also significant, with burning enhancing richness and abundance more than mowing. Contrary to expectations, however, cryptogam richness increased most dramatically under our most frequent and recent (2 year) burning regime, even when changes in abundance were accounted for by rarefaction analysis. Thus, from the perspective of cryptogams, 2-year burning was not an adequately severe disturbance regime to reduce diversity, highlighting the difficulty associated with expression of disturbance gradients in the application of IDH. Indeed, significant correlations with grassland structure suggest that cryptogam abundance and diversity in this relatively mesic (600 mm annual rainfall) grassland is maximised by frequent fires that reduce vegetation and litter cover, providing light, open areas and stable soil surfaces for colonisation. This contrasts with detrimental effects of 2-year burning on native perennial grasses

  16. A Genome-Scale Model ofShewanella piezotoleransSimulates Mechanisms of Metabolic Diversity and Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufault-Thompson, Keith; Jian, Huahua; Cheng, Ruixue; Li, Jiefu; Wang, Fengping; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Shewanella piezotolerans strain WP3 belongs to the group 1 branch of the Shewanella genus and is a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant species isolated from the deep sea. In this study, a genome-scale model was constructed for WP3 using a combination of genome annotation, ortholog mapping, and physiological verification. The metabolic reconstruction contained 806 genes, 653 metabolites, and 922 reactions, including central metabolic functions that represented nonhomologous replacements between the group 1 and group 2 Shewanella species. Metabolic simulations with the WP3 model demonstrated consistency with existing knowledge about the physiology of the organism. A comparison of model simulations with experimental measurements verified the predicted growth profiles under increasing concentrations of carbon sources. The WP3 model was applied to study mechanisms of anaerobic respiration through investigating energy conservation, redox balancing, and the generation of proton motive force. Despite being an obligate respiratory organism, WP3 was predicted to use substrate-level phosphorylation as the primary source of energy conservation under anaerobic conditions, a trait previously identified in other Shewanella species. Further investigation of the ATP synthase activity revealed a positive correlation between the availability of reducing equivalents in the cell and the directionality of the ATP synthase reaction flux. Comparison of the WP3 model with an existing model of a group 2 species, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, revealed that the WP3 model demonstrated greater flexibility in ATP production under the anaerobic conditions. Such flexibility could be advantageous to WP3 for its adaptation to fluctuating availability of organic carbon sources in the deep sea. IMPORTANCE The well-studied nature of the metabolic diversity of Shewanella bacteria makes species from this genus a promising platform for investigating the evolution of carbon metabolism and energy conservation

  17. Genetic diversity within a newly identified population of Adenophora liliifolia (L. A.DC. in Romania: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Manole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenophora liliifolia is a relict plant species, endangered at European level. Its occurrence in Romania is limited to a very few sites. The amount of genetic diversity of plant species is a valuable indicator of population, being the baseline in developing proper strategies for their conservation. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs markers were used to analyze polymorphism in A. liliifolia genome and to evaluate the genetic diversity and accordingly, the state of a recently identified population. Five ISSR primers, specially designed for plants, and containing different simple sequence repeat motifs were tested. A total of 52 ISSR fragments were generated of which 41 were polymorphic (78.84% and 32 (61.53% specific to Adenophora genus. The value of Shannon’s index of genotypic diversity was 0.812. Jaccard similarity coefficient was calculated for pair wise comparisons among all individuals and ranged from 0.17 to 0.83. The genetic variability between individuals was 78.84% which suggests a relative high genetic differentiation. Although the level of genetic variability is moderate to high, the population is declining and exposed to demographic stochasticity. A possible cause is species germination requirements hampered by modification in vegetation structure and abundance. The population survival and reinforcement is conditioned by urgent measures for forest  management in order to reduce herbaceous and shrubby vegetation and to limit mowing and grazing. Ex situ conservation measures are also proposed.

  18. Preserving biological diversity in the face of large-scale demands for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.J.; Beyea, J.; Keeler, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    Large-scale production and harvesting of biomass to replace fossil fuels could reduce biological diversity by eliminating habitat for native species. Forests would be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow crops dedicated to energy. Given the prospects for a potentially large increase in biofuel production, it is time now to develop strategies for mitigating the loss of biodiversity that might ensue. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biofuels. In particular, cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the biological, spatial, and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences, if we are to have this technology support the environmental health of the world rather than compromise it. Incorporation of these ecological values will be necessary to forestall costly environmental restoration, even at the cost of submaximal biomass productivity. It is therefore doubtful that all managers will take the longer view. Since the costs of biodiversity loss are largely external to economic markets, society cannot rely on the market to protect biodiversity, and some sort of intervention will be necessary. 116 refs., 1 tab

  19. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  20. RNA damage in biological conflicts and the diversity of responding RNA repair systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Aravind, L.

    2016-01-01

    RNA is targeted in biological conflicts by enzymatic toxins or effectors. A vast diversity of systems which repair or ‘heal’ this damage has only recently become apparent. Here, we summarize the known effectors, their modes of action, and RNA targets before surveying the diverse systems which counter this damage from a comparative genomics viewpoint. RNA-repair systems show a modular organization with extensive shuffling and displacement of the constituent domains; however, a general ‘syntax’ is strongly maintained whereby systems typically contain: a RNA ligase (either ATP-grasp or RtcB superfamilies), nucleotidyltransferases, enzymes modifying RNA-termini for ligation (phosphatases and kinases) or protection (methylases), and scaffold or cofactor proteins. We highlight poorly-understood or previously-uncharacterized repair systems and components, e.g. potential scaffolding cofactors (Rot/TROVE and SPFH/Band-7 modules) with their respective cognate non-coding RNAs (YRNAs and a novel tRNA-like molecule) and a novel nucleotidyltransferase associating with diverse ligases. These systems have been extensively disseminated by lateral transfer between distant prokaryotic and microbial eukaryotic lineages consistent with intense inter-organismal conflict. Components have also often been ‘institutionalized’ for non-conflict roles, e.g. in RNA-splicing and in RNAi systems (e.g. in kinetoplastids) which combine a distinct family of RNA-acting prim-pol domains with DICER-like proteins. PMID:27536007

  1. Local community knowledge and participation for animal diversity conservation in SSWP IV Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Oktafitria, Dwi; Wirawan, Indra; Muttaqin, Zainul; Alfarisy, M. Ulya; Azis, Abdul; Argiyanti, Sherly Eka; Fadilah, Via Nur

    2017-06-01

    Key to animal biodiversity conservation are the local communities that live in and around these sites as their livelihoods depend on the natural resources these sites provide. SSWP (Sub Satuan Wilayah Pembangunan) IV Sidoarjo covers Krian, Balongbendo, Tarik, Prambon, and Wonoayu subdistrict with the main function as technical agricultural, industrial zones supported by the low density of settlement activity. Development in this region which tend not balanced between technical agricultural and industrial activities, it is necessary to study in depth so that rapid industrial development can still pay attention to the environment because there is a trend change in agricultural land use and settlements for industrial activities. Take a look at the projections of potential future threats and potential huge biodiversity in SSWP IV is necessary to do a program with a strategic approach to community support efforts to efficiently manage potential biodiversity. As well as the development and diversification of food security program in the region is an abundant source of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo and knowing how the knowledge and participation of local communities on biodiversity of animals in the region. The study was conducted in August-September 2016 through direct field surveys for collecting animal biodiversity primary data. It also conducted a structured interview to determine how much knowledge and participation of local communities towards the conservation of biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo. The results of field studies obtained 28 Aves species, 48 species of Insect, 14 species of Pisces, 4 species of Reptiles, 6 species of Mammals. It was known that there were a bird species with protected status in accordance with UU No. 5 1990 and least concern status in accordance with IUCN. While the results of the interview obtained 63% of 19 respondents did not know about the definition of

  2. YAGM: a web tool for mining associated genes in yeast based on diverse biological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Chung-Ching; Jhou, Meng-Jhun; Wang, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Investigating association between genes can be used in understanding the relations of genes in biological processes. STRING and GeneMANIA are two well-known web tools which can provide a list of associated genes of a query gene based on diverse biological associations such as co-expression, co-localization, co-citation and so on. However, the transcriptional regulation association and mutant phenotype association have not been used in these two web tools. Since the comprehensive transcription factor (TF)-gene binding data, TF-gene regulation data and mutant phenotype data are available in yeast, we developed a web tool called YAGM (Yeast Associated Genes Miner) which constructed the transcriptional regulation association, mutant phenotype association and five commonly used biological associations to mine a list of associated genes of a query yeast gene. In YAGM, we collected seven kinds of datasets including TF-gene binding (TFB) data, TF-gene regulation (TFR) data, mutant phenotype (MP) data, functional annotation (FA) data, physical interaction (PI) data, genetic interaction (GI) data, and literature evidence (LE) data. Then by using the hypergeometric test to calculate the association scores of all gene pairs in yeast, we constructed seven biological associations including two transcriptional regulation associations (TFB association and TFR association), MP association, FA association, PI association, GI association, and LE association. Moreover, the expression profile association from SPELL database was also included in YAGM. When using YAGM, users can input a query gene and choose any possible subsets of the eight biological associations, then a list of associated genes of the query gene will be returned based on the chosen biological associations. In this study, we presented the YAGM which provides eight biological associations for mining associated genes of a query gene in yeast. Among the eight biological associations constructed in YAGM, three (TFB

  3. Varietal diversity and conservation of cultivated yam (Dioscorea cayenensis, Dioscorea rotundata and Dioscorea alata in Kara region (Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Wembou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yam is a strategic crop in Togo. Inventory and evaluation of cultivated varieties in different traditional agroeco-systems allows safeguard of this genetic heritage and its use in breeding programs. As welle ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in 30 localities of Kara region. The inventory allowed the recording 134 yam varieties distributed as follow 122 of D. cayenensis D. rotundata complex (56.46% early varieties and 43.54% late varieties and 12 varieties of the type D. alata. The varietal richness by site varies betewen 7 and 30 with a predominance of D. cayenensis-D. rotundata. Varietal diversity has increased in 22% of villages because of varietal introductions representing 19.2% of the varieties. They come mainly from Bénin (52%, Ghana (40% and Nigeria (8%. The exchange (45%, inheritance (65%, the gift (72.5% and the purchase (35% are the varieties acquisition modes. In contrast to 78% of the localities there is a reduction of varietal diversity. Ten main factors mainly agronomic and social are the cause of the reduction. 83% of the varieties are sparsely distributed and require urgent action on farm conservation because they are endangering. The storage may be done in 9 over the 30 localities that has about 80% of the varietal diversity.

  4. Developing biological resource banks as a supporting tool for wildlife reproduction and conservation The Iberian lynx bank as a model for other endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Quinto, Trinidad; Simon, Miguel A; Cadenas, Rafael; Jones, Jonathan; Martinez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Moreno, Juan M; Vargas, Astrid; Martinez, Fernando; Soria, Bernat

    2009-06-01

    This work presents a Biological Resource Bank generated as a complementary supporting tool for the reproduction and the in situ and ex situ conservation of the Iberian lynx. In its design we prioritized the preservation of a maximum of the current genetic and biological diversity of the population, and the harmless collection of the samples. To provide future reproductive opportunities through any possible technique, we processed and cryopreserved germinal cells and tissues from dead animals, 7 males and 6 females, as well as somatic cells and tissues from 69 different individuals. This somatic cell reserve reflects a very important fraction of the population biodiversity which, furthermore, will allow the development of a wide variety of studies that can be easily extrapolated to the majority of the population. We have developed a new non-destructive method to isolate cells with stem-cell-like properties. If considered convenient in the future, and after proper research, such cells could permit therapeutic applications and perhaps be a good source to be used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. Samples of whole blood and its derivatives, hairs, urine and feces from many different individuals were also preserved. Proper storage of such samples is required to allow epidemiological studies to be performed for the testing of different etiological hypotheses or, in general, to develop any bio-sanitary study to improve conservation strategies within the natural habitat. This work describes the main aspects involved in the practical implementation of the Iberian lynx Biological Resource Bank, as a model that could be useful for the development of similar banks for other endangered species.

  5. 2-Aminothiophene scaffolds: Diverse biological and pharmacological attributes in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorov, Khurshed; Nie, Li Fei; Zhao, Jiangyu; Aisa, Haji A

    2017-11-10

    2-Aminothiophenes are important five-membered heterocyclic building blocks in organic synthesis, and the chemistry of these small molecules is still developing based on the discovery of cyclization by Gewald. Another attractive feature of 2-aminothiophene scaffolds is their ability to act as synthons for the synthesis of biological active thiophene-containing heterocycles, conjugates and hybrids. Currently, the biological actions of 2-aminothiophenes or their 2-N-substituted analogues are still being investigated because of their various mechanisms of action (e.g., pharmacophore and pharmacokinetic properties). Likewise, the 2-aminothiophene family is used as diverse promising selective inhibitors, receptors, and modulators in medicinal chemistry, and these compounds even exhibit effective pharmacological properties in the various clinical phases of appropriate diseases. In this review, major biological and pharmacological reports on 2-aminothiophenes and related compounds have been highlighted; most perspective drug-candidate hits were selected for discussion and described, along with additional synthetic pathways. In addition, we focused on the literature dedicated to 2-aminothiophenes and 2-N-substituted derivatives, which have been published from 2010 to 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    relations with varieties richness managed per household were analyzed in order to explore factors with higher influence on conservation of crop variation. Results A total of 1483 and 507 farmer varieties of tuber species were found in the whole sample and period studied in Huánuco and Cajamarca, respectively. Significantly more varieties managed per household per year were recorded in Huánuco (146.39 ± 12.02 than in Cajamarca (44.55 ± 9.26, and marked differences in number of varieties per year were documented among households within each region (78.25 to 246.50 in Huánuco, 7.50 to 144.00 in Cajamarca. Correlation and multivariate analyses identified that the extent of agricultural area managed by households, cultural identity, practicing of traditional agricultural techniques, and level of self-sufficiency, are meaningful factors influencing higher varieties richness maintained by households. Yield and culinary attributes were considered by people as main features for selecting and deciding which varieties are priorities for conservation. Conclusions Maintenance and promotion of indigenous Andean culture is crucial for ensuring conservation of both traditional agroecological systems and agrobiodiversity. Policies supporting Andean culture (through educational, cultural and economic programs are therefore directly connected with conservation of traditional farmer varieties. Promotion of seed availability and interchange are effective actions for maintaining and developing diversity, but using and valuing native tubers at regional, national and international levels are fundamental motivations to enhance policies and processes in this direction.

  7. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Milla, Dora; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-Guevara, Juan; Cruz-Soriano, Aldo

    2011-12-06

    household were analyzed in order to explore factors with higher influence on conservation of crop variation. A total of 1483 and 507 farmer varieties of tuber species were found in the whole sample and period studied in Huánuco and Cajamarca, respectively. Significantly more varieties managed per household per year were recorded in Huánuco (146.39 ± 12.02) than in Cajamarca (44.55 ± 9.26), and marked differences in number of varieties per year were documented among households within each region (78.25 to 246.50 in Huánuco, 7.50 to 144.00 in Cajamarca). Correlation and multivariate analyses identified that the extent of agricultural area managed by households, cultural identity, practicing of traditional agricultural techniques, and level of self-sufficiency, are meaningful factors influencing higher varieties richness maintained by households. Yield and culinary attributes were considered by people as main features for selecting and deciding which varieties are priorities for conservation. Maintenance and promotion of indigenous Andean culture is crucial for ensuring conservation of both traditional agroecological systems and agrobiodiversity. Policies supporting Andean culture (through educational, cultural and economic programs) are therefore directly connected with conservation of traditional farmer varieties. Promotion of seed availability and interchange are effective actions for maintaining and developing diversity, but using and valuing native tubers at regional, national and international levels are fundamental motivations to enhance policies and processes in this direction.

