WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological device application

  1. Nanopatterning and nanoscale devices for biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Šelimović, Seila

    2014-01-01

    ""This book is a good reference for researchers interested in realizing bio-applications based on micro- and nanostructures, where their interface with liquids and biomolecules is the key point. The most important 'players' of micro- and nano-bioengineering are considered, from DNA to proteins and cells. The work is a good merger of basic concepts and real examples of applications.""-Danilo Demarchi, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

  2. Nano systems and devices for applications in biology and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, G.; Ginet, P.; Tarhan, M. C.; Baccouche, A.; Lacornerie, T.; Kumemura, M.; Jalabert, L.; Cleri, F.; Lartigau, E. F.; Kim, B. J.; Karsten, S. L.; Fujita, H.; Rondelez, Y.; Fujii, T.; Collard, D.

    2016-01-01

    Micro and nano systems (MNS) and Nano scaled devices, that are capable of handling fluids and to interact with DNA and proteins enable bio analysis at the "ultimate" molecular level and are prone to be coupled to IC Technology. This paper includes recent developments in this area, aimed at illustrating the diversity and potential of the MNS approach: (1) micromachined tweezers with sharp tips successfully captured a bundle of DNA molecules, allowing real-time observation of DNA degradation dynamics under therapeutic irradiations; (2) a simple method to fabricate FET silicon nanowires using only standard micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) processes is able to perform molecular level medical diagnosis; (3) a bio motor system, composed by microtubules and kinesin, reconstructed on a chip, can distinguish normal and abnormal tau-proteins related to Alzheimer's disease; and (4) an advanced concept of molecular programing in which real molecular interactions emulate partial different equations and are able to solve complex systems such as a predator-prey ecosystem.

  3. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    goal of this study is to review the fundamental structures and chemistries of wood and wood-derived materials, which are essential for a wide range of existing and new enabling technologies. The scope of the review covers multiscale materials and assemblies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as other biomaterials derived from wood, in regard to their major emerging applications. Structure-properties-application relationships will be investigated in detail. Understanding the fundamental properties of these structures is crucial for designing and manufacturing products for emerging applications. Today, a more holistic understanding of the interplay between the structure, chemistry, and performance of wood and wood-derived materials is advancing historical applications of these materials. This new level of understanding also enables a myriad of new and exciting applications, which motivate this review. There are excellent reviews already on the classical topic of woody materials, and some recent reviews also cover new understanding of these materials as well as potential applications. This review will focus on the uniqueness of woody materials for three critical applications: green electronics, biological devices, and energy storage and bioenergy.

  4. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    goal of this study is to review the fundamental structures and chemistries of wood and wood-derived materials, which are essential for a wide range of existing and new enabling technologies. The scope of the review covers multiscale materials and assemblies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as other biomaterials derived from wood, in regard to their major emerging applications. Structure-properties-application relationships will be investigated in detail. Understanding the fundamental properties of these structures is crucial for designing and manufacturing products for emerging applications. Today, a more holistic understanding of the interplay between the structure, chemistry, and performance of wood and wood-derived materials is advancing historical applications of these materials. This new level of understanding also enables a myriad of new and exciting applications, which motivate this review. There are excellent reviews already on the classical topic of woody materials, and some recent reviews also cover new understanding of these materials as well as potential applications. This review will focus on the uniqueness of woody materials for three critical applications: green electronics, biological devices, and energy storage and bioenergy. PMID:27459699

  5. Tissue culture on a chip: Developmental biology applications of self-organized capillary networks in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takashi; Yokokawa, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    Organ culture systems are used to elucidate the mechanisms of pattern formation in developmental biology. Various organ culture techniques have been used, but the lack of microcirculation in such cultures impedes the long-term maintenance of larger tissues. Recent advances in microfluidic devices now enable us to utilize self-organized perfusable capillary networks in organ cultures. In this review, we will overview past approaches to organ culture and current technical advances in microfluidic devices, and discuss possible applications of microfluidics towards the study of developmental biology. PMID:27272910

  6. Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol

    2012-01-20

    The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

  7. Development and Applications of Photosensitive Device Systems to Studies of Biological and Organic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol M.

    2005-06-01

    R&D and application testing are proceeding on Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) for time-resolved and crystallographic applications at synchrotron radiation (SR) sources [1, 2, 4, 23, 24]. In conjunction with an NIH-funded SBIR grant, a novel mixed-mode analog/digital pixel design is being developed. Reports and publications on recent developments in the hybrid detector will be presented at the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium in Rome in October, 2004 [21-23]. We've been invited to help prepare a special issue of Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on x-ray detectors; additionally, we will contribute an article on fast time-resolved PADs [24]. Application of a PAD developed under a DOE Facilities Initiative Grant, in collaboration with Dr. Jin Wang's group at the Advanced Photon Source, is being intensively used for microsecond time-resolved x-ray imaging of fuel injectors [3, 15]. This detector is the primary data acquisition device used by the Wang collaboration for work which was awarded the 2002 DOE Combustion and Emission Control R&D award.

  8. Handheld multi-channel LAPS device as a transducer platform for possible biological and chemical multi-sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light-addressable potentiometric sensor is a promising technology platform for multi-sensor applications and lab-on-chip devices. However, many prior LAPS developments suffer from their lack in terms of non-portability, insufficient robustness, complicate handling, etc. Hence, portable and robust LAPS-based measurement devices have been investigated by the authors recently. In this work, a 'chip card'-based light-addressable potentiometric sensor system is presented. The utilisation of ordinary 'chip cards' allows an easy handling of different sensor chips for a wide range of possible applications. The integration of the electronic and the mechanical set-up into a single reader unit results in a compact design with the benefits of portability and low required space. In addition, the presented work includes a new multi-frequency measurement procedure, based on an FFT algorithm, which enables the simultaneous real-time measurement of up to 16 sensor spots. The comparison between the former batch-LAPS and the new FFT-based LAPS set-up will be presented. The immobilisation of biological cells (CHO: Chinese hamster ovary) demonstrates the possibility to record their metabolic activity with 16 measurement spots on the same chip. Furthermore, a Cd2+-selective chalcogenide-glass layer together with a pH-sensitive Ta2O5 layer validates the use of the LAPS for chemical multi-sensor applications

  9. Developing optimal input design strategies in cancer systems biology with applications to microfluidic device engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwald Thomas; Bellomo Domenico; Menolascina Filippo; Bevilacqua Vitoantonio; Ciminelli Caterina; Paradiso Angelo; Tommasi Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of complex pathologies like cancer: acquiring information for a system understanding of complex reaction networks is time consuming and expensive. Stimulus response ex...

  10. Synthetic Biology for Therapeutic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug d...

  11. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  12. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  13. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented. (topical review)

  14. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  15. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-01

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. PMID:25393596

  16. Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures,...

  17. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  18. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:23502560

  19. Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    This edited book is devoted specifically to the applications of complex nonlinear dynamic phenomena to real systems and device applications. While in the past decades there has been significant progress in the theory of nonlinear phenomena under an assortment of system boundary conditions and preparations, there exist comparatively few devices that actually take this rich behavior into account. "Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics" applies and exploits this knowledge to make devices which operate more efficiently and cheaply, while affording the promise of much better performance. Given the current explosion of ideas in areas as diverse as molecular motors, nonlinear filtering theory, noise-enhanced propagation, stochastic resonance and networked systems, the time is right to integrate the progress of complex systems research into real devices.

  20. Biological applications of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2016-03-01

    Graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. However, the lower water-solubility and the irreversible aggregation due to the strong π-π stacking hinder the wide application of graphene nanosheets in biomedical field. Thus, graphene oxide (GO), one derivative of graphene, has been used more frequently in the biological system owing to its relatively higher water solubility and biocompatibility. Recently, it has been demonstrated that nanomaterials with different functional groups on the surface can be used to bind the drug molecules with high affinity. GO has different functional groups such as H, OH and O on its surface; it can be a potential candidate as a drug carrier. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene like structures are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles spin polarized calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on DNA/RNA nucleobases on graphene oxide. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene oxide by applied charging.

  1. A microfluidic dialysis device for complex biological mixture SERS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic device fabricated with a simple and inexpensive process allowing rapid filtering of peptides from a complex mixture. The polymer microfluidic device can be used for sample preparation in biological applications. The device is fabricated by micromilling and solvent assisted bonding, in which a microdialysis membrane (cut-off of 12-14 kDa) is sandwiched in between an upper and a bottom microfluidic chamber. An external frame connects the microfluidic device to external tubes, microvalves and syringe pumps. Bonding strength and interface sealing are pneumatically tested. Microfluidic protocols are also described by using the presented device to filter a sample composed of specific peptides (MW 1553.73 Da, at a concentration of 1.0 ng/μl) derived from the BRCA1 protein, a tumor-suppressor molecule which plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer, and albumin (MW 66.5 kDa, at a concentration of 35 μg/μl), the most represented protein in human plasma. The filtered samples coming out from the microfluidic device were subsequently deposited on a SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering) substrate for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. By using this approach, we were able to sort the small peptides from the bigger and highly concentrated protein albumin and to detect them by using a label-free technique at a resolution down to 1.0 ng/μl.

  2. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  3. Quantum metrology and its application in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum metrology provides a route to overcome practical limits in sensing devices. It holds particular relevance to biology, where sensitivity and resolution constraints restrict applications both in fundamental biophysics and in medicine. Here, we review quantum metrology from this biological context, focusing on optical techniques due to their particular relevance for biological imaging, sensing, and stimulation. Our understanding of quantum mechanics has already enabled important applications in biology, including positron emission tomography (PET) with entangled photons, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using nuclear magnetic resonance, and bio-magnetic imaging with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In quantum metrology an even greater range of applications arise from the ability to not just understand, but to engineer, coherence and correlations at the quantum level. In the past few years, quite dramatic progress has been seen in applying these ideas into biological systems. Capabilities that have been demonstrated include enhanced sensitivity and resolution, immunity to imaging artefacts and technical noise, and characterization of the biological response to light at the single-photon level. New quantum measurement techniques offer even greater promise, raising the prospect for improved multi-photon microscopy and magnetic imaging, among many other possible applications. Realization of this potential will require cross-disciplinary input from researchers in both biology and quantum physics. In this review we seek to communicate the developments of quantum metrology in a way that is accessible to biologists and biophysicists, while providing sufficient details to allow the interested reader to obtain a solid understanding of the field. We further seek to introduce quantum physicists to some of the central challenges of optical measurements in biological science. We hope that this will aid in bridging the communication gap that exists

  4. High speed serdes devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, David R; Sorna, Michael A; Dramstad, Kent; Ogilvie, Clarence Rosser; Amanullah, Mohammad; Rockrohr, James Donald

    2008-01-01

    Offers an understanding of the features and functions typically found on HSS devices. This book explains how these HSS devices are used in protocol applications and the analysis which must be performed to use such HSS devices.

  5. SIMS applications in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: SIMS has been utilised as a tool for biological research since the early 1970's. SIMS' abilities in isotopic detection with high sensitivity, imaging capabilities at a subcellular level, and the possibility of molecular imaging have been the main areas of interest for biological development. However, whilst hundreds of instruments are available in industrial and university laboratories for semiconductor and materials analysis, only a handful successfully perform biological research. For this reason there is generally a lack of awareness of SIMS by the biological community. Biological SIMS analysis requires a working knowledge of both biology and SIMS. Sample preparation is a critical and time consuming prerequisite for any successful biological SIMS study. In addition, for quantification to be possible a homogeneous, matrix matched standard must be available. Once these difficulties are more widely understood and overcome there will be a greater motivation for the biological community to embrace SIMS as a unique tool in their research. This paper provides an overview of some of the more successful biological SIMS application areas internationally, and summarises the types of biological SIMS requests received by ANSTO

  6. Development and applications of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials: Progress report for period June 1964-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of devices based on electro-optical technologies were developed and applied to the study of biological and other organic materials, ranging from single cell organisms to complex lipid liquid crystals. The detector systems developed have incorporated state of the art image intensifiers, vidicons, and solid state detectors. A major emphasis has been on the development of an x-ray image intensifier system suitable for diffraction experiments at high flux synchrotron sources. The detector has been applied to time resolved studies of lipid membrane phase transitions, with time resolution of the order of 10 msec. In addition, the x-ray detectors have been used to discover 3 cubic phases in the 1-methylphosphatidylethanolamine-water system, permitting a refinement of the phase transition theory developed earlier. The detectors have also been applied to low level light detection of selected luminescence phenomena. In particular, the cellular sources of bioluminescence in many organisms have been discovered, along with detailed information on the spectral distributions. Using the photoprotein aequorin and fluorescence techniques detailed studies have been made of free calcium release and uptake in a number of important metabolic processes. 11 refs

  7. Tomographic device and application of this device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system operating with X-rays is suited for application in computer tomography. The radiation source emits a diverging beam of radiation scanning the patient that can be rotated about the patient. The detectors are arranged on a partial ring of 1800 plus the beam angle and the angle between two neighboring detectors. The absorption data picked up by the detector are processes with a convolver function, fed back to an image store and represented on a monitor. (RW)

  8. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Koplovitz, G.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Yochelis, S.; Porath, D.; Nevo, Y.; Shoseyov, O.; Paltiel, Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio-nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications.

  9. Hierarchical Nanocomposites for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, James

    We have outlined templating strategies for electronic and optical device fabrication that include self-assembly of well-ordered polymer/nanoparticle hybrids and nanoimprint lithography using novel materials sets. Using additive-driven self-assembly, for example, we demonstrate the formation of periodic nanocomposites with tunable magnetic and optical characteristics containing up to 70 wt. % of metal, metal oxide and/or semiconducting nanoparticles through phase specific interactions of the particles with either linear block copolymer or brush block copolymer (BBCP) templates. The BBCP templates provide direct access to large domain spacings for optical applications and spontaneous alignment within large volume elements. We have further developed highly filled nanoparticle/polymer hybrids for applications that require tailored dielectric constant or refractive index and a new imprinting process that allows direct printing of patterned 2-D and 3-D crystalline metal oxide films and composites with feature sizes of less than 100 nm. Applications in flexible electronics, light and energy management, and sensors and will be discussed.

  10. Synthetic Nanopores: Biological Analogues and Nanofluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew W.

    Nanoscopic pores in biological systems -- cells, for example -- are responsible for regulating the transport of ionic and molecular species between physiologically distinct compartments maintained by thin plasma membranes. These biological pores are proteinaceous structures: long, contorted chains of chemical building blocks called amino acids. Protein pores have evolved to span a staggering range of shapes, sizes and chemical properties, each crucial to a pore's unique functionality. Protein pores have extremely well-defined jobs. For instance, pores called ion channels only transport ions. Within this family, there are pores designated to selectively transport specific ions, such as sodium channels for sodium, chloride channels for chloride and so on. Further subdivisions exist within each type of ion channel, resulting in a pantheon of specialized proteins pores. Specificity and selectivity are bestowed upon a pore through its unique incorporation and arrangement of its amino acids, which in turn have their own unique chemical and physical properties. With hundreds of task-specific pores, deciphering the precise relationship between form and function in these protein channels is a critical, but daunting task. In this thesis, we examine an alternative for probing the fundamental mechanisms responsible for transport on the nanoscale. Solid-state membranes offer well-defined structural surrogates to directly address the science underlying pore functionality. Numerous protein pores rely on electronic interactions, size exclusion principles and hydrophobic effects to fulfill their duties, regardless of their amino acid sequence. Substituting an engineered and well-characterized pore, we strive to achieve and, thus, understand the hallmarks of biological pore function: analyte recognition and selective transport. While we restrict our study to only two readily available membrane materials -- one a polymer and the other a ceramic -- nanofabrication techniques give us

  11. Device for application of PEF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Tomáš; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin

    Bratislava,: Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics,, 2011 - (Országh, J.; Papp, P.; Matejčík, Š.), s. 289-292. (SAPP. SAPP XVIII). ISBN 978-80-89186-77-8. [Symposium on Application of Plasma Processes Workshop on Plasmas as a Planetary Atmosphere Mimics/18./. Vrátna dolina (SK), 15.01.2011-20.01.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430802; GA ČR(CZ) GD104/09/H080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : PEF * Water treatment * Food treatment * Device Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality http://neon.dpp.fmph.uniba.sk/sapp/download/ Book _of_Contributed_Papers_SAPP_XVIII.pdf

  12. Structure and application of galvanomagnetic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, H

    1969-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Semiconductors, Volume 8: Structure and Application of Galvanomagnetic Devices focuses on the composition, reactions, transformations, and applications of galvanomagnetic devices. The book first ponders on basic physical concepts, design and fabrication of galvanomagnetic devices, and properties of galvanomagnetic devices. Discussions focus on changes in electrical properties on irradiation with high-energy particles, magnetoresistor field-plate, Hall generator, preparation of semiconductor films by vacuum deposition, structure of field-plate magnetoresist

  13. Pyrotechnic devices and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelblau, Harry

    2002-05-01

    Pyroshock is mechanical shock transmitted through structures from explosive devices, sometimes accompanied by structural impact. These devices are designed to cause the intentional separation of structures, or to cause the deployment of various mechanisms or subsystems required for mission operation. Separation devices usually fall into two categories: (a) line sources, such as linear shaped charges, and (b) point sources, such as explosive bolts, pin puller and pushers, and gas generators. The advantages of these devices are high reliability (especially when redundantly activated), low cost and weight, high activation speed, and low structural deformation a short distance from the source. The major limitation is pyroshock, a severe high-frequency transient capable of causing failure or malfunction to small nearby elements, especially electronic and optical components located close to the source. This pyroshock tutorial, which is intended to summarize recent improvements to the technology, is initiated with a review of explosive and companion devices.

  14. Structural Biology: Practical NMR Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, Quincy

    2005-01-01

    This textbook begins with an overview of NMR development and applications in biological systems. It describes recent developments in instrument hardware and methodology. Chapters highlight the scope and limitation of NMR methods. While detailed math and quantum mechanics dealing with NMR theory have been addressed in several well-known NMR volumes, chapter two of this volume illustrates the fundamental principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy in a more descriptive manner. Topics such as instrument setup, data acquisition, and data processing using a variety of offline software are discussed. Chapters further discuss several routine stategies for preparing samples, especially for macromolecules and complexes. The target market for such a volume includes researchers in the field of biochemistry, chemistry, structural biology and biophysics.

  15. Development of the PF-6 Device ffor the Goal Of the Mainstream Fusion Research and Spin-Off Applications; Medocine, Biology, Material Sciences etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Project we have elaborated a new design of the electrical circuit (in co-operation with ICTP) to increase the repetition rate f of the operational regime of PF-6 device till the level: U = 23 kV, E = 7.4 kJ, f = 5 Hz. With this power supply we have elaborated and tested our new DPF chambers able to work with the deuterium-tritium mixture as a working gas. We have developed, implemented and tested new diagnostics of X ray and neutron pulses with temporal resolution 0.3 ns and 16-frame 1-ns laser interferometry. In cooperation with our partners on this IAEA CRP we provided radiation tests of materials candidate for the main-stream fusion reactors (tungsten, CFC, ceramics Al2O3 and NB, low- activation steels, etc.) using besides the PF-6 facility the Dense Plasma Focus devices PF-5M, ING-103 and PF-1000. In addition with the same partners we undertake initial experiments with an aim to improve characteristics of the surface layer of materials (mechanical and tribological behavior, radiation resistance, etc.) using the above devices. The idea is to use hot plasma streams and beams of fast ions generated in DPF in treatment of internal hard-to-reach compartments of the machine components. In cooperation with Pirelli we have provided first experiments in the field of X ray dynamic quality control with DPF aimed to disclosure imperfections in car tyres. Also we spread our previous X ray based experiments on pulsed radio- enzymology to the pulsed neutron irradiation of enzymes and other bio-test objects. We have provided experiments intended to detect large-volume objects containing illegal substances (explosives, drugs, etc.) and first experiments on irradiation by neutron pulses a fuel element containing fissile materials by means of time-of flight neutron technique. These experiments give an opportunity to use DPF in a single-shot technique of unveiling illegal materials hidden in a luggage or in containers. (author)

  16. Secure smart embedded devices, platforms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markantonakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    New generations of IT users are increasingly abstracted from the underlying devices and platforms that provide and safeguard their services. As a result they may have little awareness that they are critically dependent on the embedded security devices that are becoming pervasive in daily modern life. Secure Smart Embedded Devices, Platforms and Applications provides a broad overview of the many security and practical issues of embedded devices, tokens, and their operation systems, platforms and main applications. It also addresses a diverse range of industry/government initiatives and consider

  17. Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up a device for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing with another type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international project between Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types of ionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, which demonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device for biological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole No3(BH3) for more than five years at the IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor according to the solicited requirements the device. The designed device increases considerably the type of studies can be conducted in this reactor. Its practical application in research taking place in that facility, in the field of radiobiology and dosimetry, and so on is immediate

  18. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  19. Small solid angle device setup and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantize the weight of Uranium-plate accurately, the small solid angle device was redesigned. To fit the requirement of homogeneity check, the sliding base was introduced in the design. This paper presents the detailed application of small solid angle device setup and quantization of Uranium-plate and homogeneity check. (authors)

  20. Microoxygraph Device for Biosensoristic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aloisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen consumption rate (OCR is a significant parameter helpful to determine in vitro respiratory efficiency of living cells. Oxygen is an excellent oxidant and its electrocatalytic reduction on a noble metal allows accurately detecting it. By means of microfabrication technologies, handy, low-cost, and disposable chip can be attained, minimizing working volumes and improving sensitivity and response time. In this respect, here is presented a microoxygraph device (MOD, based on Clark’s electrode principle, displaying many advantageous features in comparison to other systems. This lab-on-chip platform is composed of a three-microelectrode detector equipped with a microgrooved electrochemical cell, sealed with a polymeric reaction chamber. Au working/counter electrodes and Ag/AgCl reference electrode were fabricated on a glass slide. A microchannel was realized by photoresist lift-off technique and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS nanoporous film was integrated as oxygen permeable membrane (OPM between the probe and the microreaction chamber. Electrochemical measurements showed good reproducibility and average response time, assessed by periodic injection and suction of a reducing agent. OCR measurements on 3T3 cells, subjected, in real time, to chemical stress on the respiratory chain, were able to show that this chip allows performing consistent metabolic analysis.

  1. Organic optoelectronics:materials,devices and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; CUI Tian-hong

    2005-01-01

    The interest in organic materials for optoelectronic devices has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has been propelled by the exciting advances in organic thin films for displays, low-cost electronic circuits, etc. An increasing number of products employing organic electronic devices have become commercialized, which has stimulated the age of organic optoelectronics. This paper reviews the recent progress in organic optoelectronic technology. First, organic light emitting electroluminescent materials are introduced. Next, the three kinds of most important organic optoelectronic devices are summarized, including light emitting diode, organic photovoltaic cell, and photodetectors. The various applications of these devices are also reviewed and discussed in detail. Finally, the market and future development of optoelectronic devices are also demonstrated.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the “computer” as possible, the user’s ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Google’s Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile device’s operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nation’s critical infrastructure.

  3. Nitride semiconductor devices fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a clear presentation of the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering. It introduces readers to fundamental issues that will enable them to follow the latest technological research. It also covers important applications, including LED and lighting, semiconductor lasers, high power switching devices, and detectors. This balanced and up-to-date treatment makes the text an essential educational tool for both advanced students and professionals in the electronics industry.

  4. Diamond semiconductor technology for RF device applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gürbüz, Yaşar; Gurbuz, Yasar; Esame, İbrahim Onur; Esame, Ibrahim Onur; Tekin, İbrahim; TEKIN Ibrahim; Kang, Weng Poo; Davidson, Jimmy L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of diamond electronics from the RF perspective. Our aim was to find and present the potential, limitations and current status of diamond semiconductor devices as well as to investigate its suitability for RF device applications. While doing this, we briefly analysed the physics and chemistry of CVD diamond process for a better understanding of the reasons for the technological challenges of diamond material. This leads to Figure of Merit definitions ...

  5. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Andreas; Koplovitz, Guy; Retzker, Alex; JELEZKO, Fedor; Yochelis, Shira; Porath, Danny; Nevo, Yuval.; Shoseyov, Oded; Paltiel, Yossi; Plenio, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-center in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited in the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose ...

  6. Applications of conducting polymers: robotic fins and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangorra, James L.; Anquetil, Patrick A.; Weideman, Nathan S.; Fofonoff, Timothy; Hunter, Ian W.

    2007-04-01

    Conducting polymers are becoming viable engineering materials and are gradually being integrated into a wide range of devices. Parallel efforts conducted to characterize their electromechanical behavior, understand the factors that affect actuation performance, mechanically process films, and address the engineering obstacles that must be overcome to generate the forces and displacements required in real-world applications have made it possible to begin using conducting polymers in devices that cannot be made optimal using traditional actuators and materials. The use of conducting polymers has allowed us to take better advantage of biological architectures for robotic applications and has enabled us to pursue the development of novel sensors, motors, and medical diagnostic technologies. This paper uses the application of conducting polymer actuators to a biorobotic fin for unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs) as a vehicle for discussing the efforts in our laboratory to develop conducting polymers into a suite of useful actuators and engineering components.

  7. Application of membrane technology in microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jorrit

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of membrane technology in microfluidic systems. The word ‘microfluidic’ refers to the research field that develops methods and devices to control, manipulate, and analyze flows in sub‐millimeter dimensions. General advantages of this miniaturization strategy inc

  8. Ultrasensitive Force Detection and Applications to Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    For many years, researchers have developed a variety of micromechanical devices for a range of applications. The majority of these devices are based on micromechanical force transducers to convert external physical signals into electrical signals. The force sensing capabilities of these devices are remarkable - it is possible to design devices with force resolution ranging from milli-N to atto-N within this technology. In addition to the conventional applications for MEMS devices, it is possible to tailor these designs to allow interesting scientific measurements on biological systems. For example, there are active research communities investigating cellular adhesion, protein folding, and animal locomotion. In all of these cases, the basic questions are mechanical in nature, and direct force measurements can provide new insight. This talk will review some ongoing biological research that makes use of MEMS devices, and discuss opportunities for new directions. Collaborators on this research include : Yiching Liang, Robert Rudnitsky, Michael Bartsch, Robert Full, Kellar Autumn, James Nelson, Jim Spudich, and Mark Cutkosky This work is funded by NSF (XYZ on a Chip) and ONR MURI (Biomimetic Robots).

  9. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider logic device concepts based on our previously proposed spintronics device element whose magnetization orientation is controlled by application of a bias voltage instead of a magnetic field. The basic building block is the voltage-controlled rotation (VCR) element that consists of a four-layer structure--two ferromagnetic layers separated by both nanometer-thick insulator and metallic spacer layers. The interlayer exchange coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers oscillates as a function of applied voltage. We illustrate transistorlike concepts and reprogrammable logic gates based on VCR elements. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. The future of the pharmaceutical, biological and medical device industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess LJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lesley J Burgess, Marli TerblancheTREAD Research/Cardiology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, Parow, South AfricaAbstract: Numerous factors contribute to the declining pharmaceutical industry on the one hand and the rapidly growing generic industry together with the growing importance of medical devices and biologicals on the other. It is clear that the pharmaceutical industry is going to undergo a change in the next decade in order to meet the current challenges facing it and ultimately sustain its profitability and growth. This paper aims to identify a number of fairly obvious trends that are likely to have a significant impact on the product development pipeline in the next decade. It is more than clear that the current production pipeline for pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries is no longer sustainable and that urgent interventions are required in order to maintain its current level of profitability.Keywords: pharmaceutical industry, personalized medicine, trends, generics, biotechnology

  11. The Application of Serf-made Microporous Aeration Device in the Coking Biological Dephenol System%自制微孔曝气装置在焦化生物脱酚系统上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆阳; 韩冰

    2011-01-01

    The self-made microporous aeration device was adopted as a substitution for the original stand pipe aeration device in the coking biological dephenol system in order to obtain a uniform aeration quantity and meet the requirements. After several years of operation, the aeration quantity achieved the technological requirements completely. The sludge settlement ratio increased as well. Comparing with the mature nylon nets microporous aeration device, the self-made pore aeration device saved cost and was easy to maintain.%针对焦化废水生物脱酚系统溶解氧过低的问题,通过淘汰原有竖管曝气装置,采用自制微孔曝气装置,使曝气量完全达到工艺要求,同时污泥沉降比得到提高,相比成熟的尼龙网微孔曝气装置,节约成本,便于维护.

  12. Biological and Geographical application tool

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and species identify is an essential step to natural resources management. Among these, biological resources aim special concern because data availability is highly limited by a number of sampling logistic constraints and catalog. As a matter of fact, data availability is one of important limitation to knowledge and, as a consequence the development of a new concept in natural resources. Data organization in digital format is a common practice in our days, and has the power to cont...

  13. Microfabricated phononic crystal devices and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phononic crystals are the acoustic wave analogue of photonic crystals. Here a periodic array of scattering inclusions located in a homogeneous host material forbids certain ranges of acoustic frequencies from existence within the crystal, thus creating what are known as acoustic bandgaps. The majority of previously reported phononic crystal devices have been constructed by hand, assembling scattering inclusions in a viscoelastic medium, predominantly air, water or epoxy, resulting in large structures limited to frequencies below 1 MHz. Recently, phononic crystals and devices have been scaled to VHF (30–300 MHz) frequencies and beyond by utilizing microfabrication and micromachining technologies. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of micro-phononic crystals including design techniques, material considerations, microfabrication processes, characterization methods and reported device structures. Micro-phononic crystal devices realized in low-loss solid materials are emphasized along with their potential application in radio frequency communications and acoustic imaging for medical ultrasound and nondestructive testing. The reported advances in batch micro-phononic crystal fabrication and simplified testing promise not only the deployment of phononic crystals in a number of commercial applications but also greater experimentation on a wide variety of phononic crystal structures. (topical review)

  14. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  15. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  16. Plasma electronics applications in microelectronic device fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Makabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Beyond enabling new capabilities, plasma-based techniques, characterized by quantum radicals of feed gases, hold the potential to enhance and improve many processes and applications. Following in the tradition of its popular predecessor, Plasma Electronics, Second Edition: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication explains the fundamental physics and numerical methods required to bring these technologies from the laboratory to the factory. Emphasizing computational algorithms and techniques, this updated edition of a popular monograph supplies a complete and up-to-date picture of plas

  17. MEMS/NEMS Devices and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darrin J.; Zorman, Christian A.; Mehregany, Mehran

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have played key roles in many important areas, for example transportation, communication, automated manufacturing, environmental monitoring, health care, defense systems, and a wide range of consumer products. MEMS are inherently small, thus offering attractive characteristics such as reduced size, weight, and power dissipation and improved speed and precision compared to their macroscopic counterparts. Integrated circuits (IC) fabrication technology has been the primary enabling technology for MEMS besides a few special etching, bonding and assembly techniques. Microfabrication provides a powerful tool for batch processing and miniaturization of electromechanical devices and systems into a dimensional scale, which is not achievable by conventional machining techniques. As IC fabrication technology continues to scale toward deep sub-micron and nano-meter feature sizes, a variety of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) can be envisioned in the foreseeable future. Nano-scale mechanical devices and systems integrated with nanoelectronics will open a vast number of new exploratory research areas in science and engineering. NEMS will most likely serve as an enabling technology merging engineering with the life sciences in ways that are not currently feasible with the micro-scale tools and technologies. MEMS has been applied to a wide range of fields. Over hundreds of micro-devices have been developed for specific applications. It is thus difficult to provide an overview covering every aspect of the topic. In this chapter, key aspects of MEMS technology and application impacts are illustrated through selecting a few demonstrative device examples, which consist of pressure sensors, inertial sensors, optical and wireless communication devices. Microstructure examples with dimensions on the order of sub-micron are presented with fabrication technologies for future NEMS applications. Although MEMS has experienced significant growth over

  18. Applied superconductivity handbook on devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the latest applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in the field. Readers looking for a systematic overview on superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors, including organic and magnetic materials. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for several geometries, but the main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in power engineering or passive devices, such as filter and antenna or magnetic shields. The reader will also find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications in mechanical engineering, particle physics, fusion research, medicine and biomagnetism, as well as materials processing. SQUIDS and their usage in medicine or geophysics are thoroughly covered as are applications in quantum metrology, and, las...

  19. Physics and applications of electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Avellaneda, Cesar O.

    2003-07-01

    Solid state electrochromic devices (ECD) are of considerable technological and commercial interest because of their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, a major application of these devices is in smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings and also in glare attenuation in automobile rear view mirrors. Other applications include solar cells, small and large area flat panel displays, satellite temperature control, food monitoring, and document authentication. A typical electrochromic device has a five-layer structure: GS/TC/EC/IC/IS/TC/GS, where GS is a glass substrate, TC is a transparent conductor, generally ITO (indium tin oxide) or FTO (fluorine tin oxide), EC is an electrochromic coating, IC is an ion conductor (solid or liquid electrolyte) and IS is an ion storage coating. Generally, the EC and IS layers are deposited separately on the TC coatings and then jointed with the IC and sealed. The EC and IS are thin films that can be deposited by sputtering, CVD, sol-gel precursors, etc. There are different kinds of organic, inorganic and organic-inorganic films that can be used to make electrochromic devices. Thin electrochromic films can be: WO3, Nb2O5, Nb2O5:Li+ or Nb2O5-TiO2 coatings, ions storage films: CeO2-TiO2, CeO2-ZrO2 or CeO2-TiO2-ZrO2 and electrolytes like Organically Modified Electrolytes (Ormolytes) or polymeric films also based on natural polymers like starch or cellulose. These last are very interesting due to their high ionic conductivity, high transparency and good mechanical properties. This paper describes construction and properties of different thin oxide and polymeric films and also shows the optical response of an all sol-gel electrochromic device with WO3/Ormolyte/CeO2-TiO2 configuration.

  20. Aptamers and Their Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changill Ban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, aptamers have attracted the attention of many scientists, because they not only have all of the advantages of antibodies, but also have unique merits, such as thermal stability, low cost, and unlimited applications. In this review, we present the reasons why aptamers are known as alternatives to antibodies. Furthermore, several types of in vitro selection processes, including nitrocellulose membrane filtration, affinity chromatography, magnetic bead, and capillary electrophoresis-based selection methods, are explained in detail. We also introduce various applications of aptamers for the diagnosis of diseases and detection of small molecules. Numerous analytical techniques, such as electrochemical, colorimetric, optical, and mass-sensitive methods, can be utilized to detect targets, due to convenient modifications and the stability of aptamers. Finally, several medical and analytical applications of aptamers are presented. In summary, aptamers are promising materials for diverse areas, not just as alternatives to antibodies, but as the core components of medical and analytical equipment.

  1. Review on thin-film transistor technology, its applications, and possible new applications to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Ihida, Satoshi; Ségard, Bertrand-David; Cathcart, Grant A.; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a review on state-of-the-art of thin-film transistor (TFT) technology and its wide range of applications, not only in liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), but also in sensing devices. The history of the evolution of the technology is first given. Then the standard applications of TFT-LCDs, and X-ray detectors, followed by state-of-the-art applications in the field of chemical and biochemical sensing are presented. TFT technology allows the fabrication of dense arrays of independent and transparent microelectrodes on large glass substrates. The potential of these devices as electrical substrates for biological cell applications is then described. The possibility of using TFT array substrates as new tools for electrical experiments on biological cells has been investigated for the first time by our group. Dielectrophoresis experiments and impedance measurements on yeast cells are presented here. Their promising results open the door towards new applications of TFT technology.

  2. Biological evaluation of the copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite intrauterine device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xia Hu

    Full Text Available Devices and materials intended for clinical applications as medical and implant devices should be evaluated to determine their biocompatibility in physiological systems. This article presents results from cytotoxicity assay of L929 mouse fibroblasts culture, tests for skin irritation, intracutaneous reactivity and sensitization, and material implantation tests for the novel copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite intrauterine device (nano-Cu/LDPE IUD with potential for future clinical utilization. Cytotoxicity test in vitro was conducted to evaluate the change in morphology, growth and proliferation of cultured L929 mouse fibroblasts, which in vivo examination for skin irritation (n = 6 and intracutaneous reactivity (n = 6 were carried out to explore the irritant behavior in New Zealand White rabbits. Skin sensitization was implemented to evaluate the potential skin sensitizing in Hartley guinea pigs (n = 35. The materials were implanted into the spinal muscle of rabbits (n = 9. The cytotoxicity grade of the nano-Cu/LDPE IUD was 0-1, suggested that the composite was nontoxic or mildly cytotoxic; no irritation reaction and skin sensitization were identified in any animals of specific extracts prepared from the material under test; similarly to the control sides, the inflammatory reaction was observed in the rabbits living tissue of the implanted material in intramuscular implantation assay. They indicated that the novel composite intrauterine device presented potential for this type of application because they meet the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity. The nano-Cu/LDPE IUD has good biocompatibility, which is biologically safe for the clinical research as a novel contraceptive device.

  3. Aptamers and Their Biological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Changill Ban; Seonghwan Lee; Kyung-Mi Song

    2012-01-01

    Recently, aptamers have attracted the attention of many scientists, because they not only have all of the advantages of antibodies, but also have unique merits, such as thermal stability, low cost, and unlimited applications. In this review, we present the reasons why aptamers are known as alternatives to antibodies. Furthermore, several types of in vitro selection processes, including nitrocellulose membrane filtration, affinity chromatography, magnetic bead, and capillary electrophoresis-ba...

  4. Multifunctional magnetoelectric materials for device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade magnetoelectric (ME) mutiferroic (MF) materials and their devices are one of the highest priority research topics that has been investigated by the scientific ferroics community to develop the next generation of novel multifunctional materials. These systems show the simultaneous existence of two or more ferroic orders, and cross-coupling between them, such as magnetic spin, polarisation, ferroelastic ordering, and ferrotoroidicity. Based on the type of ordering and coupling, they have drawn increasing interest for a variety of device applications, such as magnetic field sensors, nonvolatile memory elements, ferroelectric photovoltaics, nano-electronics etc. Since single-phase materials exist rarely in nature with strong cross-coupling properties, intensive research activity is being pursued towards the discovery of new single-phase multiferroic materials and the design of new engineered materials with strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling. This review article summarises the development of different kinds of multiferroic material: single-phase and composite ceramic, laminated composite and nanostructured thin films. Thin-film nanostructures have higher magnitude direct ME coupling values and clear evidence of indirect ME coupling compared with bulk materials. Promising ME coupling coefficients have been reported in laminated composite materials in which the signal to noise ratio is good for device fabrication. We describe the possible applications of these materials. (topical review)

  5. Single nanoparticle detectors for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Abdulkadir; Daaboul, George G.; Connor, John H.; Goldberg, Bennett B.; Selim Ünlü, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle research has become increasingly important in the context of bioscience and biotechnology. Practical use of nanoparticles in biology has significantly advanced our understanding about biological processes in the nanoscale as well as led to many novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Besides, synthetic and natural nanoparticles are of concern for their potential adverse effect on human health. Development of novel detection and characterization tools for nanoparticles will impact a broad range of disciplines in biological research from nanomedicine to nanotoxicology. In this article, we discuss the recent progress and future directions in the area of single nanoparticle detectors with an emphasis on their biological applications. A brief critical overview of electrical and mechanical detection techniques is given and a more in-depth discussion of label-free optical detection techniques is presented.

  6. Organic nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology have given rise to a new generation of functional organic nanomaterials with controlled morphology and well-defined properties, which enable a broad range of useful applications. This book explores some of the most important of these organic nanomaterials, describing how they are synthesized and characterized. Moreover, the book explains how researchers have incorporated organic nanomaterials into devices for real-world applications.Featuring contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists, Organic Nanomaterials is divided into five parts:Part One introduces the fundamentals of nanomaterials and self-assembled nanostructuresPart Two examines carbon nanostructures—from fullerenes to carbon nanotubes to graphene—reporting on properties, theoretical studies, and applicationsPart Three investigates key aspects of some inorganic materials, self-assembled monolayers,...

  7. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M.; Krams, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and tog...

  8. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, José M.; Inés Garbayo; Francisco Bédmar; María Cuaresma; Carlos Vílchez; Eduardo Forján

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesised by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has be...

  9. Single nanoparticle detectors for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yurt, Abdulkadir; Daaboul, George G.; Connor, John H.; Goldberg, Bennett B.; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle research has become increasingly important in the context of bioscience and biotechnology. Practical use of nanoparticles in biology has significantly advanced our understanding about biological processes in the nanoscale as well as led to many novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Besides, synthetic and natural nanoparticles are of concern for their potential adverse effect on human health. Development of novel detection and characterization tools for nanoparticles will...

  10. Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Written in a versatile, contemporary style that will benefit both novice and expert alike, Biological and Biomedical Coatings Handbook, Two-Volume Set covers the state of the art in the development and implementation of advanced thin films and coatings in the biological field. Consisting of two volumes--Processing and Characterization and Applications--this handbook details the latest understanding of advances in the design and performance of biological and biomedical coatings, covering a vast array of material types, including bio-ceramics, polymers, glass, chitosan, and nanomaterials. Contri

  11. Biological applications of nanoscale materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chi-Hui

    2007-12-01

    The objective of my research work is to synthesize, characterize, design, and apply nanocrystals for biomedical use. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of chitosan via reduction of HAuCl4 with sodium borohydride. The average particle size of gold nanoparticles was significantly affected with the concentration of chitosan added and was ranged between 5 and 30 nm. The gold-chitosan nanocomposites were formed by adsorbing chitosan molecules on the gold nanoparticles. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were prepared by a solution phase synthetic method. A new route for the phase transfer of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots from non-polar solvents into aqueous solution was developed using hydrophobically modified polysaccharides, both chitosan and alginate. In addition, it was shown that CdSe/ZnS based polysaccharide nanoparticles effectively inhibited the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 in vitro. The findings suggest that CdSe/ZnS quantum dot based polysaccharide nanoparticles not only act as a long-term biomarker but also have potential value in cancer therapy. A novel method for extracting magnetite nanoparticles from magnetotactic bacteria was developed by using co-surfactant. The problem of mass cultivation was solved by growing AMB-1 in Ca2+-alginate microbeads. To apply magnetotactic bacterial in biomedical applications, uptake of chitosan-capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on magnetotactic bacteria and introducing fluorescent magnetotactic bacteria into mouse macrophage cells was achieved. A general strategy is described which allows for constructing multifunctional magnetic nanocomposites based on bacterial magnetite nanoparticles. Specifically, core-shell structures of bacterial magnetite-CdSe ZnS and bacterial magnetite-gold nanocomplexes have been built in this way. Furthermore, design and synthesis multimodal contrast agents which are ultrasound and photoacoustic active are achieved by utilizing biocompatible gold nanorods self assembling on

  12. Microfluidic Organ/Body-on-a-Chip Devices at the Convergence of Biology and Microengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rubina Perestrelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomedical technologies are mostly related to the convergence of biology with microengineering. For instance, microfluidic devices are now commonly found in most research centers, clinics and hospitals, contributing to more accurate studies and therapies as powerful tools for drug delivery, monitoring of specific analytes, and medical diagnostics. Most remarkably, integration of cellularized constructs within microengineered platforms has enabled the recapitulation of the physiological and pathological conditions of complex tissues and organs. The so-called “organ-on-a-chip” technology, which represents a new avenue in the field of advanced in vitro models, with the potential to revolutionize current approaches to drug screening and toxicology studies. This review aims to highlight recent advances of microfluidic-based devices towards a body-on-a-chip concept, exploring their technology and broad applications in the biomedical field.

  13. A simple method of fabricating mask-free microfluidic devices for biological analysis.

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Xin

    2010-09-07

    We report a simple, low-cost, rapid, and mask-free method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip for biological analysis researches. In this fabrication process, a laser system is used to cut through paper to form intricate patterns and differently configured channels for specific purposes. Bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin, the prepared paper sheet is sandwiched between glass slides (hydrophilic) or polymer-based plates (hydrophobic) to obtain a multilayer structure. In order to examine the chip\\'s biocompatibility and applicability, protein concentration was measured while DNA capillary electrophoresis was carried out, and both of them show positive results. With the utilization of direct laser cutting and one-step gas-sacrificing techniques, the whole fabrication processes for complicated 2D and 3D microfluidic devices are shorten into several minutes which make it a good alternative of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chips used in biological analysis researches.

  14. Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dana; Duncan, Walter M.; Slaughter, John

    2003-01-01

    For the past six years, Digital Light Processing technology from Texas Instruments has made significant inroads in the projection display market. With products enabling the world"s smallest data and video projectors, HDTVs, and digital cinema, DLP technology is extremely powerful and flexible. At the heart of these display solutions is Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD), a semiconductor-based "light switch" array of thousands of individually addressable, tiltable, mirror-pixels. With success of the DMD as a spatial light modulator for projector applications, dozens of new applications are now being enabled by general-use DMD products that are recently available to developers. The same light switching speed and "on-off" (contrast) ratio that have resulted in superior projector performance, along with the capability of operation outside the visible spectrum, make the DMD very attractive for many applications, including volumetric display, holographic data storage, lithography, scientific instrumentation, and medical imaging. This paper presents an overview of past and future DMD performance in the context of new DMD applications, cites several examples of emerging products, and describes the DMD components and tools now available to developers.

  15. Cryo-focused-ion-beam applications in structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigort, Alexander; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2015-09-01

    The ability to precisely control the preparation of biological samples for investigations by electron cryo-microscopy is becoming increasingly important for ultrastructural imaging in biology. Precision machining instruments such as the focused ion beam microscope (FIB) were originally developed for applications in materials science. However, today we witness a growing use of these tools in the life sciences mainly due to their versatility, since they can be used both as manipulation and as imaging devices, when complemented with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The advent of cryo-preparation equipment and accessories made it possible to pursue work on frozen-hydrated biological specimens with these two beam (FIB/SEM) instruments. In structural biology, the cryo-FIB can be used to site-specifically thin vitrified specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tomography. Having control over the specimen thickness is a decisive factor for TEM imaging, as the thickness of the object under scrutiny determines the attainable resolution. Besides its use for TEM preparation, the FIB/SEM microscope can be additionally used to obtain three-dimensional volumetric data from biological specimens. The unique combination of an imaging and precision manipulation tool allows sequentially removing material with the ion beam and imaging the milled block faces by scanning with the electron beam, an approach known as FIB/SEM tomography. This review covers both fields of cryo-FIB applications: specimen preparation for TEM cryo-tomography and volume imaging by cryo-FIB/SEM tomography. PMID:25703192

  16. Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for alternative methods for ambient preservation of human biological samples collected during extended spaceflight and planetary operations,...

  17. Radio-analysis. Applications: biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have revolutionized the medical biology. Radio-immunology remains the reference measurement of the infinitely small in biology. Constant efforts have been performed to improve the simpleness, detectability and fastness of the method thanks to an increasing automation. This paper presents: 1 - the advantages of compounds labelling and the isotopic dilution; 2 - the antigen-antibody system: properties, determination of the affinity constant using the Scatchard method; 3 - radio-immunologic dosimetry: competitive dosimetry (radioimmunoassay), calibration curve and mathematical data processing, application to the free thyroxine dosimetry, immunoradiometric dosimetry (immunoradiometric assay), evaluation of the analytical efficiency of a radioimmunoassay; 4 - detection of the radioactive signal (solid and liquid scintillation). (J.S.)

  18. Contemporary optoelectronics materials, metamaterials and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhoivanov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of extended contributions on the physics and application of optoelectronic materials and metamaterials.   The book is divided into three parts, respectively covering materials, metamaterials and optoelectronic devices.  Individual chapters cover topics including phonon-polariton interaction, semiconductor and nonlinear organic materials, metallic, dielectric and gyrotropic metamaterials, singular optics, parity-time symmetry, nonlinear plasmonics, microstructured optical fibers, passive nonlinear shaping of ultrashort pulses, and pulse-preserving supercontinuum generation. The book contains both experimental and theoretical studies, and each contribution is a self-contained exposition of a particular topic, featuring an extensive reference list.  The book will be a useful resource for graduate and postgraduate students, researchers and engineers involved in optoelectronics/photonics, quantum electronics, optics, and adjacent areas of science and technology.

  19. Porphyrin Microparticles for Biological and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Elizabeth

    Lipids are one of the critical building blocks of life, forming the plasma membrane of cells. In addition, porphyrins also play an equally important role in life, for example, through carrying oxygen in blood. The importance of both these components is evident through the biological and biomedical applications of supramolecular structures generated from lipids and porphyrins. This thesis investigates new porphyrin microparticles based on porphyrin-lipid architecture and their potential applications in biology and medicine. In Chapter 1, a background on lipid and porphyrin-based supramolecular structures is presented and design considerations for generating multifunctional agents. Chapter 2 describes the generation of a monolayer porphyrin microparticle as a dual-modal ultrasound and photoacoustic contrast agent and subsequently, a trimodal ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence contrast agent. Chapter 3 examines the optical and morphological response of these multimodality ultrasound-based contrast agents to low frequency, high duty cycle ultrasound that causes the porphyrin microparticles to convertinto nanoparticles. Chapter 4 examines the generation of bilayer micrometer-sized porphyrin vesicles and their properties. Chapter 5 presents a brief summary and potential future directions. Although these microscale structures are similar in structure, the applications of these structures greatly differ with potential applications in biology and also imaging and therapy of disease. This thesis aims to explore and demonstrate the potential of new simplified, supramolecular structures based on one main building block, porphyrin-lipid.

  20. Special Polymer Optical Fibres and Devices for Photonic Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Remarkable progresses have been made in developing special polymer optical fibres and devices for photonic applications in recent years. This presentation will mainly report on the development of electro-optic, photosensitive and photorefractive polymer optical fibres and related devices.

  1. Shaping Biological Knowledge: Applications in Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Appel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology has provided a meaningful principle for data integration in the field of genomics. In this context, integration reflects the known transitions from a chromosome to a protein sequence: transcription, intron splicing, exon assembly and translation. There is no such clear principle for integrating proteomics data, since the laws governing protein folding and interactivity are not quite understood. In our effort to bring together independent pieces of information relative to proteins in a biologically meaningful way, we assess the bias of bioinformatics resources and consequent approximations in the framework of small-scale studies. We analyse proteomics data while following both a data-driven (focus on proteins smaller than 10 kDa and a hypothesis-driven (focus on whole bacterial proteomes approach. These applications are potentially the source of specialized complements to classical biological ontologies.

  2. Molecular biology applications to infectious diseases diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project goes directed to the applications of the techniques of molecular biology in hepatitis virus.A great advance of these techniques it allows its application to the diagnose molecular and it becomes indispensable to have these fundamental tools in the field of the Health Public for the detection precocious, pursuit of the treatment, the one predicts and the evolution of the patient hepatitis bearing virus technical.Use of molecular biology to increase the handling and the control of the patients with hepatitis B and C and to detect an adult numbers of positive cases by means of the training and integration of all the countries participating.Implement the technique of PCR to identify the virus of the hepatitis B and C,implement quantification methods and genotipification for these virus

  3. Nanotechnology Applications for Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Patra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries indicate that when the materials are brought down to sizes in the range 1–100 nm, theseexhibit unique electrical, optical, magnetic, chemical, and mechanical properties. Methods have now beenestablished to obtain the monodisperse nanocrystals of various metallic and semiconducting materials, single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes of carbon and other metallic and non-metallic materials together withorganic nanomaterials such as supra-molecular nanostructures, dendrimers, hybrid composites with tailoredfunctionalities. The high surface-to-volume ratio with an added element of porosity makes these highly potentialcandidates for chemical and biological sensor applications with higher degree of sensitivity and selectivity ascompared to their bulk counterparts. The paper reviews the recent developments and applications of chemicaland biological sensors based on nanomaterials of various structural forms.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.636-649, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1686

  4. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  5. Application of nanotechnology in biology and promising application in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the 21-Century high and new technologies, nanotechnology (NT) has been widely applied in all aspects of biology. From now on, it has been used for detecting substance, carrying drug, antibacterial and tumour therapy by its photometric characteristics, mechanics characteristics, thermal property and other characteristics. Because of the unique advantages of nanoparticles, nanotechnology has great potential in radioprotection. In this article, we introduced the application of nanotechnology in modern biology and the primal problems. Meantime, we explain the prospect of its application in radioprotection. (authors)

  6. Biological Properties and Therapeutic Applications of Propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforcin, José M

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from bud and exudates of the plants, mixed with bee enzymes, pollen and wax. In this review, the biological properties of propolis and some therapeutic applications are discussed. The same biological activities have been investigated until today, using samples from different geographic regions. Thus, the study of the biological properties of a given sample should always be associated with its chemical composition and botanical source, representing a particular sample of a given geographic area, exploring its biological potential and the role of its constituents. Efforts have been carried out to explain propolis' mechanisms of action in vivo and in vitro, but the majority of propolis' targets and actions are still unclear. The number of formulations containing propolis and patents have increased, although propolis extracts have been used deliberately with different recommendations, not always mentioning the chemical composition, vegetal source and the methods of extraction. Clinical studies will help to obtain criterious recommendations in view of the expected outcomes. Further investigation should explore the effects of common compounds found in the samples from all over the world in an attempt to standardize the research on propolis and to obtain new drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26988443

  7. Biological basis of beam application in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy particle beams have relatively high value of linear energy transfer (LET), and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). There is a sharp increase in ionization density (LET) in the so-called Bragg peak, close to the end of each track. The LET and RBE may, therefore, be high at the distal edge of the biological target volume. It is well-known that as the LET is increased beyond about 30 keV/um the RBE increases to a peak at 100 to 110 keV/um and then falls. At the same time the oxygen-enhancement ratio (OER) decreases steadily. The reason of these events has a greater chance per unit dose of depositing a certain minimum energy of about 300 eV, that is, 10 to 15 ionizations into each biological target volume of 5 to 10 nm diameter. These biological targets may be pictured as double strands of DNA and histones, 2 or 3 nm in diameter, with a surrounding water sheath of a few nm thick. The drop of RBE with increasing LET past the peak of RBE is due to either overkill or the recombinations of electrons and ions and of chemical radicals in the higher LET track. Large new accelerators have allowed the effects of heavy particle irradiation to be investigated. In biotechnology, radiation methods have found application as tools to explore some basic problems and this aspect of radiation research is likely to expand in the future. (author)

  8. Personalized biomedical devices & systems for healthcare applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ming; Phee, Soo Jay; Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian

    2011-03-01

    With the advancement in micro- and nanotechnology, electromechanical components and systems are getting smaller and smaller and gradually can be applied to the human as portable, mobile and even wearable devices. Healthcare industry have started to benefit from this technology trend by providing more and more miniature biomedical devices for personalized medical treatments in order to obtain better and more accurate outcome. This article introduces some recent development in non-intrusive and intrusive biomedical devices resulted from the advancement of niche miniature sensors and actuators, namely, wearable biomedical sensors, wearable haptic devices, and ingestible medical capsules. The development of these devices requires carful integration of knowledge and people from many different disciplines like medicine, electronics, mechanics, and design. Furthermore, designing affordable devices and systems to benefit all mankind is a great challenge ahead. The multi-disciplinary nature of the R&D effort in this area provides a new perspective for the future mechanical engineers.

  9. Applications of MEMS devices in nanosatellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Zheng; Li Bin; Yu Shijie; Zhang Gaofei

    2012-01-01

    micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) device has the advantages of both electronic system and mechanical system. With the development of MEMS devices for satellite, it is possible to establish much lighter and smaller nanosatellites with higher performance and longer lifecyele. The power consumption of MEMS devices is usually much lower than that of traditional devices, which will greatly reduce the consumption of power. For its small size and simple architecture, MEMS devices can be easily integrated together and achieve redundancy. Launched on April 18, 2004, NS - 1 is a nanosatellite for science exploration and MEMS devices test. A mass of science data and images were acquired during its running. NS - 1 weights less than 25 kg. It consists of several MEMS devices, including one miniature inertial measurement unit(MIMU) , three micro complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)cameras, one sun sensor, three momentum wheels, and one micro magnetic sensor. By applying micro components based on MEMS technology, NS - 1 has made success in the experiments of integrative design, manufacture, and MEMS devices integration. In this paper, some MEMS devices for nanosatellite and picosatellite are introduced, which have been tested on NS -1 nanosatellite or on the ground.

  10. A load driver device for engineering modularity in biological networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Deepak; Rivera-Ortiz, Phillip M.; Lin, Allen; Vecchio, Domitilla Del; Weiss, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of gene modules in complex synthetic circuits is often unpredictable 1–4 . Upon joining modules to create a circuit, downstream elements (such as binding sites for a regulatory protein) apply a load to upstream modules that can negatively affect circuit function 1,5 . Here we devise a genetic device named a load driver that mitigates the impact of load on circuit function, and we demonstrate its behavior in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The load driver implements the design principle...

  11. A Mobile GIS Application to Heavily Resource-Constrained Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert P.Biuk-Aghai

    2004-01-01

    GIS applications to mobile devices are becoming increasingly popular, utilizing a di-verserange of devices. Many of these devices suffer from serious constraints in three main areas: processor speed, memory space and screen size. This paper presents a GIS application, called "MacauMap", that is intended for heavily resource-constrained handheld devices. MacauMap is a tourism-oriented map application of the Macau territory for PalmOS and Pocket PC personal digital assistants. It was designed to perform satisfactorily on devices with as little as 16 MHz processor speed, and requires only 500 KB available memory for the GIS application and all GIS data. Memory requirements are kept low through a specially designed data format. The main challenge of satisfactory map drawing speed is addressed through a variety of techniques that were developed for this application. The paper describes the application's data format, outlines the map drawing techniques, and points out the areas for future development.

  12. Stochastic Memristive Devices for Computing and Neuromorphic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Zhou, Jiantao; Choi, Shinhyun; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale resistive switching devices (memristive devices or memristors) have been studied for a number of applications ranging from non-volatile memory, logic to neuromorphic systems. However a major challenge is to address the potentially large variations in space and in time in these nanoscale devices. Here we show that in metal-filament based memristive devices the switching can be fully stochastic. While individual switching events are random, the distribution and probability of switchin...

  13. Silicon Photonic Devices and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying

    Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems, which use silicon as an optical medium. Data is transferred in the systems by optical rays. This technology is seen as the substitutions of electric computer chips in the future and the means to keep tack on the Moore's law. Cavity optomechanics is a rising field of silicon photonics. It focuses on the interaction between light and mechanical objects. Although it is currently at its early stage of growth, this field has attracted rising attention. Here, we present highly sensitive optical detection of acceleration using an optomechanical accelerometer. The core part of this accelerometer is a slot-type photonic crystal cavity with strong optomechanical interactions. We first discuss theoretically the optomechanical coupling in the air-slot mode-gap photonic crystal cavity. The dispersive coupling gom is numerically calculated. Dynamical parametric oscillations for both cooling and amplification, in the resolved and unresolved sideband limit, are examined numerically, along with the displacement spectral density and cooling rates for the various operating parameters. Experimental results also demonstrated that the cavity has a large optomechanical coupling rate. The optically induced spring effect, damping and amplification of the mechanical modes are observed with measurements both in air and in vacuum. Then, we propose and demonstrate our optomechanical accelerometer. It can operate with a resolution of 730 ng/Hz1/2 (or equivalently 40.1 aN/Hz1/2) and with a transduction bandwidth of ≈ 85 kHz. We also demonstrate an integrated photonics device, an on-chip spectroscopy, in the last part of this thesis. This new type of on-chip microspectrometer is based on the Vernier effect of two cascaded micro-ring cavities. It can measure optical spectrum with a bandwidth of 74nm and a resolution of 0.22 nm in a small footprint of 1.5 mm2.

  14. A pre-treatment device designed for tritium analysis in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To design a new pre-treatment device and to evaluate its efficiency in order to monitor the tritium levels in biological samples. Methods: The detection efficiency of tritium was determined with standard tritiated water. Recovery of tritiated water and organically bound tritium (OBT) were detected with high, medium and low activities of standard tritiated water and 3H-TdR (tritiated thymidine), respectively. Comparison of three kinds of biological samples using different pre-treatment devices was shown. Results: The standard curve can be used in environmental tritium measurement and the detection efficiency for tritium was 23.3%. When 40.0 g rice with standard HTO or 3H-TdR was pretreated with this device, the average recovery of HTO and OBT was about 95.4% , which showed good reproducibility.The comparison results were similar. Conclusions: The pre-treatment device can be used to survey the OBT in environmental biological samples. (authors)

  15. PIXE and its applications to biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout this century, industrialized society has seriously affected the ecology by introducing huge amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere as well as marine and soil environments. On the other hand, it is known that these pollutants, in excess of certain levels of concentration, not only put at risk the life of living beings but may also cause the extinction of some species. It is therefore of basic importance to substantially increase quantitative determinations of trace element concentrations in biological specimens in order to assess the effects of pollutants. It is in this field that PIXE plays a key role in these studies, where its unique analytical properties are decisive. Moreover, since the importance of these research has been recognized in many countries, many scientists have been encouraged to continue or initiate new research programmes aimed to solve the worldwide pollution problem. This document presents an overview of those papers reporting the application of PIXE analysis to biological samples during this last decade of the 20th century and recounts the number of PIXE laboratories dedicating their efforts to find the clues of the biological effects of the presence of pollutants introduced in living beings. Sample preparation methods, different kinds of samples under study and the use of complementary analytical techniques are also illustrated. (author). 108 refs

  16. Radio-analysis. Applications: biological dosimetry; Radioanalyse. Applications: dosage biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrel, F. [CEA Saclay, INSTN, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Courriere, Ph. [UFR de Pharmacie, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-06-01

    Radioisotopes have revolutionized the medical biology. Radio-immunology remains the reference measurement of the infinitely small in biology. Constant efforts have been performed to improve the simpleness, detectability and fastness of the method thanks to an increasing automation. This paper presents: 1 - the advantages of compounds labelling and the isotopic dilution; 2 - the antigen-antibody system: properties, determination of the affinity constant using the Scatchard method; 3 - radio-immunologic dosimetry: competitive dosimetry (radioimmunoassay), calibration curve and mathematical data processing, application to the free thyroxine dosimetry, immunoradiometric dosimetry (immunoradiometric assay), evaluation of the analytical efficiency of a radioimmunoassay; 4 - detection of the radioactive signal (solid and liquid scintillation). (J.S.)

  17. Contrast media: Biologic effects and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the recent developments in contrast media and their clinical applications, plus the current state-of-the-art in computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contents of these volumes include: an in-depth review of the historical development, modern perspectives in structure-function relationships, biologic effects on hemostats, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular systems and drug interactions. Critical and basic issues, including cellular toxicity, mutagenesis, synergism between radiation and contrast agents, mechanisms in contrast-induced reactions, and the management of such reactions in high-risk patients are also presented. Specific applications of paramagnetic compounds in MRI and the recent concept of liposome-encapsulated and particulate suspension of contrast materials in diagnostic imaging are thoroughly discussed

  18. Contrast media: Biologic effects and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvez, Z.; Moncada, R.; Sovak, M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the recent developments in contrast media and their clinical applications, plus the current state-of-the-art in computerized tomography, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contents of these volumes include: an in-depth review of the historical development, modern perspectives in structure-function relationships, biologic effects on hemostats, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular systems and drug interactions. Critical and basic issues, including cellular toxicity, mutagenesis, synergism between radiation and contrast agents, mechanisms in contrast-induced reactions, and the management of such reactions in high-risk patients are also presented. Specific applications of paramagnetic compounds in MRI and the recent concept of liposome-encapsulated and particulate suspension of contrast materials in diagnostic imaging are thoroughly discussed.

  19. Metal oxide nanowire growth for nanotechnology-enhanced device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, M. M.; Gacusan, J.; Lenz, O.; Ngo-Duc, T.; Velazquez, J. M.; Arreola, E.; Jethani, H.; Rohovie, M.; Gigante, B.; Kar, A.; Kim, B.; Hannon, A.; Savvinov, A.; Lu, Y.; Li, Ji.; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents our on-going nano-epitaxial efforts to grow tin oxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for nanotechnology-enhanced devices. The applicable devices involve piezoelectric energy harvesting devices and nanomaterial-enhanced chemical sensors, with the Systems-level vision involving the piezoelectric energy harvesting devices that could self-power chemical sensors for a stand-alone, self-powered device that could harvest its own power from mechanical vibrations. To this end, device concepts are presented herein and preliminary details for ZnO, SnO2, and PZT material synthesis are presented. The growth of nanowires and nanotetrapods are presented for said device applications using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), solution synthesis, as well as the results from other synthesis processes. Characterization was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).

  20. Wearable Device Control Platform Technology for Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application development platform is the most important environment in IT industry. There are a variety of platforms. Although the native development enables application to optimize, various languages and software development kits need to be acquired according to the device. The coexistence of smart devices and platforms has rendered the native development approach time and cost consuming. Cross-platform development emerged as a response to these issues. These platforms generate applications for multiple devices based on web languages. Nevertheless, development requires additional implementation based on a native language because of the coverage and functions of supported application programming interfaces (APIs. Wearable devices have recently attracted considerable attention. These devices only support Bluetooth-based interdevice communication, thereby making communication and device control impossible beyond a certain range. We propose Network Application Agent (NetApp-Agent in order to overcome issues. NetApp-Agent based on the Cordova is a wearable device control platform for the development of network applications, controls input/output functions of smartphones and wearable/IoT through the Cordova and Native API, and enables device control and information exchange by external users by offering a self-defined API. We confirmed the efficiency of the proposed platform through experiments and a qualitative assessment of its implementation.

  1. A flexible organic resistance memory device for wearable biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yimao; Tan, Jing; YeFan, Liu; Lin, Min; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-01

    Parylene is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved material which can be safely used within the human body and it is also offers chemically inert and flexible merits. Here, we present a flexible parylene-based organic resistive random access memory (RRAM) device suitable for wearable biomedical application. The proposed device is fabricated through standard lithography and pattern processes at room temperature, exhibiting the feasibility of integration with CMOS circuits. This organic RRAM device offers a high storage window (>104), superior retention ability and immunity to disturbing. In addition, brilliant mechanical and electrical stabilities of this device are demonstrated when under harsh bending (bending cycle >500, bending radius biomedical applications.

  2. Piezoelectric materials and devices applications in engineering and medical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Vijaya, M S

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric Materials and Devices: Applications in Engineering and Medical Sciences provides a complete overview of piezoelectric materials, covering all aspects of the materials starting from fundamental concepts. The treatment includes physics of piezoelectric materials, their characteristics and applications. The author uses simple language to explain the theory of piezoelectricity and introduce readers to the properties and design of different types of piezoelectric materials, such as those used in engineering and medical device applications.This book: Introduces various types of dielect

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MAPPING APPLICATIONS FOR MOBILE DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, A. A.; Kikin, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Development of mobile applications is a very popular trend of today’s informational technologies. Moreover, mapping applications are one of the most popular among all. However, development of mobile applications has some issues while implementing application for multiple mobile platforms and while making it work offline. According to our development experience, it was decided to show main methods of mobile application development, describe advantages and disadvantages of each with respect to ...

  4. CMOS nanoelectronics innovative devices, architectures, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collaert, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    This book covers one of the most important device architectures that have been widely researched to extend the transistor scaling: FinFET. Starting with theory, the book discusses the advantages and the integration challenges of this device architecture. It addresses in detail the topics such as high-density fin patterning, gate stack design, and source/drain engineering, which have been considered challenges for the integration of FinFETs. The book also addresses circuit-related aspects, including the impact of variability on SRAM design, ESD design, and high-T operation. It discusses a new d

  5. Handbook of terahertz technologies devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Ho-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz waves, which lie in the frequency range of 0.1-10 THz, have long been investigated in a few limited fields, such as astronomy, because of a lack of devices for their generation and detection. Several technical breakthroughs made over the last couple of decades now allow us to radiate and detect terahertz waves more easily, which has triggered the search for new uses of terahertz waves in many fields, such as bioscience, security, and information and communications technology. The book covers some of the technical breakthroughs in terms of device technologies. It discusses not only th

  6. Application of Graph Coloring to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Susan

    2009-01-01

    We explore the application of graph coloring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, we find that given similar conditions (i.e. number of nodes, number of links, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colors are needed to color disassortative (high degree nodes tend to connect to low degree nodes and vice versa) than assortative networks. Fewer colors create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, we suggest that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, since graph coloring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node coloring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes, i.e. dense subg...

  7. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  8. Photovoltaic device applications of porous microcrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duttagupta, S.P.; Fauchet, P.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Ribes, A.C.; Tiedje, H.F.; Damaskinos, S.; Dixon, T.E.; Brodie, D.E. [Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Ont. (Canada); Kurinec, S.K. [Department of Microelectronics Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, NY (United States)

    1998-04-30

    We report the fabrication of photovoltaic devices by the anodization of microcrystalline silicon films on single-crystal silicon substrates. The porosity of the films was varied from 20% to 60% by changing the anodization conditions. The influence of the porosity on the series resistance (R{sub s}), the reflectance, and the spectral response of the devices was studied. In order to determine R{sub s}, the current-voltage characteristics were analyzed, both in the dark and under illumination. We observed that the value of R{sub s} increased from 3 to 100 {Omega} and the value of the reflectance decreased from 24% to 7% when the porosity increased from 20% to 60%. The optimum device performance (fill factor of 0.53 and efficiency of 7.2%), which was achieved for a porosity of 40% and can be improved further, resulted from a trade-off between good electrical and optical properties. From optical beam-induced current images, the homogeneity of the devices was found to be excellent and no defects were detected. Our results indicate that the fabrication of commercial solar cells based on porous microcrystalline Si (PMSi) is possible

  9. Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Larry C.; DeSteese, John G.; Martin, Peter M.; Johnston, John W.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2016-03-08

    High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

  10. Liquid Crystal Devices for Optical Communications and Sensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Sunish

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focussed on the design and development of liquid crystal based tunable photonic devices for applications in optical communications and optical sensing, with an emphasis on all-fiber device configuration. The infiltration of liquid crystals into photonic crystal fiber provides a suitable common platform to design and fabricate simple and compact all-fiber tunable photonic devices which can be easily integrated with optical fiber networks and sensing systems. Based on the infiltr...

  11. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    OpenAIRE

    García, C.; Rosales, J.; García, L.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Escrivá, A.; Abánades Velasco, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas-cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, cooled by helium which enables high temperatures (...

  12. Eugene--a domain specific language for specifying and constraining synthetic biological parts, devices, and systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesia Bilitchenko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synthetic biological systems are currently created by an ad-hoc, iterative process of specification, design, and assembly. These systems would greatly benefit from a more formalized and rigorous specification of the desired system components as well as constraints on their composition. Therefore, the creation of robust and efficient design flows and tools is imperative. We present a human readable language (Eugene that allows for the specification of synthetic biological designs based on biological parts, as well as provides a very expressive constraint system to drive the automatic creation of composite Parts (Devices from a collection of individual Parts. RESULTS: We illustrate Eugene's capabilities in three different areas: Device specification, design space exploration, and assembly and simulation integration. These results highlight Eugene's ability to create combinatorial design spaces and prune these spaces for simulation or physical assembly. Eugene creates functional designs quickly and cost-effectively. CONCLUSIONS: Eugene is intended for forward engineering of DNA-based devices, and through its data types and execution semantics, reflects the desired abstraction hierarchy in synthetic biology. Eugene provides a powerful constraint system which can be used to drive the creation of new devices at runtime. It accomplishes all of this while being part of a larger tool chain which includes support for design, simulation, and physical device assembly.

  13. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  14. Various On-Chip Sensors with Microfluidics for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review recent advances in on-chip sensors integrated with microfluidics for biological applications. Since the 1990s, much research has concentrated on developing a sensing system using optical phenomena such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS to improve the sensitivity of the device. The sensing performance can be significantly enhanced with the use of microfluidic chips to provide effective liquid manipulation and greater flexibility. We describe an optical image sensor with a simpler platform for better performance over a larger field of view (FOV and greater depth of field (DOF. As a new trend, we review consumer electronics such as smart phones, tablets, Google glasses, etc. which are being incorporated in point-of-care (POC testing systems. In addition, we discuss in detail the current optical sensing system integrated with a microfluidic chip.

  15. Compact integrated optical devices for optical sensor and switching applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, Lasse Juhana

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of compact optical devices for sensing and switching applications. Our focus has been to realize the devices using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. Particularly the silicon photonics fabrication platform, ePIXfab, has been use

  16. Nanocrystalline diamond growth and device applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dipalo, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Diamond possesses such outstanding properties that its exploitation in many fields is sought for several years now. Mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical features of diamond render it the ideal material for power electronics, chemical sensors, thermal dissipation and high temperature devices. The inadequate size of available diamond substrates, limited to few millimeters, made necessary the development of nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond, available today on large area wafers. Unfortunatel...