  8. Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xipell, Meritxell; Tarroso, Pedro; Gardner, Andrew; Arnold, Edwin Nicholas; Robinson, Michael D.; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Vasconcelos, Raquel; de Pous, Philip; Amat, Fèlix; Šmíd, Jiří; Sindaco, Roberto; Els, Johannes; Pleguezuelos, Juan Manuel; Machado, Luis; Donaire, David; Martínez, Gabriel; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Mazuch, Tomáš; Wilms, Thomas; Gebhart, Jürgen; Aznar, Javier; Gallego, Javier; Zwanzig, Bernd-Michael; Fernández-Guiberteau, Daniel; Papenfuss, Theodore; Al Saadi, Saleh; Alghafri, Ali; Khalifa, Sultan; Al Farqani, Hamed; Bait Bilal, Salim; Alazri, Iman Sulaiman; Al Adhoobi, Aziza Saud; Al Omairi, Zeyana Salim; Al Shariani, Mohammed; Al Kiyumi, Ali; Al Sariri, Thuraya; Al Shukaili, Ahmed Said; Al Akhzami, Suleiman Nasser

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we use an exceptional database including 5,359 records of 101 species of Oman’s terrestrial reptiles together with spatial tools to infer the spatial patterns of species richness and endemicity, to infer the habitat preference of each species and to better define conservation priorities, with especial focus on the effectiveness of the protected areas in preserving this unique arid fauna. Our results indicate that the sampling effort is not only remarkable from a taxonomic point of view, with multiple observations for most species, but also for the spatial coverage achieved. The observations are distributed almost continuously across the two-dimensional climatic space of Oman defined by the mean annual temperature and the total annual precipitation and across the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the multivariate climatic space and are well represented within 17 out of the 20 climatic clusters grouping 10% of the explained climatic variance defined by PC1 and PC2. Species richness is highest in the Hajar and Dhofar Mountains, two of the most biodiverse areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and endemic species richness is greatest in the Jebel Akhdar, the highest part of the Hajar Mountains. Oman’s 22 protected areas cover only 3.91% of the country, including within their limits 63.37% of terrestrial reptiles and 50% of all endemics. Our analyses show that large areas of the climatic space of Oman lie outside protected areas and that seven of the 20 climatic clusters are not protected at all. The results of the gap analysis indicate that most of the species are below the conservation target of 17% or even the less restrictive 12% of their total area within a protected area in order to be considered adequately protected. Therefore, an evaluation of the coverage of the current network of protected areas and the identification of priority protected areas for reptiles using reserve design algorithms are urgently needed. Our study also shows that

  9. Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Salvador; Xipell, Meritxell; Tarroso, Pedro; Gardner, Andrew; Arnold, Edwin Nicholas; Robinson, Michael D; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Vasconcelos, Raquel; de Pous, Philip; Amat, Fèlix; Šmíd, Jiří; Sindaco, Roberto; Metallinou, Margarita; Els, Johannes; Pleguezuelos, Juan Manuel; Machado, Luis; Donaire, David; Martínez, Gabriel; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Mazuch, Tomáš; Wilms, Thomas; Gebhart, Jürgen; Aznar, Javier; Gallego, Javier; Zwanzig, Bernd-Michael; Fernández-Guiberteau, Daniel; Papenfuss, Theodore; Al Saadi, Saleh; Alghafri, Ali; Khalifa, Sultan; Al Farqani, Hamed; Bait Bilal, Salim; Alazri, Iman Sulaiman; Al Adhoobi, Aziza Saud; Al Omairi, Zeyana Salim; Al Shariani, Mohammed; Al Kiyumi, Ali; Al Sariri, Thuraya; Al Shukaili, Ahmed Said; Al Akhzami, Suleiman Nasser

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we use an exceptional database including 5,359 records of 101 species of Oman's terrestrial reptiles together with spatial tools to infer the spatial patterns of species richness and endemicity, to infer the habitat preference of each species and to better define conservation priorities, with especial focus on the effectiveness of the protected areas in preserving this unique arid fauna. Our results indicate that the sampling effort is not only remarkable from a taxonomic point of view, with multiple observations for most species, but also for the spatial coverage achieved. The observations are distributed almost continuously across the two-dimensional climatic space of Oman defined by the mean annual temperature and the total annual precipitation and across the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the multivariate climatic space and are well represented within 17 out of the 20 climatic clusters grouping 10% of the explained climatic variance defined by PC1 and PC2. Species richness is highest in the Hajar and Dhofar Mountains, two of the most biodiverse areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and endemic species richness is greatest in the Jebel Akhdar, the highest part of the Hajar Mountains. Oman's 22 protected areas cover only 3.91% of the country, including within their limits 63.37% of terrestrial reptiles and 50% of all endemics. Our analyses show that large areas of the climatic space of Oman lie outside protected areas and that seven of the 20 climatic clusters are not protected at all. The results of the gap analysis indicate that most of the species are below the conservation target of 17% or even the less restrictive 12% of their total area within a protected area in order to be considered adequately protected. Therefore, an evaluation of the coverage of the current network of protected areas and the identification of priority protected areas for reptiles using reserve design algorithms are urgently needed. Our study also shows that more

  10. Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Carranza

    Full Text Available In the present work, we use an exceptional database including 5,359 records of 101 species of Oman's terrestrial reptiles together with spatial tools to infer the spatial patterns of species richness and endemicity, to infer the habitat preference of each species and to better define conservation priorities, with especial focus on the effectiveness of the protected areas in preserving this unique arid fauna. Our results indicate that the sampling effort is not only remarkable from a taxonomic point of view, with multiple observations for most species, but also for the spatial coverage achieved. The observations are distributed almost continuously across the two-dimensional climatic space of Oman defined by the mean annual temperature and the total annual precipitation and across the Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the multivariate climatic space and are well represented within 17 out of the 20 climatic clusters grouping 10% of the explained climatic variance defined by PC1 and PC2. Species richness is highest in the Hajar and Dhofar Mountains, two of the most biodiverse areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and endemic species richness is greatest in the Jebel Akhdar, the highest part of the Hajar Mountains. Oman's 22 protected areas cover only 3.91% of the country, including within their limits 63.37% of terrestrial reptiles and 50% of all endemics. Our analyses show that large areas of the climatic space of Oman lie outside protected areas and that seven of the 20 climatic clusters are not protected at all. The results of the gap analysis indicate that most of the species are below the conservation target of 17% or even the less restrictive 12% of their total area within a protected area in order to be considered adequately protected. Therefore, an evaluation of the coverage of the current network of protected areas and the identification of priority protected areas for reptiles using reserve design algorithms are urgently needed. Our study

  11. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...

  12. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewayrga, Hailemichael; Sopade, Peter A

    2011-06-28

    Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  13. Contribution to the diversity and conservation knowledge of mammals in the basin of the Apurimac river, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work documents the diversity of mammals in the headwaters of the Apurímac river, one of the most important information gaps in Peru, based on an evaluation of fi ve sampling areas in the departments of Apurímac (Cconoc, Velavelayoc, Ayacucho (Yanamonte, Ccentabamba and Cuzco (Catarata. Capture’s effort was 1280 trap-nights and 41 mistnet-nights. Sixty species were recorded in the study area and included 15 threatened species and four species endemic to Perú. As expected, bats and rodents were the most diverse orders (66,7 %. The species diversity in the sites sampled declines signifi cantly with elevation from the lowest elevation sites (Ccentabamba and Catarata to the highest (Velavelayoc. The marsupial Monodelphis peruviana and the Dwarf Brocket deer Mazama chunyi are fifi rst records for the department of Ayacucho. The bats Artibeus planirostris and Myotis keaysi, and the river otter Lontra longicaudis are fifi rst records for the department of Apurímac. For bats, the relative abundance showed a signifi cant negative correlation with elevation, but was not signifi cant for small terrestrial mammals. The species of Sturnira, Akodon and Thomasomys had the highest values of relative abundance. The diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener and Simpson also showed also a signifi cant negative correlation with elevation. The Apurímac river headwater is estimated to have at least 97 mammals species. We recommend creating conservation areas in Huanipaca, Yanamonte and Catarata, and enlarging the area of the Santuario Histórico Machu Picchu to include the archaeological site of Choquequirao.

  14. GenoSol Platform: A Logistic and Technical Platform for Conserving and Exploring Soil Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dequiedt, Samuel; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Ranjard, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the platform "GenoSol" ( http://www.dijon.inra.fr/plateforme_genosol ) was created at the INRA (French National Institute for Agronomic Research) of Dijon. This platform was launched by several soil microbial ecologist senior scientists to provide a logistics and technical structure dedicated to the acquisition, conservation, characterization, and supply of genetic resources (DNA) of soils from very large-scale samplings (several hundred to several thousand corresponding to large spatial and/or temporal scales). Thanks to this structure metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities has been standardized as well as a reliable reference system for analysis of the microbial genetic resources of the collected soils (more than 10,000 soil samples to date). This platform also illustrates the usefulness of existing soil archives in providing a readily available source of ecological information that is relevant to microbial ecology, probably more than we can currently fathom.

  15. Assessing the Fauna Diversity of Marudu Bay Mangrove Forest, Sabah, Malaysia, for Future Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zakaria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove is an evergreen, salt tolerant plant community, which grows in inter-tidal coastal zones of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are ecologically important for many fauna species and are rich in food resources and consist of many different vegetation structures. They serve as ideal foraging and nursery grounds for a wide array of species such as birds, mammals, reptiles, fishes and aquatic invertebrates. In spite of their crucial role, around 50% of mangrove habitats have been lost and degraded in the past two decades. The fauna diversity of mangrove habitat at Marudu Bay, Sabah, East Malaysia was examined using various methods: i.e. aquatic invertebrates by swap nets, fish by angling rods and cast nets, reptiles, birds, and mammals through direct sighting. The result showed that Marudu Bay mangrove habitats harbored a diversity of fauna species including 22 aquatic invertebrate species (encompassing 11 crustacean species, six mollusk species and four worm species, 36 fish species, 74 bird species, four reptile species, and four mammal species. The wide array of fauna species could be due to the availability of complex vegetation structures, sheltered beaches and tidal mudflats, which are rich in food resources and also offer safe foraging and breeding grounds for them. These heterogeneous habitats must be protected in a sustainable way in order to ensure the continued presence of aquatic and terrestrial fauna species for future generations.

  16. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  17. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  18. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Díaz-Pérez

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prunus mira (Koehne from the Tibet plateau in China and recommended conservation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Bao

    Full Text Available Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics. The results of molecular analyses based on simple sequence repeat (SSR markers indicated moderate genetic diversity and inbreeding (A = 3.8, Ae = 2.5, He = 0.52, Ho = 0.44, I = 0.95, FIS = 0.17 within P. mira populations. STRUCTURE, GENELAND, and phylogenetic analyses assigned the 21 populations to three genetic clusters that were moderately correlated with geographic altitudes, and this may have resulted from significantly different climatic and environmental factors at different altitudinal ranges. Significant isolation-by-distance was detected across the entire distribution of P. mira populations, but geographic altitude might have more significant effects on genetic structure than geographic distance in partial small-scale areas. Furthermore, clear genetic structure, high genetic differentiation, and restricted gene flow were detected between pairwise populations from different geographic groups, indicating that geographic barriers and genetic drift have significant effects on P. mira populations. Analyses of molecular variance based on the SSR markers indicated high variation (83.7% and 81.7%, whereas morphological analyses revealed low variation (1.30%-36.17% within the populations. Large and heavy fruits were better adapted than light fruits and nutlets to poor climate and environmental conditions at high altitudes. Based on the results of molecular and morphological analyses, we classified the area into three conservation units

  20. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  1. Genetic diversity of the Japanese Marten (Martes melampus) and its implications for the conservation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Hosoda, Tetsuji

    2009-07-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of combined mitochondrial DNA sequences (2814 bp; cytochrome b gene, displacement loop region, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene) identified nine groups among 49 individual Japanese martens, Martes melampus, collected from several areas in Japan. The grouping was not correlated with winter coat color, but was consistent with geography. In particular, the monophyly of 29 Tsushima martens, M. m. tsuensis, was supported by strong clade support and topological tests. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were much lower for the Tsushima population than for any population on the Japanese main islands. In addition, analyses of heterozygosity in nuclear growth hormone receptor gene sequences (654 bp) showed genetic homogeneity for the Tsushima population. This evidence supports the view that the Tsushima marten's long history of isolation on small islands is responsible for its genetic distinctiveness and uniformity, validating the Tsushima population as an evolutionarily significant unit.

  2. Fishes and aquatic habitats of the Orinoco River Basin: diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, C A; Machado-Allison, A; Taphorn, D C

    2016-07-01

    About 1000 freshwater fishes have been found so far in the Orinoco River Basin of Venezuela and Colombia. This high ichthyological diversity reflects the wide range of landscapes and aquatic ecosystems included in the basin. Mountain streams descend from the high Andes to become rapid-flowing foothill rivers that burst out upon vast savannah flatlands where they slowly make their way to the sea. These white-water rivers are heavily laden with sediments from the geologically young Andes. Because their sediment deposits have formed the richest soils of the basin, they have attracted the highest density of human populations, along with the greatest levels of deforestation, wildfires, agricultural biocides and fertilizers, sewage and all the other impacts associated with urban centres, agriculture and cattle ranching. In the southern portion of the basin, human populations are much smaller, where often the only inhabitants are indigenous peoples. The ancient rocks and sands of the Guiana Shield yield clear and black water streams of very different quality. Here, sediment loads are miniscule, pH is very acid and fish biomass is only a fraction of that observed in the rich Andean tributaries to the north. For each region of the basin, the current state of knowledge about fish diversity is assessed, fish sampling density evaluated, the presence of endemic species and economically important species (for human consumption or ornamental purposes) described and gaps in knowledge are pointed out. Current trends in the fishery for human consumption are analysed, noting that stocks of many species are in steep decline, and that current fishing practices are not sustainable. Finally, the major impacts and threats faced by the fishes and aquatic ecosystems of the Orinoco River Basin are summarized, and the creation of bi-national commissions to promote standardized fishing laws in both countries is recommended. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Archival Collections are Important in the Study of the Biology, Diversity, and Evolution of Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Warrilow, David

    2016-01-01

    Historically, classifications of arboviruses were based on serological techniques. Hence, collections of arbovirus isolates have been central to this process by providing the antigenic reagents for these methods. However, with increasing concern about biosafety and security, the introduction of molecular biology techniques has led to greater emphasis on the storage of nucleic acid sequence data over the maintenance of archival material. In this commentary, we provide examples of where archival collections provide an important source of genetic material to assist in confirming the authenticity of reference strains and vaccine stocks, to clarify taxonomic relationships particularly when isolates of the same virus species have been collected across a wide expanse of time and space, for future phenotypic analysis, to determine the historical diversity of strains, and to understand the mechanisms leading to changes in genome structure and virus evolution.

  4. The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Irwig, Michael S; Beach, Lauren; Chan, Yee-Ming; Derks, Eske M; Esteva, Isabel; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Heijer, Martin Den; Posthuma, Danielle; Raynor, Lewis; Tishelman, Amy; Davis, Lea K

    2018-03-01

    The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.

  5. Can the natural diversity of quorum-sensing advance synthetic biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology.

  6. The Populus ARBORKNOX1 homeodomain transcription factor regulates woody growth through binding to evolutionarily conserved target genes of diverse function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Zinkgraf, Matthew; Petzold, H Earl; Beers, Eric P; Filkov, Vladimir; Groover, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The class I KNOX homeodomain transcription factor ARBORKNOX1 (ARK1) is a key regulator of vascular cambium maintenance and cell differentiation in Populus. Currently, basic information is lacking concerning the distribution, functional characteristics, and evolution of ARK1 binding in the Populus genome. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) technology to identify ARK1 binding loci genome-wide in Populus. Computational analyses evaluated the distribution of ARK1 binding loci, the function of genes associated with bound loci, the effect of ARK1 binding on transcript levels, and evolutionary conservation of ARK1 binding loci. ARK1 binds to thousands of loci which are highly enriched proximal to the transcriptional start sites of genes of diverse functions. ARK1 target genes are significantly enriched in paralogs derived from the whole-genome salicoid duplication event. Both ARK1 and a maize (Zea mays) homolog, KNOTTED1, preferentially target evolutionarily conserved genes. However, only a small portion of ARK1 target genes are significantly differentially expressed in an ARK1 over-expression mutant. This study describes the functional characteristics and evolution of DNA binding by a transcription factor in an undomesticated tree, revealing complexities similar to those shown for transcription factors in model animal species. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of culturable Actinobacteria isolated from freshwater fish gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Mansooreh; Ghanbari, Mahdi; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2015-06-01

    biosynthetic genes, one-fourth of them harbours more than four. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the fish gut microbiota and it's potential to produce biologically active compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  9. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher A; Epperson, Megan L; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I; Fremont, Daved H

    2015-08-28

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection.