  17. Graphene for Environmental and Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeprasad, T. S.; Pradeep, T.

    2012-08-01

    The latest addition to the nanocarbon family, graphene, has been proclaimed to be the material of the century. Its peculiar band structure, extraordinary thermal and electronic conductance and room temperature quantum Hall effect have all been used for various applications in diverse fields ranging from catalysis to electronics. The difficulty to synthesize graphene in bulk quantities was a limiting factor of it being utilized in several fields. Advent of chemical processes and self-assembly approaches for the synthesis of graphene analogues have opened-up new avenues for graphene based materials. The high surface area and rich abundance of functional groups present make chemically synthesized graphene (generally known as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or chemically converted graphene) an attracting candidate in biotechnology and environmental remediation. By functionalizing graphene with specific molecules, the properties of graphene can be tuned to suite applications such as sensing, drug delivery or cellular imaging. Graphene with its high surface area can act as a good adsorbent for pollutant removal. Graphene either alone or in combination with other materials can be used for the degradation or removal of a large variety of contaminants through several methods. In this review some of the relevant efforts undertaken to utilize graphene in biology, sensing and water purification are described. Most recent efforts have been given precedence over older works, although certain specific important examples of the past are also mentioned.

  18. Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren

    2016-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  19. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  20. Semiconductor nanostructures for optoelectronic devices processing, characterization and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the current state of semiconductor nanodevice development, examining nanowires, nanorods, hybrid semiconductor nanostructures, wide bandgap nanostructures for visible light emitters and graphene and describing their device applications.

  1. Creating and optimizing client-server applications on mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, Ricardo; Luz, Nuno; Almeida, Ana,; Figueiredo, Lino; Novais, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are embedded systems with very limited capacities that need to be considered when developing a client-server application, mainly due to technical, ergonomic and economic implications to the mobile user. With the increasing popularity of mobile computing, many developers have faced problems due to low performance of devices. In this paper, we discuss how to optimize and create client-server applications for in wireless/mobile environments, presenting techniques...

  2. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A.

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  3. SQUID '80: Superconducting quantum interference devices and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nine invited lectures and 64 contributed papers collected in this volume provide an overview on the last four years of research and development work in the field of Josephson junctions. The main chapters are: Josephson junction physics, junctions and circuit noise, junction and circuit fabrication, cryogenic techniques, SQUID applications in low frequency devices, SQUID applications in geophysics, junctions and SQUID applications in microwave devices, and summary and conclusions. Lectures and papers on SQUID applications in biomagnetism have been excluded here and will be published in a separat volume. (WRI)

  4. MEMS device for spacecraft thermal control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theordore D. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A micro-electromechanical device that comprises miniaturized mechanical louvers, referred to as Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) louvers are employed to achieve a thermal control function for spacecraft and instruments. The MEMS louvers are another form of a variable emittance control coating and employ micro-electromechanical technology. In a function similar to traditional, macroscopic thermal louvers, the MEMS louvers of the present invention change the emissivity of a surface. With the MEMS louvers, as with the traditional macroscopic louvers, a mechanical vane or window is opened and closed to allow an alterable radiative view to space.

  5. MSW devices for EW receiver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J. D.

    A compressive electronic warfare receiver has been constructed using a magnetostatic wave (MSW) dispersive delay line and filter bank. Attention is presently given to the performance characteristics and potentialities of these devices with respect to dynamic range, probability of signal detection, and digital processing. Phase error and amplitude response improvements are noted to be required in order to achieve the full potential of this approach; in particular, the video outputs from a 1-GHz bandwidth delay line cannot be adequately processed by means of current electronic techniques.

  6. Development of on Chip Devices for Life Science Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaaldeen

    Full Text Available This work reports on diverse technologies implemented for fabricating microfluidic devices such as biomedical micro sensors, micro pumps, bioreactors and micro separators. UV depth lithography and soft lithography were applied in the fabrication processes using different materials, for example SU-8, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicon, glass and ceramics. Descriptions of the fabrication process of completed devices and their performance are provided. Experimental tests and results are presented where available. This work highlights the importance of down scaling in producing efficient devices suitable for life science applications using diverse materials that are compatible with chemical and biomedical applications.

  7. Frontiers of graphene and carbon nanotubes devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on carbon nanotubes and graphene as representatives of nano-carbon materials, and describes the growth of new technology and applications of new devices. As new devices and as new materials, nano-carbon materials are expected to be world pioneers that could not have been realized with conventional semiconductor materials, and as those that extend the limits of conventional semiconductor performance. This book introduces the latest achievements of nano-carbon devices, processes, and technology growth. It is anticipated that these studies will also be pioneers in the development of future research of nano-carbon devices and materials. This book consists of 18 chapters. Chapters 1 to 8 describe new device applications and new growth methods of graphene, and Chapters 9 to 18, those of carbon nanotubes. It is expected that by increasing the advantages and overcoming the weak points of nanocarbon materials, a new world that cannot be achieved with conventional materials will be greatly expanded. W...

  8. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding. PMID:26738200

  9. Double network bacterial cellulose hydrogel to build a biology-device interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhijun; Li, Ying; Chen, Xiuli; Han, Hongwei; Yang, Guang

    2013-12-01

    Establishing a biology-device interface might enable the interaction between microelectronics and biotechnology. In this study, electroactive hydrogels have been produced using bacterial cellulose (BC) and conducting polymer (CP) deposited on the BC hydrogel surface to cover the BC fibers. The structures of these composites thus have double networks, one of which is a layer of electroactive hydrogels combined with BC and CP. The electroconductivity provides the composites with capabilities for voltage and current response, and the BC hydrogel layer provides good biocompatibility, biodegradability, bioadhesion and mass transport properties. Such a system might allow selective biological functions such as molecular recognition and specific catalysis and also for probing the detailed genetic and molecular mechanisms of life. A BC-CP composite hydrogel could then lead to a biology-device interface. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used here to study the composite hydrogels' electroactive property. BC-PAni and BC-PPy respond to voltage changes. This provides a mechanism to amplify electrochemical signals for analysis or detection. BC hydrogels were found to be able to support the growth, spreading and migration of human normal skin fibroblasts without causing any cytotoxic effect on the cells in the cell culture. These double network BC-CP hydrogels are biphasic Janus hydrogels which integrate electroactivity with biocompatibility, and might provide a biology-device interface to produce implantable devices for personalized and regenerative medicine.

  10. H+-type and OH--type biological protonic semiconductors and complementary devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yingxin; Josberger, Erik; Jin, Jungho; Rousdari, Anita Fadavi; Helms, Brett A.; Zhong, Chao; Anantram, M. P.; Rolandi, Marco

    2013-10-01

    Proton conduction is essential in biological systems. Oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin, and uncoupling membrane potentials by the antibiotic Gramicidin are examples. In these systems, H+ hop along chains of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and hydrophilic residues - proton wires. These wires also support the transport of OH- as proton holes. Discriminating between H+ and OH- transport has been elusive. Here, H+ and OH- transport is achieved in polysaccharide- based proton wires and devices. A H+- OH- junction with rectifying behaviour and H+-type and OH--type complementary field effect transistors are demonstrated. We describe these devices with a model that relates H+ and OH- to electron and hole transport in semiconductors. In turn, the model developed for these devices may provide additional insights into proton conduction in biological systems.

  11. Detector applications in medecine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Del Guerra, Alberto

    1995-01-01

    In recent years new diagnostic and therapeutic methods have been attracting more and more dedicated attention by the scientific community.The goal is a better understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the human being in an effort to find more appropriate medical prevention, diagnosis and therapy.Many of the achievements obtained so far derive from the use and the optimisation of detectors and techniques,which originated in the other fields of physics. The spin-off of High Energy Physics to Medical Physics has been particularly relevant in the field of detectors for medical imaging and especially for medical imaging with ionizing radiation. In this series of lectures,starting from the requests of each technique and or application I will attempt to present a survey of the detectors for medecine and biology. Various fields of medical imaging will be touched : radiology,digital radiography,mammography and radiotherapy. The capabilities of the major types of detectors (1-D and 2-D position sensitiv...

  12. Application of graph colouring to biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, S

    2010-05-01

    The author explores the application of graph colouring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, the author finds that given similar conditions (i.e. graph size, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colours are needed to colour disassortative than assortative networks. Fewer colours create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, the author suggests that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science, 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, because graph colouring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node colouring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes (dense subgraphs in PPI networks), is investigated. The author finds that for PPI networks where 1-11% of nodes participate in at least one identified protein complex, such as H. sapien, DSATUR (a well-known complete graph colouring algorithm) node colouring information can improve the quality (homogeneity and separation) of initial candidate complexes. This finding may help improve existing protein complex detection methods, and/or suggest new methods. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:20499999

  13. Blueprints for green biotech: development and application of standards for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects. PMID:27284031

  14. Neutron Scattering in Biology Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fitter, Jörg; Katsaras, John

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

  15. Does Using Mobile Device Applications Lead to Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Doug; Kennedy, David; Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the impact on learning of the use of mobile devices and associated applications is a complex challenge. This article reports on progress to date in a longitudinal study using a design research approach with three cohorts of 800 students each. Results are encouraging in terms of learning enhancement through select mobile application by a…

  16. Applications of electrochemiluminescence detection on microfabricated devices

    OpenAIRE

    Spehar-Délèze, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate bioanalytical applications of electrochemiluminescence (ECL), which refers to the generation of light at the surface of an electrode. Two types of ECL detection were studied: anodic ECL and cathodic hot electron-induced ECL (HECL). In anodic ECL light is generated at traditional electrode materials, such as noble metal or carbon, while in cathodic HECL thin insulating film-coated electrodes are used, and light generation is initiated by tunnel emissio...

  17. Multijet atmospheric plasma device for biomedical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Hubička, Zdeněk; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 135-141. ISSN 1947-5764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : atmospheric plasma * plasma sources * biomedical applications Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. Applications in computer-assisted biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Biology is becoming a data-rich science driven by the development of high-throughput technologies like next-generation DNA sequencing. This is fundamentally changing biological research. The genome sequences of many species are becoming available, as well as the genetic variation within a species, a

  19. High-T{sub c} superconducting quantum interference devices and biomagnetic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H. C.; Wu, C. H.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, K. L.; Chen, M. J.; Yang, S. Y. [National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Liao, S. H.; Horng, H. E. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei (China)

    2006-05-15

    The superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is the most sensitive detector of the magnetic flux in the range of frequencies from dc to MHz and has widely been used in biomagnetic applications. In this paper, we highlight a few aspects of High-T{sub c} SQUIDs, novel biomagnetic applications, and perspective. We give an overview of the current status and the principle techniques used to fabricate High-T{sub c} SQUIDs. SQUID applications in magnetocardiography, biological immunoassay, and nuclear magnetic resonance are addressed. The results are discussed.

  20. Nuclear microscopy technology and applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis comprises both technical descriptions of the microprobes used as well as applications in biology consisting of tracer element measurements using PIXE analysis. An older nuclear microprobe was transferred to the EN-tandem accelerator at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala and used until it was degraded and replaced. The design and development of a the new scanning light ion microprobe in Uppsala, Slim-Up, is described. The Slim-Up is equipped with three magnetic quadrupole lenses of outstanding quality. Together with computerised magnetic beem steering, magnetic beam scanning, target imaging and data acquisition they form the central parts for a trace element analysis system with a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. Tracer element distributions in fresh water mussel shells have been measured in several annual layers. This was done in order to monitor the status, and any changes, in the elemental composition of the environment during the life times of the mussels. The transport of lead from mother to preembryos has been investigated in mice. After an intravenous injection of lead chloride, in mice in experimental delay of implantation, the blastocysts were taken out and the lead concentration measured. In non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus the insulin release from the β-cells in the islets of Langerhans, is affected by exhaustion. Mouse pancreas has been used for determination of the distribution of some elements in β-cells in correlation with exhaustion caused by starvation and insulin release. Protective effects of selenium against mercury and cadmium toxicity were studied in a rat model. In addition to the observed protective effects of selenium, zinc was proven to give some protection against lead toxicity. (au)

  1. Optical fiber-based devices and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Ping SHUM; Jonathan C. KNIGHT; Jesper LAEGSGAARD; Dora Juan Juan HU

    2010-01-01

    @@ Optical fiber technology has undergone tremendous growth and development over the last 40 years. Optical fibers constitute an information super highway and are vital in enabling the proliferating use of the Internet. Optical fiber is also an enabling technology which can find applications in sensing, imaging, biomedical, machining, etc. There have been a few milestones in the advancement of optical fiber technology. Firstly, the invention and development of the laser some 50 years ago made optical communications possible. Secondly, the fabrication of low-loss optical fibers has been a key element to the success of optical communication.

  2. Software Application for Storage Devices Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Munteanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a simple Windows authentication password is not always enough to ensure protection and confidentiality of the data stored on user’s workstations. In this paper we propose and implement an encrypted file system. The proposed solution is based on creating and using encrypted volumes embedded (stored on a physical partition. The encrypted volumes act as virtual drives which offer the user the impression that he’s working with a normal physical partition. Security of the password and the encrypted volumes’ portability are ensured by the developed application.

  3. Microelectric Heterogeneous Hybrid Devices for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    The existing projects designated as SACA (Sample Ampoule Cartridge/Container Assembly) and QMI (Quench Module Insert) at NASA's MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) involve development of high-temperature coating materials. A number of material systems need to be evaluated for this purpose. The requirement of these coating materials included high emissivity (approaching unity), sufficient physical strength, appropriate thermal conductivity to dissipate heat, and above all high temperature (T is equal to or greater than 2000 C) withstanding capability. Potential materials for applications considered were non-oxide based materials such as tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide, compounds of niobium, etc.

  4. Advanced carbon manufacturing for energy and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon Teixidor, Genis

    The science of miniaturization has experienced revolutionary advances during the last decades, witnessing the development of the Integrated Circuit and the emergence of MEMS and Nanotechnology. Particularly, MEMS technology has pioneered the use of non-traditional materials in microfabrication by including polymers, ceramics and composites to the well known list of metals and semiconductors. One of the latest additions to this set of materials is carbon, which represents a very important inclusion given its significance in electrochemical energy conversion systems and in applications where it is used as sensor probe material. For these applications, carbon is optimal in several counts: It has a wide electrochemical stability window, good electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability, and is available in high purity at a low cost. Furthermore carbon is biocompatible. This thesis presents several microfabricated devices that take advantage of these properties. The thesis has two clearly differentiated parts. In the first one, applications of micromachined carbon in the field of energy conversion and energy storage are presented. These applications include lithium ion micro batteries and the development of new carbon electrodes with fractal geometries. In the second part, the focus shifts to biological applications. First, the study of the interaction of living cells with micromachined carbon is presented, followed by the description of a sensor based on interdigitated nano-electrode arrays, and finally the development of the new instrumentation needed to address arrays of carbon electrodes, a multiplexed potentiostat. The underlying theme that connects all these seemingly different topics is the use of carbon microfabrication techniques in electrochemical systems.

  5. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Methods Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject’s mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. Results In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model

  6. Multi-platform development of applications for mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Sjödin, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis has been performed at Combitech, a technology, development and management consultancy company. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the possibilities for multi-platform development of applications for mobile devices, as well as actually developing a simpler application using multi-platform development. The application is supposed to have functionality for sending an expression of interest for work and thesis work at Combitech, and should be available both as a nati...

  7. Active glass for photonic devices photoinduced structures and their application

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsuyu, Tsuneo; Si, Jinhai; Qiu, Jianrong

    2001-01-01

    This book focuses on selected topics which are new and of fundamental importance in the application of active glasses in photonic devices Most of the chapters deal with glasses under the action of higher electromagnetic fields, such as those produced by femtosecond lasers They cover the creation and analysis of induced structures in glasses and some functional devices using active glasses This book is designed for both graduate students and researchers in the field

  8. Understanding surveillance technologies spy devices, their origins & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2001-01-01

    From electronic wire taps to baby monitors and long-distance video and listening devices, startling changes occur everyday in how we gather, interpret, and transmit information. An extraordinary range of powerful new technologies has come into existence to meet the requirements of this expanding field.Your search for a comprehensive resource for surveillance devices is over. Understanding Surveillance Technologies: Spy Devices, Their Origins and Applications serves as a provocative, broad-based, and visually appealing reference that introduces and describes the technologies rapidly moving into

  9. Biological evaluation of devices used for reducing entrainment and impingement losses at thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary survey of fish protection devices either in use or proposed for water intake structures was conducted for the purpose of assessing their potential for reducing impingement and entrainment. All the designs examined can be divided into two basic categories: behavioral screening systems and physical screening systems. The behavioral screening devices rely upon the ability of fish to sense artificial stimuli and respond by swimming away from hazardous areas. These systems are of little or no value in protecting planktonic fish eggs, larvae, and disoriented, heat-shocked, or lethargic adult fishes. Many of the physical screening devices, on the other hand, require the impingement of organisms against a screen before they can be removed from the intake system, thus subjecting survival. Some of the designs incorporate both behavioral and physical sceening concepts. Six devices were selected for further consideration based on their potential or demonstrated effectiveness in reducing impingement and entrainment losses at a variety of intake situations. The structures evaluated were modified vertical traveling screens, louvers, angled vertical traveling screens, horizontal traveling screens, center-flow screens, and wedge-wire screens. Since some of these intake structures represent new concepts, few laboratory or in situ biological studies have been carried out. For others, actual reductions in fish losses have been demonstrated. The design features and status of biological testing is discussed for each device, and an evaluation of their fish protection potential is presented

  10. A flexible organic resistance memory device for wearable biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yimao; Tan, Jing; YeFan, Liu; Lin, Min; Huang, Ru

    2016-07-01

    Parylene is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved material which can be safely used within the human body and it is also offers chemically inert and flexible merits. Here, we present a flexible parylene-based organic resistive random access memory (RRAM) device suitable for wearable biomedical application. The proposed device is fabricated through standard lithography and pattern processes at room temperature, exhibiting the feasibility of integration with CMOS circuits. This organic RRAM device offers a high storage window (>10(4)), superior retention ability and immunity to disturbing. In addition, brilliant mechanical and electrical stabilities of this device are demonstrated when under harsh bending (bending cycle >500, bending radius <10 mm). Finally, the underlying mechanism for resistance switching of this kind of device is discussed, and metallic conducting filament formation and annihilation related to oxidization/redox of Al and Al anions migrating in the parylene layer can be attributed to resistance switching in this device. These advantages reveal the significant potential of parylene-based flexible RRAM devices for wearable biomedical applications. PMID:27242345

  11. Stochastic memristive devices for computing and neuromorphic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Zhou, Jiantao; Choi, Shinhyun; Lu, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Nanoscale resistive switching devices (memristive devices or memristors) have been studied for a number of applications ranging from non-volatile memory, logic to neuromorphic systems. However a major challenge is to address the potentially large variations in space and time in these nanoscale devices. Here we show that in metal-filament based memristive devices the switching can be fully stochastic. While individual switching events are random, the distribution and probability of switching can be well predicted and controlled. Rather than trying to force high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time, the inherent stochastic nature of resistive switching allows these binary devices to be used as building blocks for novel error-tolerant computing schemes such as stochastic computing and provides the needed ``analog'' feature for neuromorphic applications. To verify such potential, we demonstrated memristor-based stochastic bitstreams in both time and space domains, and show that an array of binary memristors can act as a multi-level ``analog'' device for neuromorphic applications.

  12. Designed Assembly and Integration of Colloidal Nanocrystals for Device Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiwoong; Choi, Moon Kee; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-02-10

    Colloidal nanocrystals have been intensively studied over the past three decades due to their unique properties that originate, in large part, from their nanometer-scale sizes. For applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices, colloidal nanoparticles are generally employed as assembled nanocrystal solids, rather than as individual particles. Consequently, tailoring 2D patterns as well as 3D architectures of assembled nanocrystals is critical for their various applications to micro- and nanoscale devices. Here, recent advances in the designed assembly, film fabrication, and printing/integration methods for colloidal nanocrystals are presented. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are compared, and various device applications of assembled/integrated colloidal nanocrystal solids are discussed. PMID:26707709

  13. Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research and development in this area focuses on enabling technologies, models, and methodologies to support basic and applied cancer research.

  14. Proceedings of biological applications of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop BARN 92 on various aspects of radiation treatment of tumours and of biological radiation effects on living system hosted 38 short papers. Each is indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  15. Biologically derived melanin electrodes in aqueous sodium-ion energy storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Jo; Wu, Wei; Chun, Sang-Eun; Whitacre, Jay F.; Bettinger, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present important findings related to biologically derived pigments for potential use as battery electrodes. Namely, we report the synthesis, fabrication, and characterization of melanins as materials for use in aqueous sodium-ion batteries. We demonstrate the use of naturally occurring melanins as active electrode materials in charge storage devices. Furthermore, the performance of melanin anodes is comparable to many commonly available synthetic organic electrode materials. The stru...

  16. Synthetic Biology: Applications in the Food Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Kumar, Ashwani; Aparna, S V; Mallappa, Rashmi H; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2016-08-17

    Synthetic biology also termed as "genomic alchemy" represents a powerful area of science that is based on the convergence of biological sciences with systems engineering. It has been fittingly described as "moving from reading the genetic code to writing it" as it focuses on building, modeling, designing and fabricating novel biological systems using customized gene components that result in artificially created genetic circuitry. The scientifically compelling idea of the technological manipulation of life has been advocated since long time. Realization of this idea has gained momentum with development of high speed automation and the falling cost of gene sequencing and synthesis following the completion of the human genome project. Synthetic biology will certainly be instrumental in shaping the development of varying areas ranging from biomedicine, biopharmaceuticals, chemical production, food and dairy quality monitoring, packaging, and storage of food and dairy products, bioremediation and bioenergy production, etc. However, potential dangers of using synthetic life forms have to be acknowledged and adoption of policies by the scientific community to ensure safe practice while making important advancements in the ever expanding field of synthetic biology is to be fully supported and implemented. PMID:25365334

  17. Biological nanostructures and applications of nanostructures in biology electrical, mechanical, and optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stroscio, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Biological Nanostructures and Applications of Nanostructures in Biology: Electrical, Mechanical, and Optical Properties contains reviews and discussions of contemporary and relevant topics dealing with the interface between the science and technology of nanostructures and the science of biology. Moreover, this book supplements these past groundbreaking discoveries with discussions of promising new avenues of research that reveal the enormous potential of emerging approaches in nanobiotechnology. The topics include: This state-of-the-art survey of key developments in nanotechnology - as they ap

  18. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  19. Application of the device database in the Python programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Device Database has been developed using the relational database in the KEKB accelerator control system. It contains many kinds of parameters of the devices, mainly magnets and magnet power supplies. The parameters consist of the wiring information, the address of the interfaces, the specification of the hardware, the calibration constants, the magnetic field excitation functions and the any other parameters for the device control. These parameters are necessary not only for constructing EPICS IOC database but also for providing information to the high-level application programs, most of which are written in the script languages such as SAD or Python. Particularly Python is often used to access the Device Database. For this purpose, the Python library module that is designed to handle tabular data of the relational database on memory has been developed. The overview of the library module is reported. (author)

  20. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  1. Nanotechnology based devices and applications in medicine: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A Martis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been the most explored and extensively studied area in recent times. Many devices which were earlier impossible to imagine, are being developed at a lightning speed with the application of nanotechnology. To overcome the challenges offered by the most dreaded diseases, such as cancer or any disease involving the central nervous system or other inaccessible areas of the human body, nanotechnology has been proved to be a boon in making the treatment more target specific and minimizing the toxicities. This review describes a handful of important devices and applications based on nanotechnology in medicine made in recent times. This article also describes in brief the regulatory concerns and the ethical issues pertaining to nanomedical devices.

  2. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-22

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax or acrylic glue, and characterized the affect of these and other microfluidic materials on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials

  3. MICROSTRUCTURE DEVICES FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Brandner, Juergen; Anurjew, E.; Henning, T.; Schygulla, U.; Schubert, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this publication, an overview of the work dealing with thermal and chemical micro process engineering performed at the Institute for Micro Process Engineering (IMVT) of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be given. The focus will be set on manufacturing of metallic microstructure devices and on microstructure heat exchangers. A brief outlook will describe possible future application fields.

  4. Biopolymers in controlled release devices for agricultural applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biopolymers such as starch for agricultural applications including controlled release devices is growing due the environmental benefits. Recently, concerns have grown about the worldwide spread of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) that infect colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). ...

  5. Application of computational intelligence to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sekhar, Akula

    2016-01-01

    This book is a contribution of translational and allied research to the proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. It explains how various computational intelligence techniques can be applied to investigate various biological problems. It is a good read for Research Scholars, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.

  6. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functi

  7. Applications of Microfluidics in Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research can significantly benefit from recent advances of microfluidics technology. In a rationally designed microfluidics device, analyses of stem cells can be done in a much deeper and wider way than in a conventional tissue culture dish. Miniaturization makes analyses operated in a high-throughput fashion, while controls of fluids help to reconstruct the physiological environments. Through integration with present characterization tools like fluorescent microscope, microfluidics...

  8. Micro- and nanofluidic devices for environmental and biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Han; Berg, van den Albert

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, an increasing amount of pocket-size chemistry equipment based on the so-called 'lab-on-a-chip'approach has become available. Besides the popular application in the analysis of biological macromolecules, such chips in combination with portable electronic equipment are applicab

  9. Applicability of Computational Systems Biology in Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning; Hadrup, Niels; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure;

    2014-01-01

    and databases are used to model and predict effects of chemicals on, for instance, human health. In toxicology, computational systems biology enables identification of important pathways and molecules from large data sets; tasks that can be extremely laborious when performed by a classical literature search....... However, computational systems biology offers more advantages than providing a high-throughput literature search; it may form the basis for establishment of hypotheses on potential links between environmental chemicals and human diseases, which would be very difficult to establish experimentally....... This is possible due to the existence of comprehensive databases containing information on networks of human protein–protein interactions and protein–disease associations. Experimentally determined targets of the specific chemical of interest can be fed into these networks to obtain additional information that can...

  10. Stochastic chemical kinetics theory and (mostly) systems biological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Érdi, Péter

    2014-01-01

    This volume reviews the theory and simulation methods of stochastic kinetics by integrating historical and recent perspectives, presents applications, mostly in the context of systems biology and also in combustion theory. In recent years, due to the development in experimental techniques, such as optical imaging, single cell analysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical kinetic data inside single living cells have increasingly been available. The emergence of systems biology brought renaissance in the application of stochastic kinetic methods.

  11. Application of vibrational microspectroscopy to biology and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhawana; Gautam, Rekha; Kumar, Srividya; Kumar, Vinay BN; Nongthomba, Upendra; Nandi, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Geetashree; Santosh, Vani; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Umapathy, Siva

    2012-01-01

    Vibrational microspectroscopic (Raman and infrared (IR)) techniques are rapidly emerging as effective tools to probe the basic processes of life. This review mainly focuses on the applications of Raman and IR microspectroscopy to biology and biomedicine, ranging from studies on cellular components in single cells to advancement in techniques for in vitro to in vivo applications. These techniques have proved to be instrumental in studying the biological specimen with minimum perturbation, i.e....

  12. Functionalized nanoparticles for biological imaging and detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Bing C.

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained tremendous attention in the last decade as a result of their size-dependent spectroscopic properties. These nanoparticles have been a subject of intense study to bridge the gap between macroscopic and atomic behavior, as well as to generate new materials for novel applications in therapeutics, biological sensing, light emitting devices, microelectronics, lasers, and solar cells. One of the most promising areas for the use of these nanoparticles is in biotechnology, where their size-dependent optical properties are harnessed for imaging and sensing applications. However, these nanoparticles, as synthesized, are often not stable in aqueous media and lack simple and reliable means of covalently linking to biomolecules. The focus of this work is to advance the progress of these nanomaterials for biotechnology by synthesizing them, characterizing their optical properties and rendering them water-soluble and functional while maintaining their coveted optical properties. QDs were synthesized by an organometallic chemical procedure that utilizes coordinating solvents to provide brightly luminescent nanoparticles. The optical interactions of these QDs were studied as a function of concentration to identify particle size-dependent optimal concentrations, where scattering and indirection excitation are minimized and the amount light observed per particle is maximized. Both QDs and AuNPs were rendered water-soluble and stable in a broad range of biologically relevant conditions by using a series of ligands composed of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) appended to poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether. By studying the stability of the surface modified AuNPs, we revealed some interesting information regarding the role of the surface ligand on the nanoparticle stability (i.e. solubility in high salt concentration, resistance to dithiothreitol competition and cyanide decomposition). Furthermore, the nanoparticles

  13. Towards Hardware implementation of video applications in new telecommunications devices

    CERN Document Server

    Touil, Lamjed; Mibaa, Abdellatif; Bourennane, Elbey

    2010-01-01

    Among the areas, most demanding in terms of calculation is the telecommunication and video applications are now included in several telecommunication devices such as set-top boxes, mobile phones. Embedded videos applications in new generations of telecommunication devices need a processing capacity that can not be achieved by the conventional processor, to work around this problem the use of programmable technology has a lot of interest. First, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) present many performance benefits for real-time image processing applications. The FPGA structure is able to exploit spatial and temporal parallelism. In this paper, we present a new method for implementation of the Color Structure Descriptor (CSD) using the FPGA circuit. In fact the (CSD) provides satisfactory image indexing and retrieval results among all colorbased descriptors in MPEG-7. But the real time implementation of this descriptor is still having problems. In this paper we propose a method for adapting this descriptor f...

  14. Transferable and flexible thin film devices for engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film devices can be of significance for manufacturing, energy conversion systems, solid state electronics, wireless applications, etc. However, these thin film sensors/devices are normally fabricated on rigid silicon substrates, thus neither flexible nor transferrable for engineering applications. This paper reports an innovative approach to transfer polyimide (PI) embedded thin film devices, which were fabricated on glass, to thin metal foils. Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) were fabricated on a thin PI film, which was spin coated and cured on a glass substrate. Another layer of PI film was then spin coated again on TFTC/PI and cured to obtain the embedded TFTCs. Assisted by oxygen plasma surface coarsening of the PI film on the glass substrate, the PI embedded TFTC was successfully transferred from the glass substrate to a flexible copper foil. To demonstrate the functionality of the flexible embedded thin film sensors, they were transferred to the sonotrode tip of an ultrasonic metal welding machine for in situ process monitoring. The dynamic temperatures near the sonotrode tip were effectively measured under various ultrasonic vibration amplitudes. This technique of transferring polymer embedded electronic devices onto metal foils yield great potentials for numerous engineering applications. (paper)

  15. Grafting of Porous Polymers for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on application of radiation processing to polymers is mainly focused by the National Atomic Commission (CNEA). The Agricultural and Industrial Applications Laboratory Unit operates at the Ezeiza Atomic Center since the end of 1980s. Since 1997 a new research group headed by Dr. O. Cascone and Dr. M. Grasselli, devoted to downstream processing of proteins from the University of Buenos Aires, was involved in the implementation of grafting techniques in collaboration with Dr. E. Smolko from CNEA. In 1999 Dr. M. Grasselli moved to the Universidad Nacional de Quilmes where he continued working on application of gamma radiation to materials for biotechnological process. (author)

  16. How synthetic biology will reconsider natural bioluminescence and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Benjamin; Sanderson, Theo; Ellis, Tom; Freemont, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As our understanding of natural biological systems grows, so too does our ability to alter and rebuild them. Synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to biology in order to design and construct novel biological systems for specific applications. Bioluminescent organisms offer a treasure trove of light-emitting enzymes that may have applications in many areas of bioengineering, from biosensors to lighting. A few select bioluminescent organisms have been well researched and the molecular and genetic basis of their luminescent abilities elucidated, with work underway to understand the basis of luminescence in many others. Synthetic biology will aim to package these light-emitting systems as self-contained biological modules, characterize their properties, and then optimize them for use in other chassis organisms. As this catalog of biological parts grows, synthetic biologists will be able to engineer complex biological systems with the ability to emit light. These may use luminescence for an array of disparate functions, from providing illumination to conveying information or allowing communication between organisms. PMID:25216951

  17. Portable Raman device for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Martin, Matthew E.; Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Mobley, Joel; Cullum, Brian M.; Wintenberg, Alan; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a compact, self-contained, cost effective, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTs) for screening a wide variety of chemical and biological agents for homeland defense applications. The instrument is a fully-integrated, tunable, "point-and-shoot" Raman monitor based on solid-state acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. It also consists of a 830-nm diode laser for excitation, and an avalanche photodiode for detection. Evaluation of this instrument has been performed by analyzing several standard samples and comparing the results those obtained using a conventional Raman system. In addition to system evaluation, this paper will also discuss potential applications of the RAMiTs for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents.

  18. Microfluidic devices for investigation of biomimetic membranes for sensor and separation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna

    The term biomimetic membrane denotes membrane that mimics biological cell membrane. Artificially made membranes are powerful tools for the fundamental biophysical studies of membrane proteins. Moreover, they may be used in biomedicine, serving as biosensors in high-throughput screening of potential...... mentioned difficulties. First, a device that facilitates atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of biomimetic membranes is presented. The microfluidic device was specifically designed and fabricated to accommodate the AFM probes that were used to study micrometer-sized fluid polymeric membranes. Second...... to microfluidic designs involving protein delivery to biomimetic membranes developed for sensor and separation applications. Finally, an OMP functionality modulation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was shown and revealed the protein potential application as a sensor. Moreover, the β-CD blocker may be used...

  19. Distributed-Channel Bipolar Device: Experimentation, Analytical Modeling and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fenglai

    Experimental results and theoretical modeling for four terminal distributed channel bipolar devices (DCBD) are presented. The DCBD device is comprised of an interwoven BJT and MOSFET. The device may be characterized as a MOSFET with a bipolar transistor source distributed under the MOSFET channel. Alternatively, the device may be represented as a BJT where a MOSFET channel provides the current collection function. The physical layout of the device is that of a n-channel MOSFET placed above a p-Si epitaxial base region which was grown on an n^+-Si substrate emitter. Distributed electronic behavior exhibits itself through self-biasing influences of the channel-collected current on the channel-base junction bias. For appropriate biasing, the MOSFET channel divides itself into two regions exhibiting forward active and saturation BJT behavior. Both experimental results and theoretical modeling are provided. Experimental results for "large area" rectangular gate, circular gate and trapezoidal gate DCBD are reported. The experimental results exhibit the transconductance threshold voltage, beta fall off and transconductance fall-off features reported previously by others. A "large area" trapezoidal gate structure is incorporated to illustrate the gate area influences on the electrical characteristics and to provide a model sensitive structure for evaluating the validity of the theory developed in the dissertation. An analytical model based on conventional MOSFET and bipolar theories is developed. The analytical model is applied to the large gate area devices (example: 0.127 mm rectangular gate length) and smaller dimensional gate devices down to 0.9 micron rectangular gate length. The theoretical results show good agreement with the large gate area experimental results. Application examples are provided. The use of the base current invariant transconductance threshold voltage as a reference voltage is discussed. Comparison of the transconductance threshold voltage

  20. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  1. Load-application devices: a comparative strain gauge analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; de Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    2015-01-01

    In view of the low loading values commonly employed in dentistry, a load-application device (LAD) was developed as option to the universal testing machine (UTM), using strain gauge analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a load-application device (LAD) and compare the LAD with the UTM apparatus under axial and non-axial loads. An external hexagonal implant was inserted into a polyurethane block and one EsthetiCone abutment was connected to the implant. A plastic prosthetic cylinder was screwed onto the abutment and a conical pattern crown was fabricated using acrylic resin. An impression was made and ten identical standard acrylic resin patterns were obtained from the crown impression, which were cast in nickel-chromium alloy (n=10). Four strain gauges were bonded diametrically around the implant. The specimens were subjected to central (C) and lateral (L) axial loads of 30 kgf, on both devices: G1: LAD/C; G2: LAD/L; G3: UTM/C; G4: UTM/L. The data (με) were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the UTM and LAD devices, regardless of the type of load. It was concluded that the LAD is a reliable alternative, which induces microstrains to implants similar to those obtained with the UTM. PMID:26200149

  2. Supramolecular core–shell nanoparticles for photoconductive device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Chia; Chen, Jem-Kun; Shieh, Yeong-Tarng; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-08-01

    We report a breakthrough discovery involving supramolecular-based strategies to construct novel core–shell heterojunction nanoparticles with hydrophilic adenine-functionalized polythiophene (PAT) as the core and hydrophobic phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the shell, which enables the conception of new functional supramolecular assemblies for constructing functional nanomaterials for applications in optoelectronic devices. The generated nanoparticles exhibit uniform spherical shape, well-controlled tuning of particle size with narrow size distributions, and excellent electrochemical stability in solution and the solid state owing to highly efficient energy transfer from PAT to PCBM. When the PAT/PCBM nanoparticles were fabricated into a photoconducting layer in an electronic device, the resulting device showed excellent electric conduction characteristics, including an electrically-tunable voltage-controlled switch, and high short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. These observations demonstrate how the self-assembly of PAT/PCBM into specific nanostructures may help to promote efficient charge generation and transport processes, suggesting potential for a wide variety of applications as a promising candidate material for bulk heterojunction polymer devices.

  3. Click chemistry mediated functionalization of vertical nanowires for biological applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vutti, Surendra; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bolinsson, Jessica;

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are gaining significant importance in various biological applications, such as biosensing and drug delivery. Efficient and controlled immobilization of biomolecules on the NW surface is crucial for many of these applications. Here, we present for the first time the use...

  4. Fabrication of silicon and glass devices for microfluidic bioanalytical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kolari, Kai

    2008-01-01

    This thesis introduces important improvements in fabrication of microfluidic devices on silicon and glass. With the main aim in surface and volume manipulation of aqueous solutions for subsequent biochemical analysis, the backbone of the work has been the development of plasma etching processes for silicon and glass. As the silicon microfabrication technologies are combined with deep anisotropic etching of glass, the processability of microfluidic applications with surface and volume manipula...

  5. Forensic Analysis of Instant Messenger Applications on Android Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Aditya; M.S. Dahiya; Sanghvi, H. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on conducting forensic data analysis of 2 widely used IMs applications on Android phones WhatsApp and Viber. The tests and analysis were performed with the aim of determining what data and information can be found on the devices internal memory for instant messengers eg chat messaging logs and history send & received image or video files etc. The experiments and results show that heavy amount of potential evidences and valuable data can be found on Android phones by forensi...

  6. Slow Light Devices and Their Applications to Microwaves and Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Santagiustina, M.; Eisenstein, G.; Thévenaz, Luc; Capmany, J.; Mork, J.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Rossi, A.; Sales, S; Yvind, K.; Combrié, S.; Bourderionnet, J

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed, highly effective technologies enabling slow light propagation as a tunable feature in photonic devices, are reviewed. Several applications in ICT are also demonstrated. Controlling the group velocity of light offers a broadband solution to a necessary functionality in microwave and millimeter wave systems: a tunable time-delay/phase-shift line. Moreover, slow light can highly enhance the nonlinearity, thus opening the way to on chip, nonlinear photonics.

  7. A Comparative Study of Spreadsheet Applications on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis.

  8. Auxin Biology: Applications and the Mechanisms Behind

    OpenAIRE

    Skůpa, P. (Petr); Opatrný, Z.; Petrášek, J. (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of the contemporary knowledge of auxin action reflected in its applications in agriculture and biotechnology. We summarise the current understanding of the mechanism of action for endogenous and major synthetic auxins highlighting their morphogenic character that modulates numerous aspects of plant development. Various auxins and auxin-like compounds are used in techniques of plant vegetative propagation, in vitro culture and regeneration, and they play also a...

  9. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  10. Directed evolution and synthetic biology applications to microbial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassalo, Marcelo C; Liu, Rongming; Gill, Ryan T

    2016-06-01

    Biotechnology applications require engineering complex multi-genic traits. The lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of complex phenotypes restricts our ability to rationally engineer them. However, complex phenotypes can be engineered at the systems level, utilizing directed evolution strategies that drive whole biological systems toward desired phenotypes without requiring prior knowledge of the genetic basis of the targeted trait. Recent developments in the synthetic biology field accelerates the directed evolution cycle, facilitating engineering of increasingly complex traits in biological systems. In this review, we summarize some of the most recent advances in directed evolution and synthetic biology that allows engineering of complex traits in microbial systems. Then, we discuss applications that can be achieved through engineering at the systems level. PMID:27054950

  11. Hidden Markov Models and their Applications in Biological Sequence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Byung-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been extensively used in biological sequence analysis. In this paper, we give a tutorial review of HMMs and their applications in a variety of problems in molecular biology. We especially focus on three types of HMMs: the profile-HMMs, pair-HMMs, and context-sensitive HMMs. We show how these HMMs can be used to solve various sequence analysis problems, such as pairwise and multiple sequence alignments, gene annotation, classification, similarity search, and ma...

  12. Recent applications of synthetic biology tools for yeast metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay

    2015-01-01

    engineer microbial chemical factories has steadily decreased, improvement is still needed. Through the development of synthetic biology tools for key microbial hosts, it should be possible to further decrease the development times and improve the reliability of the resulting microorganism. Together with...... continuous decreases in price and improvements in DNA synthesis, assembly and sequencing, synthetic biology tools will rationalize time-consuming strain engineering, improve control of metabolic fluxes, and diversify screening assays for cellular metabolism. This review outlines some recently developed...... synthetic biology tools and their application to improve production of chemicals and fuels in yeast. Finally, we provide a perspective for the challenges that lie ahead....

  13. Applications of dynamical systems in biology and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Radunskaya, Ami

    2015-01-01

    This volume highlights problems from a range of biological and medical applications that can be interpreted as questions about system behavior or control.  Topics include drug resistance in cancer and malaria, biological fluid dynamics, auto-regulation in the kidney, anti-coagulation therapy, evolutionary diversification and photo-transduction.  Mathematical techniques used to describe and investigate these biological and medical problems include ordinary, partial and stochastic differentiation equations, hybrid discrete-continuous approaches, as well as 2 and 3D numerical simulation. .

  14. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  15. Biological applications of ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review examines the possibilities for biological research using the three ultraviolet free-electron lasers that are nearing operational status in the US. The projected operating characteristics of major interest in biological research of the free-electron lasers at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and Duke University are presented. Experimental applications in the areas of far- and vacuum ultraviolet photophysics and photochemistry, structural biology, environmental photobiology, and medical research are discussed and the prospects for advances in these areas, based upon the characteristics of the new ultraviolet free-electron lasers, are evaluated

  16. Laser device for the protection of biological objects from the damaging action of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for ideal protective agents for use in radiotherapy or post-exposure treatment of victims of radiation accidents is one of the actual problems of radiation protection. Laser irradiation device for the protection of biological objects from the action of ionizing radiation to be used in practice has been manufactured (invention patent RU 2 428 228 C2). This device is used to study the action of various doses of laser radiation and combined irradiation with laser and gamma-radiation, on peripheral blood parameters and number of bone marrow karyocytes of the experimental mice line C57BL/6. The mice were irradiated with ionizing and laser radiation, separately one by one in a special bench. The time interval between two types of irradiation did not exceed 30 min. First, the mice were exposed to γ-radiation then to laser radiation. It was shown that laser radiation can be applied to improve the recovery of hemato genesis after the action of ionizing radiation on biological objects. Then, experiments were conducted to study the action of γ- rays and the combined action of laser radiation and γ -rays on survival, weight and skin of experimental mice. The authors investigated also the action of gamma-rays and combined effects of 650 nm laser radiation and gamma-rays on general mitotic index of bone marrow cells of mice. The method of the laser radiation-protection of biological objects contributes to an increase in the viability of mice, prevents the damages of skin and also increases the mitotic activity of mice bone marrow cells. (authors)

  17. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  18. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-20

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  19. Solvent-resistant elastomeric microfluidic devices and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Robert Michael

    Microfluidics is increasingly being used in many areas of biotechnology and chemistry to achieve reduced reagent volumes, improved performance, integration, and parallelism, among other advantages. Though early devices were based on rigid materials such as glass and silicon, elastomeric materials such as polydiznethylsiloxane (PDMS) are rapidly emerging as a ubiquitous platform for applications in biotechnology. This is due, in part, to simpler fabrication procedures and to the ability to integrate mechanical microvalves at vastly greater densities. For many applications in the areas of chemical synthesis and analysis, however, PDMS cannot replace glass and silicon due to its incompatibility with many solvents and reagents. Such areas could benefit tremendously from the development of an elastomeric microfluidic device technology that combines the advantages of PDMS with the property of solvent resistance. Simplified fabrication could increase the accessibility of microfluidics, and the possibility of dense valve integration could lead to significant advances in device sophistication. Applications could be more rapidly developed by design re-use due to the independence of mechanical valves on fluid properties (unlike electrokinetic pumping), and the property of permeability could enable novel fluidic functions for accessing a broader range of reactions than is possible in glass and silicon. The first half of this thesis describes our strategies and efforts to develop this new enabling technology. Several approaches are presented in Chapter 3, and two particularly successful ones, based on new elastomers (FNB and PFPE), are described in Chapters 4 and 5. Chapter 6 describes a novel method of fabricating devices from 3D molds that could expand the range of useful clastomers. The second half of this thesis discusses microfluidic combinatorial synthesis and high throughput screening-applications that take particular advantage of the ability to integrate thousands of

  20. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Measures Efficacy of Biological Computing Devices and Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Beal, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Engineering biological cells to perform computations has a broad range of important potential applications, including precision medical therapies, biosynthesis process control, and environmental sensing. Implementing predictable and effective computation, however, has been extremely difficult to date, due to a combination of poor composability of available parts and of insufficient characterization of parts and their interactions with the complex environment in which they operate. In this pap...

  1. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Measures Efficacy of Biological Computing Devices and Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob eBeal

    2015-01-01

    Engineering biological cells to perform computations has a broad range of important potential applications, including precision medical therapies, biosynthesis process control, and environmental sensing. Implementing predictable and effective computation, however, has been extremely difficult to date, due to a combination of poor composability of available parts and of insufficient characterization of parts and their interactions with the complex environment in which they operate. In this p...

  2. Adhesion control by inflation: implications from biology to artificial attachment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Kirstin; Heepe, Lars; Afferrante, Luciano; Carbone, Giuseppe; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for materials that incorporate advanced adhesion properties, such as an ability to adhere in a reversible and controllable manner. In biological systems, these features are known from adhesive pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea, and the bush-cricket, Tettigonia viridissima. These species have convergently developed soft, hemispherically shaped pads that might be able to control their adhesion through active changing the curvature of the pad. Inspired by these biological systems, an artificial model system is developed here. It consists of an inflatable membrane clamped to the metallic cylinder and filled with air. Pull-off force measurements of the membrane surface were conducted in contact with the membrane at five different radii of curvature r c with (1) a smooth polyvinylsiloxane membrane and (2) mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructured membrane made of the same polymer. The hypothesis that an increased internal pressure, acting on the membrane, reduces the radius of the membrane curvature, resulting in turn in a lower pull-off force, is verified. Such an active control of adhesion, inspired by biological models, will lead to the development of industrial pick-and-drop devices with controllable adhesive properties.

  3. Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: Applications to biology and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christina P.; Mattley, Yvette; DeFrece, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy is a fundamental analytical tool utilized throughout all of the sciences. For chemistry and biology alone, there are thousands of applications. In the past two decades there have been monumental advances in the miniaturization of components used in spectrophotometric systems. The key components include detector arrays, laser diodes, and fiber optics. Currently, there are numerous commercially available miniature spectrometer systems as well as discrete components that are used by researchers in designing their own systems. A comprehensive summary of current instrumentation available for the design and development of miniaturized spectroscopy applications is described, including detectors, wavelength discriminating components, light sources, and sampling assemblies. Recommendations are made for designing spectrometer systems for specific applications. Current literature is reviewed for chemical and biological applications specifically using miniaturized spectrometer systems with the focus being on ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometers. The applications include laboratory applications, environmental sensing, on-site industrial analyses, botany and ecology applications, and finally clinical and biochemical studies. Additionally, microspectrometers, two-dimensional arrays, and photonics crystals are discussed in regards to their future role in chemistry and biology applications.

  4. Creating standardized electronic data sheets for applications and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L. J.; Lanza, D.

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) continues to develop infrastructure to enable the modular construction of satellites using an open network architecture and off-the-shelf avionics for space systems. Recent efforts have included the refinement of an ontology to formalize a standard language for the exchange of data and commands between components, including hardware and software, which is still evolving. AFRL is also focusing effort on creating standard interfaces using electronic data sheets based on this recently defined ontology. This paper will describe the development of standard interfaces that are documented in terms of an electronic datasheet for a specific application. The datasheet will identify the standard interfaces between hardware devices and software applications that are needed for a specific satellite function, in this case, a spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control (GN& C) application for Sun pointing. Finally, the benefits of using standardized interfaces will be discussed.

  5. Comparison of different metrological devices used in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A., E-mail: andrzej@ryniewicz.p, E-mail: agaska@mech.pk.edu.p [Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, al. Jana Pawla II 37, 31-864 Cracow (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Thanks to the progress in examination of human body, it is possible to create new methods of diagnostics. To diagnose diseases properly, one should recognize the internal and external structure of organs, their geometrical parameters, width, height, etc. And this is a place, in which cooperation between coordinate metrology and medicine is the most strong. Metrological devices could be used in this area, in a variety of uses. Paper shows usage of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) and Coordinate Measuring Arms (CMA) in determination of external structure, dimensions and shape of measured objects (part of bones and joints). Also use of Computed Tomographs (CT) in medical applications will be presented. Then the comparison of results of measurements performed on each device will be made. Apart from this, article puts attention on practical meaning of results obtained from CT measurements. Problem of the shape mapping and its accuracy will also be discussed.

  6. Comparison of different metrological devices used in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanks to the progress in examination of human body, it is possible to create new methods of diagnostics. To diagnose diseases properly, one should recognize the internal and external structure of organs, their geometrical parameters, width, height, etc. And this is a place, in which cooperation between coordinate metrology and medicine is the most strong. Metrological devices could be used in this area, in a variety of uses. Paper shows usage of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) and Coordinate Measuring Arms (CMA) in determination of external structure, dimensions and shape of measured objects (part of bones and joints). Also use of Computed Tomographs (CT) in medical applications will be presented. Then the comparison of results of measurements performed on each device will be made. Apart from this, article puts attention on practical meaning of results obtained from CT measurements. Problem of the shape mapping and its accuracy will also be discussed.

  7. Process Orchestration With Modular Software Applications On Intelligent Field Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfgen, Marius; Schmitt, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    The method developed by the DFKI-IFS for extending the functionality of intelligent field devices through the use of reloadable software applications (so-called Apps) is to be further augmented with a methodology and communication concept for process orchestration. The concept allows individual Apps from different manufacturers to decentrally share information. This way of communicating forms the basis for the dynamic orchestration of Apps to complete processes, in that it allows the actions of one App (e.g. detecting a component part with a sensor App) to trigger reactions in other Apps (e.g. triggering the processing of that component part). A holistic methodology and its implementation as a configuration tool allows one to model the information flow between Apps, as well as automatically introduce it into physical production hardware via available interfaces provided by the Field Device Middleware. Consequently, configuring industrial facilities is made simpler, resulting in shorter changeover and shutdown times.

  8. Biological Applications of Extraordinary Electroconductance (EEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, L. C.; Werner, F. M.; Solin, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Rapid detection of biomolecular concentration is a fundamental goal for lab on a chip diagnostic systems. The Extraordinary Electroconductance (EEC) sensor, a stacked, AuTi-GaAs metal semiconductor hybrid structure (MSH), has been previously demonstrated to have an electric field sensitivity of 3.05V/cm in a mesoscopic-scale structure fabricated at the center of a parallel plate capacitor. In this work, we demonstrate the first successful application of EEC sensors as electrochemical detectors of molecular binding to the sensor surface. The negatively charged avidin derivative, captavidin, was applied with varying captavidin concentrations in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The four-point measured resistance of bare EEC sensors was shown to increase by a factor of four due to captavidin binding at the sensor surface, as compared to a baseline binding assay in which the captavidin binding sites were blocked. Calculations for approximate electric field strengths introduced by a bound captavidin molecule will also presented. EEC sensors' four point measurements showed robustness and stability in spite of variations in the functional, linking layer. S.A.S. is a co-founder of and has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  9. Nonlinear mechanism in MEMS devices for energy harvesting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a novel bistable microelectromechanical system for energy harvesting applications. In particular, we focus here on methodologies and devices for recovering energy from mechanical vibrations. A common energy harvesting approach is based on vibrating mechanical bodies that collect energy through the adoption of self-generating materials. This family of systems has a linear mass–spring damping behaviour and shows good performance around its natural frequency. However, it is not generally suitable for energy recovery in a wide spectrum of frequencies as expected in the vast majority of cases when ambient vibrations assume different forms and the energy is distributed over a wide range of frequencies. Furthermore, whenever the vibrations have a low frequency content the implementation of an integrated energy harvesting device is challenging; in fact large masses and devices would be needed to obtain resonances at low frequencies. Here, the idea is to consider the nonlinear behaviour of a bistable system to enhance device performances in terms of response to external vibrations. The switching mechanism is based on a structure that oscillates around one of the two stable states when the stimulus is not large enough to switch to the other stable state and that moves around the other stable state as soon as it is excited over the threshold. A response improvement can be demonstrated compared to the classical linear approach. Indeed, both a wider spectrum will appear as a consequence of the nonlinear term and a significant amount of energy is collected at low frequencies. In this paper the bistable working principle is first described and analytically modelled, and then a numerical study based on stochastic differential equations (SDE) is realized to evaluate the behaviour of a MEMS device. A micromachined SOI prototype has been realized and a measurement campaign validated the nonlinear mechanism. As expected, the study shows that the nonlinear system

  10. Nano-Assembled Plasmonic Crystals Devices for Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yi

    The ability of plasmonic nano-structures to concentrate light into sub-wavelength volumes offers the potential for developing new devices and applications. Surface plasmons are electron oscillations that propagate on a metal surface. The interaction of light with surface plasmons can be tailored by periodic nano-structures on a surface, thus allowing miniaturized photonic devices with length scales much smaller than those currently achieved. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a low cost self-assembly method to fabricate large area plasmonic crystals and study the physical properties of surface plasmons. Several plasmonic devices are designed using the self-assembled gold nanobump arrays. A polystyrene sphere self-assembly technique was developed for fabricating holes or bumps as small as 150 nm with spacing controlled by the sphere diameter (typically 500--700 nm). Several applications were developed, which were based on the sensitivity of the photon-plasmons coupling to 1) the surface dielectric and 2) the incident angle. A sensitivity to refractive index changes of about 100 nm per refractive index units was demonstrated by varying the surrounding dielectric environment with several chemicals for sensing applications. An increasing variation in the color of a vanadium oxides thermochromic device was observed by using surface plasmons to enhance the variation in reflection. Surface plasmons were also used in an optical modulator, where excitation by one wavelength was used to changes the transmission at a different wavelength. Using the angular sensitivity of the nano-structured plasmonic thin films, an angle of arrival sensor was fabricated. This sensor can be used to track the position of the sun or other collimated light sources like lasers. The polarization dependency of the device was studied and its behavior was explained by the lattice momentum matching mechanism. Inspired by the novel concept of this angle of arrival sensor, a wavefront sensor

  11. Biological applications of confocal fluorescence polarization microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Chad E.

    Fluorescence polarization microscopy is a powerful modality capable of sensing changes in the physical properties and local environment of fluorophores. In this thesis we present new applications for the technique in cancer diagnosis and treatment and explore the limits of the modality in scattering media. We describe modifications to our custom-built confocal fluorescence microscope that enable dual-color imaging, optical fiber-based confocal spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization imaging. Experiments are presented that indicate the performance of the instrument for all three modalities. The limits of confocal fluorescence polarization imaging in scattering media are explored and the microscope parameters necessary for accurate polarization images in this regime are determined. A Monte Carlo routine is developed to model the effect of scattering on images. Included in it are routines to track the polarization state of light using the Mueller-Stokes formalism and a model for fluorescence generation that includes sampling the excitation light polarization ellipse, Brownian motion of excited-state fluorophores in solution, and dipole fluorophore emission. Results from this model are compared to experiments performed on a fluorophore-embedded polymer rod in a turbid medium consisting of polystyrene microspheres in aqueous suspension. We demonstrate the utility of the fluorescence polarization imaging technique for removal of contaminating autofluorescence and for imaging photodynamic therapy drugs in cell monolayers. Images of cells expressing green fluorescent protein are extracted from contaminating fluorescein emission. The distribution of meta-tetrahydroxypheny1chlorin in an EMT6 cell monolayer is also presented. A new technique for imaging enzyme activity is presented that is based on observing changes in the anisotropy of fluorescently-labeled substrates. Proof-of-principle studies are performed in a model system consisting of fluorescently labeled bovine

  12. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-04-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  13. Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement--MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy

  14. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  15. Fundamentals of silicon carbide technology growth, characterization, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction and up-to-date reference to SiC power semiconductor devices covering topics from material properties to applicationsBased on a number of breakthroughs in SiC material science and fabrication technology in the 1980s and 1990s, the first SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were released as commercial products in 2001.  The SiC SBD market has grown significantly since that time, and SBDs are now used in a variety of power systems, particularly switch-mode power supplies and motor controls.  SiC power MOSFETs entered commercial production in 2011, providing rugged, hig

  16. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  17. Application of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Medicinal Plant Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG You-ping; AI Jun-mei; XIAO Pei-gen

    2010-01-01

    One important purpose to investigate medicinal plants is to understand genes and enzymes that govern the biological metabolic process to produce bioactive compounds.Genome wide high throughput technologies such as genomics,transcriptomics,proteomics and metabolomics can help reach that goal.Such technologies can produce a vast amount of data which desperately need bioinformatics and systems biology to process,manage,distribute and understand these data.By dealing with the"omics"data,bioinformatics and systems biology can also help improve the quality of traditional medicinal materials,develop new approaches for the classification and authentication of medicinal plants,identify new active compounds,and cultivate medicinal plant species that tolerate harsh environmental conditions.In this review,the application of bioinformatics and systems biology in medicinal plants is briefly introduced.

  18. Flow cytometric applications of tumor biology: prospects and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of cytometry instrumentation and its potential applications in tumor biology is presented using our recent data. Age-distribution measurements of cells from spontaneous dog tumors and cultured cells after exposure to x rays, alpha particles, or adriamycin are shown. The data show that DNA fluorescence measurements have application in the study of cell kinetics after either radiation or drug treatment. Extensive and careful experimentation is needed to utilize the sophisticated developments in flow cytometry instrumentation

  19. Novel computational biology methods and their applications to drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharangdhar S. PHATAK; Hoang T. TRAN; Shuxing ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    Computational biology methods are now firmly entrenched in the drug discovery process.These methods focus on modeling and simulations of biological systems to complement and direct conventional experimental approaches.Two important branches of computational biology include protein homology modeling and the computational biophysics method of molecular dynamics.Protein modeling methods attempt to accurately predict three-dimensional (3D) structures of uncrystallized proteins for subsequent structure-based drug design applications.Molecular dynamics methods aim to elucidate the molecular motions of the static representations of crystallized protein structures.In this review we highlight recent novel methodologies in the field of homology modeling and molecular dynamics.Selected drug discovery applications using these methods conclude the review.

  20. Differential Scanning Calorimetry Techniques: Applications in Biology and Nanoscience

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Pooria; Moghadam, Tahereh Tohidi; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the best-known differential scanning calorimetries (DSCs), such as conventional DSC, microelectromechanical systems-DSC, infrared-heated DSC, modulated-temperature DSC, gas flow-modulated DSC, parallel-nano DSC, pressure perturbation calorimetry, self-reference DSC, and high-performance DSC. Also, we describe here the most extensive applications of DSC in biology and nanoscience.

  1. Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLED-based chemical and biological sensors: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic photophysics, transport properties, state of the art, and challenges in OLED science and technology, and the major developments in structurally integrated OLED-based luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed briefly. The dramatic advances in OLED performance have resulted in devices with projected continuous operating lifetimes of ∼2 x 105 h (∼23 yr) at ∼150 Cd m-2 (the typical brightness of a computer monitor or TV). Consequently, commercial products incorporating OLEDs, e.g., cell phones, MP3 players, and, most recently, OLED TVs, are rapidly proliferating. The progress in elucidating the photophysics and transport properties, occurring in tandem with the development of OLEDs, has been no less dramatic. It has resulted in a detailed understanding of the dynamics of trapped and mobile negative and positive polarons (to which the electrons and holes, respectively, relax upon injection), and of singlet and triplet excitons. It has also yielded a detailed understanding of the spin dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons, which affects their overall dynamics significantly. Despite the aforementioned progress, there are outstanding challenges in OLED science and technology, notably in improving the efficiency of the devices and their stability at high brightness (>1000 Cd m-2). One of the most recent emerging OLED-based technologies is that of structurally integrated photoluminescence-based chemical and biological sensors. This sensor platform, pioneered by the authors, yields uniquely simple and potentially very low-cost sensor (micro)arrays. The second part of this review describes the recent developments in implementing this platform for gas phase oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), anthrax lethal factor, and hydrazine sensors, and for a DO, glucose, lactate, and ethanol multianalyte sensor. (topical review)

  2. Application of Nanophotonic Devices in High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana

    techniques and their applications. In this thesis, a number of different all-optical signal processing functionalities have been experimentally investigated taking the advantage of silicon and III-V semiconductor photonic devices. Wavelength converters may find a variety of applications in future...... highcapacity fiber-optic transmission systems including switching nodes, crossconnectors and add-drop multiplexers. One of the expected key advantages of wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing in nonlinear media exhibiting third-order nonlinearities is the possibility for modulation format and bit......-rate independent operation, enabling transparent networking. To confirm this, wavelength conversion of high speed WDM polarizationmultiplexed QPSK signals has been demonstrated using a polarization diversity circuit fully integrated on a silicon platform. Data signals in a transmission system are suffering from...

  3. Flexible organic electronic devices: Materials, process and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logothetidis, Stergios [Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54 124 (Greece)], E-mail: logot@auth.gr

    2008-08-25

    The research for the development of flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) is rapidly increasing worldwide, since FEDs will change radically several aspects of everyday life. Although there has been considerable progress in the area of flexible inorganic devices (a-Si or solution processed Si), there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting and insulating), inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit customized properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods, which are characterized by a significant amount of multidisciplinary efforts. Furthermore, the development and encapsulation of organic electronic devices onto flexible polymeric substrates by large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll production processes will allow their market implementation in numerous application areas, including displays, lighting, photovoltaics, radio-frequency identification circuitry and chemical sensors, as well as to a new generation of modern exotic applications. In this work, we report on some of the latest advances in the fields of polymeric substrates, hybrid barrier layers, inorganic and organic materials to be used as novel active and functional thin films and nanomaterials as well as for the encapsulation of the materials components for the production of FEDs (flexible organic light-emitting diodes, and organic photovoltaics). Moreover, we will emphasize on the real-time optical monitoring and characterization of the growing films onto the flexible polymeric substrates by spectroscopic ellipsometry methods. Finally, the potentiality for the in-line characterization processes for the development of organic electronics materials will be emphasized, since it will also establish the framework for the achievement of the future scientific and technological breakthroughs.

  4. III–V Nanowires: Synthesis, Property Manipulations, and Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available III–V semiconductor nanowire (NW materials possess a combination of fascinating properties, including their tunable direct bandgap, high carrier mobility, excellent mechanical flexibility, and extraordinarily large surface-to-volume ratio, making them superior candidates for next generation electronics, photonics, and sensors, even possibly on flexible substrates. Understanding the synthesis, property manipulation, and device integration of these III–V NW materials is therefore crucial for their practical implementations. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the recent development in III–V NWs with the focus on their cost-effective synthesis, corresponding property control, and the relevant low-operating-power device applications. We will first introduce the synthesis methods and growth mechanisms of III–V NWs, emphasizing the low-cost solid-source chemical vapor deposition (SSCVD technique, and then discuss the physical properties of III–V NWs with special attention on their dependences on several typical factors including the choice of catalysts, NW diameters, surface roughness, and surface decorations. After that, we present several different examples in the area of high-performance photovoltaics and low-power electronic circuit prototypes to further demonstrate the potential applications of these NW materials. Towards the end, we also make some remarks on the progress made and challenges remaining in the III–V NW research field.

  5. Nonisothermal device simulation using the 2-D numerical process/device simulator TRENDY and application to SOI-devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbert, Philip B.M.; Wachutka, Gerhard K.M.; Krabbenborg, Benno H.; Mouthaan, Ton J.

    1994-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of modern VLSI and ULSI device structures may be significantly altered by self-heating effects. The device modeling of such structures demands the simultaneous simulation of both the electrical and the thermal device behavior and their mutual interaction. Although, at

  6. Photonic applications based on biological/inorganic nano hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Biological Retinal is an effective and efficient photochromic compounds and one of the best candidates for photon conversion, transmission and storage, from the view of bionics and natural selection. We observed large optical nonlinearity by using new fabricated films of photoactive Retinol hybrid materials. Based on reversible photoinduced anisotropy and transient optical characteristics, the Retinol hybrids can be used to design novel photonic devices, such as holographic elements, all-optical switch and spatial light modulator. Also, the study is important for further understanding the photochemical mechanism of vision process.

  7. Integrated graphene/nanoparticle hybrids for biological and electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Truc; Zhao, Yanli

    2014-05-01

    The development of novel graphene/nanoparticle hybrid materials is currently the subject of tremendous research interest. The intrinsic exceptional assets of both graphene (including graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and nanoparticles render their hybrid materials synergic properties that can be useful in various applications. In this feature review, we highlight recent developments in graphene/nanoparticle hybrids and their promising potential in electronic and biological applications. First, the latest advances in synthetic methods for the preparation of the graphene/nanoparticle hybrids are introduced, with the emphasis on approaches to (1) decorate nanoparticles onto two-dimensional graphene and (2) wrap nanoparticles with graphene sheets. The pros and cons of large-scale synthesis are also discussed. Then, the state-of-the-art of graphene/nanoparticle hybrids in electronic and biological applications is reviewed. For electronic applications, we focus on the advantages of using these hybrids in transparent conducting films, as well as energy harvesting and storage. Biological applications, electrochemical biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery using the hybrids are showcased. Finally, the future research prospects and challenges in this rapidly developing area are discussed.

  8. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eWang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In the article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  9. Application of enriched stable isotopes as tracers in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, Stefan; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The application of enriched stable isotopes of minerals and trace elements as tracers in biological systems is a rapidly growing research field that benefits from the many new developments in inorganic mass spectrometric instrumentation, primarily within inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... development of new methodologies coupled with more advanced compartmental and mathematical models for the distribution of elements in living organisms has enabled a broader use of enriched stable isotope experiments in the biological sciences. This review discusses the current and future uses of enriched...

  10. An introduction to stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Linda J S

    2010-01-01

    An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Applications to Biology, Second Edition presents the basic theory of stochastic processes necessary in understanding and applying stochastic methods to biological problems in areas such as population growth and extinction, drug kinetics, two-species competition and predation, the spread of epidemics, and the genetics of inbreeding. Because of their rich structure, the text focuses on discrete and continuous time Markov chains and continuous time and state Markov processes.New to the Second EditionA new chapter on stochastic differential equations th

  11. Bottom-up engineering of biological systems through standard bricks: a modularity study on basic parts and devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modularity is a crucial issue in the engineering world, as it enables engineers to achieve predictable outcomes when different components are interconnected. Synthetic Biology aims to apply key concepts of engineering to design and construct new biological systems that exhibit a predictable behaviour. Even if physical and measurement standards have been recently proposed to facilitate the assembly and characterization of biological components, real modularity is still a major research issue. The success of the bottom-up approach strictly depends on the clear definition of the limits in which biological functions can be predictable. RESULTS: The modularity of transcription-based biological components has been investigated in several conditions. First, the activity of a set of promoters was quantified in Escherichia coli via different measurement systems (i.e., different plasmids, reporter genes, ribosome binding sites relative to an in vivo reference promoter. Second, promoter activity variation was measured when two independent gene expression cassettes were assembled in the same system. Third, the interchangeability of input modules (a set of constitutive promoters and two regulated promoters connected to a fixed output device (a logic inverter expressing GFP was evaluated. The three input modules provide tunable transcriptional signals that drive the output device. If modularity persists, identical transcriptional signals trigger identical GFP outputs. To verify this, all the input devices were individually characterized and then the input-output characteristic of the logic inverter was derived in the different configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Promoters activities (referred to a standard promoter can vary when they are measured via different reporter devices (up to 22%, when they are used within a two-expression-cassette system (up to 35% and when they drive another device in a functionally interconnected circuit (up to 44%. This paper

  12. Feedback about Astronomical Application Developments for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaff, A.; Boch, T.; Fernique, P.; Houpin, R.; Kaestlé, V.; Royer, M.; Scheffmann, J.; Weiler, A.

    2013-10-01

    Within a few years, Smartphones have become the standard for mobile telephony, and we are now witnessing a rapid development of Internet tablets. These mobile devices have enough powerful hardware features to run more and more complex applications. In the field of astronomy it is not only possible to use these tools to access data via a simple browser, but also to develop native applications reusing libraries (Java for Android, Objective-C for iOS) developed for desktops. We have been working for two years on mobile application development and we now have the skills in native iOS and Android development, Web development (especially HTML5, JavaScript, CSS3) and conversion tools (PhoneGap) from Web development to native applications. The biggest change comes from human/computer interaction that is radically changed by the use of multitouch. This interaction requires a redesign of interfaces to take advantage of new features (simultaneous selections in different parts of the screen, etc.). In the case of native applications, the distribution is usually done through online stores (App Store, Google Play, etc.) which gives visibility to a wider audience. Our approach is not only to perform testing of materials and developing of prototypes, but also operational applications. The native application development is costly in development time, but the possibilities are broader because it is possible to use native hardware such as the gyroscope and the accelerometer, to point out an object in the sky. Development depends on the Web browser and the rendering and performance are often very different between different browsers. It is also possible to convert Web developments to native applications, but currently it is better to restrict this possibility to light applications in terms of functionality. Developments in HTML5 are promising but are far behind those available on desktops. HTML5 has the advantage of allowing development independent from the evolution of the mobile

  13. Biological isotopy. Introduction to the isotopic effects and to their applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since their discovery in the beginning of the 20. century, the study of stable isotopes has considerably developed. This domain, which remained limited in its applications until the 1990's, has become particularly important thereafter thanks to its practical applications and in particular to its economical impacts. Many techniques used in fraud control, in drugs use control, in selection of high-yield plants etc are based on isotopic abundance measurements. This reference book gives a synthesis of our actual knowledge on the use of stable isotopes and of isotope fractionation in biology. It presents the basic notions of isotopic biochemistry and explains the origin of the isotopic effects. The application principles of these effects to metabolism, to organisms physiology, to environmental biology etc are explained and detailed using examples and exercises. The first chapters present the basic knowledge which defines, from a mathematical point-of-view, the isotopic effects of chemical reactions or of physical processes taking place in biology. The measurements principle of natural isotopes abundance is then synthesised. Finally, all these notions are applied at different scales: enzymes, physiology, metabolism, environment, ecosystems and fraud crackdown. (J.S.)

  14. CATAPP: A SMART DEVICE APPLICATION FOR WINDOWS PHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADHAV ARCHANA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CATApp is a mobile application developed for MBA aspirants to help them prepare on the go. It basically lets the user take test on the mobile device and track progress for each category of questions. It is currently available on Android and iOS platforms. Owing to the upcoming release of Windows 8 SDK supporting metro interface, we are planning to develop the app for Windows platform. Windows version of the app will mainly focus on tablets and phones. As Microsoft is working hard to compete with Android and iOS by implementing cuttingedge features required for mobile platform, it is the right time to start developing apps for Windows Phone.

  15. Applications of large-scale density functional theory in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Daniel J; Hine, Nicholas D M

    2016-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has become a routine tool for the computation of electronic structure in the physics, materials and chemistry fields. Yet the application of traditional DFT to problems in the biological sciences is hindered, to a large extent, by the unfavourable scaling of the computational effort with system size. Here, we review some of the major software and functionality advances that enable insightful electronic structure calculations to be performed on systems comprising many thousands of atoms. We describe some of the early applications of large-scale DFT to the computation of the electronic properties and structure of biomolecules, as well as to paradigmatic problems in enzymology, metalloproteins, photosynthesis and computer-aided drug design. With this review, we hope to demonstrate that first principles modelling of biological structure-function relationships are approaching a reality. PMID:27494095

  16. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Tőzsér

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences.