  10. Comparative genomics of Mycoplasma: analysis of conserved essential genes and diversity of the pan-genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma, the smallest self-replicating organism with a minimal metabolism and little genomic redundancy, is expected to be a close approximation to the minimal set of genes needed to sustain bacterial life. This study employs comparative evolutionary analysis of twenty Mycoplasma genomes to gain an improved understanding of essential genes. By analyzing the core genome of mycoplasmas, we finally revealed the conserved essential genes set for mycoplasma survival. Further analysis showed that the core genome set has many characteristics in common with experimentally identified essential genes. Several key genes, which are related to DNA replication and repair and can be disrupted in transposon mutagenesis studies, may be critical for bacteria survival especially over long period natural selection. Phylogenomic reconstructions based on 3,355 homologous groups allowed robust estimation of phylogenetic relatedness among mycoplasma strains. To obtain deeper insight into the relative roles of molecular evolution in pathogen adaptation to their hosts, we also analyzed the positive selection pressures on particular sites and lineages. There appears to be an approximate correlation between the divergence of species and the level of positive selection detected in corresponding lineages.

  11. Cyanobacterial Diversity in Biological Soil Crusts along a Precipitation Gradient, Northwest Negev Desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Henneberg, Manja; Felde, Vincent J M N L; Drahorad, Sylvie L; Berkowicz, Simon M; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Kaplan, Aaron

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria occur worldwide but play an important role in the formation and primary activity of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The cyanobacterial diversity in BSCs of the northwest Negev desert of Israel was surveyed at three fixed sampling stations situated along a precipitation gradient in the years 2010 to 2012. The three stations also are characterized by marked differences in soil features such as soil carbon, nitrogen, or electrical conductivity. The cyanobacterial biodiversity was analyzed by sequencing inserts of clone libraries harboring partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained with cyanobacteria-specific primers. Filamentous, non-diazotrophic strains (subsection III), particularly Microcoleus-like, dominated the cyanobacterial community (30% proportion) in all years. Specific cyanobacterial groups showed increased (e.g., Chroococcidiopsis, Leptolyngbya, and Nostoc strains) or decreased (e.g., unicellular strains belonging to the subsection I and Scytonema strains) abundances with declining water availability at the most arid, southern station, whereas many cyanobacterial strains were frequently found in the soils of all three stations. The cyanobacterial diversity at the three sampling stations appears dependent on the available precipitation, whereas the differences in soil chemistry were of lower importance.

  12. Molluscan biological and chemical diversity: secondary metabolites and medicinal resources produced by marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2010-11-01

    The phylum Mollusca represents an enormous diversity of species with eight distinct classes. This review provides a taxonomic breakdown of the published research on marine molluscan natural products and the medicinal products currently derived from molluscs, in order to identify priority targets and strategies for future research. Some marine gastropods and bivalves have been of great interest to natural products chemists, yielding a diversity of chemical classes and several drug leads currently in clinical trials. Molluscs also feature prominently in a broad range of traditional natural medicines, although the active ingredients in the taxa involved are typically unknown. Overall secondary metabolites have only been investigated from a tiny proportion (molluscs. Conversely, most molluscan medicines are derived from shelled gastropods and bivalves. The complete disregard for several minor classes of molluscs is unjustified based on their evolutionary history and unique life styles, which may have led to novel pathways for secondary metabolism. The Polyplacophora, in particular, have been identified as worthy of future investigation given their use in traditional South African medicines and their abundance in littoral ecosystems. As bioactive compounds are not always constitutively expressed in molluscs, future research should be targeted towards biosynthetic organs and inducible defence reactions for specific medicinal applications. Given the lack of an acquired immune system, the use of bioactive secondary metabolites is likely to be ubiquitous throughout the Mollusca and broadening the search field may uncover interesting novel chemistry. © 2010 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. Genetic structure and diversity of a soybean germplasm considering biological nitrogen fixation and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalgisa Ribeiro Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has global economic and environmental importance, but has often not been considered in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] breeding programs. Knowing the genetic diversity and structure of a population within a germoplasm represent a key step for breeding programs. This study aimed at determining the structure of the population and diversity of soybean with regard to BNF and protein content in grain. In total, 191 accessions were evaluated, including 171 commercial soybean cultivars, developed and released by public institutions and private companies in Brazil, and 20 ancestral lines. The genotypes were chosen to represent four genetic groups: 128 Brazilian public genotypes, 20 exotic, and 43 genotypes from private companies. Soybeans were genotyped with 22 SSR markers, previously described as associated with BNF and protein content. Genetic diversity was evaluated using the DARwin 5.0 software. Population structure was inferred by principal component analysis and by the STRUCTURE software. The accessions were distributed in two groups: one clustering approximately 50 % of the accessions, from Brazilian public and private companies; the other one clustering 45 % of the accessions, including Brazilian, exotic and private germoplasms. Some accessions (5 % were not grouped in any cluster. Principal component analysis explained 29 % of the total variance and there was a tendency to cluster the accessions into two groups. Similar results were obtained with the STRUCTURE, clearly showing two subpopulations. There is variability for BNF and protein content amongst both modern germoplasms cultivated in Brazil and ancestral lines. This variability could be better explored in soybean breeding programs to improve these traits.

  14. Evolutionary Conservation and Emerging Functional Diversity of the Cytosolic Hsp70:J Protein Chaperone Network of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit K; Diwan, Danish; Raut, Sandeep; Dobriyal, Neha; Brown, Rebecca E; Gowda, Vinita; Hines, Justin K; Sahi, Chandan

    2017-06-07

    Heat shock proteins of 70 kDa (Hsp70s) partner with structurally diverse Hsp40s (J proteins), generating distinct chaperone networks in various cellular compartments that perform myriad housekeeping and stress-associated functions in all organisms. Plants, being sessile, need to constantly maintain their cellular proteostasis in response to external environmental cues. In these situations, the Hsp70:J protein machines may play an important role in fine-tuning cellular protein quality control. Although ubiquitous, the functional specificity and complexity of the plant Hsp70:J protein network has not been studied. Here, we analyzed the J protein network in the cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana and, using yeast genetics, show that the functional specificities of most plant J proteins in fundamental chaperone functions are conserved across long evolutionary timescales. Detailed phylogenetic and functional analysis revealed that increased number, regulatory differences, and neofunctionalization in J proteins together contribute to the emerging functional diversity and complexity in the Hsp70:J protein network in higher plants. Based on the data presented, we propose that higher plants have orchestrated their "chaperome," especially their J protein complement, according to their specialized cellular and physiological stipulations. Copyright © 2017 Verma et al.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-10/TIMP-2 structure and analyses define conserved core interactions and diverse exosite interactions in MMP/TIMP complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotica Batra

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play central roles in vertebrate tissue development, remodeling, and repair. The endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs regulate proteolytic activity by binding tightly to the MMP active site. While each of the four TIMPs can inhibit most MMPs, binding data reveal tremendous heterogeneity in affinities of different TIMP/MMP pairs, and the structural features that differentiate stronger from weaker complexes are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the comparatively weakly bound human MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex at 2.1 Å resolution. Comparison with previously reported structures of MMP-3/TIMP-1, MT1-MMP/TIMP-2, MMP-13/TIMP-2, and MMP-10/TIMP-1 complexes offers insights into the structural basis of binding selectivity. Our analyses identify a group of highly conserved contacts at the heart of MMP/TIMP complexes that define the conserved mechanism of inhibition, as well as a second category of diverse adventitious contacts at the periphery of the interfaces. The AB loop of the TIMP N-terminal domain and the contact loops of the TIMP C-terminal domain form highly variable peripheral contacts that can be considered as separate exosite interactions. In some complexes these exosite contacts are extensive, while in other complexes the AB loop or C-terminal domain contacts are greatly reduced and appear to contribute little to complex stability. Our data suggest that exosite interactions can enhance MMP/TIMP binding, although in the relatively weakly bound MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex they are not well optimized to do so. Formation of highly variable exosite interactions may provide a general mechanism by which TIMPs are fine-tuned for distinct regulatory roles in biology.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-10/TIMP-2 structure and analyses define conserved core interactions and diverse exosite interactions in MMP/TIMP complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Jyotica; Soares, Alexei S; Mehner, Christine; Radisky, Evette S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play central roles in vertebrate tissue development, remodeling, and repair. The endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate proteolytic activity by binding tightly to the MMP active site. While each of the four TIMPs can inhibit most MMPs, binding data reveal tremendous heterogeneity in affinities of different TIMP/MMP pairs, and the structural features that differentiate stronger from weaker complexes are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the comparatively weakly bound human MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex at 2.1 Å resolution. Comparison with previously reported structures of MMP-3/TIMP-1, MT1-MMP/TIMP-2, MMP-13/TIMP-2, and MMP-10/TIMP-1 complexes offers insights into the structural basis of binding selectivity. Our analyses identify a group of highly conserved contacts at the heart of MMP/TIMP complexes that define the conserved mechanism of inhibition, as well as a second category of diverse adventitious contacts at the periphery of the interfaces. The AB loop of the TIMP N-terminal domain and the contact loops of the TIMP C-terminal domain form highly variable peripheral contacts that can be considered as separate exosite interactions. In some complexes these exosite contacts are extensive, while in other complexes the AB loop or C-terminal domain contacts are greatly reduced and appear to contribute little to complex stability. Our data suggest that exosite interactions can enhance MMP/TIMP binding, although in the relatively weakly bound MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex they are not well optimized to do so. Formation of highly variable exosite interactions may provide a general mechanism by which TIMPs are fine-tuned for distinct regulatory roles in biology.

  17. Deciphering genetic diversity and inheritance of tomato fruit weight and composition through a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Laura; Xu, Jiaxin; Biais, Benoît; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Jacob, Daniel; Desgroux, Aurore; Faurobert, Mireille; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-12-01

    Integrative systems biology proposes new approaches to decipher the variation of phenotypic traits. In an effort to link the genetic variation and the physiological and molecular bases of fruit composition, the proteome (424 protein spots), metabolome (26 compounds), enzymatic profile (26 enzymes), and phenotypes of eight tomato accessions, covering the genetic diversity of the species, and four of their F1 hybrids, were characterized at two fruit developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red). The contents of metabolites varied among the genetic backgrounds, while enzyme profiles were less variable, particularly at the cell expansion stage. Frequent genotype by stage interactions suggested that the trends observed for one accession at a physiological level may change in another accession. In agreement with this, the inheritance modes varied between crosses and stages. Although additivity was predominant, 40% of the traits were non-additively inherited. Relationships among traits revealed associations between different levels of expression and provided information on several key proteins. Notably, the role of frucktokinase, invertase, and cysteine synthase in the variation of metabolites was highlighted. Several stress-related proteins also appeared related to fruit weight differences. These key proteins might be targets for improving metabolite contents of the fruit. This systems biology approach provides better understanding of networks controlling the genetic variation of tomato fruit composition. In addition, the wide data sets generated provide an ideal framework to develop innovative integrated hypothesis and will be highly valuable for the research community.

  18. Molecular Diversity of Sea Spray Aerosol Particles: Impact of Ocean Biology on Particle Composition and Hygroscopicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Laskina, Olga; Trueblood, Jonathan; Estillore, Armando D.; Morris, Holly S.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Sultana, Camile M.; Lee, Christopher; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Dowling, Jackie; Qin, Zhen; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Stone, Elizabeth; Prather, Kimberly; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2017-05-01

    The impact of sea spray aerosol (SSA) on climate depends on the size and chemical composition of individual particles that make-up the total SSA ensemble. While the organic fraction of SSA has been characterized from a bulk perspective, there remains a lack of understanding as to the composition of individual particles within the SSA ensemble. To better understand the molecular components within SSA particles and how SSA composition changes with ocean biology, simultaneous measurements of seawater and SSA were made during a month-long mesocosm experiment performed in an ocean-atmosphere facility. Herein, we deconvolute the composition of freshly emitted SSA devoid of anthropogenic and terrestrial influences by characterizing classes of organic compounds as well as specific molecules within individual SSA particles. Analysis of SSA particles show that the diversity of molecules within the organic fraction varies between two size fractions (submicron and supermicron) with contributions from fatty acids, monosaccharides, polysaccharides and siliceous material. Significant changes in the distribution of these compounds within individual particles are observed to coincide with the rise and fall of phytoplankton and bacterial populations within the seawater. Furthermore, water uptake is impacted as shown by hygroscopicity measurements of model systems composed of representative organic compounds. Thus, the how changes in the hygroscopic growth of SSA evolves with composition can be elucidated. Overall, this study provides an important connection between biological processes that control the composition of seawater and changes in single particle composition which will enhances our ability to predict the impact of SSA on climate.

  19. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent

    2016-03-25

    Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  20. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  1. Oxidative stress-responsive microRNA-320 regulates glycolysis in diverse biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huibin; Lee, Myung; Sharpe, Orr; Salamone, Louis; Noonan, Emily J.; Hoang, Chuong D.; Levine, Sanford; Robinson, William H.; Shrager, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    Glycolysis is the initial step of glucose catabolism and is up-regulated in cancer cells (the Warburg Effect). Such shifts toward a glycolytic phenotype have not been explored widely in other biological systems, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the shifts remain unknown. With proteomics, we observed increased glycolysis in disused human diaphragm muscle. In disused muscle, lung cancer, and H2O2-treated myotubes, we show up-regulation of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme muscle-type phosphofructokinase (PFKm, >2 fold, P150%, Pglycolysis in response to H2O2 treatment. We show that this microRNA-mediated regulation occurs through PFKm's 3′ untranslated region and that Ets proteins are involved in the regulation of PFKm via miR-320a. These findings suggest that oxidative stress-responsive microRNA-320a may regulate glycolysis broadly within nature.—Tang, H., Lee, M., Sharpe, O., Salamone, L., Noonan, E. J., Hoang, C. D., Levine, S., Robinson, W. H., Shrager, J. B. Oxidative stress-responsive microRNA-320 regulates glycolysis in diverse biological systems. PMID:22767230

  2. Spatial landscape model to characterize biological diversity using R statistical computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hariom; Garg, R D; Karnatak, Harish C; Roy, Arijit

    2018-01-15

    Due to urbanization and population growth, the degradation of natural forests and associated biodiversity are now widely recognized as a global environmental concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid assessment and monitoring of biodiversity on priority using state-of-art tools and technologies. The main purpose of this research article is to develop and implement a new methodological approach to characterize biological diversity using spatial model developed during the study viz. Spatial Biodiversity Model (SBM). The developed model is scale, resolution and location independent solution for spatial biodiversity richness modelling. The platform-independent computation model is based on parallel computation. The biodiversity model based on open-source software has been implemented on R statistical computing platform. It provides information on high disturbance and high biological richness areas through different landscape indices and site specific information (e.g. forest fragmentation (FR), disturbance index (DI) etc.). The model has been developed based on the case study of Indian landscape; however it can be implemented in any part of the world. As a case study, SBM has been tested for Uttarakhand state in India. Inputs for landscape ecology are derived through multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques in an interactive command line environment. MCDM with sensitivity analysis in spatial domain has been carried out to illustrate the model stability and robustness. Furthermore, spatial regression analysis has been made for the validation of the output. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A diversity and conservation inventory of the Herpetofauna of the Cuautlapan Valley, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LA Luz, Nelson M Ceron; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R

    2016-12-05

    We compiled an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cuautlapan Valley, Veracruz, Mexico based on field surveys and museum and literature records. We found a total of 78 species: 28 amphibians (6 Salamanders and 22 anurans); and 50 reptiles (three turtles, 18 lizards, and 29 snakes). These taxa represent 26 families (eight amphibian families, 18 reptile families) and 60 genera (19 amphibian genera, 41 reptile genera). Two of these species are not native to the area (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima and Hemidactylus frenatus). According to the IUCN red list, five species are Critically Endangered, two are Endangered, four are Near Threatened, and four are Vulnerable. In the SEMARNAT (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales) listing, one species is Endangered, eight species are Threatened, and 25 are Subject to Special Protection. Even though the Cuautlapan Valley is represented by a relatively small area it hosts a rich diversity of amphibian and reptile species, many of which are at risk and protected under Mexican law. This valley lies between the growing cities of Orizaba and Cordoba which have contributed to habitat degradation threatening the existence of the wildlife that occurs there.