  17. Review of neutron radiographic applications in industrial and biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron radiography is a non-destructive testing technique and is being used worldwide for the design and the development of reactor fuels for research and power reactors. It is also being used for non-destructive examination of nuclear industrial products. In addition to its explosives and other industrial sectors. In addition to its applications in industrial sectors, the technique is widely used for research and development activities in biological systems. A review of technical applications of neutron radiography in different fields particularly in nuclear fuel management, aerospace industry, explosives and biology is presented. The methodology of neutron radiography is also discussed in detail along with the advantages of the technique. In addition, the potential of the neutron radiography facility at PINSTECH has been described. (author)

  18. 1,2,4-triazine derivatives: Synthesis and biological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arshad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,4-Triazines are the six membered heterocyclic compounds possessing three nitrogen in its structure with general formula C3H3N3. 1,2,4-Triazines and its derivatives have been found to exhibit the variety of biological applications such as antifungal, anti-HIV, anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic and antihypertensive, cardiotonic, neuroleptic, nootropic, antihistaminergic, tuberculostatic, antiviral, anti-protozoal, estrogen receptor modulators, antimalarial, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities.

  19. 1,2,4-triazine derivatives: Synthesis and biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Arshad; Taki Ahmed Khan; Meraj Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    1,2,4-Triazines are the six membered heterocyclic compounds possessing three nitrogen in its structure with general formula C3H3N3. 1,2,4-Triazines and its derivatives have been found to exhibit the variety of biological applications such as antifungal, anti-HIV, anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic and antihypertensive, cardiotonic, neuroleptic, nootropic, antihistaminergic, tuberculostatic, antiviral, anti-protozoal, estrogen receptor modulators, antimalarial, cyclin-dependent kinase inh...

  20. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    József Tőzsér; János András Mótyán; Ferenc Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications ...

  1. Applications of electrochemistry and nanotechnology in biology and medicine II

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2011-01-01

    The study of electrochemical nanotechnology has emerged as researchers apply electrochemistry to nanoscience and nanotechnology. These two related volumes in the Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry Series review recent developments and breakthroughs in the specific application of electrochemistry and nanotechnology to biology and medicine. Internationally renowned experts contribute chapters that address both fundamental and practical aspects of several key emerging technologies in biomedicine, such as the processing of new biomaterials, biofunctionalization of surfaces, characterization of bio

  2. Preparation and application of various nanoparticles in biology and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Gasparyan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper considers prospects for application of various nanoparticles in biology and medicine. Here are presented data on preparation of gold and silver nanoparticles, and effects of shape of these nanoparticles on their optical properties. Application of these nanoparticles in diagnostics, for drug delivery and therapy, and preparation of magnetic nanoparticles from iron and cobalt salts are also discussed. Application of these nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and as vehicles for drug delivery, and preparation of quantum dots and their application as prospective nanoparticles for multiplex analysis and for visualization of cellular processes will be tackled. Finally, prospects for new types of nanocomposites (metallic nano-shells will be not overlooked.

  3. Biologically Inspired Electronic, Photovoltaic and Microfluidic Devices Based on Aqueous Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung Jun

    Hydrogels are a water-based soft material where three dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymer retain large amounts of water. We developed hydrogel based devices with new functionalities inspired by materials, structures and processes in nature. The advantages, such as softness, biocompatibility and high ionic conductivity, could enable hydrogels to be novel materials for biomimetic devices operated by ionic current. Moreover, microfluidic patterns are easily embedded in moldable hydrogels and allow for unique convective/diffusive transport mechanism in porous gel to be used for uniform delivery of reagent solution. We first developed and characterized a device with unidirectional ionic current flow across a SiO2/Gel junction, which showed highly efficient rectification of the ionic current by non-linear conductivity of SiO2 films. Addition of polyelectrolytes and salt to the gel layer significantly improved the performance of the new diode device because of the enhanced gel conductance. A soft matter based diode composed of hydrogel and liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn) was also presented. The ability to control the thickness, and thus resistivity, of an insulating oxide skin on the metal enables the current rectification. The effect of ionic conductivity and pH on the formation of the insulating oxide was investigated in a simple model system with liquid metal/electrolyte solution or hydrogel/Pt interfaces. Finally, we present a diode composed entirely of soft materials by replacing the platinum electrode with a second liquid metal electrode. A new type of hydrogel-based photovoltaic systems (HGPVs) was constructed. Two photosensitive ionized molecules embedded in aqueous gel served as photoactive species. The HGPVs showed performance comparable with or higher than those of some other biomimetic or ionic photovoltaic systems reported recently. We suggest a provisional mechanism of the device operation, based on a synergetic effect of the two dye

  4. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  5. Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, Kim E.

    Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. The technologies highlighted in this chapter are continually evolving, taking advantage of emerging advances in microfabrication, lab-on-a-chip, excitation, and detection techniques. This chapter describes many of the underlying principles of TIR-based sensing platforms and additionally focusses on planar TIR fluorescence (TIRF)-based chemical and biological sensors.

  6. Device Configuration Handler for Accelerator Control Applications at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator control system at Jefferson Lab uses hundreds of physical devices with such popular instrument bus interfaces as Industry Pack (IPAC), GPIB, RS-232, etc. To properly handle all these components, control computers (IOCs) must be provided with the correct information about the unique memory addresses of the used interface cards, interrupt numbers (if any), data communication channels and protocols. In these conditions, the registration of a new control device in the control system is not an easy task for software developers. Because the device configuration is distributed, it requires the detailed knowledge about not only the new device but also the configuration of all other devices on the existing system. A configuration handler implemented at Jefferson Lab centralizes the information about all control devices making their registration user-friendly and very easy to use. It consists of a device driver framework and the device registration software developed on the basis of ORACLE database and freely available scripting tools (perl, php)

  7. Laser-based micro/nanoengineering for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, E.; Ranella, A.; Farsari, M.; Fotakis, C.

    2009-09-01

    Controlling the interactions of light with matter is crucial for the success and scalability for materials processing applications at micro and nano-scales. The use of ultrafast pulsed lasers (i.e. lasers emitting pulses of duration shorter than 10 -12 s) for the micro/nano engineering of biomaterials or materials relevant to biological applications opens up several exciting possibilities in this respect. These possibilities rely on several attractive features of ultrafast laser-matter interaction processes which allow nanoscale spatial resolution, non-thermal and non-destructive engineering to take place. This article presents a review of novel laser-based techniques for the printing and micro- and nano- scale surface modification of materials for biological applications. Emphasis is placed on techniques appropriate for biochip and tissue engineering applications, for which there is an increasing demand over the last years. Besides presenting recent advances achieved by these techniques, this work also delineates existing limitations and highlights emerging possibilities and future prospects in this field.

  8. Optical and Acoustic Device Applications of Ferroelastic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Steven Wayne

    This dissertation presents the discovery of a means of creating uniformly periodic domain gratings in a ferroelastic crystal of neodymium pentaphosphate (NPP). The uniform and non-uniform domain structures which can be created in NPP have the potential applications as tunable active gratings for lasers, tunable diffraction gratings, tunable Bragg reflection gratings, tunable acoustic filters, optical modulators, and optical domain wall memories. The interaction of optical and acoustic waves with ferroelastic domain walls in NPP is presented in detail. Acoustic amplitude reflection coefficients from a single domain wall in NPP are much larger than other ferroelastic-ferroelectrics such as gadolinium molybdate (GMO). Domain walls of NPP are used to make two demonstration acoustic devices: a tunable comb filter and a tunable delay line. The tuning process is accomplished by moving the position of the reflecting surface (the domain wall). A theory of the reflection of optical waves from NPP domain walls is discussed. The optical reflection is due to a change in the polarization of the wave, and not a change in the index, as the wave crosses the domain wall. Theoretical optical power reflection coefficients show good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The largest optical reflection coefficient of a single domain wall is at a critical angle and is 2.2% per domain wall. Techniques of injecting periodic and aperiodic domain walls into NPP are presented. The nucleation process of the uniformly periodic domain gratings in NPP is described in terms of a newly-discovered domain structure, namely the ferroelastic bubble. A ferroelastic bubble is the elastic analogue to the well-known magnetic bubble. The period of the uniformly periodic domain grating is tunable from 100 to 0.5 microns and the grating period may be tuned relatively rapidly. The Bragg efficiency of these tunable gratings is 77% for an uncoated crystal. Several demonstration devices which use

  9. Water-soluble perylenediimides: design concepts and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Müllen, Klaus; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-03-14

    Water-soluble perylenediimides (PDIs) with high fluorescence intensity, photostability and biocompatibility have been successfully prepared and applied in the biological field. In this tutorial review, we briefly focus on the synthetic strategies for the preparation of water-soluble PDIs by incorporating ionic or non-ionic substituents with multiple polar groups into the bay-region, imide- or ortho-positions of PDIs. These ionic/non-ionic substituents can suppress π-π aggregation and shield the inner perylene chromophores, thus contributing to the water solubility which is essential for biological applications. The optical properties, absorption and emission maxima above 500 nm, minimize the autofluorescence background of cells and provide access to imaging in living cells. The biological applications of water-soluble PDIs are discussed from simple (basic) to complex (advanced) processes, including biosensing in vitro studies, imaging and gene/drug delivering in living cells, tissues and the whole body. The promising future of designed multi-functional water-soluble PDIs will be highlighted in this review. PMID:26797049

  10. Exposing Software Defined Radio Functionality To Native Operating System Applications via Virtual Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, Darran

    2004-01-01

    Many reconfigurable platforms require that applications be written specifically to take advantage of the reconfigurable hardware. In a PC-based environment, this presents an undesirable constraint in that the many already available applications cannot leverage on such hardware. Greatest benefit can only be derived from reconfigurable devices if even native OS applications can transparently utilize reconfigurable devices as they would normal full-fledged hardware devices. This paper presents h...

  11. Chitooligosaccharide and Its Derivatives: Preparation and Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a natural polysaccharide of major importance. This biopolymer is synthesized by an enormous number of living organisms; considering the amount of chitin produced annually in the world, it is the most abundant polymer after cellulose. The most important derivative of chitin is chitosan, obtained by partial deacetylation of chitin under alkaline conditions or by enzymatic hydrolysis. Chitin and chitosan are known to have important functional activities but poor solubility makes them difficult to use in food and biomedicinal applications. Chitooligosaccharides (COS are the degraded products of chitosan or chitin prepared by enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of chitosan. The greater solubility and low viscosity of COS have attracted the interest of many researchers to utilize COS and their derivatives for various biomedical applications. In light of the recent interest in the biomedical applications of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, this review focuses on the preparation and biological activities of chitin, chitosan, COS, and their derivatives.

  12. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  13. Short-time multifractal analysis: application to biological signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some signals obtained from biological systems evince a great complexity. Recently, new tools which allow the extraction of information from them have been proposed. In particular, multifractal analysis gives a quantification of the degree and distribution of irregularities in a signal. A possible approach for this analysis is the one based on wavelet leaders. In this work, the use of wavelet leader based multifractal analysis in short-time windows is proposed in order to analyze the evolution of the multifractal behavior of biological signals. In particular, applications of this technique to the detection of ischemic episodes in heart rate variability signals and to voice activity detection are examined. It is shown that the study of the time evolution of indexes obtained with the proposed new method gives useful information hidden in the signals.

  14. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  15. DNA confinement in nanochannels: physics and biological applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, Walter; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Austin, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    biological interest in extracting linear sequence information from elongated DNA molecules, from a physics view these systems are fascinating as they enable probing of single-molecule conformation in environments with dimensions that intersect key physical length-scales in the 1 nm to 100μm range. (Some......DNA is the central storage molecule of genetic information in the cell, and reading that information is a central problem in biology. While sequencing technology has made enormous advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in platforms that can readout genetic information directly...... nanochannels, creating a linear unscrolling of the genome along the channel for analysis. We will first review the fundamental physics of DNA nanochannel confinement—including the effect of varying ionic strength—and then discuss recent applications of these systems to genomic mapping. Apart from the intense...

  16. Relationship of microdosimetric techniques to applications in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations are known to induce a wide variety of biological effects, including cell killing, mutation, chromosome aberrations, and carcinogenesis. Most effects of direct relevance to humans, whether from environmental, occupational, diagnostic, or therapeutic exposure, are due to damage to individual cells either singly or in multiples. It is clear that the microscopic patterns of interactions and energy deposition by the radiations are crucial to any detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which they induce these effects. All physical descriptions of these microscopic patterns constitute the field of microdosimetry in its broadest sense. This chapter summarizes the main descriptions which have been proposed to date and illustrates how they have been applied to biological systems. Limitations of the techniques and their applications are discussed

  17. Radioactive indicators in biology and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk was given at the society of promotion of the national industry on December 1, 1949. The report is a pre-print of an article published in L'Industrie Nationale no.2 (1950). It presents the state-of-the-art of the use of artificial radioisotopes in biology and medicine: 1 - definitions (isotopes, decay, radiation emission); 2 - modalities of the use of radioisotopes in biology: basic instrumentation (Geiger-Mueller counter, counting techniques, photography, auto-histo-radiography); 3 - applications in physiology (digestive absorption, excretion, vascular exchanges, tracer techniques) and biochemistry (metabolism, thyroxine synthesis and fixation indicators, tracer techniques for drugs); 4 - radiotherapy, internal and external irradiation. (J.S.)

  18. Synthetic glycopeptides and glycoproteins with applications in biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Westerlind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, synthetic methods for the preparation of complex glycopeptides have been drastically improved. The need for homogenous glycopeptides and glycoproteins with defined chemical structures to study diverse biological phenomena further enhances the development of methodologies. Selected recent advances in synthesis and applications, in which glycopeptides or glycoproteins serve as tools for biological studies, are reviewed. The importance of specific antibodies directed to the glycan part, as well as the peptide backbone has been realized during the development of synthetic glycopeptide-based anti-tumor vaccines. The fine-tuning of native chemical ligation (NCL, expressed protein ligation (EPL, and chemoenzymatic glycosylation techniques have all together enabled the synthesis of functional glycoproteins. The synthesis of structurally defined, complex glycopeptides or glyco-clusters presented on natural peptide backbones, or mimics thereof, offer further possibilities to study protein-binding events.

  19. Mobile computing device as tools for college student education: a case on flashcards application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Congying

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, college students always use flash cards as a tool to remember massive knowledge, such as nomenclature, structures, and reactions in chemistry. Educational and information technology have enabled flashcards viewed on computers, like Slides and PowerPoint, works as tunnels of drilling and feedback for the learners. The current generation of students is more capable of information technology and mobile computing devices. For example, they use their Mobile phones much more intensively everyday day. Trends of using Mobile phone as an educational tool is analyzed and a educational technology initiative is proposed, which use Mobile phone flash cards applications to help students learn biology and chemistry. Experiments show that users responded positively to these mobile flash cards.

  20. Laser-based printing and patterning for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sones, C. L.; Katis, I.N.; He, P.; Mills, B.; A. Mosayyebi; Butement, J.; Feinäugle, M.; Eason, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the use of pulsed lasers as patterning and printing tools for the end applications of micro-contact printing and paper-based fluidics. A fs-laser was used with a digital multi-mirror device (DMD) to structure a mould via ablation or photo-polymerisation. The patterns in this mould were then cast into polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS)-mould which was used for micro-contact printing. With the end-goal of producing a microfluidic diagnostic sensor on paper, a ns-laser was used for laser-ind...

  1. Transparent stacked organic light emitting devices. II. Device performance and applications to displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G.; Parthasarathy, G.; Tian, P.; Burrows, P. E.; Forrest, S. R.

    1999-10-01

    Vertical stacking of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) that emit the three primary colors is shown to be a means for achieving efficient and bright full-color displays. In Paper I, we addressed stacked OLED (SOLED) design and fabrication principles to optimize emission colors, operating voltage, and efficiency. Here, we present results on two different (metal-containing and metal-free cathode) SOLED structures that exhibit performance suitable for many full-color display applications. The operating voltages at 10 mA/cm2 (corresponding to video display brightnesses) are 6.8, 8.5, and 12.1 V for the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) elements of the metal-containing SOLED, respectively. The respective subpixel luminous efficiencies are 0.53, 1.44, and 1.52 cd/A, and the Commission Internationale de L'Éclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates are (0.72, 0.28), (0.42, 0.56), and (0.20, 0.22). In the high transparency metal-free SOLED, an insulating layer was inserted between the two upper subpixels to allow for independent grounding of all color emitters in the stack. At operating voltages of 12-14 V, video display brightnesses were achieved with luminous efficiencies of 0.35, 1.36, and 1.05 cd/A for the R, G, and B subpixels, respectively. The respective CIE coordinates for R, G, and B emissions are (0.72, 0.28), (0.26, 0.63), and (0.17, 0.28) in the normal viewing direction, shifting inperceptibly as the viewing angle is increased to as large as 60°. Finally, we discuss addressing schemes of SOLED displays, and compare them with other strategies for achieving full-color, OLED-based displays.

  2. Thermoplastic polymeric adhesive for structural bonding applications for orthopaedic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orthopaedics industry has witnessed tremendous growth in recent years primarily due to the introduction of high performance, porous coated implants. These devices have eliminated the need for the use of bone cement for in vivo implant fixation, replacing it with the ingrowth of bone into the porous surfaces. The metallurgical bonding processes used for attaching the porous to the implant body introduce some undesirable effect i.e., the reduction of the fatigue strength of the implant due to the ''notches'' created and also due to the high temperature exposure during the sintering operations. This paper describes the development of a thermoplastic polymeric adhesive based structural bonding technique. The high performance polymeric adhesive is fully characterized with respect to its intended application. The design of the porous layer is optimized to achieve a reliable bond to the implant. A thermal heating/cooling process was developed to control the final polymer morphology. Static and fatigue tests were conducted to fully characterize the adhesive bond strength. A ring shear test method was developed to determine the shear strength of the bond interface. Besides the characterization of the adhesive bond, the joints will be analyzed using finite element models. The correlation between the analytical models and the

  3. Pulsed electrical discharges for medicine and biology techniques, processes, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the application of pulsed electrical discharges in water and water dispersions of metal nanoparticles in medicine (surgery, dentistry, and oncology), biology, and ecology. The intensive electrical and shock waves represent a novel technique to destroy viruses and this way to  prepare anti-virus vaccines. The method of pulsed electrical discharges in water allows to decontaminate water from almost all known bacteria and spores of fungi being present in human beings. The nanoparticles used are not genotoxic and mutagenic. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students.

  4. The application of nuclear localisation technologies in environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and related localisation technologies at ANSTO have been applied to a range biological matrices, in relation to specific environmental questions. Several of these applications are summarised, including the localization of lead and other elements in crocodile osteoderms and validation of bivalve shell micro-laminations as archival monitors of pollution signals. The co-location of Ca and its metabolic analogue Ra-226 led to further development of a theoretical model of bioaccumulation of alkaline-earth and other elements in the tissue of Australian freshwater bivalves under natural conditions, which were not appreciably altered by uranium mining in the region

  5. Application of visco-hyperelastic devices in structural response control

    OpenAIRE

    Chittur Krishna Murthy, Anantha Narayan

    2005-01-01

    Structural engineering has progressed from design for life safety limit states to performance based engineering, in which energy dissipation systems in structural frameworks assume prime importance. A visco-hyperelastic device is a completely new type of passive energy dissipation system that not only combines the energy dissipation properties of velocity and displacement dependent devices but also provides additional stability to the structure precluding overall collapse. The device con...

  6. Application of blue-green and ultraviolet micro-LEDs to biological imaging and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews authors' laboratory's work on the development of nitride-based blue-green and ultraviolet microscale LED devices with particular classes of imaging and spectroscopic applications in cellular level biology. Starting from neuroscience, we illustrate the utility of blue-green micro-LEDs for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of individual neural cells, as well as their ultraviolet counterparts for photostimulation of neurons. Arrays of micro-LEDs are also shown to be useful in projecting spatiotemporal patterns of photoexcitation to study the visual system development in living animals. As another illustration of the utility of the emerging nitride microdevice technology, we demonstrate the application of UV micro-LED arrays in bio-sensing technology as the core of a real-time fluorescence spectroscopy biowarning system. (invited paper)

  7. Chitosan to Connect Biology to Electronics: Fabricating the Bio-Device Interface and Communicating Across This Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunkyoung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Individually, advances in microelectronics and biology transformed the way we live our lives. However, there remain few examples in which biology and electronics have been interfaced to create synergistic capabilities. We believe there are two major challenges to the integration of biological components into microelectronic systems: (i assembly of the biological components at an electrode address, and (ii communication between the assembled biological components and the underlying electrode. Chitosan possesses a unique combination of properties to meet these challenges and serve as an effective bio-device interface material. For assembly, chitosan’s pH-responsive film-forming properties allow it to “recognize” electrode-imposed signals and respond by self-assembling as a stable hydrogel film through a cathodic electrodeposition mechanism. A separate anodic electrodeposition mechanism was recently reported and this also allows chitosan hydrogel films to be assembled at an electrode address. Protein-based biofunctionality can be conferred to electrodeposited films through a variety of physical, chemical and biological methods. For communication, we are investigating redox-active catechol-modified chitosan films as an interface to bridge redox-based communication between biology and an electrode. Despite significant progress over the last decade, many questions still remain which warrants even deeper study of chitosan’s structure, properties, and functions.

  8. Applications of Chitin and Its Derivatives in Biological Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Moo Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitin and its derivatives—as a potential resource as well as multiple functional substrates—have generated attractive interest in various fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental industries, since the first isolation of chitin in 1811. Moreover, chitosan and its chitooligosaccharides (COS are degraded products of chitin through enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis processes; and COS, in particular, is well suited for potential biological application, due to the biocompatibility and nontoxic nature of chitosan. In this review, we investigate the current bioactivities of chitin derivatives, which are all correlated with their biomedical properties. Several new and cutting edge insights here may provide a molecular basis for the mechanism of chitin, and hence may aid its use for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Micro-segmented flow applications in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the method and application potential of micro segmented flow. The recent state of development of this powerful technique is presented in 12 chapters by leading researchers from different countries. In the first section, the principles of generation and manipulation of micro-fluidic segments are explained. In the second section, the micro continuous-flow synthesis of different types of nanomaterials is shown as a typical example for the use of advantages of the technique in chemistry. In the third part, the particular importance of the technique in biotechnical applications is presented demonstrating the progress for miniaturized cell-free processes, for molecular biology and DNA-based diagnostis and sequencing as well as for the development of antibiotics and the evaluation of toxic effects in medicine and environment.

  10. Core/Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, drug delivery and cell signaling. The surface modification of the nanomaterials is required for biomedical use to give physiogical stability, surface reactivity and targeting properties. Among many approaches for the surface modification with materials, such as polymers, organic ligands and metals, one of the most attractive ways is using metals. The fabrication of metal-based, monolayer-coated magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively studied. However, the synthesis of metal-capped magnetic nanoparticles with monodispersities and controllable sizes is still challenged. Recently, gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles have been reported to increase stability and to provide biocompatibility. Magnetic nanoparticle with gold coating is an attractive system, which can be stabilized in biological conditions and readily functionalized in biological conditions and readily functionalized through well-established surface modification (Au-S) chemistry. The Au coating offers plasmonic properties to magnetic nanoparticles. This makes the magnetic/Au core/shell combinations interesting for magnetic and optical applications. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of gold capped-magnetic core structured nanomaterials with different gold sources, such as gold acetate and chloroauric acid have been reported. The core/shell nanoparticles were transferred from organic to aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. Magnetic core/shell structured nanoparticles have been prepared and transferred from organic phase to aqueous solutions. The resulting Au-coated magnetic core nanoparticles might be an attractive system for biomedical applications, which are needed both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging

  11. [The management of implantable medical device and the application of the internet of things in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Implantable medical device is a special product which belongs to medical devices. It not only possesses product characteristics in common, but also has specificity for safety and effectiveness. Implantable medical device must be managed by the relevant laws and regulations of the State Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, we have used cardiac pacemakers as an example to describe the significance of the management of implantable medical device products and the application of the internet of things in hospitals. PMID:22379772

  12. Advances in microbeam technologies and applications to radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberet, P; Seznec, H

    2015-09-01

    Charged-particle microbeams (CPMs) allow the targeting of sub-cellular compartments with a counted number of energetic ions. While initially developed in the late 1990s to overcome the statistical fluctuation on the number of traversals per cell inevitably associated with broad beam irradiations, CPMs have generated a growing interest and are now used in a wide range of radiation biology studies. Besides the study of the low-dose cellular response that has prevailed in the applications of these facilities for many years, several new topics have appeared recently. By combining their ability to generate highly clustered damages in a micrometric volume with immunostaining or live-cell GFP labelling, a huge potential for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage and repair has been introduced. This type of studies has pushed end-stations towards advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, and several microbeam lines are currently equipped with the state-of-the-art time-lapse fluorescence imaging microscopes. In addition, CPMs are nowadays also used to irradiate multicellular models in a highly controlled way. This review presents the latest developments and applications of charged-particle microbeams to radiation biology. PMID:25911406

  13. Peri-operative warming devices: performance and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M; Ford, J; Harper, M

    2014-06-01

    Since the adverse consequences of accidental peri-operative hypothermia have been recognised, there has been a rapid expansion in the development of new warming equipment designed to prevent it. This is a review of peri-operative warming devices and a critique of the evidence assessing their performance. Forced-air warming is a common and extensively tested warming modality that outperforms passive insulation and water mattresses, and is at least as effective as resistive heating. More recently developed devices include circulating water garments, which have shown promising results due to their ability to cover large surface areas, and negative pressure devices aimed at improving subcutaneous perfusion for warming. We also discuss the challenge of fluid warming, looking particularly at how devices' performance varies according to flow rate. Our ultimate aim is to provide a guide through the bewildering array of devices on the market so that clinicians can make informed and accurate choices for their particular hospital environment. PMID:24720346

  14. Ternary and quaternary antimonide devices for thermophotovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, C.W.; Gutmann, R.J.; Ehsani, H.; Bhat, I.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronics Manufacturing; Wang, C.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.; Freeman, M.J.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices have been fabricated using epitaxial ternary and quaternary layers grown on GaSb substrates. GaInSb ternary devices were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with buffer layers to accommodate the lattice mismatch, and GaInAsSb lattice-matched quaternaries were grown by MOVPE and by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Improved devices are obtained when optical absorption occurs in the p-layer due to the longer minority carrier diffusion length. Thick emitter p/n devices are limited by surface recombination, with highest quantum efficiency and lowest dark current being achieved with epitaxially grown surface passivation layers on lattice-matched MOVPE quaternaries. Thin emitter/thick base n/p devices are very promising, but require improved shallow high-quality n-type ohmic contacts.

  15. Analysis and Design of Web Applications for Use in Conventional and Mobile Computing Devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Lassen, Jens Ehlert

    2013-01-01

    The project examines the usability of web (HTML) applications originally designed for use in conventional desktop computers and laptops when used by mobile computing devices. Of particular interest are tablets and smartphones. The project also investigates whether existing technology and developmental approaches can be used to redevelop such web applications as to be compatible with mobile devices and desktop devices and yet retain their usability and functionality. The project first ...

  16. Novel display devices for command and control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Roger

    2001-09-01

    The Topographical Map Display military R&D project was dedicated to the design and development of hardware display prototypes to study alternatives to paper maps for command and control applications. It investigated better ways to present information to commanders by using a mosaic of electronic display screens to present a macroscopic view of a situation, rather than a microscopic view allowed by conventional single display screens. In the initial phase, the first-generation ToMaDi was built by using four 20' diagonal plasma display panels tiled in a 2 x 2 configuration. In the second phase, ToMaDi MkII was built. This unit used sixteen 14.1' diagonal thin-film liquid crystal displays tiled in a 4 x 4 configuration and connected to a WinNT4 PC computer. In addition to the mullion reduction, the size and pixel surface density increased and touchscreen capability was added. This way, the ToMaDi MkII allowed the user(s) to both easily see and control the information displayed, which is no ordinary task with large display devices. Despite its size, ToMaDi MkII remains an 'ordinary' workstation, which is easy to integrate with current and future CCIS through a network link. Up to now, the MkII prototype has shown very good characteristics that allow its use in specific operational scenarios. The value of ToMaDi was confirmed by its utilization in two major military exercises during the summer of 2000. In summary, the ToMaDi MkII makes electronic mapping a reality.

  17. Devices, components, and applications of low cost using polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Mauro; Baldwin-Olguin, Guillermo

    2004-10-01

    Low-cost optical devices, components a polymer optical fiber (POF) are demonstrated using technical of polished. Potentially low-cost components fabrication processes are described. Several components and devices are proposed for applications in comunications or industrial applications. Experimental results obtained with POF and diffraction grating are presented.

  18. Devices, components, and applications of low cost using polymer optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Lomer Barboza, Mauro Matías; Baldwin Olguín, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Low-cost optical devices, components a polymer optical fiber (POF) are demonstrated using technical of polished. Potentially low-cost components fabrication processes are described. Several components and devices are proposed for applications in comunications or industrial applications. Experimental results obtained with POF and diffraction grating are presented.

  19. Developing native applications on modern devices: A cross-platform approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselknippe, Simen Emil Widerøe

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts, theories, and patterns related to cross-platform development on mobile devices. It discusses what applications programmers can develop, what devices are important to target, and how to develop mobile applications with a cross-platform approach.

  20. Biological effects of dynamic shear stress in cardiovascular pathologies and devices

    OpenAIRE

    Girdhar, Gaurav; Bluestein, Danny

    2008-01-01

    Altered and highly dynamic shear stress conditions have been implicated in endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease, and in thromboembolic complications in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. In addition to vascular damage, the pathological flow patterns characterizing cardiovascular pathologies and blood flow in prosthetic devices induce shear activation and damage to blood constituents. Investigation of the specific and accentuated effects of such flow-induced perturbations ...

  1. Miniaturized tools and devices for bioanalytical applications: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudy, M.; Grabowska, I.; Ciosek, P.; Filipowicz-Szymanska, A.; Stadnik, D.; Wyzkiewicz, I.; Jedrych, E.; Juchniewicz, M.; Skolimowski, Maciej; Ziolkowska, K.; Kwapiszewski, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various miniaturized devices and technologies developed by our group. Innovative, fast and cheap procedures for the fabrication of laboratory microsystems based on commercially available materials are reported and compared with well-established microfabrication...

  2. Application of the permanent magnets to screwing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of automatic screwing devices that use permanent magnets to transmit a torque without contact between two rotors is that an unscrewing occurs after the pull-out has occured. A solution to avoid this is to conceive devices with a dissymmetrical torque behaviour with regard to the angular shifting of the rotors. This can be done by modifying the shape of the magnets: inclined planes poles with a plateau and a cyclic ratio different from 0.5 give structures for which the positive maximum torque is higher than the negative one. Another approach consists in considering poles of different width on each rotor, jointive on only one of them. The behaviour is largely improved for screwing devices: maximum positive torque two times greater than the negative one, no loss of torque with regard to a classical coupling, reduction of the magnet weight, thus of the device inertia. (orig.)

  3. Fabrication of Optical Devices Based on Printable Photonics Technology and Its Application for Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Okuda, Norimichi; Yanagida, Yasuko; Tanaka, Satoru; Hatsuzawa, Takeshi

    The specific optical characteristics which can be observed nanostructured optical device have great potentials for applying to several applications such as lifescience, optical communications, and data storage. Application of nanostrcutured optical device to industry, we suggest “printable photonics technology” for fabrication of nanostructured optical device based on nanoimprint lithography (NIL). In this study, using printable photonics technology, fabrication of flexible photonic crystal (PC) and its application for biosensor was performed. Using printable photonics technology-based PC for biosensing application, high sensitive detection of protein adsorption (detection limit: 1 pg/ml) could be detected.

  4. Handmade microfluidic device for biochemical applications in emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzabaev, Marsel; Kojima, Takaaki; Mizoguchi, Takuro; Kobayashi, Isao; DeKosky, Brandon J; Georgiou, George; Nakano, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive flow-focusing device has been developed to make uniform droplets for biochemical reactions, such as in vitro transcription and cell-free protein synthesis. The device was fabricated from commercially available components without special equipment. Using the emulsion droplets formed by the device, a class I ligase ribozyme, bcI 23, was successfully synthesized from DNA attached to magnetic microbeads by T7 RNA polymerase. It was also ligated with an RNA substrate on the same microbeads, and detected using flow cytometry with a fluorescent probe. In addition, a single-chain derivative of the lambda Cro protein was expressed using an Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis system in emulsion, which was prepared using the flow-focusing device. In both emulsified reactions, usage of the flow-focusing device was able to greatly reduce the coefficient of variation for the amount of RNA or protein displayed on the microbeads, demonstrating the device is advantageous for quantitative analysis in high-throughput screening. PMID:26386750

  5. Characterization of freestanding photoresist films for biological and MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoresists are light-sensitive resins used in a variety of technological applications. In most applications, however, photoresists are generally used as sacrificial layers or a structural layer that remains on the fabrication substrate. Thin layers of patterned 1002F photoresist were fabricated and released to form a freestanding film. Films of thickness in the range of 4.5–250 µm were patterned with through-holes to a resolution of 5 µm and an aspect ratio of up to 6:1. Photoresist films could be reliably released from the substrate after a 12 h immersion in water. The Young's modulus of a 50 µm-thick film was 1.43 ± 0.20 GPa. Use of the films as stencils for patterning sputtered metal onto a surface was demonstrated. These 1002F stencils were used multiple times without deterioration in feature quality. Furthermore, the films provided biocompatible, transparent surfaces of low autofluorescence on which cells could be grown. Culture of cells on a film with an isolated small pore enabled a single cell to be accessed through the underlying channel and loaded with exogenous molecules independently of nearby cells. Thus 1002F photoresist was patterned into thin, flexible, free-standing films that will have numerous applications in the biological and MEMS fields. (paper)

  6. Biological applications of fluorescence lifetime imaging beyond microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Guo, Kevin; Almutairi, Adah; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Fischer, Georg M.; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Achilefu, Samuel

    2010-02-01

    Fluorescence lifetime is a relatively new contrast mechanism for optical imaging in living subjects that relies on intrinsic properties of fluorophores rather than concentration dependent intensity. Drawing upon the success of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for investigation of protein-protein interactions and intracellular physiology, in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) promises to dramatically increase the utility of fluorescencebased imaging in preclinical and clinical applications. Intrinsic fluorescence lifetime measurements in living tissues can distinguish pathologies such as cancer from healthy tissue. Unfortunately, intrinsic FLT contrast is limited to superficial measurements. Conventional intensity-based agents have been reported for measuring these phenomena in vitro, but translation into living animals is difficult due to optical properties of tissues. For this reason, contrast agents that can be detected in the near infrared (NIR) wavelengths are being developed by our lab and others to enhance the capabilities of this modality. FLT is less affected by concentration and thus is better for detecting small changes in physiology, as long as sufficient fluorescence signal can be measured. FLT can also improve localization of signals for improved deep tissue imaging. Examples of the utility of exogenous contrast agents will be discussed, including applications in monitoring physiologic functions, controlled drug release and cancer biology. Instrumentation for FLI will also be discussed, including planar and diffuse optical imaging in time and frequency domains. Future applications will also be discussed that are being developed in this exciting field that complement other optical modalities.

  7. CloneCloud: Boosting Mobile Device Applications Through Cloud Clone Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Byung-Gon; Maniatis, Petros; Naik, Mayur

    2010-01-01

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and provide ever richer functionality on mobile devices. At the same time, such devices often enjoy strong connectivity with more powerful machines ranging from laptops and desktops to commercial clouds. This paper presents the design and implementation of CloneCloud, a system that automatically transforms mobile applications to benefit from the cloud. The system is a flexible application partitioner and execution runtime that enables unmodified mobile applications running in an application-level virtual machine to seamlessly off-load part of their execution from mobile devices onto device clones operating in a computational cloud. CloneCloud uses a combination of static analysis and dynamic profiling to optimally and automatically partition an application so that it migrates, executes in the cloud, and re-integrates computation in a fine-grained manner that makes efficient use of resources. Our evaluation shows that CloneCloud can achieve up to 21.2x s...

  8. Fluid Mechanics of Biological Surfaces and their Technological Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.; Bruse, M.; Hage, W.; Meyer, R.

    A survey is given on fluid-dynamic effects caused by the structure and properties of biological surfaces. It is demonstrated that the results of investigations aiming at technological applications can also provide insights into biophysical phenomena. Techniques are described both for reducing wall shear stresses and for controlling boundary-layer separation. (a) Wall shear stress reduction was investigated experimentally for various riblet surfaces including a shark skin replica. The latter consists of 800 plastic model scales with compliant anchoring. Hairy surfaces are also considered, and surfaces in which the no-slip condition is modified. Self-cleaning surfaces such as that of lotus leaves represent an interesting option to avoid fluid-dynamic deterioration by the agglomeration of dirt. An example of technological implementation is discussed for riblets in long-range commercial aircraft. (b) Separation control is also an important issue in biology. After a few brief comments on vortex generators, the mechanism of separation control by bird feathers is described in detail. Self-activated movable flaps (=artificial bird feathers) represent a high-lift system enhancing the maximum lift of airfoils by about 20%. This is achieved without perceivable deleterious effects under cruise conditions. Finally, flight experiments on an aircraft with laminar wing and movable flaps are presented.

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy Application in Biological Research: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.

  10. A poroelastic immersed boundary method with applications to cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Copos, Calina A.; Lewis, Owen L.; Guy, Robert D.

    2015-02-01

    The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In the traditional immersed boundary method, the fluid and structure move with the same velocity field. In this work, a model based on the immersed boundary method is presented for simulating poroelastic media in which the fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of small volume fraction that moves with its own velocity field. Two distinct methods for calculating elastic stresses are presented and compared. The methods are validated on a radially symmetric test problem by comparing with a finite difference solution of the classical equations of poroelasticity. Finally, two applications of the modeling framework to cell biology are provided: cellular blebbing and cell crawling. It is shown that in both examples, poroelastic effects are necessary to explain the relevant mechanics.

  11. Modular Verification of Interactive Systems with an Application to Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Milazzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose sync-programs, an automata-based formalism for the description of biological systems, and a modular verification technique for such a formalism that allows properties expressed in the universal fragment of CTL to be verified on suitably chosen fragments of models, rather than on whole models. As an application we show the modelling of the lac operon regulation process and the modular verification of some properties. Verification of properties is performed by using the NuSMV model checker and we show that by applying our modular verification technique we can verify properties in shorter times than those necessary to verify the same properties in the whole model.

  12. Biology and Industrial Applications of Chlorella: Advances and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella represents a group of eukaryotic green microalgae that has been receiving increasing scientific and commercial interest. It possesses high photosynthetic ability and is capable of growing robustly under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions as well. Chlorella has long been considered as a source of protein and is now industrially produced for human food and animal feed. Chlorella is also rich in oil, an ideal feedstock for biofuels. The exploration of biofuel production by Chlorella is underway. Chlorella has the ability to fix carbon dioxide efficiently and to remove nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous, making it a good candidate for greenhouse gas biomitigation and wastewater bioremediation. In addition, Chlorella shows potential as an alternative expression host for recombinant protein production, though challenges remain to be addressed. Currently, omics analyses of certain Chlorella strains are being performed, which will help to unravel the biological implications of Chlorella and facilitate the future exploration of industrial applications. PMID:25537445

  13. Development of a biaxial compression device for biological samples: preliminary experimental results for a closed cell foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, J P; Tevelen, G; Adam, C J; Evans, J H; Pearcy, M J

    2009-07-01

    Biological tissues are subjected to complex loading states in vivo and in order to define constitutive equations that effectively simulate their mechanical behaviour under these loads, it is necessary to obtain data on the tissue's response to multiaxial loading. Single axis and shear testing of biological tissues is often carried out, but biaxial testing is less common. We sought to design and commission a biaxial compression testing device, capable of obtaining repeatable data for biological samples. The apparatus comprised a sealed stainless steel pressure vessel specifically designed such that a state of hydrostatic compression could be created on the test specimen while simultaneously unloading the sample along one axis with an equilibrating tensile pressure. Thus a state of equibiaxial compression was created perpendicular to the long axis of a rectangular sample. For the purpose of calibration and commissioning of the vessel, rectangular samples of closed cell ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam were tested. Each sample was subjected to repeated loading, and nine separate biaxial experiments were carried out to a maximum pressure of 204 kPa (30 psi), with a relaxation time of two hours between them. Calibration testing demonstrated the force applied to the samples had a maximum error of 0.026 N (0.423% of maximum applied force). Under repeated loading, the foam sample demonstrated lower stiffness during the first load cycle. Following this cycle, an increased stiffness, repeatable response was observed with successive loading. While the experimental protocol was developed for EVA foam, preliminary results on this material suggest that this device may be capable of providing test data for biological tissue samples. The load response of the foam was characteristic of closed cell foams, with consolidation during the early loading cycles, then a repeatable load-displacement response upon repeated loading. The repeatability of the test results demonstrated the

  14. CloneCloud: Boosting Mobile Device Applications Through Cloud Clone Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Byung-Gon; Ihm, Sunghwan; Maniatis, Petros; Naik, Mayur

    2010-01-01

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and provide ever richer functionality on mobile devices. At the same time, such devices often enjoy strong connectivity with more powerful machines ranging from laptops and desktops to commercial clouds. This paper presents the design and implementation of CloneCloud, a system that automatically transforms mobile applications to benefit from the cloud. The system is a flexible application partitioner and execution runtime that enables u...

  15. Synthetic Genomics and Synthetic Biology Applications Between Hopes and Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    König, Harald; Frank, Daniel; Heil, Reinhard; Coenen, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    New organisms and biological systems designed to satisfy human needs are among the aims of synthetic genomics and synthetic biology. Synthetic biology seeks to model and construct biological components, functions and organisms that do not exist in nature or to redesign existing biological systems to perform new functions. Synthetic genomics, on the other hand, encompasses technologies for the generation of chemically-synthesized whole genomes or larger parts of genomes, allowing to simultaneo...

  16. A novel POSS-coated quantum dot for biological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi SB

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarwat B Rizvi,1 Lara Yildirimer,1 Shirin Ghaderi,1 Bala Ramesh,1 Alexander M Seifalian,1,2 Mo Keshtgar1,21UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, United Kingdom; 2Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust Hospital, London, United KingdomAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs are fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals that have the potential for major advancements in the field of nanomedicine through their unique photophysical properties. They can potentially be used as fluorescent probes for various biomedical imaging applications, including cancer localization, detection of micrometastasis, image guided surgery, and targeted drug delivery. Their main limitation is toxicity, which requires a biologically compatible surface coating to shield the toxic core from the surrounding environment. However, this leads to an increase in QD size that may lead to problems of excretion and systemic sequestration. We describe a one pot synthesis, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity of a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-coated CdTe-cored QD using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA and D-cysteine as stabilizing agents. Characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. POSS-coated QDs demonstrated high colloidal stability and enhanced photostability on high degrees of ultraviolet (UV excitation compared to QDs coated with MSA and D-cysteine alone (P value < 0.05. In vitro toxicity studies showed that both POSS and MSA-QDs were significantly less toxic than ionized salts of Cd+2 and Te-2. Confocal microscopy confirmed high brightness of POSS-QDs in cells at both 1 and 24 hours, indicating that these QDs are rapidly taken up by cells and remain photostable in a biological environment. We therefore conclude that a POSS coating confers biological compatibility, photostability, and colloidal

  17. Narrow Bandwidth Top-Emitting OLEDs Designed for Rhodamine 6G Excitation in Biological Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jahnel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLED are promising candidates offering in optical sensor applications to detect different gas compositions and excitable optical marker groups in chemical and biological processes. They enable attractive solutions for monitoring the gas phase composition of e.g., dissolved molecular oxygen (O2 species in bio reactors or excitation of fluorescent markers. In this work, we investigate different OLED devices for biomedical applications to excite the fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G (R6G. The OLED devices are built in top emission geometry comprising a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR acting as optical mirror. The OLED is optimized to provide a very narrow emission characteristic to excite the R6G at 530 nm wavelength and enabling the possibility to minimize the optical crosstalk between the OLED electroluminescence and the fluorescence of R6G. The DBR includes a thin film encapsulation and enables the narrowing of the spectral emission band depending on the number of DBR pairs. The comparison between optical simulation data and experimental results exhibits good agreement and proves process stability.

  18. NASA NDE Applications for Mobile MEMS Devices and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.; Barclay, R. O.

    2008-01-01

    NASA would like new devices and sensors for performing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace vehicles. These devices must be small in size/volume, mass, and power consumption. The devices must be autonomous and mobile so they can access the internal structures of aircraft and spacecraft and adequately monitor the structural health of these craft. The platforms must be mobile in order to transport NDE sensors for evaluating structural integrity and determining whether further investigations will be required. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is crucial to the development of the mobile platforms and sensor systems. This paper presents NASA s needs for micro mobile platforms and MEMS sensors that will enable NDE to be performed on aerospace vehicles.

  19. Molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors for applications in photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meinhardt, G

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on molecular as well as polymeric semiconductors were investigated and characterized. The organic materials presented here exhibit the advantages of low price, low processing costs and the possibility of tuning their optical properties. The photovoltaic properties were investigated by photocurrent action spectroscopy and I/V-characterization and the electric field distribution in each layer by electroabsorption spectroscopy. Single layer devices of molecular semiconductors and semiconducting polymers like methyl-substituted polyparaphenylene, CN-Ether-PPV, copper-phthalocyanine, the terryleneimide DOTer, the perylene derivatives BBP-perylene and polyBBP-perylene show low photocurrents as well as a small photovoltaic effect in their pristine form. One way to enhance the performance is to blend the active layer with molecular dopands like a soluble form of titaniumoxophthalocyanine or the aromatic macromolecule RS19 or to combine two organic semiconductors in heterostructure devices. ...

  20. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of NASA technology and its application to medicine is discussed. The introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products and incorporation of aerospace technology is outlined. A biopolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the methodology. The methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the ocular screening device, a system for quick detection of vision problems in preschool children, and Porta-Fib III, a hospital monitoring unit. Two institutional transfers were completed: implant materials testing, the application of NASA fracture control technology to improve reliability of metallic prostheses, and incinerator monitoring, a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor combustion products of municipal incinerators. Mobility aids for the blind and ultrasound diagnosis of burn depth are also studied.

  1. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  2. Biological in situ Dose Painting for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Using Drug-Loaded Implantable Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Implantable devices routinely used for increasing spatial accuracy in modern image-guided radiation treatments (IGRT), such as fiducials or brachytherapy spacers, encompass the potential for in situ release of biologically active drugs, providing an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic ratio. We model this new approach for two types of treatment. Methods and Materials: Radiopaque fiducials used in IGRT, or prostate brachytherapy spacers ('eluters'), were assumed to be loaded with radiosensitizer for in situ drug slow release. An analytic function describing the concentration of radiosensitizer versus distance from eluters, depending on diffusion-elimination properties of the drug in tissue, was developed. Tumor coverage by the drug was modeled for tumors typical of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments for various eluter dimensions and drug properties. Six prostate 125I brachytherapy cases were analyzed by assuming implantation of drug-loaded spacers. Radiosensitizer-induced subvolume boost was simulated from which biologically effective doses for typical radiosensitizers were calculated in one example. Results: Drug distributions from three-dimensional arrangements of drug eluters versus eluter size and drug properties were tabulated. Four radiosensitizer-loaded fiducials provide adequate radiosensitization for ∼4-cm-diameter lung tumors, thus potentially boosting biologically equivalent doses in centrally located stereotactic body treated lesions. Similarly, multiple drug-loaded spacers provide prostate brachytherapy with flexible shaping of 'biologically equivalent doses' to fit requirements difficult to meet by using radiation alone, e.g., boosting a high-risk region juxtaposed to the urethra while respecting normal tissue tolerance of both the urethra and the rectum. Conclusions: Drug loading of implantable devices routinely used in IGRT provides new opportunities for therapy modulation via biological in situ dose painting.

  3. Application of rupture disc safety device in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional disc devices are used to protect pressure vessels against excess pressure. However, there are several limitations for conventional discs: they are prone to premature fatigue failure; on bursting, disc material is released into to discharge piping; the difference between the design burst pressure and the design work pressure of the protected vessel is too large, etc. These limitations have been avoided by the new reverse buckling disc devices, in which the compressive strength of the disc material is used to determine its bursting pressure. The new type reverse buckling discs have been used successfully in nuclear industry

  4. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  5. Polyhydroyalkanoates: from Basic Research and Molecular Biology to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd alFattah Amara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, an intracellular biodegradable microbial polymer. PHAs is formed from different types of three hydroxyalkanoic acids monomers, each unit forms an ester bond with the hydroxyl group of the other one and the hydroxyl substituted carbon has R configuration. The C-3 atom in β position is branched with at least one carbon atom in the form of methyl group (C1 to thirteen carbons in the form of tridecyl (C13. This alkyl side chain is not necessarily saturated. PHAs are biosynthesized through regulated pathways by specific enzymes. PHAs are accumulated in bacterial cells from soluble to insoluble form as storage materials inside the inclusion bodies during unbalanced nutrition or to save organisms from reducing equivalents. PHAs are converted again to soluble components by PHAs depolymerases and the degraded materials enter various metabolic pathways. Until now, four classes of enzymes responsible for PHAs polymerization are known. PHAs were well studied regarding their promising applications, physical, chemical and biological properties. PHAs are biodegradable, biocompatible, have good material properties, renewable and can be used in many applications. The most limiting factor in PHAs commercialization is their high cost compared to the petroleum plastics. This review highlights the new knowledge and that established by the pioneers in this field as well as the factors, which affect PHAs commercialization.

  6. Fabrication of polymer waveguide devices for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mu; Hiltunen, Jussi; Wang, Meng; Suutala, Antti; Karioja, Pentti; Myllylä, Risto

    2010-11-01

    The fabrication of polymer based waveguide devices by different methods is investigated in this work including lithographic, imprinting and focused-ion-beam processing. Also, the combination of luminescent substance with waveguide is evaluated to produce integrated optical micro system including both the light source and sensor structure on a single platform.

  7. Topology optimization of metallic devices for microwave applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Mortensen, Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In electromagnetic optimization problems of metallic radio-frequency devices, such as antennas and resonators for wireless energy transfer, the volumetric distribution of good conductors, e.g. copper, has been known to cause numerical bottlenecks. In finite element analysis the limiting factor is...

  8. Superlattice-based quantum devices: from theory to practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, M.

    2014-07-01

    The concepts of resonant tunneling and superlattices were first developed by Esaki and Tsu. What started with the new physics of the Esaki tunnel diode has matured into nanoscale engineering of semiconductors superlattices to create whole synthetic band structures. While working at Thomson CSF in France, Manijeh Razeghi went on to develop the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy growth of superlattice material as reported in my seminal volumes of The MOCVD Challenge. After years of considerable effort to bring this technology to maturity, we now see the results of this formidable new science in almost every electronic and photonic device that we encounter. Among the most successful triumphs are the type-II superlattice photodetectors and quantum cascade lasers - these technologies have demonstrated the beauty of turning fundamental concepts into practical devices, thanks to advanced growth technologies. This enables us to design and realize compact devices capable of mimicking or even exceeding nature. Using superlattice to pioneer the development of quantum systems is driving the research work at the Center for Quantum Devices.

  9. Barium strontium titanate thin film varactors for room-temperature microwave device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in the development of barium strontium titanate thin film varactors for room temperature tunable microwave devices applications is reviewed, with emphasis on efforts towards the improvement in the quality of BST thin films and the fabrication issues crucial for the performance of microwave devices based on BST varactors. The paper provides examples of tunable microwave devices employing BST varactors. Other thin film materials currently competing with BST thin films are discussed. Topics which deserve further investigation are suggested. (topical review)

  10. Small form factor (SFF) optical data storage devices for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Pil; Park, No-Cheol; Kim, Chul-Jin

    2005-09-01

    There are two basic requirements in the field of optical storage data devices. The first is the demand for the improvement of memory capacity to manage the increased data capacity in personal and official purposes. The second is the demand for small sized optical storage devices for mobile multimedia digital electronics, including digital camera, PDA and mobile phones. To summarize, for the sake of mobile applications, it is necessary to develop optical data storage devices which have simultaneously a large capacity and a small size. Small form factor optical disk drive (SFF ODD) is expected to become a good match for mobile applications due its advantages over other devices in cost and removability. Nowadays, many companies and research institutes including universities cooperate together in the research on SFF ODD and other related optical storage devices. Due such active researches, it is expected that SFF ODD will be widely used in mobile applications in the very near future.

  11. Dielectric relaxation in biological systems physical principles, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This title covers the theoretical basis and practical aspects of the study of dielectric properties of biological systems, such as water, electrolyte and polyelectrolytes, solutions of biological macromolecules, cells suspensions and cellular systems.

  12. RNA triplexes: from structural principles to biological and biotech applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Gitali; Zhou, Yuan; Zhong, Zhensheng; Toh, Desiree-Faye Kaixin; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The diverse biological functions of RNA are determined by the complex structures of RNA stabilized by both secondary and tertiary interactions. An RNA triplex is an important tertiary structure motif that is found in many pseudoknots and other structured RNAs. A triplex structure usually forms through tertiary interactions in the major or minor groove of a Watson-Crick base-paired stem. A major-groove RNA triplex structure is stable in isolation by forming consecutive major-groove base triples such as U·A-U and C(+) ·G-C. Minor-groove RNA triplexes, e.g., A-minor motif triplexes, are found in almost all large structured RNAs. As double-stranded RNA stem regions are often involved in biologically important tertiary triplex structure formation and protein binding, the ability to sequence specifically target any desired RNA duplexes by triplex formation would have great potential for biomedical applications. Programmable chemically modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been developed to form TFO·RNA2 and PNA·RNA2 triplexes, respectively, with enhanced binding affinity and sequence specificity at physiological conditions. Here, we (1) provide an overview of naturally occurring RNA triplexes, (2) summarize the experimental methods for studying triplexes, and (3) review the development of TFOs and triplex-forming PNAs for targeting an HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift-inducing RNA, a bacterial ribosomal A-site RNA, and a human microRNA hairpin precursor, and for inhibiting the RNA-protein interactions involving human RNA-dependent protein kinase and HIV-1 viral protein Rev. PMID:25146348

  13. Application of fish biology in management of the fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Mbabazi, D.; Namulemo, G.

    2001-01-01

    All biological aspects of the stock are of scientific interest. Specific biological parameters are used either in estimating; yield, or providing a basis for suggesting fisheries management strategies, growth, mortality and stock size are the main determinants of yield, and aspects such as the timing of spawning and recruitment are important in considering management measures. In fisheries science, fish biology contributes in two broad areas; a) Basic biology and distribution of resourc...

  14. A review on biological adaptation: with applications in engineering science

    OpenAIRE

    LiMin Luo; WenJun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Biological adaptation refers to that organisms change themselves at morphological, physiological, behavioral and molecular level to better survive in a changing environment. It includes phenotype adaptation and molecular adaptation. Biological adaptation is a driving force of evolution. Biological adaptation was described from Darwinian theory of evolution to the theory of molecular evolution in present paper. Adaptive control and adaptive filtering were briefly described also.

  15. Advanced Semiconductor Heterostructures Novel Devices, Potential Device Applications and Basic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stroscio, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    This volume provides valuable summaries on many aspects of advanced semiconductor heterostructures and highlights the great variety of semiconductor heterostructures that has emerged since their original conception. As exemplified by the chapters in this book, recent progress on advanced semiconductor heterostructures spans a truly remarkable range of scientific fields with an associated diversity of applications. Some of these applications will undoubtedly revolutionize critically important facets of modern technology. At the heart of these advances is the ability to design and control the pr

  16. Supporting Local Mobility in Healthcare by Application Roaming among Heterogeneous Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind; Kjær, Thomas A.K.; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    computer support; (i) it should integrate into the existing infrastructure, (ii) it should support the use of various heterogeneous devices, and (iii) it should enable seamless application roaming between these devices. The paper describes how these requirements were realized in an architecture for local...

  17. Application range of micro focus radiographic devices associated to image processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray devices having a focus area less than 100 μ are called micro focus X-ray equipment. Here the range of application and the characteristics of these devices including the possibility of employing the coupling with real time image enhancement computers are defined

  18. Ferroelectric Thin Films Basic Properties and Device Physics for Memory Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films continue to attract much attention due to their developing, diverse applications in memory devices, FeRAM, infrared sensors, piezoelectric sensors and actuators. This book, aimed at students, researchers and developers, gives detailed information about the basic properties of these materials and the associated device physics. All authors are acknowledged experts in the field.

  19. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsun Su, Yen; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien; Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  20. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics

  1. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsun Su, Yen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien [Science and Technology of Accelerator Light Source, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei [Department of Resource Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-05

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  2. Signal processing applications of massively parallel charge domain computing devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a charge coupled device (CCD)/charge injection device (CID) architecture capable of performing a Fourier transform by simultaneous matrix vector multiplication (MVM) operations in respective plural CCD/CID arrays in parallel in O(1) steps. For example, in one embodiment, a first CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a first matrix operator based upon permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. A second CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a second matrix operator based upon different permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. The incoming vector is applied to the inputs of the two CCD/CID arrays simultaneously, and the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform are produced simultaneously in the time required to perform a single MVM operation in a CCD/CID array.

  3. Polymer-based waveguide devices for WDM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Jean-Francois; Callender, Claire L.; Noad, Julian P.; Eldada, Louay A.; Norwood, Robert A.

    1999-10-01

    This paper summarizes the work currently in progress at CRC Canada on wavelength multiplexing components based on polymer waveguide devices for operation at 1550 nm. Planar arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) of various bandwidths were designed, fabricated and tested using acrylate polymer materials developed by Allied Signal Inc. Eight channel polymer demultiplexers fabricated by standard lithography show on-chip losses of 8 dB and a crosstalk of -25 dB between channels spaced 1.6 nm part. Owing to the thermo- optic properties of these polymers, the spectral response of the device scan be tuned by more than 7 nm without changes in optical crosstalk or on-chip loss. Very compact AWGs made with Allied Signal polymers are being designed and tested to address the need for cost effective, high bandwidth optical components in the telecom and datacom industries.

  4. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance

  5. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik, E-mail: dmetzler@umd.edu [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  6. Symposium on applications of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts are given of thirteen papers presented at a ''SQUID Symposium'' organized by the Division of Materials Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy and held March 23--25, 1978, at the University of Virginia. Since SQUID systems have already been utilized in feasibility demonstration in geothermal reservoir exploration, it was recognized that these devices also hold great potential for many other important scientific measurements. Many of these are energy-related, and others include forefront investigations in a diverse group of scientific areas, from biomedical to earthquake monitoring. Research in SQUIDs has advanced so rapidly in recent years that it was felt that a symposium to review the current status and future prospects of the devices would be timely. The abstracts given present an overview of work in this area and hopefully provide an opportunity to increase awareness among basic and applied scientists of the inherent implications of the extreme measurement sensitivity in advanced SQUID systems

  7. TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.

  8. A combined travelling wave dielectrophoresis and impedance sensing device for sensing biological cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suspended particle sensing technique called travelling wave dielectrophoresis impedance measurement (TWDIM) is presented which uses travelling wave dielectrophoresis to concentrate suspended particles in solution to a subset of electrodes through which impedance sensing is used to sense particle concentrations. A microfabricated TWDIM device and associated electronic systems are presented, as well as methods of operation and experimental results determining yeast cell concentrations

  9. Early warning pollution detection device for application in water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Perez de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel; Fay, Cormac; Cleary, John; Turner, Geraldine; Nightingale, Adrian; Mowlem, Matthew; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    It has been well recognised that water is a valuable resource and the quality of our water systems require sampling at a higher temporal and spatial frequency than is currently taking place. The AQUAWARN project aims to meet this challenge through the development of commercially competitive water quality monitoring devices. These will be capable of performing analytical measurements in situ - primarily aimed at freshwater and wastewater systems. The analytes of interest are mainly phosphate, ...

  10. REAL TIME WIRELESS HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATION USING MOBILE DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Amna Abdullah; Asma Ismael; Aisha Rashid; Ali Abou-ElNour; Mohammed Tarique

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade the healthcare monitoring systems have drawn considerable attentions of the researchers. The prime goal was to develop a reliable patient monitoring system so that the healthcare professionals can monitor their patients, who are either hospitalized or executing their normal daily life activities. In this work we present a mobile device based wireless healthcare monitoring system that can provide real time online information about physiological conditions of a pa...

  11. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  12. Love-Mode MEMS Devices for Sensing Applications in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Love-wave-based MEMS devices are theoretically investigated in their potential role as a promising technological platform for the development of acoustic-wave-based sensors for liquid environments. Both single- and bi-layered structures have been investigated and the velocity dispersion curves were calculated for different layer thicknesses, crystallographic orientations, material types and electrical boundary conditions. High velocity materials have been investigated too, enabling device miniaturization, power consumption reduction and integration with the conditioning electronic circuits. The electroacoustic coupling coefficient dispersion curves of the first four Love modes are calculated for four dispersive coupling configurations based on a c-axis tilted ZnO layer on wz-BN substrate. The gravimetric sensitivity of four Love modes travelling at a common velocity of 9318 m/s along different layer thicknesses, and of three Love modes travelling at different velocity along a fixed ZnO layer thickness, are calculated in order to design enhanced-performance sensors. The phase velocity shift and attenuation due to the presence of a viscous liquid contacting the device surface are calculated for different thicknesses of a c-axis inclined ZnO layer onto BN half-space.

  13. Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

    2013-12-01

    The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

  14. A low-cost man-portable free-space optics communication device for ethernet applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alrasheedi, Mohammad H.

    2005-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis sought to design and implement a low-cost, portable, Free-Space Optics (FSO) communications device for Ethernet applications. Under some circumstances such a device would have utility at a Combat Operations Center (COC), a Field Artillery Position, or wherever else fiber optic cable is used in garrison or field. The design was based on commercial off the shelf components originally designed for fiber optic applications. Bas...

  15. Application of biological dural graft made by meninges from porkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Liu; Shengping Huang; Songtao Qi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presently, over 40 kinds of dural grafts have been successively used in clinic. Among them, lyophilized human dura mater with good histocompatibility and less complications is applied most widely. But there are a few reports on cases of infected spongiform encephalopathy following application of lyodura. More ideal repair materials deserve to be further investigated.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency and safety of biological dural graft made by meninges from porkers to repair meningeal injury.DESIGN: A self-control observation.SETTING: Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Sixteen New Zealand Rabbits, of either gender, weighing from 2 to 3 kg, of clean grade Ⅱ,with the age of 0.5 - 1 year, were involved in this experiment. The involved rabbits were provided by the Animal Experimental Center of the First Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Biological surgical patch (dural graft) was developed by Guangdong Guanhao Biotechnological Co.,Ltd. It was processed by using meninges from porkers by tissue engineering technology.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Experimental Center of the 157 Hospital of Chinese PLA between December 2003 and June 2004. ① The experimental rabbits were anesthetized. Dura mater was exposed from two sides ofpostmedial line of coronal suture. A rectangular dura mater about 8 mm × 8mm in size was cut off. Then a biological surgical patch (dural graft) was sheared into insert with 8 mm diameter and sutured. The left dura mater was untouched and used as control. Scalp was sutured, and postoperative wound healing and recovery were observed. ②The anesthetized rabbits were sacrificed at postoperative 3, 14, 30 and 90 days, 4 rabbits once. The whole head was cut off, and its scalp was removed.Afterwards, the head was fixed by formalin. Tissues in operative site were obtained, performed routine paraffin embedding, sliced and conducted HE staining, finally, the

  16. Principles and applications of superconducting quantum interference devices

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    Principles and applications of SQUIDs serves as a textbook and a multi-author collection of critical reviews. Providing both basic aspects and recent progress in SQUIDs technology, it offers a realistic and stimulating picture of the state of the art. It can also contribute to a further development of the field for commercial applications.

  17. Laser heating of dielectric particles for medical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribelsky, Michael I; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2016-07-01

    We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of a spherical dielectric particle embedded in a liquid. The discussed range of the problem parameters is typical for medical and biological applications. We focus on the case, when the heat diffusivity in the particle is of the same order of magnitude as that in the fluid. We perform quantitative analysis of the heat transfer equation based on interplay of four characteristic scales of the problem, namely the particle radius, the characteristic depth of light absorption in the material of the particle and the two heat diffusion lengths: in the particle and in the embedding liquid. A new quantitative characteristic of the laser action, that is the cooling time, describing the temporal scale of the cooling down of the particle after the laser pulse is over, is introduced and discussed. Simple analytical formulas for the temperature rise in the center of the particle and at its surface as well as for the cooling time are obtained. We show that at the appropriate choice of the problem parameters the cooling time may be by many orders of magnitude larger the laser pulse duration. It makes possible to minimize the undesirable damage of healthy tissues owing to the finite size of the laser beam and scattering of the laser radiation, simultaneously keeping the total hyperthermia period large enough to kill the pathogenic cells. An example of application of the developed approach to optimization of the therapeutic effect at the laser heating of particles for cancer therapy is presented. PMID:27446706

  18. Cloud Based Application Development for Accessing Restaurant Information on Mobile Device using LBS

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Keerthi S.; Sanjay Singh

    2011-01-01

    Over the past couple of years, the extent of the services provided on the mobile devices has increased rapidly. A special class of service among them is the Location Based Service(LBS) which depends on the geographical position of the user to provide services to the end users. However, a mobile device is still resource constrained, and some applications usually demand more resources than a mobile device can a ord. To alleviate this, a mobile device should get resources from an external source...

  19. A selector device based on graphene-oxide heterostructures for memristor crossbar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Lian, Xiaojuan; Pan, Yiming; Zeng, Junwen; Wang, Chengyu; Liu, Erfu; Wang, Baigeng; Yang, J. Joshua; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu

    2015-08-01

    Most of the potential applications of memristive devices adopt crossbar architecture for ultra-high density. One of the biggest challenges of the crossbar architecture is severe residue leakage current (sneak path) issue. A possible solution is introducing a selector device with strong nonlinear current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics in series with each memristor in crossbar arrays. Here, we demonstrate a novel selector device based on graphene-oxide heterostructures, which successfully converts a typical linear TaO x memristor into a nonlinear device. The origin of the nonlinearity in the heterostructures is studied in detail, which highlights an important role of the graphene-oxide interfaces.

  20. Stochastic daily solar irradiance for biological modeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic daily weather generators commonly used for biological modeling applications do not adequately reproduce empirical distributions of global solar irradiance. The daily clearness index, the ratio of daily global-to-extraterrestrial irradiance, captures the stochastic component of solar irradiance due to atmospheric conditions. Three alternative models of daily solar irradiance (truncated Gaussian distributions, a proposed modification based on logit-transformed relative clearness, and a family of empirically derived distributions) conditioned on the occurrence of rain are described and evaluated using data from 10 U.S. locations. These models are presented in terms of monthly cumulative distributions and density functions of clearness. Strong non-normality of distributions of clearness, and improved fits obtained with a logit transformation, are demonstrated. The proposed model, based on a logit transformation of relative clearness, was superior to the other two in terms of Akaike's information criterion, and generally superior to the standard model based on truncated Gaussian distributions in terms of goodness of fit between observed and generated irradiances. Based on this evidence, the proposed model is recommended for stochastic generation of daily irradiance conditioned on daily rainfall occurrence and temperature extremes. (author)

  1. Foamy Virus Biology and Its Application for Vector Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Rethwilm

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Spuma- or foamy viruses (FV, endemic in most non-human primates, cats, cattle and horses, comprise a special type of retrovirus that has developed a replication strategy combining features of both retroviruses and hepadnaviruses. Unique features of FVs include an apparent apathogenicity in natural hosts as well as zoonotically infected humans, a reverse transcription of the packaged viral RNA genome late during viral replication resulting in an infectious DNA genome in released FV particles and a special particle release strategy depending capsid and glycoprotein coexpression and specific interaction between both components. In addition, particular features with respect to the integration profile into the host genomic DNA discriminate FV from orthoretroviruses. It appears that some inherent properties of FV vectors set them favorably apart from orthoretroviral vectors and ask for additional basic research on the viruses as well as on the application in Gene Therapy. This review will summarize the current knowledge of FV biology and the development as a gene transfer system.

  2. PROMOTING BREAKTHROUGH MEDICAL INNOVATION: INSIGHTS FROM AN ANALYSIS OF RECENT TRANSFORMATIVE DRUGS, BIOLOGICS AND MEDICAL DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Given the recent concern from multiple healthcare stakeholders that the pipeline of medical innovation is slowing, this thesis provides insights on how to spur breakthrough medical innovation in present day. The findings and recommendations are derived from one of the largest collections of interview transcripts from biomedical innovators (n=143) responsible for developing critical devices, drugs and diagnostics used in medicine today. An exemplary case (coronary artery stent) was selected ...

  3. MOBILE APPLICATION TO CONTROL DEVICES AND THEIR CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Krivec, Igor

    2013-01-01

    One of the goals of European Union is to reduce the amount of primary electrical energy consumed by household users, a large part of which is wasted due to inefficiencies that occur at various stages. The goal of this thesis is to develop a software solution for monitoring consumption of electrical energy and management of electrical devices for household users. Solution is to be developed to work with modules by the scandinavian company Plugwise and is to be composed of server and client si...

  4. The tunnel diode as a threshold device: theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the interesting properties of the tunnel diode, the device is extensively studied concerning its circuit behaviour. An empirical formula, approximating the diode's V-I characteristics, has been obtained. This allows calculations of rise time, delay time, jitter, etc., to be carried out in certain instances; theoretical predictions based on this approximation are in good agreement with experimental results. Stability considerations and curve-plotting circuits are also studied. A high-speed discriminatorcoincidence circuit using transistors and tunnel diodes is presented. (author)

  5. Scanning probe microscopy for energy research materials, devices, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnell, Dawn A

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency and life time of solar cells, energy and power density of the batteries, and costs of the fuel cells alike cannot be improved unless the complex electronic, optoelectronic, and ionic mechanisms underpinning operation of these materials and devices are understood on the nanometer level of individual defects. Only by probing these phenomena locally can we hope to link materials structure and functionality, thus opening pathway for predictive modeling and synthesis. While structures of these materials are now accessible on length scales from macroscopic to atomic, their functionality h

  6. Ophthalmic applications of the digital micromirror device (DMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Sandstedt, Chris

    2009-02-01

    Cataract surgery with IOL implantation is performed on millions of patients every year. Despite 25 years of technological innovation, post-surgical refractive errors have remained a problem. Now these errors can be corrected using Calhoun Vision, Inc's light adjustable lens (LAL). The correction is accomplished by implanting a light-sensitive lens, then illuminating it with a spatially varying irradiance profile during a postoperative treatment. This irradiance profile is provided by a Light Delivery Device (LDD), which projects an image of a Texas Instruments DMD onto the implanted lens. Commercial sales of this system began in the summer of 2008 in Europe; US clinical trials began in January 2009.

  7. Potential applications of microstrip devices with traveling wave resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushechenko E. N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of the known microwave filters in microstrip lines are considered, the advantages of the use of directional traveling-wave filters in microstrip performance and examples of their potential applications are shown.

  8. Can Carbon Nanotubes Deliver on Their Promise in Biology? Harnessing Unique Properties for Unparalleled Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Christopher J; Kostarelos, Kostas; Davis, Benjamin G

    2016-04-27

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical sheets of hexagonally ordered carbon atoms, giving tubes with diameters on the order of a few nanometers and lengths typically in the micrometer range. They may be single- or multiwalled (SWCNTs and MWCNTs respectively). Since the seminal report of their synthesis in 1991, CNTs have fascinated scientists of all stripes. Physicists have been intrigued by their electrical, thermal, and vibrational potential. Materials scientists have worked on integrating them into ultrastrong composites and electronic devices, while chemists have been fascinated by the effects of curvature on reactivity and have developed new synthesis and purification techniques. However, to date no large-scale, real-life biotechnological CNT breakthrough has been industrially adopted and it is proving difficult to justify taking these materials forward into the clinic. We believe that these challenges are not the end of the story, but that a viable carbon nanotube biotechnology is one in which the unique properties of nanotubes bring about an effect that would be otherwise impossible. In this Outlook, we therefore seek to reframe the field by highlighting those biological applications in which the singular properties of CNTs provide some entirely new activity or biological effect as a pointer to "what could be". PMID:27163049

  9. Guided-wave acousto-optics interactions, devices, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    The field of integrated- or guided-wave optics has experienced significant and continuous growth since its inception in the late 1960s. There has been a considerable increase in research and development activity in this field worldwide and some significant advances in the realization of working in­ tegrated optic devices and modules have been made in recent years. In fact, there have already been some commercial manufacturing and technical ap­ plications of such devices and modules. The guided-wave-acoustooptics involving Bragg interactions between guided optical waves and surface acoustic waves is one of the areas of in­ tegrated-optics that has reached some degree of scientific and technological maturity. This topical volume is devoted to an in-depth treatment of this emerging branch of science and technology. Presented in this volume are concise treatments on bulk-wave acoustooptics, guided-wave optics, and surface acoustic waves, and detailed studies of guided-wave acoustooptic Bragg diffraction in thr...