  4. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  5. Structure, function and management of semi-natural habitats for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, John M.; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Entling, Martin H.; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Smith, Barbara M.; Jeanneret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Different semi-natural habitats occur on farmland, and it is the vegetation's traits and structure that subsequently determine their ability to support natural enemies and their associated contribution to conservation biocontrol. New habitats can be created and existing ones improved with

  6. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a “sixth” mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  7. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Yousaf, Muhammad; Manan, Sehrish; Siddique, Rabeea; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a "sixth" mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  8. Floristic composition, biological spectrum and conservation status of the vegetation in Nikyal valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze floristic compositions, biological spectrum and conservation status of the existing vegetation in valley. Methods: A quantitative phytosociological survey was conducted using quadrat method at different sites. Sampling was done by using quadrat method. A complete floristic list of the plant communities of the study area was compiled on the basis of plant collection. Life form and leaf spectra were constructed using the complete list of the plant communities collected from study area. Conservation status of each species was established on the basis of International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria. Results: The flora of Nikyal valley consisted of 110 species belonging to 51 families and 98 genera. Poaceae (18 spp., Asteraceae (10 spp., Lamiaceae (8 spp. and Fabaceae (7 spp. were the leading families in the area. Biological spectrums of 13 different plant communities were grouped into four plant associations on the basis of cluster analysis and detrended correspondence analysis. The data showed that hemicryptophytes (32.73% were the dominant life form in the area followed by therophytes (23.64% and nanophanerophytes (22.73% during monsoon season. Similarly, nanophyllous species (37.27% followed by microphyllous species (29.09% remained dominant during monsoon in the investigated area. Conclusions: The majority of important plant species of Nikyal valley are critically endangered, therefore effective measures for conservation of plant resources of the valley are urgently needed. We recommend the floristic life-form spectrum technique if working in sufficiently large areas, because it could provide an indication of the prevailing phytoclimate.

  9. The panmixia paradigm of eastern Pacific olive ridley turtles revised: consequences for their conservation and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castro, M C; Rocha-Olivares, A

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies of the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea population structure in the tropical eastern Pacific have indicated the existence of a single panmictic population ranging from Costa Rica to Mexico. This information has been used to design specific management measures to conserve primary nesting beaches in Mexico. However, little is known about olive ridleys in the Baja California Peninsula, their northernmost reproductive limit, where recent observations have shown differences in nesting female behaviour and size of hatchlings relative to other continental rookeries. We used mtDNA control region sequences from 137 turtles from five continental and four peninsular nesting sites to determine whether such differences correspond to a genetic distinction of Baja California olive ridleys or to phenotypic plasticity associated with the extreme environmental nesting conditions of this region. We found that genetic diversity in peninsular turtles was significantly lower than in continental nesting colonies. Analysis of molecular variance revealed a significant population structure (Phi ST = 0.048, P = 0.006) with the inclusion of peninsular samples. Our results: (i) suggest that the observed phenotypic variation may be associated with genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation; (ii) support the recent colonization of the eastern Pacific by Lepidochelys; (iii) reveal genetic signatures of historical expansion and colonization events; and (iv) significantly challenge the notion of a single genetic and conservation unit of olive ridleys in the eastern Pacific. We conclude that conservation measures for olive ridleys in Mexico should be revised to grant peninsular beaches special attention.

  10. The Biological Diversity and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds by Stem-Inhabiting Endophytic Fungi of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Rundell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes colonize every major lineage of land plants without causing apparent harm to their hosts. Despite their production of interesting and potentially novel compounds, endophytes—particularly those inhabiting stem tissues—are still a vastly underexplored component of microbial diversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of over 1500 fungal endophyte isolates collected from three Ecuadorian ecosystems: lowland tropical forest, cloud forest, and coastal dry forest. We sought to determine whether Ecuador’s fungal endophytes are hyperdiverse, and whether that biological diversity is reflected in the endophytes’ chemical diversity. To assess this chemical diversity, we analyzed a subset of isolates for their production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, a representative class of natural products. This study yielded a total of 1526 fungal ITS sequences comprising some 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, resulting in a non-asymptotic OTU accumulation curve and characterized by a Fisher’s α of 120 and a Shannon Diversity score of 7.56. These figures suggest that the Ecuadorian endophytes are hyperdiverse. Furthermore, the 113 isolates screened for VOCs produced more than 140 unique compounds. These results present a mere snapshot of the remarkable biological and chemical diversity of stem-inhabiting endophytic fungi from a single neotropical country.

  11. Developmental evolutionary biology of the vertebrate ear: conserving mechanoelectric transduction and developmental pathways in diverging morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.; Bermingham, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    This brief overview shows that a start has been made to molecularly dissect vertebrate ear development and its evolutionary conservation to the development of the insect hearing organ. However, neither the patterning process of the ear nor the patterning process of insect sensory organs is sufficiently known at the moment to provide more than a first glimpse. Moreover, hardly anything is known about otocyst development of the cephalopod molluscs, another triploblast lineage that evolved complex 'ears'. We hope that the apparent conserved functional and cellular components present in the ciliated sensory neurons/hair cells will also be found in the genes required for vertebrate ear and insect sensory organ morphogenesis (Fig. 3). Likewise, we expect that homologous pre-patterning genes will soon be identified for the non-sensory cell development, which is more than a blocking of neuronal development through the Delta/Notch signaling system. Generation of the apparently unique ear could thus represent a multiplication of non-sensory cells by asymmetric and symmetric divisions as well as modification of existing patterning process by implementing novel developmental modules. In the final analysis, the vertebrate ear may come about by increasing the level of gene interactions in an already existing and highly conserved interactive cascade of bHLH genes. Since this was apparently achieved in all three lineages of triploblasts independently (Fig. 3), we now need to understand how much of the morphogenetic cascades are equally conserved across phyla to generate complex ears. The existing mutations in humans and mice may be able to point the direction of future research to understand the development of specific cell types and morphologies in the formation of complex arthropod, cephalopod, and vertebrate 'ears'.

  12. Conservation of the basic pattern of cellular amino acid composition during biological evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, K; Okayasu, T; Akimoto, K; Niwa, A

    2000-01-01

    The cellular amino acid composition of plant cells was analyzed. The callus of carrot (Daucus carota), leaves of Torenia fournieri and protocomb-like body of Cymbidium, s.p. were examined as examples of plant cells. The cellular amino acid compositions differed in the plant cells, but their basic patterns were quite similar. It is concluded that the basic pattern of the cellular amino acid composition is conserved in all terrestrial organisms, including plants.

  13. Chemical Diversity, Biological Activity, and Genetic Aspects of Three Ocotea Species from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kelly da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea species present economic importance and biological activities attributed to their essential oils (EOs and extracts. For this reason, various strategies have been developed for their conservation. The chemical compositions of the essential oils and matK DNA sequences of O. caudata, O. cujumary, and O. caniculata were subjected to comparison with data from O. floribunda, O. veraguensis, and O. whitei, previously reported. The multivariate analysis of chemical composition classified the EOs into two main clusters. Group I was characterized by the presence of α-pinene (9.8–22.5% and β-pinene (9.7–21.3% and it includes O. caudata, O. whitei, and O. floribunda. In group II, the oils of O. cujumary and O. caniculata showed high similarity due amounts of β-caryophyllene (22.2% and 18.9%, respectively. The EO of O. veraguensis, rich in p-cymene (19.8%, showed minor similarity among all samples. The oils displayed promising antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC < 19.5 µg·mL−1 and MCF-7 cells (median inhibitory concentration (IC50 ≅ 65.0 µg·mL−1, respectively. The analysis of matK gene displayed a good correlation with the main class of chemical compounds present in the EOs. However, the matK gene data did not show correlation with specific compounds.

  14. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  15. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  16. Genetic diversity of Myanmar rice and their implementation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of Myanmar rice and their implementation on management methods. ... The importance of the conservation on on-farm landraces of Oryza sativa and its wild relatives was proposed in order to ensure the genetic resources for further breeding and conserve biological diversity. Key words: Oryza sativa, rice, ...

  17. Complimentary analysis of metacommunity nestedness and diversity partitioning highlights the need for a holistic conservation strategy for highland lake fish assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metacommunity nestedness can be affected by both idiosyncratic species and species turnover, and diversity partitioning allows one to separate turnover and nested components within β-diversity. Thus, complimentary analysis of metacommunity nestedness and diversity partitioning allows for the identification of the underlying changes at both local and regional scales. We examined changes of fish assemblages in metacommunity nestedness and α-, β-, and γ-diversities resulting from the intense loss of native species and the invasion of nonnative species in Chinese highland lakes over the past 60 years. We found metacommunity nestedness rose markedly over time, following the loss of both β- and γ-diversity resulting from the loss of native species, and the increase of α diversity by the addition of nonnative species. This pattern is contradictory to the selective extinction leading to larger nestedness in natural ecosystems and indicates the human-induced negative effects on the metacommunity. However, β-diversity partitioning showed that the turnover component due to species replacement among lakes still contributes more than the nested component, suggesting the importance of avoiding setting conservation priorities based exclusively on metacommunity nestedness theory, but taking a more holistic metacommunity-approach to conservation instead.

  18. Conservation biology of Chionodoxa lochiae and Scilla morrisii (Asparagaceae: Two priority bulbous plant species of the European Union in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Andreou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data regarding conservation biology of Chionodoxa lochiae and Scilla morrisii; two threatened endemic plants of Cyprus, which are included as priority species in Annex II of the Habitats Directive. The population size and geographical distribution of the species were monitored for three years. C. lochiae was recorded in ten locations and S. morrisii was recorded in five locations. C. lochiae occurs in Pinus forests with/without Quercus alnifolia understory or in forest margins and riparian vegetation with Platanus orientalis. Favorable habitat of S. morrisii is the understory of Quercus infectoria stands and the Pistacia terebinthus-Quercus coccifera-Styrax officinalis shrubs. The distribution pattern of the species seems to follow habitat availability. Fecundity and Relative Reproductive Success of C. lochiae were stable and low, while in S. morrisii were constantly high. The lack of pollinators seems to be the main cause of the low sexual reproduction of C. lochiae. The germination strategy for both species is dependent on temperature. Some of the seeds are dormant and dormancy is broken by nitrates. The investigation of certain aspects of the biology of the two species yielded the information needed to identify the critical aspects affecting their survival and to propose sound conservation measures.

  19. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  20. The role of fire in managing for biological diversity on native rangelands of the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for using fire to manage for biological diversity on native rangelands in the Northern Great Plains incorporates an understanding of its past frequency, timing and intensity. Historically, lightning and humans were the major fire setters, and the role of fire varied both in space and time. A burning regime that includes fires at various intervals, seasons...

  1. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  2. Assessing risks and benefits of floral supplements in conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Wackers, F.L.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of flowering field margins is often proposed as a method to support biological control in agro-ecosystems. In addition to beneficial insects, many herbivores depend on floral food as well. The indiscriminate use of flowering species in field margins can therefore lead to higher pest numbers.

  3. Flower power? Potential benefits and pitfalls of using (flowering) vegetation for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, F.L.; Rijn, van P.C.J.; Winkler, K.; Olson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas nectar and pollen provision to predators and parasitoids is a main objective in pursuing agricultural biodiversity, we often know little about whether the flowering plant species involved are actually suitable as insect food sources or about their ultimate impact on biological pest control.

  4. Biological risks of the conservation of transfusion preparations by low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Láznicka, M

    1990-01-01

    When the blood or bone marrow collections are provided and treated subsequently, two types of biohazards may occur. The first of them resides in bacterial contamination at collection and following manipulation. The second is represented by endengering both recipients and staff with prelevement of infected tissues. Contemporary blood collections are at most risk from the transfer of infectious hepatitis and HIV virus. Possible risk-factors are analysed from the transfer of serious infections through the use of hypothermic and cryothermic conservation as well as freeze-drying.

  5. Merging paleobiology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnosky, Anthony D.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Head, Jason; Gonzalez, Patrick; Polly, P. David; Lawing, A. Michelle; Eronen, Jussi T.; Ackerly, David D.; Alex, Ken; Biber, Eric; Blois, Jessica L.; Brashares, Justin; Ceballos, Gerardo; Davis, Edward; Dietl, Gregory P.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Doremus, Holly; Fortelius, Mikael; Greene, Harry W.; Hellmann, Jessica; Hickler, Thomas; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kemp, Melissa; Koch, Paul L.; Kremen, Claire; Lindsey, Emily L.; Looy, Cindy; Marshall, Charles R.; Mendenhall, Chase; Mulch, Andreas; Mychajliw, Alexis M.; Nowak, Carsten; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Schnitzler, Jan; Das Shrestha, Kashish; Solari, Katherine; Stegner, Lynn; Stegner, M. Allison; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Wake, Marvalee H.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    The current impacts of humanity on nature are rapid and destructive, but species turnover and change have occurred throughout the history of life. Although there is much debate about the best approaches to take in conservation, ultimately, we need to permit or enhance the resilience of natural systems so that they can continue to adapt and function into the future. In a Review, Barnosky et al. argue that the best way to do this is to look back at paleontological history as a way to understand how ecological resilience is maintained, even in the face of change.

  6. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research.

  7. Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Synthetic biology to access and expand nature’s chemical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smanski, Michael J.; Zhou, Hui; Claesen, Jan; Shen, Ben; Fischbach, Michael; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genomes encode the biosynthetic potential to produce hundreds of thousands of complex molecules with diverse applications, from medicine to agriculture and materials. Economically accessing the potential encoded within sequenced genomes promises to reinvigorate waning drug discovery pipelines and provide novel routes to intricate chemicals. This is a tremendous undertaking, as the pathways often comprise dozens of genes spanning as much as 100+ kiliobases of DNA, are controlled by complex regulatory networks, and the most interesting molecules are made by non-model organisms. Advances in synthetic biology address these issues, including DNA construction technologies, genetic parts for precision expression control, synthetic regulatory circuits, computer aided design, and multiplexed genome engineering. Collectively, these technologies are moving towards an era when chemicals can be accessed en mass based on sequence information alone. This will enable the harnessing of metagenomic data and massive strain banks for high-throughput molecular discovery and, ultimately, the ability to forward design pathways to complex chemicals not found in nature. PMID:26876034

  9. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  10. Genetics, evolution and conservation of Bromeliaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Camila M.; Janke, Aline; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Pinheiro, Felipe G.; Paggi, Gecele M.; Soares, Luis E.S.; Goetze, M?rcia; B?ttow, Miriam V.; Bered, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is a morphologically distinctive and ecologically diverse family originating in the New World. Three centers of diversity, 58 genera, and about 3,140 bromeliad species are currently recognized. We compiled all of the studies related to the reproductive biology, genetic diversity, and population structure of the Bromeliaceae, and discuss the evolution and conservation of this family. Bromeliads are preferentially pollinated by vertebrates and show marked variation in breeding syst...

  11. Marine biology, biodiversity and conservation: foreword to the SIEBM 2010 Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Lizaso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The SIEBM (Iberian Symposium of Studies on Marine Biology has a long tradition. The conference was first convened in 1979 and it has since been held approximately biannually. It was originally focused on marine benthos, but two editions ago it was decided to widen its objectives to include other related subjects. The 15th edition was held at the University of Alicante from 6th to 10th September 2010.