  10. Enhancement of Power Quality by an Application FACTS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper narrates widespread use of electrical energy by modern civilization has necessitated producing bulk electrical energy economically and efficiently. The Flexible AC Transmission system (FACTS is a new technology based on power electronics, which offers an opportunity to enhance controllability, stability, and power transfer capability of AC transmission systems. Here SVC has been developed with the combination of TCSC and TCR. The paper contains simulation models of Thyristor controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC and Thyristor controlled Reactor (TCR-based Static VAR Compensator (SVC which are the series and shunt Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS devices. The fact devices are designed by considering the line losses and their stability. The design and simulations of TCSC and TCR-based SVC shows the effectiveness of result using the MATLAB/Simulink. The designed system will try to reduce the voltage drops and electrical losses in the network without the possibility of transient especially in case of long transmission system. Student feedback indicates that this package is user-friendly and considerably effective for students and researchers to study theory of controlled reactor compensators, series capacitor compensator, and the reactive power control and voltage regulation..

  11. Global optimization in systems biology: stochastic methods and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balsa-Canto, Eva; Banga, Julio R.; Egea, José A.; Villaverde, A. F.; Hijas-Liste, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical optimization is at the core of many problems in systems biology: (1) as the underlying hypothesis for model development, (2) in model identification, or (3) in the computation of optimal stimulation procedures to synthetically achieve a desired biological behavior. These problems are usually formulated as nonlinear programing problems (NLPs) with dynamic and algebraic constraints. However the nonlinear and highly constrained nature of systems biology models, together with the usu...

  12. Device and Circuit Design Challenges in the Digital Subthreshold Region for Ultralow-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vaddi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, subthreshold operation has gained a lot of attention due to ultra low-power consumption in applications requiring low to medium performance. It has also been shown that by optimizing the device structure, power consumption of digital subthreshold logic can be further minimized while improving its performance. Therefore, subthreshold circuit design is very promising for future ultra low-energy sensor applications as well as high-performance parallel processing. This paper deals with various device and circuit design challenges associated with the state of the art in optimal digital subthreshold circuit design and reviews device design methodologies and circuit topologies for optimal digital subthreshold operation. This paper identifies the suitable candidates for subthreshold operation at device and circuit levels for optimal subthreshold circuit design and provides an effective roadmap for digital designers interested to work with ultra low-power applications.

  13. Synthetic circuits, devices and modules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2010-01-01

    The aim of synthetic biology is to design artificial biological systems for novel applications. From an engineering perspective, construction of biological systems of defined functionality in a hierarchical way is fundamental to this emerging field. Here, we highlight some current advances on design of several basic building blocks in synthetic biology including the artificial gene control elements, synthetic circuits and their assemblies into devices and modules. Such engineered basic buildi...

  14. Establishment and application of Competitive Intelligence System in Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass El Haddadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategy concept has changed dramatically: from a long range planning to strategic planning then to strategic responsiveness. This response implies moving from a concept of change to a concept of continuous evolution. In our context, the competitive intelligence system presented aims to improve decision‐making in all aspects of business life, particularly for offensive and innovative decisions. In the paper we present XPlor EveryWhere, our competitive intelligence system based on a multidimensional analysis model for mobile devices. The objective of this system is to capture the information environment in all dimensions of a decision problem, with the exploitation of information by analyzing the evolution of their interactions

  15. Application of FACTS devices to improve system security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Barbeiro, P.N.; Moreira, C.L.; Pecas Lopes, J.A. [INESC Porto (Portugal). Power Systems Unit; Reis Rodrigues, A.; Moreira, Joao; Rosado, Nuno [Rede Electrica Nacional (REN), S.A., Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de An lise de Redes

    2012-07-01

    The EU countries are expected to achieve by 2020 a high demanding energy policy in relation to the level of integration of renewable in their existing transmission networks. This transformation will represent significant technical challenges for the EU system operators (TSOs). Based on the aforementioned, and forecasting the large amount of wind generation that is planned to be further integrated in the Portuguese transmission network, REN is performing detailed transient stability studies to ensure that this integration takes place in a safe and reliable way and does not compromise the stability of the grid. As part of this investigation REN is interested in evaluating the capacity of FACTS devices to provide reactive support during voltage dips and to help the voltage control in the grid. The article will focus on these particular aspects and presents some particular results from a case study. (orig.)

  16. Ultra strained Si and Ge for device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Strain-engineering is a key-technology in semiconductor-devices to modify band structure etc. Conventionally, it is induced by coherent growth of pairs of lattice-mismatched layers or, locally, by strain transfer. Recently, a complementary method based on elastic deformation of suspended constricted structures is developed. The thereby obtain strain values, 4.5 % in 13 nm thin Si nanowires and 3.1% in 1.5 μm thick Ge, considerably exceed the limits known for strained layer growth. A discussion is presented of using this method for the case of strain channel CMOS and the realization of a Ge laser for integration in Si. (author)

  17. Biological effects of neutrons, mechanisms and applications; Effets biologiques des neutrons: mecanismes et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Ph. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)

    1999-12-01

    The interest to study the ionizing radiations effects on the biological structures concern not only the fundamental comprehension of the mechanisms leading to the radiation damage but also much more pragmatic problems such as the accidental overexposure or radiotherapy treatment. Among these fundamental or applied studies, the neutrons effects take an important part, because of their particular mode of indirect ionization effect and their applications, as well civil as military ones. The purpose of this review is to point out some specific biological effects of neutrons and to describe biological methods to measure them. It clearly appears that neutrons biological effects are more deleterious than those caused by the radiations of lower TEL(X- and {gamma}-rays) taken as reference, for all the measurement levels used, genes mutations, chromosome aberrations, cellular survival or carcinogenesis. This difference is probably related to the density of the energy deposit in the vital cell targets, and to the absence of significant variations related to oxygenation, dose rate or dose fractionation. Such toxic effects, when considered in the course of a criticality accident, can paradoxically become an advantage in the follow-up of therapeutic treatment. (author)

  18. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zehr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. Molecular biological techniques permit study of the abundance, distribution, diversity, and physiology of microorganisms in situ. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity, oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  19. Physiological and practical evaluation of a biological/chemical protective device for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, I; Epstien, Y; Luder, A S

    2000-09-01

    The Chemical Infant Protective System (CHIPS) is a special hood-like system into which a small battery-operated blower delivers filtered air. Because it is a semiclosed system, there is a risk of dangerous CO2 accumulation within the device, which particularly affects infants with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Eleven infants hospitalized with various respiratory illnesses wore the device for 15 minutes. Inspired O2, inspired CO2, heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and inside temperature and humidity were measured before and during this test period. Inspired O2 and heart rate during the test period were significantly lower than baseline levels (O2, 19.1 vs. 20.1%; heart rate, 133 vs. 142 beats/min). Inspired CO2 and inside temperature during the test period were significantly higher than baseline levels (CO2, 0.23 vs. 0.06%; temperature, 25.0 vs. 23.1 degrees C). Oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and humidity were not different from baseline levels. A short-term stay within the CHIPS in well-ventilated surroundings did not result in significant clinical and physiological impact for sick infants. Nevertheless, trends were identified that may be worrisome during longer periods and in sealed rooms. PMID:11011536

  20. A portable microfluidic fluorescence spectrometer device for {gamma}-H2AX-based biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, I.A.; Barber, P.R. [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Horn, S.; Ainsbury, E. [Health Protection Agency Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxon (United Kingdom); Rothkamm, K., E-mail: kai.rothkamm@hpa.org.uk [Health Protection Agency Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ, Oxon (United Kingdom); Vojnovic, B. [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Following a radiological incident the rapid identification of those individuals exposed to critically high radiation doses is important for initial triage and medical treatment. It has been previously demonstrated that scoring of radiation-induced foci of the phosphorylated histone {gamma}-H2AX, which form at the sites of DNA double-strand breaks, may be used to determine radiation exposure levels from blood samples. Although faster than the 'gold standard' dicentric assay, foci scoring is still impractical in a field situation where large numbers of people may need to be screened. To deal with such a situation, an inexpensive portable device with high throughput capacity is desirable. Here we describe a portable microfluidic fluorescence spectrometer device which passes a suspension of {gamma}-H2AX immunofluorescence-stained lymphocytes through a focused 488 nm laser beam in a microfluidic chamber and records emission spectra over the range 495-725 nm. The recorded emission spectra are spectrally unmixed into their constituent parts from which radiation exposure levels are determined. Proof of principle is demonstrated using cultured lymphoblastoid cells, exposed to X-ray doses between 0 and 8 Gy. With the current prototype setup it takes approximately 6 min to acquire and analyse 10,000 spectra. Further effort is required to fully develop this approach into a portable triage tool that could be used to help classify people into appropriate treatment categories based on radiation exposure levels.

  1. Titanium coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes — A promising novel material for biomedical application as an implantable orthopaedic electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przekora, Agata, E-mail: agata.przekora@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Faculty of Pharmacy with Medical Analytics Division, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Benko, Aleksandra; Nocun, Marek; Wyrwa, Jan; Blazewicz, Marta [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, A. Mickiewicz 30 Ave., 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Faculty of Pharmacy with Medical Analytics Division, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to fabricate titanium (Ti) material coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) that would have potential medical application in orthopaedics as an implantable electronic device. The novel biomedical material (Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O) would possess specific set of properties, such as: electrical conductivity, non-toxicity, and ability to inhibit connective tissue cell growth and proliferation protecting the Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface against covering by cells. The novel material was obtained via an electrophoretic deposition of CNTs-H{sub 2}O on the Ti surface. Then, physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. Electrical property evaluation revealed that a Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O material is highly conductive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that there are mainly COOH groups on the Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface that are found to inhibit cell growth. Biological properties were assessed using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19). Conducted cytotoxicity tests and live/dead fluorescent staining demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O does not exert toxic effect on hFOB cells. Moreover, fluorescence laser scanning microscope observation demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface retards to a great extent cell proliferation. The study resulted in successful fabrication of highly conductive, non-toxic Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O material that possesses ability to inhibit osteoblast proliferation and thus has a great potential as an orthopaedic implantable electronic device. - Highlights: • Functionalized carbon nanotubes were electrophoretically deposited on Ti surface. • Physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. • Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O is highly conductive and there are mainly COOH groups on its surface. • Novel material is non-toxic and retards to a great extent osteoblast proliferation. • Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O has a promising potential as implantable orthopaedic

  2. Fibre lasers: a review of devices, techniques and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Morkel, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Summary History of fibre laser development. Fundamentals and key features of fibre lasers - fibre amplifiers with feedback Review of applications and laser wavelengths Continuous wave laser configurations - Power and spectral characteristics Other configurations Tunable lasers Q-switched lasers Mode-locked lasers Single-frequency lasers Upconversion lasers Superfluorescent sources Some theory Summary

  3. Integrating biological knowledge into variable selection: an empirical Bayes approach with an application in cancer biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hill Steven M; Neve Richard M; Bayani Nora; Kuo Wen-Lin; Ziyad Safiyyah; Spellman Paul T; Gray Joe W; Mukherjee Sach

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An important question in the analysis of biochemical data is that of identifying subsets of molecular variables that may jointly influence a biological response. Statistical variable selection methods have been widely used for this purpose. In many settings, it may be important to incorporate ancillary biological information concerning the variables of interest. Pathway and network maps are one example of a source of such information. However, although ancillary informatio...

  4. Systems biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of “omic” sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an “alphabet” derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals. PMID:25206359

  5. Fabrication of continuous flow microfluidics device with 3D electrode structures for high throughput DEP applications using mechanical machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Soheila; Çetin, Barbaros; Oliaei, Samad Nadimi Bavil; Karpat, Yiğit

    2015-07-01

    Microfluidics is the combination of micro/nano fabrication techniques with fluid flow at microscale to pursue powerful techniques in controlling and manipulating chemical and biological processes. Sorting and separation of bio-particles are highly considered in diagnostics and biological analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has offered unique advantages for microfluidic devices. In DEP devices, asymmetric pair of planar electrodes could be employed to generate non-uniform electric fields. In DEP applications, facing 3D sidewall electrodes is considered to be one of the key solutions to increase device throughput due to the generated homogeneous electric fields along the height of microchannels. Despite the advantages, fabrication of 3D vertical electrodes requires a considerable challenge. In this study, two alternative fabrication techniques have been proposed for the fabrication of a microfluidic device with 3D sidewall electrodes. In the first method, both the mold and the electrodes are fabricated using high precision machining. In the second method, the mold with tilted sidewalls is fabricated using high precision machining and the electrodes are deposited on the sidewall using sputtering together with a shadow mask fabricated by electric discharge machining. Both fabrication processes are assessed as highly repeatable and robust. Moreover, the two methods are found to be complementary with respect to the channel height. Only the manipulation of particles with negative-DEP is demonstrated in the experiments, and the throughput values up to 105 particles / min is reached in a continuous flow. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results and the limitations on the fabrication techniques are also discussed. PMID:25808433

  6. Filtration of nanoparticles - Application to respiratory protecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to determine how the respiratory protective devices (RPD), whose performances are qualified for particles above 100 nm, are effective for nanoparticles. Indeed, if the use of a collective filtration is inadequate, wearing a RPD is the last protection recommended. A literature review showed that no research concerned the effectiveness of half-masks for nanoparticles. The test bench ETNA has been sized and built to overcome these lacks. Two half masks were tested according to different configurations: constant flow rate and cyclic flow rate (average flow of 84 L /min), particle size (from 5 to 100 nm), positions of the mask (sealed, usual, or with calibrated leaks). The results show that, since the RPD contain high efficiency filter media (without charged fibers) for the most penetrating particle size (100 nm - 300 nm), the RPD is more efficient for nanoparticles. Furthermore, the results obtained in the presence of actual and calibrated leaks, highlighted the importance of face seal leakages in determining the performance of RPD. A model for calculating the protection factor was established based on the balance between the airflow through the filter and the leak. This model was validated using measurements obtained in the presence of calibrated leaks, and applied for the analysis of our results in usual position. (author)

  7. A new design of groundwater sampling device and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yih-Jin Tsai; Ming-Ching T.Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Compounds in the atmosphere contaminate samples of groundwater. An inexpensive and simple method for collecting groundwater samples is developed to prevent contamination when the background concentration of contaminants is high. This new design of groundwater sampling device involves a glass sampling bottle with a Teflon-lined valve at each end. A cleaned and dried sampling bottle was connected to a low flow-rate peristaltic pump with Teflon tubing and was filled with water. No headspace volume was remained in the sampling bottle. The sample bottle was then packed in a PVC bag to prevent the target component from infiltrating into the water sample through the valves. In this study, groundwater was sampled at six wells using both the conventional method and the improved method.The analysis of trichlorofluoromethane(CFC-11 ) concentrations at these six wells indicates that all the groundwater samples obtained by the conventional sampling method were contaminated by CFC-11 from the atmosphere. The improved sampling method greatly eliminated theproblems of contamination, preservation and quantitative analysis of natural water.

  8. REAL TIME WIRELESS HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATION USING MOBILE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the healthcare monitoring systems have drawn considerable attentions of the researchers. The prime goal was to develop a reliable patient monitoring system so that the healthcare professionals can monitor their patients, who are either hospitalized or executing their normal daily life activities. In this work we present a mobile device based wireless healthcare monitoring system that can provide real time online information about physiological conditions of a patient. Our proposed system is designed to measure and monitor important physiological data of a patient in order to accurately describe the status of her/his health and fitness. In addition the proposed system is able to send alarming message about the patient’s critical health data by text messages or by email reports. By using the information contained in the text or e-mail message the healthcare professional can provide necessary medical advising. The system mainly consists of sensors, the data acquisition unit, microcontroller (i.e., Arduino, and software (i.e., LabVIEW. The patient’s temperature, heart beat rate, muscles, blood pressure, blood glucose level, and ECG data are monitored, displayed, and stored by our system. To ensure reliability and accuracy the proposed system has been field tested. The test results show that our system is able to measure the patient’s physiological data with a very high accuracy.

  9. Application of surface plasmons to biological and chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface plasmons (SPs) are a collective normal mode of electrons localized at a metallic surface. It has been used for biological sensors since 1990s. This is because it has the following specific characters: (a) The resonance condition is sensitive to the surrounding dielectric constants (refractive indexes) and (b) Highly enhanced optical-electric-fields are produced adjacent to SPs. A brief introduction is given on the principle of the biological and chemical sensors based on SPs for the readers working in the fields other than SPs, followed by a review on the recent developments of the biological and chemical sensors. (author)

  10. Single Crystalline CVD Diamond Based Devices for Power Electronics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, Ehrnebo

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposited single-crystalline diamond has rare material properties such as thermal conductivity five times as high as copper, a wide band gap, a high breakdown field and high carrier mobilities. This makes it a very interesting material for high power, high frequency and high temperature applications. In this thesis work, metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors of diamond substrate were fabricated and analyzed. The MOS capacitor is a building block of the metal oxide semicond...

  11. Spectroscopic characterisation of novel materials for semiconductor device applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The thesis uses surface science techniques to characterise the chemical composition and electronic properties of a range of carbon containing materials which have application in advanced semiconductor fabrication. The initial focus was on investigating the properties ofcarbon-doped oxide (CDO) which is a low dielectric constant material and a leading candidate to replace silicon dioxide (SiOz) as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in microprocessor fabrication. The work then progresses to determi...

  12. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  13. 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Miguel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Paz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings presents recent practical applications of Computational Biology and  Bioinformatics. It contains the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at June 3rd-5th, 2015. The International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics (PACBB) is an annual international meeting dedicated to emerging and challenging applied research in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. Biological and biomedical research are increasingly driven by experimental techniques that challenge our ability to analyse, process and extract meaningful knowledge from the underlying data. The impressive capabilities of next generation sequencing technologies, together with novel and ever evolving distinct types of omics data technologies, have put an increasingly complex set of challenges for the growing fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The analysis o...

  14. Scalable pattern recognition algorithms applications in computational biology and bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    Reviews the development of scalable pattern recognition algorithms for computational biology and bioinformatics Includes numerous examples and experimental results to support the theoretical concepts described Concludes each chapter with directions for future research and a comprehensive bibliography

  15. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600–1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles. (invited review)

  16. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  17. Thiosemicarbazones: preparation methods, synthetic applications and biological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiosemicarbazones are a class of compounds known by their chemical and biological properties, such as antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral and antiprotozoal activity. Their ability to form chelates with metals has great importance in their biological activities. Their synthesis is very simple, versatile and clean, usually giving high yields. They are largely employed as intermediates, in the synthesis of others compounds. This article is a survey of some of these characteristics showing their great importance to organic and medicinal chemistry. (author)

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Biology, Function, and Application for Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ye-Rang Yun; Jong Eun Won; Eunyi Jeon; Sujin Lee; Wonmo Kang; Hyejin Jo; Jun-Hyeog Jang; Ueon Sang Shin; Hae-Won Kim

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs) regulate a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. The FGF signal pathways are the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, and PLCγ pathway, among which the RAS/MAP kinase pathway is known to be predominant. Several studies have recently implicated the in vitro biological functions of FGFs for tissue regeneration. However, to obtain opt...

  19. Sparse combinatorial inference with an application in cancer biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sach; Pelech, Steven; Neve, Richard M.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Spellman, Paul T.; Joe W Gray; Speed, Terence P.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Combinatorial effects, in which several variables jointly influence an output or response, play an important role in biological systems. In many settings, Boolean functions provide a natural way to describe such influences. However, biochemical data using which we may wish to characterize such influences are usually subject to much variability. Furthermore, in high-throughput biological settings Boolean relationships of interest are very often sparse, in the sense of being embedde...

  20. Computational Systems Biology in Cancer: Modeling Methods and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Materi; Wishart, David S.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that carcinogenesis is a complex process, both at the molecular and cellular levels. Understanding the origins, growth and spread of cancer, therefore requires an integrated or system-wide approach. Computational systems biology is an emerging sub-discipline in systems biology that utilizes the wealth of data from genomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies to build computer simulations of intra and intercellular processes. Several useful descriptive and pre...

  1. Application of E-infinity theory to biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert Einstein combined continuous space and time into his special relativity, El-Naschie discovered the transfinite discontinuity of space-time in his E-infinity theory where infinity of dimensions was created. We find a partner of both space-time and E-infinity in biology. In our theory, the number of cells in an organism endows an additional dimension in biology, leading to explanation of many complex phenomena

  2. Isothermal Calorimetry for Biological Applications in Food Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsö, Lars; Gomez, Federico

    2009-01-01

    All physical, chemical and biological processes produce heat and isothermal calorimetry is a general measurement technique to study all kinds of processes by the heat they produce. This paper gives several examples of studies of biological processes in the food area using isothermal calorimetry. It is for example shown how different unit operations influence respiration of vegetable tissue, how the kinetics of a fermentation process can be studied, and how spoilage processes can be followed f...

  3. High Temperature Electro-Mechanical Devices For Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants require a number of electro-mechanical devices, for example, Control Rod Drive Mechanisms (CRDM's) to control the raising and lowering of control rods and Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP's) to circulate the primary coolant. There are potential benefits in locating electro-mechanical components in areas of the plant with high ambient temperatures. One such benefit is the reduced need to make penetrations in pressure vessels leading to simplified plant design and improved inherent safety. The feature that limits the ambient temperature at which most electrical machines may operate is the material used for the electrical insulation of the machine windings. Conventional electrical machines generally use polymer-based insulation that limits the ambient temperature they can operate in to below 200 degrees Celsius. This means that when a conventional electrical machine is required to operate in a hot area it must be actively cooled necessitating additional systems. This paper presents data gathered during investigations undertaken by Rolls-Royce into the design of high temperature electrical machines. The research was undertaken at Rolls-Royce's University Technology Centre in Advanced Electrical Machines and Drives at Sheffield University. Rolls- Royce has also been investigating high temperature wire and encapsulants and latterly techniques to provide high temperature insulation to terminations. Rolls-Royce used the experience gained from these tests to produce a high temperature electrical linear actuator at sizes representative of those used in reactor systems. This machine was tested successfully at temperatures equivalent to those found inside the reactor vessel of a pressurised water reactor through a full series of operations that replicated in service duty. The paper will conclude by discussing the impact of the findings and potential electro-mechanical designs that may utilise such high temperature technologies. (authors)

  4. Applications of HTSC films in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuna, Davor

    1992-03-01

    An overview is given of potential applications of high-Tc superconductors (HTSC) in the context of hybrid optoelectronic technology. The main requirements are described for the in situ growth of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) films on SrTiO3 and discuss the properties of YBCO layers grown on Si and GaAs substrates with intermediate, conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers. The performances of the microbridge and the meander type of HTSC bolometer are compared, and several concepts are discussed that may become relevant for future hybrid optoelectronic technology.

  5. Capillary Two-Phase Thermal Devices for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    This is the presentation file for an invited seminar for Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the Case Western Reserve University. The seminar is scheduled for April 1, 2016.Description: This presentation will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of heat pipes (HPs) and loop heat pipes (LHPs) and their application for spacecraft thermal control. Topics include: 1) HP operating principles; 2) HP performance characteristics; 3) LHP pressure profiles; 4) LHP operating temperature; 5) LHP operating temperature control; and 6) Examples of using HPs and LHPs on NASA flight projects.

  6. Application of a hormonal intrauterine device causing uterine perforation: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Žižić Vojislav; Hudelist Gernot; Argirović Rajka; Sparić Radmila; Berisavac Milica

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The last decade of the usage of intrauterine contraception has been marked by the application of levonorgestrel-releasing hormonal devices. A hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) releases a certain amount of progestogen, whose effect on endometrium is such that, apart from preventing unwanted pregnancy, also regulates the menstrual bleeding by reducing the quantity and the duration of haemorrhage. This effect of hormonal IUDs has led to their additional indications and use, ...

  7. Application of ICT in the non-destructive inspection of explosive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inspection of explosive device is an important task in the store of the weapons. The technique of non-destructive examination with radial, especially the ICT, is an effective method. The paper mainly introduces the design and the theories on the inspection system and software system of the application of industrial ICT in the non-destructive examination of explosive device, and gives a reference to the work in such fields

  8. Investigation of High-Nonlinearity Glass Fibers for Potential Applications in Ultrafast Nonlinear Fiber Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear fiber devices have been attracting considerable attention in recent years, due to their inherent ultrafast response time and potential applications in optical communication systems. They usually require long fibers to generate sufficient nonlinear phase shifts, since nonlinearities of conventional silica-core silica-clad fibers are too low. These long devices, however, cause the serious problems of pulse walk-off, pulse broadening, and polarization fluctuation which are major limiti...

  9. APPLICATION OF THE HART PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNICATION WITH SMART FIELD DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    MULAOSMANOVIC ADNAN M.

    2015-01-01

    Smart instrumentation protocols are designed for applications where data is collected from instruments, sensors and actuators by digital communication technology. The HART protocol is a typical smart instrumentation Fieldbus. More than 40 million HART devices are installed worlwide, and the HART technology is the most widely usef field communication protocol for intelligent process instrumentation. Two communication channels supported by HART devices are the current loop 4-20 mA, and the HART...

  10. The development of mobile application for the use on various operating systems on mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Porenta , Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    Technological development of mobile devices, rifeness of broadband mobile networks and affordable price are the reasons that made them so widespread. They incorporate powerful microprocessors, large memory capacities and other components (camera or GPS unit) that even further expand their serviceability. Applications that take advantage of built-in components or improve their functionality are installed on such devices and their associated mobile operating systems. Users have an opportunity t...

  11. All-optical nonlinear signal processing devices and their applications within fibre-optic communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju Han

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with research into the development of a range of all-optical fibre based nonlinear devices for optical communication applications. The research can he divided into two main themes. The first concerns the use nf superstructured fibre Bragg grating technology together with fibre based nonlinear devices to improve the overall system performance in both OCDMA and OTDM systems. The second theme area concerns the use of highly nonlinear holey fibre within a range of nonline...

  12. Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillon, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in BruxismEduardo Enrique, Castrillon Watanabe, DDS, MSc, PhDSection of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial NeuroscienceSummary: Bruxism is a parafunctional activity, which involves the masticatory muscles and probably it is as old as human mankind. Different methods such as portable EMG devices have been proposed to d...

  13. A novel 2-T structure memory device using a Si nanodot for embedded application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance and reliability of a 2 transistor Si nanocrystal nonvolatile memory (NVM) are investigated. A good performance of the memory cell has been achieved, including a fast program/erase (P/E) speed under low voltages, an excellent data retention (maintaining for 10 years) and good endurance with a less threshold voltage shift of less than 10% after 104 P/E cycles. The data show that the device has strong potential for future embedded NVM applications. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Proceedings of the national conference on vacuum electronic devices and applications: souvenir and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum electronic devices have carved out a strategic niche for themselves in the areas of satellite based communications and broadcasting, industrial and medical accelerators, and, high power RF systems required in high energy particle accelerators, accelerator driven sub-critical systems, plasma heating systems in nuclear fusion reactors for power generation etc. Besides, these devices continue to have their major applications in various defence related communication, RADAR and ECM systems. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Towards an autonomous self-tuning vibration energy harvesting device for wireless sensor network applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future deployment of wireless sensor networks will ultimately require a self-sustainable local power source for each sensor, and vibration energy harvesting is a promising approach for such applications. A requirement for efficient vibration energy harvesting is to match the device and source frequencies. While techniques to tune the resonance frequency of an energy harvesting device have recently been described, in many applications optimization of such systems will require the energy harvesting device to be able to autonomously tune its resonance frequency. In this work a vibration energy harvesting device with autonomous resonance frequency tunability utilizing a magnetic stiffness technique is presented. Here a piezoelectric cantilever beam array is employed with magnets attached to the free ends of cantilever beams to enable magnetic force resonance frequency tuning. The device is successfully tuned from − 27% to + 22% of its untuned resonance frequency while outputting a peak power of approximately 1 mW. Since the magnetic force tuning technique is semi-active, energy is only consumed during the tuning process. The developed prototype consumed maximum energies of 3.3 and 3.9 J to tune to the farthest source frequencies with respect to the untuned resonance frequency of the device. The time necessary for this prototype device to harvest the energy expended during its most energy-intensive (largest resonant frequency adjustment) tuning operation is 88 min in a low amplitude 0.1g vibration environment, which could be further optimized using higher efficiency piezoelectric materials and system components

  16. Athrombogenic hydrogel coatings for medical devices--Examination of biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butruk-Raszeja, Beata A; Łojszczyk, Ilona; Ciach, Tomasz; Kościelniak-Ziemniak, Magdalena; Janiczak, Karolina; Kustosz, Roman; Gonsior, Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    In the article the authors present hydrogel coatings prepared from polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) macromolecules, which are chemically bonded to polyurethane (PU) substrate. The coating is designed to improve the surface hemocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices. The coating was characterized in terms of physical properties (swelling ratio, hydrogel density, surface morphology, coating thickness, coating durability). In order to examine surface hemocompatibility, the materials were contacted with whole human blood under arterial flow simulated conditions followed by calculation of platelet consumption and the number of platelet aggregates. Samples were also contacted with platelet-poor plasma; the number of surface-adsorbed fibrinogen molecules was measured using ELISA assay. Finally, the inflammatory reaction after implantation was assessed, using New Zealand rabbits. The designed coating is characterized by high water content and excellent durability in aqueous environment - over a 35-day period, no significant changes in coating thickness were observed. Experiments with blood proved twice the reduction in adsorption of serum-derived fibrinogen together with a moderate reduction in the number of platelet aggregates formed during the contact of the material with blood. The analysis of an inflammatory reaction after the implantation confirmed high biocompatibility of the fabricated materials - studies have shown no toxic effects of the implanted material on the surrounding animal tissues. PMID:25912028

  17. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  18. Transcending epithelial and intracellular biological barriers; a prototype DNA delivery device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Joanne; McCrudden, Cian M; Ali, Ahlam A; Massey, Ashley S; McBride, John W; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Vicente-Perez, Eva M; Coulter, Jonathan A; Robson, Tracy; Donnelly, Ryan F; McCarthy, Helen O

    2016-03-28

    Microneedle technology provides the opportunity for the delivery of DNA therapeutics by a non-invasive, patient acceptable route. To deliver DNA successfully requires consideration of both extra and intracellular biological barriers. In this study we present a novel two tier platform; i) a peptide delivery system, termed RALA, that is able to wrap the DNA into nanoparticles, protect the DNA from degradation, enter cells, disrupt endosomes and deliver the DNA to the nucleus of cells ii) a microneedle (MN) patch that will house the nanoparticles within the polymer matrix, breach the skin's stratum corneum barrier and dissolve upon contact with skin interstitial fluid thus releasing the nanoparticles into the skin. Our data demonstrates that the RALA is essential for preventing DNA degradation within the poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) polymer matrix. In fact the RALA/DNA nanoparticles (NPs) retained functionality when in the MN arrays after 28days and over a range of temperatures. Furthermore the physical strength and structure of the MNs was not compromised when loaded with the NPs. Finally we demonstrated the effectiveness of our MN-NP platform in vitro and in vivo, with systemic gene expression in highly vascularised regions. Taken together this 'smart-system' technology could be applied to a wide range of genetic therapies. PMID:26883753

  19. Discovery and Development of Synthetic and Natural Biomaterials for Protein Therapeutics and Medical Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew J.

    Controlling nonspecific protein interactions is important for applications from medical devices to protein therapeutics. The presented work is a compilation of efforts aimed at using zwitterionic (ionic yet charge neutral) polymers to modify and stabilize the surface of sensitive biomedical and biological materials. Traditionally, when modifying the surface of a material, the stability of the underlying substrate. The materials modified in this dissertation are unique due to their unconventional amorphous characteristics which provide additional challenges. These are poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) rubber, and proteins. These materials may seem dissimilar, but both have amorphous surfaces, that do not respond well to chemical modification. PDMS is a biomaterial extensively used in medical device manufacturing, but experiences unacceptably high levels of non-specific protein fouling when used with biological samples. To reduce protein fouling, surface modification is often needed. Unfortunately conventional surface modification methods, such as Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings, do not work for PDMS due to its amorphous state. Herein, we demonstrate how a superhydrophilic zwitterionic material, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), can provide a highly stable nonfouling coating with long term stability due to the sharp the contrast in hydrophobicity between pCBMA and PDMS. Biological materials, such as proteins, also require stabilization to improve shelf life, circulation time, and bioactivity. Conjugation of proteins with PEG is often used to increase protein stability, but has a detrimental effect on bioactivity. Here we have shown that pCBMA conjugation improves stability in a similar fashion to PEG, but also retains, or even improves, binding affinity due to enhanced protein-substrate hydrophobic interactions. Recognizing that pCBMA chemically resembles the combination of lysine (K) and glutamic acid (E) amino acids, we have shown how zwitterionic

  20. Non cemented hip implants. Failures of biologically fixed devices: causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letournel, E

    1987-01-01

    Complications of cementless prostheses are similar to those presented by the cemented ones. They are all the consequence of a failure (lack) of the bony fixation, which may be primary (the components never become fixed) or secondary (the components lose their bony attachments that were initially achieved). The bony fixation is often very difficult to assess, and a localized radiolucent line is always a bad indication. Failure of fixation may be partial or total for one or both components. Removal of distal broken cementless stems is much more difficult than for the cemented ones. Loosening may damage the bone at least as much as a mobile cemented mantle, and bone grafting at revision is often needed. Revisions for loosening of uncemented prostheses are at least as difficult as for the cemented ones. The lifetime of the Judet prosthesis has been shortened by an initially poor manufacturing process. Perhaps this has allowed us to get information about the outcome of uncemented prostheses in a shorter period. Finally, I believe in the concept of uncemented prostheses because their possible fixation by bony ingrowth is proved, but the definitive solutions have to be found and improvements are needed: A screwed socket appears to be good. A better plastic than HDP with less wearability and better mechanical properties is needed. A stem better adapted to the shape of the medullary canal bedding would probably facilitate bony ingrowth. The kind of porosity does not affect many things in my experience. Failures of prostheses that are no longer commonly used today have been reported. These were state-of-the-art devices 10 years ago--perhaps that is good food for thought. PMID:3818352

  1. Development of low-cost sensing and separation devices based on macro, micro and nano technology for health applications

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Una Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis described the development of low-cost sensing and separation devices with electrochemical detections for health applications. This research employs macro, micro and nano technology. The first sensing device developed was a tonerbased micro-device. The initial development of microfluidic devices was based on glass or quartz devices that are often expensive to fabricate; however, the introduction of new types of materials, such as plastics, offered a new way fo...

  2. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  3. Biological Membrane Ion Channels Dynamics, Structure, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Shin-Ho; Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2007-01-01

    Ion channels are biological nanotubes that are formed by membrane proteins. Because ion channels regulate all electrical activities in living cells, understanding their mechanisms at a molecular level is a fundamental problem in biology. This book deals with recent breakthroughs in ion-channel research that have been brought about by the combined effort of experimental biophysicists and computational physicists, who together are beginning to unravel the story of these exquisitely designed biomolecules. With chapters by leading experts, the book is aimed at researchers in nanodevices and biosensors, as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biology and the physical sciences. Key Features Presents the latest information on the molecular mechanisms of ion permeation through membrane ion channels Uses schematic diagrams to illustrate important concepts in biophysics Written by leading researchers in the area of ion channel investigations

  4. A first course in computing with applications to biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Bush, Eliot

    2013-09-01

    We believe that undergraduate biology students must acquire a foundational background in computing including how to formulate a computational problem; develop an algorithmic solution; implement their solution in software and then test, document and use their code to explore biological phenomena. Moreover, by learning these skills in the first year, students acquire a powerful tool set that they can use and build on throughout their studies. To address this need, we have developed a first-year undergraduate course that teaches students the foundations of computational thinking and programming in the context of problems in biology. This article describes the structure and content of the course and summarizes assessment data on both affective and learning outcomes. PMID:23449003

  5. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  6. Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Rabinowicz, E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.)

    1992-09-15

    High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials' low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

  7. Application of Computational Systems Biology to Explore Environmental Toxicity Hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Grandjean, P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computer-based modeling is part of a new approach to predictive toxicology. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the usefulness of an integrated computational systems biology approach in a case study involving the isomers and metabolites of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to...... ascertain their possible links to relevant adverse effects. METHODS: We extracted chemical protein association networks for each DDT isomer and its metabolites using Chem Prot, a disease chemical biology database that includes both binding and gene expression data, and we explored protein protein...

  8. Design and fabrication of short gate-length heterostructure charge coupled devices for transversal filter applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hiang Teik; Hunter, Ian C.; Snowden, Christopher M.; Ranson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the first reported quarter-micron double delta doped AlGaAs/ InGaAs charge coupled device for microwave filter applications. The design and fabrication of conventional and multi tapped delay line MMICs for RF filter applications are also discussed. Schrödinger and Poisson’s equations are self consistently solved with current continuity equations to show the variation in channel charge concentration as the gate voltagesare varied. The device is implemented as a recessed cap...