  12. Western pond turtle: Biology, sampling techniques, inventory and monitoring, conservation, and management: Northwest Fauna No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R.B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.; Germano, David J.; Ashton, Donald T.

    2012-01-01

    One of only two native, freshwater turtle species in the western United States, western pond turtles are declining in portions of their original range. Declines are mostly due to habitat loss, introduction of non-native species, pollution, and lack of connectivity among populations. USGS zoologist R. Bruce Bury and colleagues from the U.S. Forest Service, California State University, and other agencies compiled and edited a new review and field manual of this charismatic species. Objectives were to determine its current distribution and abundance, summarize and evaluate population features, review techniques to detect population and habitat changes, and improve monitoring for long-term trends. Methods described in the manual should improve consistency, efficiency, and accuracy of survey data, resulting in improved management and conservation efforts.

  13. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biology Classifieds Get Involved AIBS on Diversity Diversity Diversity Leadership Award Diversity Scholars Outreach Directory News Newsroom Peer ... Biology Classifieds Get Involved AIBS on Diversity Diversity Diversity Leadership Award Diversity Scholars Outreach Directory News Newsroom Contact ...

  14. Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Eric B; Boyd, Eric S; Raymond, Jason

    2014-05-28

    The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity. By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition. Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins occur among metagenomes

  15. BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE WHITECLAWED CRAYFISH HABITAT BASED ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES: USEFULNESS FOR ITS CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRANDJEAN F.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the macroinvertebrates of three brooks harbouring the white-clawed crayfish was conducted in Haute-Vienne department (France. Its aim was to increase our understanding of these ecosystems to help the conservation of A. pallipes. These brooks run through pastoral areas with well-developed riparian vegetation, which offers an important shade. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and conductivity fell within the ranges found for this species. A total of 34, 31, 29 taxa and 1 502, 1 364, 2 707 individuals of macrobenthos were collected in Holme, Besque and Bellecombe streams, respectively. Results showed good to very good water quality with IBGN scores ranging from 15 (Bellecombe to 17 (Holme and Besque, reflecting a limited impact of the anthropogenic disturbances. Taxa diversity were high for Holme and Besque with Shannon index around 3.2, translating a great heterogeneity of habitat and an equilibrated faunal community. Bellecombe showed a limited diversity with Shannon index of 1.42, resulting from the presence of numberous Chironomidae. This brook suffers probably weak organic pollution which could be related to the low water flow observed during the sampling. The similarity test according to Jaccard index showed high percentage of common taxa among ETP (Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Plecoptera between all sites. The high similarity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities could be an useful criteria to identify brooks for restocking purpose.

  16. Photoautotrophic organisms control microbial abundance and diversity in biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Maier, Stefanie; Wu, Dianming; Caesar, Jennifer; Hoffman, Timm; Grube, Martin; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Vascular vegetation is typically quite sparse or even absent in dryland ecosystems all over the world, but the ground surface is not bare and largely covered by biological soil crusts (referred to as biocrusts hereafter). These biocrust communities generally comprise poikilohydric organisms. They are usually dominated by photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses, growing together with heterotrophic fungi, bacteria and archaea in varying composition. Cyanobacteria-, lichen- and moss-dominated biocrusts are known to stabilize the soil and to influence the water budgets and plant establishment. The autotrophic organisms take up atmospheric CO2, and (cyano-)bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen. The intention of the present project was to study the relevance of the dominating photoautotrophic organisms for biocrust microbial composition and physiology. High-throughput sequencing revealed that soil microbiota of biocrusts largely differ from the bacterial community in bare soil. We observed that bacterial and fungal abundance (16S and 18S rRNA gene copy numbers) as well as alpha diversity was lowest in bare soil, and increasing from cyanobacteria-, and chlorolichen- to moss-dominated biocrusts. CO2 gas exchange measurements revealed large respiration rates of the soil in moss-dominated biocrusts, which was not observed for cyanobacteria- and chlorolichen-dominated biocrusts. Thus, soil respiration of moss-dominated biocrusts is mainly due to the activity of the microbial communities, whereas the microorganisms in the other biocrust types are either dormant or feature functionally different microbial communities. Our results indicate that biocrust type determines the pattern of microbial communities in the underlying soil layer.

  17. Isolation of a significant fraction of non-phototroph diversity from a desert Biological Soil Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses eNunes da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs are organosedimentary assemblages comprised of microbes and minerals in topsoil of terrestrial environments. BSCs strongly impact soil quality in dryland ecosystems (e.g., soil structure and nutrient yields due to pioneer species such as Microcoleus vaginatus; phototrophs that produce filaments that bind the soil together, and support an array of heterotrophic microorganisms. These microorganisms in turn contribute to soil stability and biogeochemistry of BSCs. Non-cyanobacterial populations of BSCs are less well known than cyanobacterial populations. Therefore, we attempted to isolate a broad range of numerically significant and phylogenetically representative BSC aerobic heterotrophs. Combining simple pre-treatments (hydration of BSCs under dark and light and isolation strategies (media with varying nutrient availability and protection from oxidative stress we recovered 402 bacterial and one fungal isolate in axenic culture, which comprised 116 phylotypes (at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, 115 bacterial and one fungal. Each medium enriched a mostly distinct subset of phylotypes, and cultivated phylotypes varied due to the BSC pre-treatment. The fraction of the total phylotype diversity isolated, weighted by relative abundance in the community, was determined by the overlap between isolate sequences and OTUs reconstructed from metagenome or metatranscriptome reads. Together, more than 8% of relative abundance of OTUs in the metagenome was represented by our isolates, a cultivation efficiency much larger than typically expected from most soils. We conclude that simple cultivation procedures combined with specific pre-treatment of samples afford a significant reduction in the culturability gap, enabling physiological and metabolic assays that rely on ecologically relevant axenic cultures.

  18. [Palms conservation, patterns of use and diversity (Arecaceae) in rain forests from the Chocó, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois-Cuesta, Hamleth; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina; Rentería Cuesta, Yucith Yudelmis; Sol María, Panesso Hinestroza

    2013-12-01

    Arecaceae is a family rich in species and provides resources for the subsistence of human groups in the tropical regions. The aim of this work was to assess the richness, diversity, composition, and use patterns of the family Arecaceae in three communities of the Medio Atrato, Chocó, Colombia, in order to obtain useful information to support the sustainable use and conservation of this plant groups in the biogeographical area of the Colombian Chocó. The fieldwork was carried out between 2009 and 2010 in the localities of Beté, Tangui and El Buey in the municipality of Medio Atrato. In each of the communities, a total of ten plots of 80 x 5 m (400 m2; 0.4 ha per zone) were established and all individuals of palm species were counted and recorded. On the other hand, information on use types and useful organs was also recorded in each community through informal interviews. A total of 29 species and 18 genera were recorded. Bactris (24.13%) and Wettinia (10.34%) were the genera with most species richness. El Buey showed more species and genera richness (23 species, 17 genera) than Beté (15, 10) and Tangui (14, 11). The floristic similarity among the three communities was less than 45%. The species with higher use and ecological value were: Euterpe oleracea, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea allennii, Manicaria saccifera, Bactris gassipaes and Wettinia quinaria. The categories of use with higher number of species and cultural importance were construction, food and handicraft. The most used structures of the palms were the stems and fruits. In conclusion, the results indicate that the Medio Atrato has high richness and diversity of palm species in a regional and national context. However, the relationship between number of use and ecological importance of the species depends on the locality and show that the socio-cultural significance of the palm species may vary among groups of people who share a same culture or biogeographic region. Future studies should be conducted to

  19. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010: the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nielsen-Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Central America is recognized as a mega diverse “hot-spot” and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world’s leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62% and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  20. Bibliometry of Costa Rica biodiversity studies published in the Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (2000-2010): the content and importance of a leading tropical biology journal in its 60th anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2012-12-01

    Central America is recognized as a mega diverse "hot-spot" and one of its smaller countries, Costa Rica, as one of the world's leaders in the study and conservation of tropical biodiversity. For this study, inspired by the 60th anniversary of the journal Revista de Biología Tropical, we tabulated all the scientific production on Costa Rican biodiversity published in Revista de Biología Tropical between 2000 and 2010. Most articles are zoological (62%) and 67% of authors had only one publication in the jounal within that period. A 54% of articles were published in English and 46% in Spanish. A 41% of articles were written in collaboration among Costa Rican institutions and 36% in collaboration with foreign institutions. The Collaboration Index was 2.53 signatures per article. Visibility in American sources was 56% in Google Scholar and 42.66% in the Web of Science, but the real visibility and impact are unknown because these sources exclude the majority of tropical journals. Revista de Biología Tropical is the main output channel for Costa Rican biology and despite its small size, Costa Rica occupies the 10th. place in productivity among Latin American countries, with productivity and impact levels that compare favorably with larger countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile.

  1. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit's promise in improving students' understanding of the targeted ideas. © 2016 C. F. Herrmann-Abell et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Bibliometry of the Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation: document types, languages, countries, institutions, citations and article lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2016-09-01

    The Revista de Biología Tropical / International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, founded in 1953, publishes feature articles about tropical nature and is considered one of the leading journals in Latin America. This article analyzes document type, language, countries, institutions, citations and for the first time article lifespan, from 1976 through 2014. We analyzed 3 978 documents from the Science Citation Index Expanded. Articles comprised 88 % of the total production and had 3.7 citations on average, lower than reviews. Spanish and English articles were nearly equal in numbers and citation for English articles was only slightly higher. Costa Rica, Mexico, and the USA are the countries with more articles, and the leading institutions were Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico and Universidad de Oriente (Venezuela). The citation lifespan of articles is long, around 37 years. It is not surprising that Costa Rica, Mexico, and Venezuela lead in productivity and cooperation, because they are mostly covered by tropical ecosystems and share a common culture and a tradition of scientific cooperation. The same applies to the leading institutions, which are among the largest Spanish language universities in the neotropical region. American output can be explained by the regional presence of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Organization for Tropical Studies. Tropical research does not have the rapid change typical of medical research, and for this reason, the impact factor misses most of citations for the Revista, which are made after the two-year window used by the Web of Science. This issue is especially damaging for the Revista because most journals that deal with tropical biology are never checked when citations are counted for by the Science Citation Index.

  3. Taxonomic and Geographic Bias in Conservation Biology Research: A Systematic Review of Wildfowl Demography Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Beth E I; Harris, W Edwin; Hilton, Geoff M; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Demographic data are important to wildlife managers to gauge population health, to allow populations to be utilised sustainably, and to inform conservation efforts. We analysed published demographic data on the world's wildfowl to examine taxonomic and geographic biases in study, and to identify gaps in knowledge. Wildfowl (order: Anseriformes) are a comparatively well studied bird group which includes 169 species of duck, goose and swan. In all, 1,586 wildfowl research papers published between 1911 and 2010 were found using Web of Knowledge (WoK) and Google Scholar. Over half of the research output involved just 15 species from seven genera. Research output was strongly biased towards 'high income' countries, common wildfowl species, and measures of productivity, rather than survival and movement patterns. There were significantly fewer demographic data for the world's 31 threatened wildfowl species than for non-threatened species. Since 1994, the volume of demographic work on threatened species has increased more than for non-threatened species, but still makes up only 2.7% of total research output. As an aid to research prioritisation, a metric was created to reflect demographic knowledge gaps for each species related to research output for the species, its threat status, and availability of potentially useful surrogate data from congeneric species. According to the metric, the 25 highest priority species include thirteen threatened taxa and nine species each from Asia and South America, and six from Africa.

  4. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Larval myogenesis in Echinodermata: conserved features and morphological diversity between class-specific larval forms of Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Odintsova, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    The myogenesis of class-specific larval forms of three classes belonging to the phylum Echinodermata (Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea) was investigated via gross-anatomy and comparative morphology of larval muscles. Using staining with phalloidin and antibodies against the muscle proteins, with subsequent CLSM and 3D imaging, we have examined myogenesis in the larvae from the gastrula stage to pre-metamorphosis larval stages. We have shown that temporal and spatial expression of muscle proteins is similar in echinoidea and asteroidea larvae but differs in holothuroidea larvae at early developmental stages. New insights regarding the protein composition of maturing muscular fibrils during development in echinoderm larvae were detected. The first differentiating muscle structures in all tested classes have been found to be circular esophageal muscles that are associated with larval feeding. During early differentiation of echinoderm larval muscle cells, we observed that the expression patterns of the muscle proteins were not uniform but with a characteristic diffuse distribution, which is typical for smooth muscle. An unusual pattern of expression of the muscle proteins was detected in larval sphincters: the thick muscle proteins were first expressed during the early developmental stages, whereas F-actin appeared at later stages. In addition, paired star-shaped muscles were revealed in the mature Echinoidae plutei, but were absent in the Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea larvae. All tested species of Echinodermata exhibited both conserved features of muscle morphology during development indicating a common life history strategy and a planktonic habitat, and also an extensive morphological diversity representing specific anatomical adaptations during development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biology and conservation status of Piraja’s Lancehead Snake Bothrops piraña Amaral, 1923 (Serpentes: Viperidae, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.D. Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The venomous snake Bothrops pirajai (Amaral, 1923 is endemic to Brazil. Despite being described almost a century ago, very little is known about this species, which has never been studied in situ. Here, we present new data on the biology and natural history of B. pirajai based on a review of existing museum specimens and a field study (1504 man hours carried out throughout the species range. The distribution of B. pirajai was found to be restricted to the eastern Atlantic forest of the state of Bahia, Brazil, between Todosos Santos Bay, Itabuna and Ilhéus (12050’S-14050’S, 88-835 m. We recommend the species be uplisted to Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s global Red List of Threatened Species as its estimated extent of occurrence is under 5000km2. The effective conservation of B. pirajai will rely on addressing two key issues: improving our knowledge of the species and successfully mitigating habitat loss and fragmentation.

  7. Book review: Conservation biology of Hawaiian forest birds: Implications for island avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, R. Todd; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    For many years, following the publication of Studies in Avian Biology No. 22 by Scott et al. (2001), ornithologists interested in Hawaiian birds have waited for the next synthesis volume on Hawaiian bird research. Finally there is one, and it is excellent. Thane Pratt and his colleagues from Hawaii have added another milestone in the punctuated equilibrium of information surrounding Hawaiian ornithology. Pratt states in the preface that he initiated this book because a U.S. Geological Survey review panel identified a recent lack of published information in the peer reviewed literature and the need to consolidate recent research efforts on birds in the Hawaiian Islands. This book goes a long way in solving that problem.

  8. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    KALYA SUBASINGHE; AMILA P. SUMANAPALA

    2014-01-01

    Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR) has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five ...

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  10. Homogenizing and diversifying effects of intensive agricultural land-use on plant species beta diversity in Central Europe - A call to adapt our conservation measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhk, Constanze; Alt, Martin; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The prevention of biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes to protect ecosystem stability and functions is of major importance to stabilize overall diversity. Intense agriculture leads to a loss in species richness and homogenization of species pools, but the processes behind are poorly...... independent processes that need to be addressed separately to halt biodiversity loss in agricultural land. There is a need to conserve semi-natural open habitat patches of diverse size to favor poor dispersers and specialist species. At the same time, we stress the importance of mediating biotic...

  11. Butterfly of Assam University Campus in Silchar: Can Academic Institutions Contribute to Conservation of Species Diversity in Northeastern Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrajit Deb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Northeast India is amongst most bio-diverse ecological communities although recent developmental activities marred the environment to a great extent. Assam University campus in Silchar is situated in Barak valley of Assam, boasting a variety of habitats supporting invertebrate diversity. Heavy rainfall during monsoon increases vegetation and in turn larval food plants and overall butterfly density. Total 38 butterfly species were identified belonging to 30 genera under 5 families: Nymphalidae having the maximum species richness (58%, followed by Hesperiidae (13%, Lycaenidae (13%, Pieridae (11% and Papilionidae (5%. This paper focuses on the problems and possible solutions towards butterfly conservation and highlights the role of academic institutions in conserving biodiversity by acting as green spaces for reducing effects of climate change, carbon sequestration and lowering of energy consumption among other benefits.

  12. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit’s promise in improving students’ understanding of the targeted ideas. PMID:27909024

  13. Assessment of alternatives to environmental toxic formalin for DNA conservation in biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarot, Emeline; Carillo-Baraglioli, Marie-Françoise; Duranthon, Francis; Péquignot, Amandine; Pyronnet, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    One essential step of museum and clinical specimen preservation is immersion in a fixative fluid to prevent degradation. Formalin is the most largely used fixative, but its benefit is balanced with its toxic and carcinogenic status. Moreover, because formalin-fixation impairs nucleic acids recovery and quality, current museum wet collections and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded clinical samples do not represent optimal tanks of molecular information. Our study has been developed to compare formalin to two alternative fixatives (RCL2® and ethanol) in a context of molecular exploitation. Based on a unique protocol, we created mammalian fixed collections, simulated the impact of time on preservation using an artificial ageing treatment and followed the evolution of specimens' DNA quality. DNA extraction yield, purity, visual integrity and qualitative and quantitative ability to amplify the Cox1 gene were assessed. Our results show that both RCL2 and ethanol exhibit better performances than formalin. They do not impair DNA extraction yield, and more importantly, DNA alteration is delayed over the preservation step. The use of RCL2 or ethanol as fixative in biological collections may insure a better exploitation of the genetic resources they propose.

  14. Effects of silvicultural techniques on the diversity of microorganisms in forest soil and their possible participation in biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different pre-planting soil preparations and post-harvest wood debris applications in a clear-cut Scots pine plantation, on the abundance, diversity, and activity of culturable microorganisms were investigated. The investigation was done 9 years after the re-plantings had been done. This formed part of an investigation of silvicultural practices for conservation and the biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion in northern temperate forests (Poland. The treatments being compared, were expected to have altered the soil’s physical and chemical properties, and consequently, its biological properties. Only soft-rot microfungi from the Ascomycota and Zygomycota were detected in the soil. Fungi, including those antagonistic to Armillaria and Heterobasidion, were more abundant after shallow ploughing than after deep ploughing or ridging, and where chipped rather than coarse wood debris was left on the soil surface or incorporated. Scots pine trees had the most biomass and the least mortality after ridging and leaving coarse wood debris on the surface (associated with only a relatively moderate abundance of fungi.

  15. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  16. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come

  17. Structural diversity and biological significance of lipoteichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria: focusing on beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yokota, Shinichi; Fukiya, Satoru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell surface molecules are at the forefront of host-bacterium interactions. Teichoic acids are observed only in Gram-positive bacteria, and they are one of the main cell surface components. Teichoic acids play important physiological roles and contribute to the bacterial interaction with their host. In particular, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) anchored to the cell membrane has attracted attention as a host immunomodulator. Chemical and biological characteristics of LTA from various bacteria have been described. However, most of the information concerns pathogenic bacteria, and information on beneficial bacteria, including probiotic lactic acid bacteria, is insufficient. LTA is structurally diverse. Strain-level structural diversity of LTA is suggested to underpin its immunomodulatory activities. Thus, the structural information on LTA in probiotics, in particular strain-associated diversity, is important for understanding its beneficial roles associated with the modulation of immune response. Continued accumulation of structural information is necessary to elucidate the detailed physiological roles and significance of LTA. In this review article, we summarize the current state of knowledge on LTA structure, in particular the structure of LTA from lactic acid bacteria. We also describe the significance of structural diversity and biological roles of LTA.

  18. Succession of Ephemeral Secondary Forests and Their Limited Role for the Conservation of Floristic Diversity in a Human-Modified Tropical Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breugel, Michiel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Craven, Dylan; Bailon, Mario; Hernandez, Andres; Abbene, Michele; van Breugel, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Both local- and landscape-scale processes drive succession of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes. Nonetheless, until recently successional changes in composition and diversity have been predominantly studied at the patch level. Here, we used a unique dataset with 45 randomly selected sites across a mixed-use tropical landscape in central Panama to study forest succession simultaneously on local and landscape scales and across both life stages (seedling, sapling, juvenile and adult trees) and life forms (shrubs, trees, lianas, and palms). To understand the potential of these secondary forests to conserve tree species diversity, we also evaluated the diversity of species that can persist as viable metapopulations in a dynamic patchwork of short-lived successional forests, using different assumptions about the average relative size at reproductive maturity. We found a deterministic shift in the diversity and composition of the local plant communities as well as the metacommunity, driven by variation in the rate at which species recruited into and disappeared from the secondary forests across the landscape. Our results indicate that dispersal limitation and the successional niche operate simultaneously and shape successional dynamics of the metacommunity of these early secondary forests. A high diversity of plant species across the metacommunity of early secondary forests shows a potential for restoration of diverse forests through natural succession, when trees and fragments of older forests are maintained in the agricultural matrix and land is abandoned or set aside for a long period of time. On the other hand, during the first 32 years the number of species with mature-sized individuals was a relatively small and strongly biased sub-sample of the total species pool. This implies that ephemeral secondary forests have a limited role in the long-term conservation of tree species diversity in human-modified tropical landscapes. PMID:24349283

  19. A systems biology model of the regulatory network in Populus leaves reveals interacting regulators and conserved regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hvidsten Torgeir R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green plant leaves have always fascinated biologists as hosts for photosynthesis and providers of basic energy to many food webs. Today, comprehensive databases of gene expression data enable us to apply increasingly more advanced computational methods for reverse-engineering the regulatory network of leaves, and to begin to understand the gene interactions underlying complex emergent properties related to stress-response and development. These new systems biology methods are now also being applied to organisms such as Populus, a woody perennial tree, in order to understand the specific characteristics of these species. Results We present a systems biology model of the regulatory network of Populus leaves. The network is reverse-engineered from promoter information and expression profiles of leaf-specific genes measured over a large set of conditions related to stress and developmental. The network model incorporates interactions between regulators, such as synergistic and competitive relationships, by evaluating increasingly more complex regulatory mechanisms, and is therefore able to identify new regulators of leaf development not found by traditional genomics methods based on pair-wise expression similarity. The approach is shown to explain available gene function information and to provide robust prediction of expression levels in new data. We also use the predictive capability of the model to identify condition-specific regulation as well as conserved regulation between Populus and Arabidopsis. Conclusions We outline a computationally inferred model of the regulatory network of Populus leaves, and show how treating genes as interacting, rather than individual, entities identifies new regulators compared to traditional genomics analysis. Although systems biology models should be used with care considering the complexity of regulatory programs and the limitations of current genomics data, methods describing interactions

  20. Biological characterization of chemically diverse compounds targeting the Plasmodium falciparum coenzyme A synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fletcher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fight against malaria, the discovery of chemical compounds with a novel mode of action and/or chemistry distinct from currently used drugs is vital to counteract the parasite’s known ability to develop drug resistance. Another desirable aspect is efficacy against gametocytes, the sexual developmental stage of the parasite which enables the transmission through Anopheles vectors. Using a chemical rescue approach, we previously identified compounds targeting Plasmodium falciparum coenzyme A (CoA synthesis or utilization, a promising target that has not yet been exploited in anti-malarial drug development. Results We report on the outcomes of a series of biological tests that help to define the species- and stage-specificity, as well as the potential targets of these chemically diverse compounds. Compound activity against P. falciparum gametocytes was determined to assess stage-specificity and transmission-reducing potential. Against early stage gametocytes IC50 values ranging between 60 nM and 7.5 μM were obtained. With the exception of two compounds with sub-micromolar potencies across all intra-erythrocytic stages, activity against late stage gametocytes was lower. None of the compounds were specific pantothenate kinase inhibitors. Chemical rescue profiling with CoA pathway intermediates demonstrated that most compounds acted on either of the two final P. falciparum CoA synthesis enzymes, phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT or dephospho CoA kinase (DPCK. The most active compound targeted either phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPCS or phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC. Species-specificity was evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. No specific activity against T. cruzi amastigotes was observed; however three compounds inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes with sub-micromolar potencies and were confirmed to act on T. b. brucei CoA synthesis. Conclusions

  1. Advances in deep-sea biology: biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and conservation. An introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marina R.; Hilário, Ana; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2017-03-01

    Once considered as monotonous and devoid of life, the deep sea was revealed during the last century as an environment with a plethora of life forms and extremely high species richness (Rex and Etter, 2010). Underwater vehicle developments allowed direct observations of the deep, disclosing unique habitats and diverse seascapes, and other technological advances enabled manipulative experimentation and unprecedented prospects to pursue novel research topics (Levin and Sibuet, 2012; Danovaro et al., 2014). Alongside, the growing human population greatly increased the pressure on deep-sea ecosystems and the services they provide (Ramirez-Llodra et al., 2011; Thurber et al., 2014; Levin et al., 2016). Societal changes further intensified worldwide competition for natural resources, extending the present footprint of impacts over most of the global ocean (Halpern et al., 2008). In this socio-economic context, and in tandem with cutting edge technological advances and an unclear legal framework to regulate access to natural resources (Boyes and Elliott, 2014), the deep sea has emerged as a new opportunity for industrial exploitation and novel economic activities. The expanding use of the deep sea prompted a rapid reply from deep-sea scientists that recommended "a move from a frontier mentality of exploitation and single-sector management to a precautionary system that balances use of living marine resources, energy, and minerals from the deep ocean with maintenance of a productive and healthy marine environment, while improving knowledge and collaboration" and proposed "three directions to advance deep-ocean stewardship: i) protection and mitigation, ii) research, and iii) collaborative governance" (Mengerink et al., 2014). The European Marine Board position paper 22 (Rogers et al., 2015) further examined the key societal and environmental drivers confronting the deep sea and the role of deep-sea research to deliver future knowledge needs for science and society; a clear

  2. The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology: a foreword to the EURING 2003 Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senar, J. C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Few fields in modern ecology have developed as fast as the analysis of marked individuals in the study of wild animal populations (Seber & Schwarz, 2002. This is the topic of EURING Conferences, which from 1986 have been the premier forum for advances in capture-recapture methodology. In this sense, EURING Conferences still maintain the flavour that originally inspired scientific meetings: to disseminate the very last findings, ideas and results on the field. Traditionally, EURING Conferences have been published in the form of Proceedings, which because of their relevant content, become a required reading to anyone interested in the capture-recapture methodology. EURING 2003 was held in Radolfzell (Germany, hosted by the Max Planck Research Centre for Ornithology, and the Proceedings appear as a special issue of Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. The full title of the 2003 meeting was “The quantitative study of marked individuals in ecology, evolution and conservation biology”, which stands for one of the main aims of the meeting: to establish the capture-recapture approach as one of the standard methodologies in studies within these fields. One of the shared views is that capture-recapture methodologies have reached a considerable maturity, but the need still exists to spread their use as a “standard” methodology. The nice review paper by Lebreton et al. (1993 in Trends in Ecology and Evolution is still applicable, in that general ecologists and evolutionary biologists still resist their general use. The same applies to conservation biology, where the analysis of marked individuals may also be a key tool in its development. We hope, with the spread of 2003 Proceedings, to help to fill this gap. The Proceedings follow the same general structure as the Conference. We organised the EURING meeting in 10 technical sessions, covering what we considered as fastest growing areas in the field. We appointed for each session, two chairs, which

  3. Review of the Diversity, Ecology, and Conservation of Elasmobranchs in the Azores Region, Mid-North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diya Das

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A vulnerable species group, such as, the elasmobranchs, in a data-deficient context presents a complicated management problem. Evidence suggests that the Azores islands, a remote archipelago on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, serve essential functions in the life-history of species across taxa. The diversity of marine resources within its EEZ are exploited by local to international fleets, and the full extent of fishing pressure can often be underestimated. Although sharks and rays appear to be of minor importance in the fishery, the possibilities of illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing raises concerns about these threatened species. However, this group has failed to attract management attention, visible in the lack of regional studies focused on biodiversity, ecology, or threats of elasmobranchs. Our work attempts to review and update the information on elasmobranchs of the Azores and identify potential threats, mainly by the local fisheries. We aim to highlight knowledge gaps that require further research and conservation actions. We (1 update the annotated checklist of elasmobranch species, (2 compare species distribution across a biogeographically similar section of the North Atlantic, and (3 analyze the interaction of elasmobranch species with local fisheries. We confirm 61 chondrichthyan species for the Azores (39 sharks, 17 rays, and 5 chimaeras, adding 19 species to the previous annotated checklist of 1997. The Azores elasmobranch species assemblage most resembles Madeira, the neighboring Macaronesian archipelago. Biogeographic affinities between the chosen regions of the North Atlantic are reflected in the taxonomic structure of families. Although underestimated in the local fisheries, elasmobranchs constitute a regular but highly variable portion of total landings. Misreporting and misidentification is perhaps the greatest concern in the local fisheries records, further aggravated by few existing catch regulations for elasmobranchs

  4. ISSR diversity and genetic differentiation of ancient tea (camellia sinensis var. assamica) plantations from China: implications for precious tea germplasm conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.Q.; Ji, P.Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Gao, L.Z.; Cheng, Z.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Over 10 centuries, ancient cultivated tea populations (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) are still planted merely in Yunnan province of China. Genetic diversity and differentiation were examined in 10 ancient tea plantations by using ISSR markers. The average genetic diversity within populations, estimated with Nei's genetic diversity (HE), was approximately 0.2809, while Shannon indices (HO) was 0.4179. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the 10 populations ranged from 56.5% to 90.91%. We found a moderate level of genetic differentiation among population as evidenced by the coefficients of gene differentiation (Gst) of 0.3911 and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 39.70%. The result could be explained by the nature of highly out crossing in the tea species as well as serious habitat fragmentation. Finally, conservation strategies were discussed to protect these ancient tea populations, including in situ reserve settings and ex situ germplasm sampling. (author)

  5. The “Hidden Diversity” of Medicinal Plants in Northeastern Brazil: Diagnosis and Prospects for Conservation and Biological Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Deyvson Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-01-01

    Increases in ethnobotanical studies and knowledge in recent decades have led to a greater and more accurate interpretation of the overall patterns related to the use of medicinal plants, allowing for a clear identification of some ecological and cultural phenomena. “Hidden diversity” of medicinal plants refers in the present study to the existence of several species of medicinal plants known by the same vernacular name in a given region. Although this phenomenon has previously been observed in a localized and sporadic manner, its full dimensions have not yet been established. In the present study, we sought to assess the hidden diversity of medicinal plants in northeastern Brazil based on the ethnospecies catalogued by local studies. The results indicate that there are an average of at least 2.78 different species per cataloged ethnospecies in the region. Phylogenetic proximity and its attendant morphological similarity favor the interchangeable use of these species, resulting in serious ecological and sanitary implications as well as a wide range of options for conservation and bioprospecting. PMID:24228056

  6. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  7. Post-bottleneck mtDNA diversity in a free-living population of European bison: implications for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojcik, J. M.; Kawalko, A.; Tokarska, M.

    2009-01-01

    genetic diversity. We studied a total of 195 individuals (127 males and 68 females). A 1429 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) including the D-loop region was analyzed in 87 individuals and revealed only three distinct haplotypes. Nucleotide (pi) and haplotype (H-d) diversity values were estimated...... for the European bison and were compared with pi and H-d estimated from three individuals of American bison Bison bison. Very low diversity values were found in the European bison in comparison with the diversity values found in the American bison. The low mtDNA variability in the European bison is in concordance...

  8. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae K...

  9. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mites and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae K...

  10. Diversity, natural history and conservation of amphibians and reptiles from the San Vito Region, southwestern Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Santos-Barrera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles of the San Vito de Coto Brus region, including the Las Cruces Biological Station, in southern Costa Rica, which is the result of a survey of the herpetofauna occurring in mountain forest fragments, pastures, coffee plantations, and other disturbed areas. We found 67 species, included 26 species of amphibians and of 41of reptiles. We describe the distribution patterns of the community on the basis of the life zones, elevation, fragmentation, and degree of anthropogenic impact. We also provide some nouvelle data on the systematics of some select taxa, their geographical ranges, microhabitats, activity, and other relevant ecological and natural history features. Finally, we comment on the present conservation status of the herpetofauna in the region. Previous literature and collection records indicate a higher number of species occurring in this area, which suggests that some declines have occurred, especially of amphibians, in last decades. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 755-778. Epub 2008 June 30.En este artículo se presenta un inventario de los anfibios y reptiles de la región de San Vito de Coto Brus incluyendo la Estación de Biología Las Cruces, en el sur de Costa Rica. Se llevó a cabo una evaluación de las poblaciones de anfibios y reptiles presentes en los parches de bosque, potreros, cafetales y otras áreas perturbadas de la región. Como resultado de esta evaluación se registraron 26 especies de anfibios y 41 de reptiles lo que suma un total de 67 especies. Asimismo se describen los patrones generales de distribución de las especies basándose en los tipos de vegetación así como en la altitud, fragmentación y grado de perturbación antrópica en el área. Se proporcionan algunos datos sobre la sistemática de las especies, su distribución geográfica, el microhábitat que ocupan, su actividad y otros datos ecológicos y biológicos relevantes. Finalmente, se presenta una breve

  11. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Bunt, Christopher M.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Pearson, Micheal P.; Cooperman, Michael S.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    Catostomid fishes are a diverse family of 76+ freshwater species that are distributed across North America in many different habitats. This group of fish is facing a variety of impacts and conservation issues that are somewhat unique relative to more economically valuable and heavily managed fish species. Here, we present a brief series of case studies to highlight the threats such as migration barriers, flow regulation, environmental contamination, habitat degradation, exploitation and impacts from introduced (non-native) species that are facing catostomids in different regions. Collectively, the case studies reveal that individual species usually are not threatened by a single, isolated factor. Instead, species in general face numerous stressors that threaten multiple stages of their life history. Several factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish some species, lack of basic natural history and ecological knowledge of life history, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value. Without a specific constituent group lobbying for conservation of non-game fishes, all such species, including members of the catostomid family, will continue to face serious risks because of neglect, ignorance, and misunderstanding. We suggest that conservation strategies should incorporate research and education/outreach components. Other conservation strategies that would be effective for protecting suckers include freshwater protected areas for critical habitat, restoration of degraded habitat, and design of catostomid-friendly fish bypass facilities. We believe that the plight of the catostomids is representative of the threats facing many other non-game freshwater fishes with diverse life-history strategies globally.

  12. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbe, Mark; Strauss, André; Hubbe, Alex; Neves, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates) and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix) of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá) were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene.

  13. Diversity, Replication, Pathogenicity and Cell Biology of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Akira, S., Chen, Z., Inoue, S., and Jung , J.U. (2007). TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity...OTU that contains a cataylic diad (Cys 40 and His 151), which is spatially conserved with cysteine/histidine catalytic diad found in the archetype

  14. Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends: consequences for conservation and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Blasius, Bernd; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan M.; Downing, John; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hodapp, Dorothee; Larsen, Stefano; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Ryabov, Alexey B.

    2018-01-01

    * Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is

  15. Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends : Consequences for conservation and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Blasius, Bernd; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan M.; Downing, John A.; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hodapp, Dorothee; Larsen, Stefano; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Ryabov, Alexey B.

    Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is

  16. Conservation of genetic diversity in slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) in Wisconsin despite the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest trees tend to be genetically diverse, a condition related to their longevity, outcrossing mating system and extensive gene flow that maintains high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Forest pest epidemics are responsible for many historic and contemporary population declines repo...

  17. Conservation and fruit biology of Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis, Fagaceae – A critically endangered species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several conservation programs have been started for the critically endangered Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis since 2007. These programs include detailed field investigations, seedling cultivation and research on the fruit biology of the species. In this study, we first report on the five mature individual trees found in our 9-year field investigation. Thus far, a total of 10 mature individuals have been recorded. All Q. sichourensis trees are healthy and most produce healthy acorns. Acorns of Q. sichourensis are large with dry masses of 8.0–14.0 g. These acorns had high moisture contents at collection and died shortly after (7–28 d when dried with silica gel. Characteristics of Q. sichourensis acorns varied between populations. Compared with the acorns from Funing, the acorns collected from Ceheng were bigger, more viable (germination percentage was up to 96%, less sensitive to desiccation, and germinated faster. Q. sichourensis occurs in regions with a distinct 5–6 month dry season. Habitat degradation is largely responsible for the rareness of Quercus sichorensis, but desiccation sensitivity of the acorns may also limit the regeneration of the species and potentially lead to its continued rareness. As a species with extremely small populations (PSESP, Q. sichourensis is facing high risk of extinction and should be defined as a Critically Endangered species in the global IUCN Red List.

  18. Accessing Nature’s diversity through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. King

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective, we highlight recent examples and trends in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology that demonstrate the synthetic potential of enzyme and pathway engineering for natural product discovery. In doing so, we introduce natural paradigms of secondary metabolism whereby simple carbon substrates are combined into complex molecules through “scaffold diversification”, and subsequent “derivatization” of these scaffolds is used to synthesize distinct complex natural products. We provide examples in which modern pathway engineering efforts including combinatorial biosynthesis and biological retrosynthesis can be coupled to directed enzyme evolution and rational enzyme engineering to allow access to the “privileged” chemical space of natural products in industry-proven microbes. Finally, we forecast the potential to produce natural product-like discovery platforms in biological systems that are amenable to single-step discovery, validation, and synthesis for streamlined discovery and production of biologically active agents.

  19. Accessing Nature’s diversity through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jason R.; Edgar, Steven; Qiao, Kangjian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective, we highlight recent examples and trends in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology that demonstrate the synthetic potential of enzyme and pathway engineering for natural product discovery. In doing so, we introduce natural paradigms of secondary metabolism whereby simple carbon substrates are combined into complex molecules through “scaffold diversification”, and subsequent “derivatization” of these scaffolds is used to synthesize distinct complex natural products. We provide examples in which modern pathway engineering efforts including combinatorial biosynthesis and biological retrosynthesis can be coupled to directed enzyme evolution and rational enzyme engineering to allow access to the “privileged” chemical space of natural products in industry-proven microbes. Finally, we forecast the potential to produce natural product-like discovery platforms in biological systems that are amenable to single-step discovery, validation, and synthesis for streamlined discovery and production of biologically active agents. PMID:27081481

  20. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision making. Yet, there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation-planning processes, despite multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns differ between species, but the potential tradeoffs among genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. We compared spatial conservation prioritizations derived from 2 metrics of genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and 2 metrics of genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) in mitochondrial DNA of 5 marine species. We compared outcomes of conservation plans based only on habitat representation with plans based on genetic data and habitat representation. Fewer priority areas were selected for conservation plans based solely on habitat representation than on plans that included habitat and genetic data. All 4 genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation-priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, our results suggest that multispecies genetic conservation objectives are vital to creating protected-area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  2. Plant-conservative agriculture of acid and degraded Raña-grassland enhances diversity of the common soil mites (Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorrín, J.; González-Fernández, P.

    2016-11-01

    The seminatural prairie of the Raña of Cañamero (Spain) is a degraded and unproductive agrosystem with acid and stony soils, and low coverage of xerophytic grasses. In a project about secondary reconversion of the raña-prairie to a more productive cropland, an experimental field (EF) was established to assess the effect on plot-productivity of the interaction between correction of soil pH (liming) with three cropping systems: a no-tilled and annually fertilized and improved prairies, and a conventionally-tilled forage crop. The EF model of management was designed as plant-conservative, because no herbicide was applied after seeding to preserve the post-emergence of wild herbs and the natural grass diversity of the prairie. Between 2008 and 2012, we analysed the effect of managing factors (initial conventional-tillage, fertilization, liming and cropping) and agricultural predictors (pH, C:N ratio, soil bulk density and herbaceous biomass) on the alpha(α)-diversity of one of the major group of soil animals, the oribatids. In relation to the raña-prairie, all EF-plots improved their soil bulk density (ρs) and herbaceous biomass (t/ha), and enhanced desirable α-diversity values (richness, abundance and community equity). We conclude that the plant-conservative model: i) do not affect statistically the species richness of the prairie; ii) the desirable α-diversity responses are negatively correlated with soil bulk density and positively with herbaceous biomass, and iii) the low input or minimum intervention model, of an initial and conventional till and annual fertilisation, is the threshold and optimal model of agricultural management to improving oribatids diversity of the raña-soil. (Author)

  3. Testing the museum versus cradle tropical biological diversity hypothesis: phylogeny, diversification, and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Corrie S; Bell, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    Ants are one of the most ecologically and numerically dominant group of terrestrial organisms with most species diversity currently found in tropical climates. Several explanations for the disparity of biological diversity in the tropics compared to temperate regions have been proposed including that the tropics may act as a "museum" where older lineages persist through evolutionary time or as a "cradle" where new species continue to be generated. We infer the molecular phylogenetic relationships of 295 ant specimens including members of all 21 extant subfamilies to explore the evolutionary diversification and biogeography of the ants. By constraining the topology and age of the root node while using 45 fossils as minimum constraints, we converge on an age of 139-158 Mya for the modern ants. Further diversification analyses identified 10 periods with a significant change in the tempo of diversification of the ants, although these shifts did not appear to correspond to ancestral biogeographic range shifts. Likelihood-based historical biogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Neotropics were important in early ant diversification (e.g., Cretaceous). This finding coupled with the extremely high-current species diversity suggests that the Neotropics have acted as both a museum and cradle for ant diversity. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. The need for the incorporation of phylogeny in the measurement of biological diversity, with special reference to ecosystem functioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Defining and measuring biodiversity is an important research area in biology, with very interesting theoretical and applied aspects. Numerous definitions have been proposed, and these definitions of biodiversity influence how it is measured. From the still commonly used measure of species diversity, through higher taxon diversity, molecular measures, ecological measures and indicator taxa, these measures have as their fundamental shortcoming the lack of an explicit consideration of the evolutionary context represented by phylogenies. Attempts have been made to incorporate phylogenetic considerations into measuring biodiversity, but more hypothesis-driven research needs to be done. A specific case study is presented of how this added emphasis on phylogeny-based biodiversity measurement can influence the way in which research is directed and hypotheses are generated. The elucidation of the relationship of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning is a very timely concern with the unarguable loss of biodiversity this planet is experiencing, whichever way biodiversity is measured.

  5. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity of southern Spain fig tree (Ficus carica L.) and reference materials as a tool for breeding and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Jiménez, M; López, B; Dorado, G; Pujadas-Salvá, A; Guzmán, G; Hernandez, P

    2012-06-01

    The common fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is a Mediterranean crop with problematic cultivar identification. The recovery and conservation of possible local varieties for ecological production requires the previous genetic characterization of the available germplasm. In this context, 42 lines corresponding to 12 local varieties and two caprifigs, in addition to 15 reference samples have been fingerprinted using 21 SSR markers. A total of 77 alleles were revealed, detecting a useful level of genetic variability within the local germplasm pools. UPGMA clustering analysis has revealed the genetic structure and relationships among the local and reference germplasm. Eleven of the local varieties could be identified and defined as obtained clusters, showing that SSR analysis is an efficient method to evaluate the Andalusian fig tree diversity for on-farm conservation. © 2012 The Authors.

  7. The diverse and expanding role of mass spectrometry in structural and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lössl, Philip; van de Waterbeemd, Michiel; Heck, Albert Jr

    2016-12-15

    The emergence of proteomics has led to major technological advances in mass spectrometry (MS). These advancements not only benefitted MS-based high-throughput proteomics but also increased the impact of mass spectrometry on the field of structural and molecular biology. Here, we review how state-of-the-art MS methods, including native MS, top-down protein sequencing, cross-linking-MS, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange-MS, nowadays enable the characterization of biomolecular structures, functions, and interactions. In particular, we focus on the role of mass spectrometry in integrated structural and molecular biology investigations of biological macromolecular complexes and cellular machineries, highlighting work on CRISPR-Cas systems and eukaryotic transcription complexes. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  8. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Genetic diversity in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis: molecular mechanisms and biological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Gena D; Kerr, Jennifer E; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity. It is implicated in the development of periodontitis, a chronic periodontal disease affecting half of the adult population in the USA. To survive in the oral cavity, these bacteria must colonize dental plaque biofilms in competition with other bacterial species. Long-term survival requires P. gingivalis to evade host immune responses, while simultaneously adapting to the changing physiology of the host and to alterations in the plaque biofilm. In reflection of this highly variable niche, P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species and in this review the authors summarize genetic diversity as it relates to pathogenicity in P. gingivalis. Recent studies revealing a variety of mechanisms by which adaptive changes in genetic content can occur are also reviewed. Understanding the genetic plasticity of P. gingivalis will provide a better framework for understanding the host–microbe interactions associated with periodontal disease. PMID:23642116

  10. Diversity in Fish Auditory Systems: One of the Riddles of Sensory Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich eLadich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An astonishing diversity of inner ears and accessory hearing structures (AHS that can enhance hearing has evolved in fishes. Inner ears mainly differ in the size of the otolith end organs, the shape and orientation of the sensory epithelia, and the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of sensory hair cells. Despite our profound morphological knowledge of inner ear variation, two main questions remain widely unanswered. (i What selective forces and/or constraints led to the evolution of this inner ear diversity? (ii How is the morphological variability linked to hearing abilities? Improved hearing is mainly based on the ability of many fish species to transmit oscillations of swim bladder walls or other gas-filled bladders to the inner ears. Swim bladders may be linked to the inner ears via a chain of ossicles (in otophysans, anterior extensions (e.g. some cichlids, squirrelfishes, or the gas bladders may touch the inner ears directly (labyrinth fishes. Studies on catfishes and cichlids demonstrate that larger swim bladders and more pronounced linkages to the inner ears positively affect both auditory sensitivities and the detectable frequency range, but lack of a connection does not exclude hearing enhancement. This diversity of auditory structures and hearing abilities is one of the main riddles in fish bioacoustics research. Hearing enhancement might have evolved to facilitate intraspecific acoustic communication. A comparison of sound-producing species, however, indicates that acoustic communication is widespread in taxa lacking AHS. Eco-acoustical constraints are a more likely explanation for the diversity in fish hearing sensitivities. Low ambient noise levels may have facilitated the evolution of AHS, enabling fish to detect low-level abiotic noise and sounds from con- and heterospecifics, including predators and prey. Aquatic habitats differ in ambient noise regimes, and preliminary data indicate that hearing sensitivities of fishes

  11. Biological Diversity and Resilience: Lessons from the Recovery of Cichlid Species in Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Awiti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental feature of the Anthropocene is the inexorable erosion of the self-repairing capacity or adaptive renewal of natural systems because of natural perturbation, exploitation, or management failure. The concept of resilience offers a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics and variables that govern response dynamics of ecosystems. Resilience of haplochromine cichlids is assessed using limnological and biodiversity changes in Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake, over the last five decades. The review explores the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids using Holling's adaptive renewal cycle and attempts to illustrate how resilience-based management approaches might learn from an inadvertent management experiment. The introduction in the 1980s of the Nile perch (Lates niloticus, a fecund and voracious predator of the endemic phytoplankton feeding haplochromine cichlids, anthropogenic eutrophication, and deep water hypoxia have combined in a synergistic way to increase the vulnerability of the lake ecosystem to perturbations that were hitherto absorbed. However, the upsurge in commercial Nile perch fishing appears to be enabling the resurgence of the haplochromine cichlids. The resurgence of haplochromine cichlids is characterized by phenotypic plasticity, ecological and life history traits and demonstrates the critical role of response diversity in the maintenance of systems resilience. Resilience of the haplochromine cichlids resides in the requisite functional response diversity and habitat diversity that provide the resources for renewal and regeneration. This paper concludes that management of Nile perch fisheries and control of nutrient loading into Lake Victoria could halt or reverse eutrophication, hence offer the best promise for a diverse, productive, and resilient social-ecological system.

  12. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neotropical hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. are large forest raptors, having low population densities and high sensitivity to human disturbance. The three species of Brazil’s Atlantic forest (S. ornatus, S. melanoleucus, S. tyrannus are threatened and little is known of many aspects of their biology, such habitat requirements, nesting behavior, and food habitats. Here I present data about the breeding biology, diet and behavior of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (S. ornatus; OHE and the Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (S. melanoleucus; BWHW, and estimations of distribution - extent of occurrence (EOO - and population sizes for the three hawk-eagles of the southern Atlantic Forest. I compiled data from nine years of field studies done in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina combined with data from the literature (n = 191 records. I calculated the total amount of forest available for each species by GIS analyses and estimated population sizes based on species density data from the literature. The EOO was 123,551 km² for BWHE, 92,512 km² for OHE, and 67,824 km² for Black Hawk-Eagle (S. tyrannus; BHE. All species experienced more than 30% shrinkage in their historical distribution (before the year 2000. Forest remnants comprise 32% of BHE’s EOO and around 20% for other hawk-eagle species. Population sizes estimated for the southern region were 869 pairs for BHE (1,684 individuals, 1,532 pairs for BWHE (2,849 individuals, and 2,020 pairs for OHE (1,192 individuals. Population size estimates based only on forest patches larger than 10 km² were 542 pairs for BHE (RS = 48 pairs; SC = 494 pairs, 818 pairs for BWHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 751 pairs, and 1,178 pairs for OHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 1,111 pairs. I recorded displays and copulation of BWHE in July; the nest was built in an inaccessible, emergent tree in the hillside of a valley. Two nests of OHE were found in emergent trees (20 m and 30 m height measured 138 x 115 x 45 cm and 132 x 100 x 100 cm; one

  13. How long is too long in contemporary peer review? Perspectives from authors publishing in conservation biology journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M Nguyen

    Full Text Available Delays in peer reviewed publication may have consequences for both assessment of scientific prowess in academics as well as communication of important information to the knowledge receptor community. We present an analysis on the perspectives of authors publishing in conservation biology journals regarding their opinions on the importance of speed in peer-review as well as how to improve review times. Authors were invited to take part in an online questionnaire, of which the data was subjected to both qualitative (open coding, categorizing and quantitative analyses (generalized linear models. We received 637 responses to a total of 6,547 e-mail invitations sent. Peer-review speed was generally perceived as slow, with authors experiencing a typical turnaround time of 14 weeks while their perceived optimal review time is six weeks. Male and younger respondents seem to have higher expectations of review speed than females and older respondents. Majority of participants attributed lengthy review times to the 'stress' on the peer-review system (i.e., reviewer and editor fatigue, while editor persistence and journal prestige were believed to speed up the review process. Negative consequences of lengthy review times appear to be greater for early career researchers and can also have impact on author morale (e.g. motivation or frustration. Competition among colleagues were also of concern to respondents. Incentivizing peer review was among the top suggested alterations to the system along with training graduate students in peer review, increased editorial persistence, and changes to the norms of peer-review such as opening the peer-review process to the public. It is clear that authors surveyed in this study view the peer-review system as under stress and we encourage scientists and publishers to push the envelope for new peer review models.

  14. How long is too long in contemporary peer review? Perspectives from authors publishing in conservation biology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Haddaway, Neal R; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Wilson, Alexander D M; Gallagher, Austin J; Donaldson, Michael R; Hammerschlag, Neil; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Delays in peer reviewed publication may have consequences for both assessment of scientific prowess in academics as well as communication of important information to the knowledge receptor community. We present an analysis on the perspectives of authors publishing in conservation biology journals regarding their opinions on the importance of speed in peer-review as well as how to improve review times. Authors were invited to take part in an online questionnaire, of which the data was subjected to both qualitative (open coding, categorizing) and quantitative analyses (generalized linear models). We received 637 responses to a total of 6,547 e-mail invitations sent. Peer-review speed was generally perceived as slow, with authors experiencing a typical turnaround time of 14 weeks while their perceived optimal review time is six weeks. Male and younger respondents seem to have higher expectations of review speed than females and older respondents. Majority of participants attributed lengthy review times to the 'stress' on the peer-review system (i.e., reviewer and editor fatigue), while editor persistence and journal prestige were believed to speed up the review process. Negative consequences of lengthy review times appear to be greater for early career researchers and can also have impact on author morale (e.g. motivation or frustration). Competition among colleagues were also of concern to respondents. Incentivizing peer review was among the top suggested alterations to the system along with training graduate students in peer review, increased editorial persistence, and changes to the norms of peer-review such as opening the peer-review process to the public. It is clear that authors surveyed in this study view the peer-review system as under stress and we encourage scientists and publishers to push the envelope for new peer review models.

  15. Systematic Environmental Impact Assessment for Non-natural Reserve Areas: A Case Study of the Chaishitan Water Conservancy Project on Land Use and Plant Diversity in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA before and after the establishment of a Water Conservancy Project (WCP is of great theoretical and practical importance for assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration efforts. WCPs rehabilitate flood-damaged areas or other regions hit by disasters by controlling and redistributing surface water and groundwater. Using Geographic Information System (GIS and Composite Evaluation Index (CEI in predictive modeling, we studied the degree to which a WCP could change land use, plant communities, and species diversity in Yunnan, China. Via modeling, we quantified likely landscape pattern changes and linked them to naturality (i.e., the percentage of secondary vegetation types, diversity, and stability together with the human interferences (e.g., conservation or restoration project of an ecosystem. The value of each index was determined by the evaluation system, and the weight percentage was decided through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. We found that minor land-use changes would occur after the Chaishitan WCP was theoretically established. The greatest decline was farmland (0.079%, followed by forest (0.066%, with the least decline in water bodies (0.020%. We found 1,076 vascular plant species (including subspecies, varieties and form belonging to 165 families and 647 genera in Chaishitan irrigation area before the water conservancy establishment. The naturality and diversity decreased 11.18 and 10.16% respectively. The CEI was 0.92, which indicated that Chaishitan WCP will enhance local landscape heterogeneity, and it will not deteriorate local ecological quality. Our study proposes a comprehensive ecological evaluation system for this WCP and further suggests the importance of including the ecological and environmental consequences of the WCP, along with the well-established socioeconomic evaluation systems for non-natural reserve areas. We conclude that the Chaishitan WCP will have minor

  16. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  17. Some Like it High! Phylogenetic Diversity of High-Elevation Cyanobacterial Community from Biological Soil Crusts of Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapková, Kateřina; Hauer, Tomáš; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The environment of high-altitudinal cold deserts of Western Himalaya is characterized by extensive development of biological soil crusts, with cyanobacteria as dominant component. The knowledge of their taxonomic composition and dependency on soil chemistry and elevation is still fragmentary. We studied the abundance and the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae in soil crusts along altitudinal gradients (4600-5900 m) at two sites in the dry mountains of Ladakh (SW Tibetan Plateau and Eastern Karakoram), using both microscopic and molecular approaches. The effects of environmental factors (altitude, mountain range, and soil physico-chemical parameters) on the composition and biovolume of phototrophs were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and variance partitioning. Both phylogenetic diversity and composition of morphotypes were similar between Karakorum and Tibetan Plateau. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed strains belonging to at least five genera. Besides clusters of common soil genera, e.g., Microcoleus, Nodosilinea, or Nostoc, two distinct clades of simple trichal taxa were newly discovered. The most abundant cyanobacterial orders were Oscillatoriales and Nostacales, whose biovolume increased with increasing elevation, while that of Chroococales decreased. Cyanobacterial species richness was low in that only 15 morphotypes were detected. The environmental factors accounted for 52 % of the total variability in microbial data, 38.7 % of which was explained solely by soil chemical properties, 14.5 % by altitude, and 8.4 % by mountain range. The elevation, soil phosphate, and magnesium were the most important predictors of soil phototrophic communities in both mountain ranges despite their different bedrocks and origin. The present investigation represents a first record on phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacterial community of biological soil crusts from Western Himalayas and first record

  18. Cephalopods of the Southwest Indian OceanRidge: A hotspot of biological diversity and absence of endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptikhovsky, V.; Boersch-Supan, P.; Bolstad, K.; Kemp, K.; Letessier, T.; Rogers, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    A total of 68 cephalopod species belonging to 26 families (10-11% of the total known cephalopod diversity) were collected onboard R/V Fridtjof Nansen during a research survey on Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge in November-December 2009. This relatively small area extends from the Tropical front to the Subantarctic front with four distinctive cephalopod faunas and represents one of the most outstanding hotspots of cephalopod diversity reported to date. However, most of the species caught there were characterised by circumglobal distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, and no endemic species were unambiguously found, although a number of taxa could not be confidently attributed to known species. Most of the studied area was dominated by squid species reproducing in epipelagic layers (mostly Enoploteuthidae and Pyroteuthidae). Species reproducing in meso-bathypelagial whose juveniles ascend to surface water (Cranchiidae, Histioteuthidae, etc.) became gradually more and more important southward from the Tropical Zone to the Southern Peripheral Ecotone. In the latter region they were joined by near-bottom dwellers of the order Sepiolida. The epipelagic strategy of reproduction disappears completely at the Subpolar Front, where epipelagic waters were inhabited by young members of the Cranchiidae and Gonatidae hatched in deep-seas. This study demonstrated the importance of conservation and management of this high-seas area, with its unique biodiversity and ecological resources, in line with recommendations by the IUCN Seamount project and Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative.

  19. Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in ea...

  20. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohan Wang; Minyi Lin; Dan Xu; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring) reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and ...

  1. The Pyramid Trough Wetland: environmental and biological diversity in a newly created Antarctic protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Anne D; Wood, Susanna A; Hawes, Ian; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Harris, Colin

    2012-11-01

    The Pyramid Trough (Lat 78°S) has recently gained protection under the Antarctic Treaty system, owing to its wetland values. Here, we describe the microbial diversity of this system, with emphasis on cyanobacteria, and evaluate environment-biota relationships. Geochemistry separates ponds along hydrological gradients receiving recent inflows of dilute meltwater, from a second group that is rarely inundated and where chemistry is dominated by evaporation. Cyanobacteria-based microbial mats dominated the biota throughout. Mats were characterized by light-microscopy, pigment analysis, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. A total of 17 morphotypes and 21 ribotypes were identified, mostly Oscillatoriales and several taxa that are usually rare in continental Antarctica, including Chroococcales and scytomin-rich Calothrix/Dichothrix, were abundant. There was a general decline in cyanobacterial diversity with increasing conductivity, but weak support for either differences in community composition between the two groups of ponds or sorting of taxa along the hydrological gradients with the pond groups. This implies a broad environmental tolerance and a prevalence of neutral assembly mechanisms in cyanobacterial communities of Antarctic wetland ecosystems. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts in water tracks over permafrost in the high arctic polar desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Lionard, Marie; Kuske, Cheryl R; Vincent, Warwick F

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report the bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) inhabiting polar desert soils at the northern land limit of the Arctic polar region (83° 05 N). Employing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes this study demonstrated that these biocrusts harbor diverse bacterial communities, often as diverse as temperate latitude communities. The effect of wetting pulses on the composition of communities was also determined by collecting samples from soils outside and inside of permafrost water tracks, hill slope flow paths that drain permafrost-affected soils. The intermittent flow regime in the water tracks was correlated with altered relative abundance of phylum level taxonomic bins in the bacterial communities, but the alterations varied between individual sampling sites. Bacteria related to the Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria demonstrated shifts in relative abundance based on their location either inside or outside of the water tracks. Among cyanobacterial sequences, the proportion of sequences belonging to the family Oscillatoriales consistently increased in relative abundance in the samples from inside the water tracks compared to those outside. Acidobacteria showed responses to wetting pulses in the water tracks, increasing in abundance at one site and decreasing at the other two sites. Subdivision 4 acidobacterial sequences tended to follow the trends in the total Acidobacteria relative abundance, suggesting these organisms were largely responsible for the changes observed in the Acidobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that the bacterial communities of these high latitude polar biocrusts are diverse but do not show a consensus response to intermittent flow in water tracks over high Arctic permafrost.

  3. High bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts in water tracks over permafrost in the high arctic polar desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaire Steven

    Full Text Available In this study we report the bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts (biocrusts inhabiting polar desert soils at the northern land limit of the Arctic polar region (83° 05 N. Employing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes this study demonstrated that these biocrusts harbor diverse bacterial communities, often as diverse as temperate latitude communities. The effect of wetting pulses on the composition of communities was also determined by collecting samples from soils outside and inside of permafrost water tracks, hill slope flow paths that drain permafrost-affected soils. The intermittent flow regime in the water tracks was correlated with altered relative abundance of phylum level taxonomic bins in the bacterial communities, but the alterations varied between individual sampling sites. Bacteria related to the Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria demonstrated shifts in relative abundance based on their location either inside or outside of the water tracks. Among cyanobacterial sequences, the proportion of sequences belonging to the family Oscillatoriales consistently increased in relative abundance in the samples from inside the water tracks compared to those outside. Acidobacteria showed responses to wetting pulses in the water tracks, increasing in abundance at one site and decreasing at the other two sites. Subdivision 4 acidobacterial sequences tended to follow the trends in the total Acidobacteria relative abundance, suggesting these organisms were largely responsible for the changes observed in the Acidobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that the bacterial communities of these high latitude polar biocrusts are diverse but do not show a consensus response to intermittent flow in water tracks over high Arctic permafrost.

  4. Diversity in skeletal architecture influences biological heterogeneity and Symbiodinium habitat in corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Denise M; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Fan, Tung-Yung; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lee, Raymond W; Sogin, Emilia; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-10-01

    Scleractinian corals vary in response to rapid shifts in the marine environment and changes in reef community structure post-disturbance reveal a clear relationship between coral performance and morphology. With exceptions, massive corals are thought to be more tolerant and branching corals more vulnerable to changing environmental conditions, notably thermal stress. The typical responses of massive and branching coral taxa, respectively, are well documented; however, the biological and functional characteristics that underpin this variation are not well understood. We address this gap by comparing multiple biological attributes that are correlated with skeletal architecture in two perforate (having porous skeletal matrices with intercalating tissues) and two imperforate coral species (Montipora aequituberculata, Porites lobata, Pocillopora damicornis, and Seriatopora hystrix) representing three morphotypes. Our results reveal inherent biological heterogeneity among corals and the potential for perforate skeletons to create complex, three-dimensional internal habitats that impact the dynamics of the symbiosis. Patterns of tissue thickness are correlated with the concentration of symbionts within narrow regions of tissue in imperforate corals versus broad distribution throughout the larger tissue area in perforate corals. Attributes of the perforate and environmentally tolerant P. lobata were notable, with tissues ∼5 times thicker than in the sensitive, imperforate species P. damicornis and S. hystrix. Additionally, P. lobata had the lowest baseline levels of superoxide and Symbiodinium that provisioned high levels of energy. Given our observations, we hypothesize that the complexity of the visually obscured internal environment has an impact on host-symbiont dynamics and ultimately on survival, warranting further scientific investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein variety and functional diversity: Swiss-Prot annotation in its biological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Brigitte; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Famiglietti, Livia; Hinz, Ursula; Lane, Lydie; Roechert, Bernd; Bairoch, Amos

    2005-01-01

    We all know that the dogma 'one gene, one protein' is obsolete. A functional protein and, likewise, a protein's ultimate function depend not only on the underlying genetic information but also on the ongoing conditions of the cellular system. Frequently the transcript, like the polypeptide, is processed in multiple ways, but only one or a few out of a multitude of possible variants are produced at a time. An overview on processes that can lead to sequence variety and structural diversity in eukaryotes is given. The UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase provides a wealth of information regarding protein variety, function and associated disorders. Examples for such annotation are shown and further ones are available at http://www.expasy.org/sprot/tutorial/examples_CRB.

  6. Modelling effective dielectric properties of materials containing diverse types of biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huclova, Sonja; Froehlich, Juerg; Erni, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and versatile numerical method for the generation of different realistically shaped biological cells is developed. This framework is used to calculate the dielectric spectra of materials containing specific types of biological cells. For the generation of the numerical models of the cells a flexible parametrization method based on the so-called superformula is applied including the option of obtaining non-axisymmetric shapes such as box-shaped cells and even shapes corres