  9. DNA Synthesis, Assembly and Applications in Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Siying; Tang, Nicholas; Tian, Jingdong

    2012-01-01

    The past couple of years saw exciting new developments in microchip-based gene synthesis technologies. Such technologies hold the potential for significantly increasing the throughput and decreasing the cost of gene synthesis. Together with more efficient enzymatic error correction and genome assembly methods, these new technologies are pushing the field of synthetic biology to a higher level.

  10. Some Applications of Mathematics for the Biology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Robert M.; Leonard, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Biology and mathematics are inextricably linked. In this article, we show a few of the many areas in which this linkage might be made explicit. By doing so, teachers can deepen students' understanding and appreciation of both subjects. In this article, we explore some of these areas, providing brief explanations of the mathematics and some of the…

  11. Nano devices and circuit techniques for low-energy applications and energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the development of core technologies to address two of the most challenging issues in research for future IT platform development, namely innovative device design and reduction of energy consumption. Three key devices, the FinFET, the TunnelFET, and the electromechanical nanoswitch are described with extensive details of use for practical applications. Energy issues are also covered in a tutorial fashion from material physics, through device technology, to innovative circuit design. The strength of this book lies in its holistic approach dealing with material trends, state-of-the-art of key devices, new examples of circuits and systems applications.    This is the first of three books based on the Integrated Smart Sensors research project, which describe the development of innovative devices, circuits, and system-level enabling technologies.  The aim of the project was to develop common platforms on which various devices and sensors can be loaded, and to create systems offering signific...

  12. Fabrication techniques and applications of flexible graphene-based electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqi, Tao; Danyang, Wang; Song, Jiang; Ying, Liu; Qianyi, Xie; He, Tian; Ningqin, Deng; Xuefeng, Wang; Yi, Yang; Tian-Ling, Ren

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, flexible electronic devices have become a hot topic of scientific research. These flexible devices are the basis of flexible circuits, flexible batteries, flexible displays and electronic skins. Graphene-based materials are very promising for flexible electronic devices, due to their high mobility, high elasticity, a tunable band gap, quantum electronic transport and high mechanical strength. In this article, we review the recent progress of the fabrication process and the applications of graphene-based electronic devices, including thermal acoustic devices, thermal rectifiers, graphene-based nanogenerators, pressure sensors and graphene-based light-emitting diodes. In summary, although there are still a lot of challenges needing to be solved, graphene-based materials are very promising for various flexible device applications in the future. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) Program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  13. iFringe: a fringe analysis application for mobile smart devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacob; Teo, Josias Y. S.; Qian, Kemao

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces iFringe, a mobile application that attempts to incorporate the resource heavy fringe analysis algorithms into the smart mobile devices platform. This first step taken towards mobility in the optical processing field aims to become a catalyst for modernization of various aspects of the field as well as to diversify developments to other applications. Predominantly, the motivation of this work stems from the vastly indifferent human interactive method of mobile devices, which enable images displayed on its touch screen to be manipulated in ways that could enhance the fringe analysis experience. Furthermore, given its hardware compatibility to the conventional fringe projection system, these mobile devices could potentially serve as a much more compact replacement. However, one imperative weakness that mobile devices pose is its limited computing ability. Therefore, to examine the feasibility of incorporating the fringe analysis algorithms into a mobile platform, we have implemented two fundamental fringe analysis techniques, namely the Fourier transform fringe analysis method and the phase-shifting technique. Formulas and processing procedures such as discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and quality-guided phase unwrapping, were included in accordance to their original algorithms to test their performance and usability on a smart mobile device. Details of the implementation and the performance results will also be presented in this paper to demonstrate the practicality of these algorithms on the smart mobile device platform.

  14. Cloud Based Application Development for Accessing Restaurant Information on Mobile Device using LBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi S. Shetty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of years, the extent of the services provided on the mobile devices has increasedrapidly. A special class of service among them is the Location Based Service(LBS which depends on thegeographical position of the user to provide services to the end users. However, a mobile device is still resource constrained, and some applications usually demand more resources than a mobile device can a ord. To alleviate this, a mobile device should get resources from an external source. One of such sources is cloud computing platforms. We can predict that the mobile area will take on a boom with the advent of this new concept. The aim of this paper is to exchange messages between user and location service provider in mobile device accessing the cloud by minimizing cost, data storage and processing power. Our main goalis to provide dynamic location-based service and increase the information retrieve accuracy especially on the limited mobile screen by accessing cloud application. In this paper we present location based restaurant information retrieval system and we have developed our application in Android.

  15. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  16. Field of researches and applications domains for compact and large-scale DPF devices: Current assets, problems and essentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination of the most important processes taking place in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) device that lead to the production of very bright flashes of neutrons and X-rays is presented. It is shown that the current abruption (CA) phenomenon accompanied by the plasma-diode formation plays the key role in these events. Issues of matching of different primary loads with plasma inductive storage and subsequently with plasma diode are discussed. It is shown that at the intermediate energies it is possible to attain the perfect matching. Results in some applications of medium-sized DPF obtained recently in radiation material science, dynamic quality control, biology and medicine are presented. It is shown that for better matching at very high energies the classical intermediate energy compressing element can be used. Besides schemes with laser support switching are discussed. Extrapolations of DPF phenomena to very high and very low energies with their feasibility are examined. Envisioned applications of such huge and tiny DPF devices in power production, medicine and electronics are discussed. (author)

  17. A plasmonic staircase nano-antenna device with strong electric field enhancement for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a staircase plasmonic nano-antenna device is analysed both theoretically and experimentally. The tapered nano-antenna cavity with a grating leads to electric field enhancement factor (EF) as high as 31 close to 830 nm. The integration of a metallic grating aids the coupling of light coming from the vertical direction to the nano-antenna, increasing the electric field in the nano-antenna by a factor of 3. The smallest air gap width between the metallic regions of the fabricated nano-antenna is about 35 nm, fabricated using focused ion beam system. The small air gaps in the nano-antennas can generate very high intensity electric fields which can be used in applications in biological sensing and imaging, nanoparticle manipulations and enhancement of nonlinear effects. In this paper, to experimentally demonstrate that with the integration of a well designed grating and reflectors, the resonance inside the nano-antenna cavity is increased significantly, we exploit one application of this device: the enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The present structure can lead to SERS EFs above 1 million. (paper)

  18. Characterization and Application of Microplasma Devices for Ambient Mass Spectrometry and Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Joshua; Gann, Reuben; Fernández, Facundo; Orlando, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    In ambient mass spectrometry, ionization sources with broad chemical compatibility, low fragmentation, and high reliability are one of the keys necessary to enable effective and rapid analysis of unknown samples. One such approach, employing a variety of ambient-pressure microplasma discharges, has demonstrated itself to be a promising technique with a variety of successful applications and results. This class of devices holds a competitive edge over alternative ambient ionization methods when cost and portability are a concern: microplasmas typically require only modest electrical power and minimal gas flows to operate. We have developed our own such devices and methods, and look more closely into the physical nature of what makes particular designs successful. We focus on the development of these devices to perform mass spectrometry imaging in tandem with optical microscope imaging of samples at ambient pressure. Additionally, we investigate the use of microplasma devices for production of VUV photons, another highly effective ionization source.

  19. A Real time Data Acquisition and Monitoring Device for Medical Applications based on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithin Krishnan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An android based real time data acquisition and monitoring device is presented here. The system finds its initial application in medical field .it serves as a remote monitor for measuring and analysing along with logging of data from patients. The system comprises of two parts. A data acquisition (DaQ part connected to patient side and an android based display device on the receiving end. The Data Acquisition part contains sensors for picking up the vital signs from the patients, signal conditioning circuits and a Bluetooth transceiver to transmit data wirelessly to the display device. The Display Device then displays the data received from the transmitter in a readable form and also logs the data into a excel form so that it can be taken out digitally and analysed.

  20. High performance solution processed zirconium oxide gate dielectric appropriate for low temperature device application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a solution processed electrical device with zirconium oxide gate dielectric that was fabricated at a low enough temperature appropriate for flexible electronics. Both inorganic dielectric and channel materials were synthesized in the same organic solvent. The dielectric constant achieved was 13 at 250 °C with a reasonably low leakage current. The bottom gate transistor devices showed the highest mobility of 75 cm2/V s. The device is operated at low voltage with high-k dielectric with excellent transconductance and low threshold voltage. Overall, the results highlight the potential of low temperature solution based deposition in fabricating more complicated circuits for a range of applications. - Highlights: • We develop a low temperature inorganic dielectric deposition process. • We fabricate oxide semiconductor channel devices using all-solution processes. • Same solvent is used for dielectric and oxide semiconductor deposition

  1. High performance solution processed zirconium oxide gate dielectric appropriate for low temperature device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Musarrat; Nguyen, Manh-Cuong; Kim, Hyojin; You, Seung-Won; Jeon, Yoon-Seok; Tong, Duc-Tai; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Choi, Rino, E-mail: rino.choi@inha.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    This paper reports a solution processed electrical device with zirconium oxide gate dielectric that was fabricated at a low enough temperature appropriate for flexible electronics. Both inorganic dielectric and channel materials were synthesized in the same organic solvent. The dielectric constant achieved was 13 at 250 °C with a reasonably low leakage current. The bottom gate transistor devices showed the highest mobility of 75 cm{sup 2}/V s. The device is operated at low voltage with high-k dielectric with excellent transconductance and low threshold voltage. Overall, the results highlight the potential of low temperature solution based deposition in fabricating more complicated circuits for a range of applications. - Highlights: • We develop a low temperature inorganic dielectric deposition process. • We fabricate oxide semiconductor channel devices using all-solution processes. • Same solvent is used for dielectric and oxide semiconductor deposition.

  2. AN ACTIVE MIDDLEWARE FOR SECURE AUTOMATIC RECONFIGURATION OF APPLICATIONS FOR ANDROID DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kami Makki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of smart phones and the role they play in the lives of consumers, the demand for high performing mobile computing is apparent. Although smartphones today are feature-rich, they are still resource-scarce; they are limited by their memory, energy, and processing power. These limitations constrain the ability of these devices to perform intensive computational tasks without compromising the consistency of mobile device performance. As such, the development of a dynamic and intelligent mobile middleware solution can ameliorate these constraints through the utilization of surrogate computing methodologies. In this paper, we present an intelligent and active middleware solution for secure automatic reconfiguration of applications for android devices. This middleware offers efficiency and enhances the conservation of resources for these devices.

  3. Development of Pinhole-Free Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Protective Layers for Biomedical Device Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, Julia; Wang, Yi-Ju; George, Jinnie; Chinwangso, Pawilai; Brankovic, Stanko; Willson, Richard C; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-06-15

    This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures. PMID:23682201

  4. Applications of membrane computing in systems and synthetic biology

    CERN Document Server

    Gheorghe, Marian; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Membrane Computing was introduced as a computational paradigm in Natural Computing. The models introduced, called Membrane (or P) Systems, provide a coherent platform to describe and study living cells as computational systems. Membrane Systems have been investigated for their computational aspects and employed to model problems in other fields, like: Computer Science, Linguistics, Biology, Economy, Computer Graphics, Robotics, etc. Their inherent parallelism, heterogeneity and intrinsic versatility allow them to model a broad range of processes and phenomena, being also an efficient means to solve and analyze problems in a novel way. Membrane Computing has been used to model biological systems, becoming with time a thorough modeling paradigm comparable, in its modeling and predicting capabilities, to more established models in this area. This book is the result of the need to collect, in an organic way, different facets of this paradigm. The chapters of this book, together with the web pages accompanying th...

  5. Application of computational systems biology to explore environmental toxicity hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Grandjean, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computer-based modeling is part of a new approach to predictive toxicology.Objectives: We investigated the usefulness of an integrated computational systems biology approach in a case study involving the isomers and metabolites of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT......) to ascertain their possible links to relevant adverse effects.Methods: We extracted chemical-protein association networks for each DDT isomer and its metabolites using ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database that includes both binding and gene expression data, and we explored protein-protein interactions...... using a human interactome network. To identify associated dysfunctions and diseases, we integrated protein-disease annotations into the protein complexes using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.Results: We found 175 human proteins linked to p...

  6. Neutron scattering applications in structural biology: now and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Neutrons have an important role to play in structural biology. Neutron crystallography, small-angle neutron scattering and inelastic neutron scattering techniques all contribute unique information on biomolecular structures. In particular, solution scattering techniques give critical information on the conformations and dispositions of the components of complex assemblies under a wide variety of relevant conditions. The power of these methods is demonstrated here by studies of protein/DNA complexes, and Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins complexed with their regulatory targets. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of a new structural approach using neutron resonance scattering. The impact of biological neutron scattering to date has been constrained principally by the available fluxes at neutron sources and the true potential of these approaches will only be realized with the development of new more powerful neutron sources. (author)

  7. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  8. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  9. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC

  10. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Scanning Probe Microscopy : Characterization, Nanofabrication and Device Application of Functional Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria; Kingon, Angus; Scanning Probe Microscopy : Characterization, Nanofabrication and Device Application of Functional Materials

    2005-01-01

    As the characteristic dimensions of electronic devices continue to shrink, the ability to characterize their electronic properties at the nanometer scale has come to be of outstanding importance. In this sense, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is becoming an indispensable tool, playing a key role in nanoscience and nanotechnology. SPM is opening new opportunities to measure semiconductor electronic properties with unprecedented spatial resolution. SPM is being successfully applied for nanoscale characterization of ferroelectric thin films. In the area of functional molecular materials it is being used as a probe to contact molecular structures in order to characterize their electrical properties, as a manipulator to assemble nanoparticles and nanotubes into simple devices, and as a tool to pattern molecular nanostructures. This book provides in-depth information on new and emerging applications of SPM to the field of materials science, namely in the areas of characterisation, device application and nanofabrica...

  11. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, R. K.; Bera, A.; Raju, R. S.; Tanwar, A. K.; Baek, I. K.; Min, S. H.; Kwon, O. J.; Sattorov, M. A.; Lee, K. W.; Park, G.-S.

    2013-07-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  12. Creating a Prototype Web Application for Spacecraft Real-Time Data Visualization on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jeremy S.; Irving, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices (smart phones, tablets) have become commonplace among almost all sectors of the workforce, especially in the technical and scientific communities. These devices provide individuals the ability to be constantly connected to any area of interest they may have, whenever and wherever they are located. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is attempting to take advantage of this constant connectivity to extend the data visualization component of the Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC) to a person's mobile device. POIC users currently have a rather unique capability to create custom user interfaces in order to view International Space Station (ISS) payload health and status telemetry. These displays are used at various console positions within the POIC. The Software Engineering team has created a Mobile Display capability that will allow authenticated users to view the same displays created for the console positions on the mobile device of their choice. Utilizing modern technologies including ASP.net, JavaScript, and HTML5, we have created a web application that renders the user's displays in any modern desktop or mobile web browser, regardless of the operating system on the device. Additionally, the application is device aware which enables it to render its configuration and selection menus with themes that correspond to the particular device. The Mobile Display application uses a communication mechanism known as signalR to push updates to the web client. This communication mechanism automatically detects the best communication protocol between the client and server and also manages disconnections and reconnections of the client to the server. One benefit of this application is that the user can monitor important telemetry even while away from their console position. If expanded to the scientific community, this application would allow a scientist to view a snapshot of the state of their particular experiment at any time or place

  13. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, Jack E., E-mail: jaelma@gmail.com [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry [Louisiana Accelerator Center, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Briski, Karen P. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Glass, Gary A. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon {sup 12}C(p,p){sup 12}C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  14. Applications of Case-Based Reasoning in Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jurisica, Igor; Glasgow, Janice

    2004-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a computational reasoning paradigm that involves the storage and retrieval of past experiences to solve novel problems. It is an approach that is particularly relevant in scientific domains, where there is a wealth of data but often a lack of theories or general principles. This article describes several CBR systems that have been developed to carry out planning, analysis, and prediction in the domain of molecular biology.

  15. Application of scanning electrochemical microscopy to biological samples

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Kwak, J.; Bard, A J

    1990-01-01

    The scanning electrochemical microscope can be used in the feedback mode in two-dimensional scans over biological substrates to obtain topographic information at the micrometer level. In this mode, the effect of distance between a substrate (either conductive or insulating) and a scanning ultramicroelectrode tip on the electrolytic current flowing at the tip is recorded as a function of the tip x-y position. Scans of the upper surface of a grass leaf and the lower surface of a Ligustrum sinen...

  16. Biclustering Methods: Biological Relevance and Application in Gene Expression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Oghabian; Sami Kilpinen; Sampsa Hautaniemi; Elena Czeizler

    2014-01-01

    DNA microarray technologies are used extensively to profile the expression levels of thousands of genes under various conditions, yielding extremely large data-matrices. Thus, analyzing this information and extracting biologically relevant knowledge becomes a considerable challenge. A classical approach for tackling this challenge is to use clustering (also known as one-way clustering) methods where genes (or respectively samples) are grouped together based on the similarity of their expressi...

  17. Application of Biological Tissue Grafts for Burns in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the advances made in the use of Biological Tissue Grafts for the treatment of burns.The paper outlines research activities and clinical trials done in the use of gamma radiation sterilised Amnion membranes and Pig skin grafts in the zambian Heath Care System for treatment of Burns.Ethical issues of Tissue Banking are also discussed in relation to religious and cultural beliefs and Good Manufacturing Practices

  18. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism to Meloidogyne Molecular Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, B. C.; Whipple, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have enabled the genotyping of individual nematodes, facilitating the analysis of genetic variability within and among plant-pathogenic nematode isolates. This review first describes representative examples of how RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and DNA sequence analysis have been employed to describe populations of several phytonematodes, including the pinewood, burrowing, root-knot, and cyst nematodes. The second portion of this paper evaluates the utility of a size-v...

  19. C-Nucleosides: Synthetic Strategies and Biological Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štambaský, J.; Hocek, Michal; Kočovský, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 12 (2009), s. 6729-6764. ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Grant ostatní: NIH(US) 1R03TW007372-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * nucleobases * biological activity * extension of genetic alphabet Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 35.957, year: 2009

  20. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12C(p,p)12C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition

  1. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  2. WEB APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR BUILDING AUTOMATION DEVICE (HEATING SYSTEM) IN LOCAL NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Jeveen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oulu University of Applied Sciences Degree Programme in Information Technology Author: Jeveen Shrestha Title of the bachelor’s thesis: Web Application Development for Building Automation Device (Heating System) in Local Network Supervisor: Pekka Alaluukas Term and year of completion: Spring 2016 Pages: 37 After doing a practical training in Ouman Oy in summer of 2015, I was provided a project to develop a web application that would communicate to their heati...

  3. Defining brain-machine interface applications by matching interface performance with device requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonet, Oliver; Marinelli, Martina; Citi, Luca; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Rossini, Luca; Megali, Giuseppe; Dario, Paolo

    2008-01-15

    Interaction with machines is mediated by human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a particular class of HMIs and have so far been studied as a communication means for people who have little or no voluntary control of muscle activity. In this context, low-performing interfaces can be considered as prosthetic applications. On the other hand, for able-bodied users, a BMI would only be practical if conceived as an augmenting interface. In this paper, a method is introduced for pointing out effective combinations of interfaces and devices for creating real-world applications. First, devices for domotics, rehabilitation and assistive robotics, and their requirements, in terms of throughput and latency, are described. Second, HMIs are classified and their performance described, still in terms of throughput and latency. Then device requirements are matched with performance of available interfaces. Simple rehabilitation and domotics devices can be easily controlled by means of BMI technology. Prosthetic hands and wheelchairs are suitable applications but do not attain optimal interactivity. Regarding humanoid robotics, the head and the trunk can be controlled by means of BMIs, while other parts require too much throughput. Robotic arms, which have been controlled by means of cortical invasive interfaces in animal studies, could be the next frontier for non-invasive BMIs. Combining smart controllers with BMIs could improve interactivity and boost BMI applications. PMID:17499364

  4. An Exploration of Initial Certification Candidates' TPACK and Mathematics-Based Applications Using Touch Device Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Michael Ray

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study employed a multiple-case study approach to describe the experiences of a group of Initial Certification Candidates (ICCs) as they participated in explorations of readings and third-party applications (apps) run on touch screen technology devices. The group of ICCs was comprised of two Undergraduate Teacher…

  5. Introduction to the Special Section on Biomedical Devices for Personal Health Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I-Ming CHEN

    2011-01-01

    @@ This Special Section of Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering (FME) is dedicated to the topic of Biomedical Devices for Personal Health Applications.To reflect the fast pace of development in this area of research, a number of special sessions were firstly organized in the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics, Automation, and Mechatronics (RAM 2010) from 28 to 30 June 2010 in Singapore.

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices 4 Table 4 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Operating Limits for...

  7. 77 FR 74630 - Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With Anti-Tachycardia Devices or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose On September 7, 2012, the Coast Guard published a... to mariners who have anti-tachycardia devices or ICDs (77 FR 55174). The notice contains a detailed... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 10 Medical Waivers for Merchant Mariner Credential Applicants With...

  8. Fabrication and characterization of nanoelectronic devices for electron beam lithography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have shown promise for use as field emission electron sources. Dual-gate field emission structures (triodes) have been fabricated and characterized. The electron beams can be successfully focused in these triodes. These studies show VACNF based field emission devices are promising for electron beam lithography applications. In this thesis, work is continued on triode device investigation. Methods to improve the device fabrication, to understand/optimize the device performance, and to repair defective triodes are presented. Numerical simulation of the triode performance is included. Depth of field (DOF) of these triode structures is calculated by simulation and is determined to be ˜5mum for the current triode structures. The DOF can be improved by employing thicker electrodes. The optimum beam radius is also reduced for thick electrodes. 3D modeling of the structure misalignment shows that a very small and well-converged beam is observed for the maximum shifts studied: 100nm focus electrode shift or 50nm VACNF shift, although astigmatism and coma-type aberrations will increase somewhat from these misalignments. The simulation results are promising and warrant further research on these devices. Single-gate individual cathode-addressable devices are successfully fabricated. VACNFs are successfully grown on an insulating substrate instead of a conductive silicon substrate for this purpose. Electron field emission is demonstrated to be successful from these devices. Several possible fabrication schemes to achieve fully self-aligning aperture formation in triode fabrication are designed and discussed. The best way to achieve self-alignment is to employ a process based on both chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and reactive ion etching (RIE) selectivity. Fully self-aligned devices are successfully fabricated in this manner. Repair on a missing/defective VACNF in triodes is shown to be promising using an electron beam

  9. Biological membranes at large length scales: Biological applications and computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibaum, Lutz

    2012-10-01

    Biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane surrounding cells, perform an astonishing variety of essential functions: they provide structural support, regulate trafficking, and control endocytosis and fusion events, among others. Some of these capabilities are due to a membrane's elastic properties: at typical length scales of hundreds of nanometers, it can be thought of as a two-dimensional fluid sheet that exhibits significant fluctuations. This mesoscopic picture can be used to model several biological processes, including the formation of cellular protrusions due to interactions between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane. We show that a membrane can bundle polymerizing actin filaments, thereby enabling the formation of tubular structures that resemble filopodia observed in motile cells. To study this and similar processes that involve the cell membrane over large length scales, we have developed a new computational model that correctly captures the effects of bending rigidity and fluidity. We show that our model exhibits an elastic response to perturbations that is consistent with the Canham-Helfrich description of lipid bilayers, while also providing a computationally efficient way to capture the effects of shape fluctuations.

  10. BioInt: an integrative biological object-oriented application framework and interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sanket; Burra, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    BioInt, a biological programming application framework and interpreter, is an attempt to equip the researchers with seamless integration, efficient extraction and effortless analysis of the data from various biological databases and algorithms. Based on the type of biological data, algorithms and related functionalities, a biology-specific framework was developed which has nine modules. The modules are a compilation of numerous reusable BioADTs. This software ecosystem containing more than 450 biological objects underneath the interpreter makes it flexible, integrative and comprehensive. Similar to Python, BioInt eliminates the compilation and linking steps cutting the time significantly. The researcher can write the scripts using available BioADTs (following C++ syntax) and execute them interactively or use as a command line application. It has features that enable automation, extension of the framework with new/external BioADTs/libraries and deployment of complex work flows. PMID:26561020

  11. Laser digital photography and its application to biology of pests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weyda, František

    Brno : Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně, 2009 - (Šafránková, I.; Šefrová, H.). s. 177-177 ISBN 978-80-7375-316-0. [Česká a slovenská konference o ochraně rostlin /18./. 02.09.2009-04.09.2009, Brno] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : laser digital photography Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  12. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  13. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  14. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-MoS2/graphene heterostructure for memory device application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination of two dimensional graphene and semi-conducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is of great interest for various electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a hybridized structure with the chemical vapor deposited graphene and MoS2 crystals to configure a memory device. Elongated hexagonal and rhombus shaped MoS2 crystals are synthesized by sulfurization of thermally evaporated molybdenum oxide (MoO3) thin film. Scanning transmission electron microscope studies reveal atomic level structure of the synthesized high quality MoS2 crystals. In the prospect of a memory device fabrication, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as an insulating dielectric material as well as a supporting layer to transfer the MoS2 crystals. In the fabricated device, PMMA-MoS2 and graphene layers act as the functional and electrode materials, respectively. Distinctive bistable electrical switching and nonvolatile rewritable memory effect is observed in the fabricated PMMA-MoS2/graphene heterostructure. The developed material system and demonstrated memory device fabrication can be significant for next generation data storage applications

  15. Stochastic narrow escape in molecular and cellular biology analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Holcman, David

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in the non-standard asymptotics of the mathematical narrow escape problem in stochastic theory, as well as applications of the narrow escape problem in cell biology. The first part of the book concentrates on mathematical methods, including advanced asymptotic methods in partial equations, and is aimed primarily at applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists who are interested in biological applications. The second part of the book is intended for computational biologists, theoretical chemists, biochemists, biophysicists, and physiologists. It includes a summary of output formulas from the mathematical portion of the book and concentrates on their applications in modeling specific problems in theoretical molecular and cellular biology. Critical biological processes, such as synaptic plasticity and transmission, activation of genes by transcription factors, or double-strained DNA break repair, are controlled by diffusion in structures that have both large and small sp...

  16. Characterizing seamless ligation cloning extract for synthetic biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, Katrin; Hochrein, Lena; Dehm, Daniel; Schulz, Karina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2016-09-15

    Synthetic biology aims at designing and engineering organisms. The engineering process typically requires the establishment of suitable DNA constructs generated through fusion of multiple protein coding and regulatory sequences. Conventional cloning techniques, including those involving restriction enzymes and ligases, are often of limited scope, in particular when many DNA fragments must be joined or scar-free fusions are mandatory. Overlap-based-cloning methods have the potential to overcome such limitations. One such method uses seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) prepared from Escherichia coli cells for straightforward and efficient in vitro fusion of DNA fragments. Here, we systematically characterized extracts prepared from the unmodified E. coli strain DH10B for SLiCE-mediated cloning and determined DNA sequence-associated parameters that affect cloning efficiency. Our data revealed the virtual absence of length restrictions for vector backbone (up to 13.5 kbp) and insert (90 bp to 1.6 kbp). Furthermore, differences in GC content in homology regions are easily tolerated and the deletion of unwanted vector sequences concomitant with targeted fragment insertion is straightforward. Thus, SLiCE represents a highly versatile DNA fusion method suitable for cloning projects in virtually all molecular and synthetic biology projects. PMID:27311554

  17. Tailor-made nanomaterials for biological and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tréguer-Delapierre, M.; Rocco, F.; Cardinal, T.; Mornet, S.; Vasseur, S.; Duguet, E.

    2006-02-01

    The possibilities of designing and mastering the new physical and chemical properties of nano-structured materials have been at the center of the large interest they have received in the academic and industrial domains. Confinement effects and the enhanced role of the interface are key parameters. Designing composite materials with controlled nanometric interfacing of different materials is offering new possibilities for developing new structures. Proper design allows to create new properties to meet biological requirements. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the synthesis of various types of nanocrystalline materials that can be used to tackle biological problems inside or outside of living specimens, such as targeted drug delivery, ultra-sensitive disease detection and cell labelling. Two main classes of nanomaterials uses will be discussed. The nanocrystalline materials developed are highly dispersable in water and coated providing biocompatibility. They are elaborated either by precipitation or radiolysis. First, magnetic particles, often called (U)SPIO for (Ultrasmall) SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide, used as contrast agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) will be presented. Their use for magnetic hyperthermia is now envisaged for cancer treatment. Second, a new generation of inorganic luminophors based on metal colloidal particles will be shown. The coupling of plasmon in nearby particles (semiconductor or metal clusters) is used to enhance their oscillator strength and to target the incident energy. The resulting composite nano-objects can be used for making the smallest possible labels with large oscillator strengths. Those objects will greatly expand the accessibility of single molecule methods.

  18. Biological effects of implanted nuclear energy sources for artificial heart devices. Progress report, September 1, 1974--August 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from a study of the biological effects of radiation from mock plutonium power sources in dogs and a study of the feasibility of a tissue heat sink for waste heat from such sources in calves. It is also designed to evaluate effects of heat and radiation from plutonium sources in calves. The work is part of a program to evaluate the use of plutonium as a power source for an artificial heart device. A total of 60 dogs have been implanted with mock plutonium sources (producing a similar radiation flux as plutonium but having no associated heat) at levels of from 1 to 70 times the expected radiation flux from a 30 watt plutonium source. Results up to 4.5 years after implantation indicate that mammals may be able to tolerate the radiation flux from such sources. Results in calves indicate that 30 watts of additional endogenous heat can be dissipated to a connective tissue covered heat exchanger with a surface area of 494 cm2 providing a heat flux of 0.06 watts/cm2. (U.S.)

  19. Quantum Information Biology: From Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics to Applications in Molecular Biology and Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We discuss foundational issues of quantum information biology (QIB)—one of the most successful applications of the quantum formalism outside of physics. QIB provides a multi-scale model of information processing in bio-systems: from proteins and cells to cognitive and social systems. This theory has to be sharply distinguished from "traditional quantum biophysics". The latter is about quantum bio-physical processes, e.g., in cells or brains. QIB models the dynamics of information states of bio-systems. We argue that the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (its various forms were elaborated by Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, and D' Ariano) is the most natural interpretation of QIB. Biologically QIB is based on two principles: (a) adaptivity; (b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). These principles are mathematically represented in the framework of a novel formalism— quantum adaptive dynamics which, in particular, contains the standard theory of open quantum systems.

  20. A web-application that extends functionality of medical device for tumor treatment by means of electrochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a novel method for efficient tumor treatment in clinical environment. It combines local drug delivery and application of short high voltage pulses, which permeabilize the plasma membrane by electroporation. Drug can enter only the cells with permeabilzed membrane. Recently, medical device CliniporatorTM for controlled electroporation was developed. Here, we present a web-application that extends the functionality of this medical device. The aim of the application is to collect, store and to allow the analysis of every ECT application using this medical device. The application helps transferring data collected by device during the electroporation process to the central database, and enables filling of medical records through the web-forms. The application is based on technologies ASP, HTML, Flash, JavaScript, XML and others. The application main advantages are easy and rapid data access, scalability and independence of client computer operating system as well as easy application debugging and upgrading. (author)

  1. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  2. Semiconductor device-based sensors for gas, chemical, and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Sales of U.S. chemical sensors represent the largest segment of the multi-billion-dollar global sensor market, which includes instruments for chemical detection in gases and liquids, biosensors, and medical sensors. Although silicon-based devices have dominated the field, they are limited by their general inability to operate in harsh environments faced with factors such as high temperature and pressure. Exploring how and why these instruments have become a major player, Semiconductor Device-Based Sensors for Gas, Chemical, and Biomedical Applications presents the latest research, including or

  3. A New Application of an ANFIS for the Shape Optimal Design of Electromagnetic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohdeb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model based on simulated annealing algorithm (ASA and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for shape optimization and its applications to electromagnetic devices. The proposed model uses ANFIS system to evaluate the electromagnetic performance of the device. Both the ANFIS and ASA method are applied to the design/optimization of the electromagnetic actuator. The results of the proposed approach are compared with other techniques such as: method of moving asymptotes, penalty method, augmented lagrangian genetic algorithm and simulated annealing method (SA. Among the algorithms, the proposed ANFIS-ASA approach significantly outperforms the other methods.

  4. A novel, aerosol-nanocrystal floating-gate device for non-volatile memory applications

    OpenAIRE

    De Blauwe, J. W.; Ostraat, M. L.; Green, M. L.; Weber, G.; Sorsch, T.; Kerber, A.; Klemens, F.; Cirelli, R.; Ferry, E.; Grazul, J. L.; Baumann, F.; Kim, Y.; Mansfield, W.; Bude, J.; Lee, J. T. C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication, and structural and electrical characterization of a new, aerosol-nanocrystal floating-gate FET, aimed at non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. This aerosol-nanocrystal NVM device features program/erase characteristics comparable to conventional stacked gate NVM devices, excellent endurance (>l0^5 P/E cycles), and long-term non-volatility in spite of a thin bottom oxide (55-60Å). In addition, a very simple fabrication process makes this aerosol-nanocryst...

  5. Rethinking biology instruction: The application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Lee

    Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how the principles of Harel's (1998, 2001) DNR-based instruction in mathematics could be applied to the teaching and learning of biology. DNR is an acronym for the three foundational principles of the system: Duality, Necessity, and Repeated-reasoning. This study examines the application of these three principles to ecology instruction. Through clinical and teaching interviews, I developed models of students' existing ways of understanding in ecology and inferred their ways of thinking. From these models a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed for 16 college level freshmen enrolled in a 10-week ecology teaching experiment. Through cyclical, interpretive analysis I documented and analyzed the evolution of the participants' progress. The results provide empirical evidence to support the claim that the DNR principles are applicable to ecology instruction. With respect to the Duality Principle, helping students develop specific ways of understanding led to the development of model-based reasoning---a way of thinking and the cognitive objective guiding instruction. Through carefully structured problem solving tasks, the students developed a biological understanding of the relationship between matter cycling, energy flow, and cellular processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, and used this understanding to account for observable phenomena in nature. In the case of intellectual necessity, the results illuminate how problem situations can be developed for biology learners

  6. Application of super-resolution optical microscopy in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: A noninvasive, real-time far-field optical microscopy is needed to study the dynamic function inside cells and proteins. However, the resolution limit of traditional optical microscope is about 200 nm due to the diffraction limit of light. So, it's hard to directly observe the subcellular structures. Over the past several years of microscopy development, the diffraction limit of fluorescence microscopy has been overcome and its resolution limit is about tens of nanometers. Methods: To overcome the diffraction limit of light, many super-resolution fluoresce microscopes, including stimulated emission of depletion microscopy (STED), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), have been developed. Conclusions: These methods have been applied in cell biology, microbiology and neurobiology, and the technology of super-resolution provides a new insight into the life science. (authors)

  7. Application of scanning electrochemical microscopy to biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Kwak, J; Bard, A J

    1990-03-01

    The scanning electrochemical microscope can be used in the feedback mode in two-dimensional scans over biological substrates to obtain topographic information at the micrometer level. In this mode, the effect of distance between a substrate (either conductive or insulating) and a scanning ultramicroelectrode tip on the electrolytic current flowing at the tip is recorded as a function of the tip x-y position. Scans of the upper surface of a grass leaf and the lower surface of a Ligustrum sinensis leaf (which show open stomata structures) immersed in aqueous solution are shown. Scans of the upper surface of an elodea leaf in the dark and under irradiation, where the tip reaction is the reduction of oxygen produced by photosynthesis, demonstrate the possibility of obtaining information about the distribution of reaction sites on the substrate surface. PMID:2308933

  8. New developments in optical microscopy for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past ten years a quiet revolution has been taking place in optical microscopy. So quiet indeed that if one has not been working in life sciences research one may have seen little or no evidence of it. Yet what has been going on is an excellent example of how developments in physical instrumentation drive research and research in turn drives further developments in instrumentation. In this paper I will briefly review these developments in optical microscopy and, in particular, show how processes originally proposed 65 years ago as esoteric theoretical solutions to Dirac's equation are now used in practice for some of the most adventurous biological microscopy yet attempted. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia

  9. Testing of Synthetic Biological Membranes for Forward Osmosis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Mancinelli, Rocco; Kawashima, Brian; Trieu, Serena; Brozell, Adrian; Rosenberg, Kevan

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available forward osmosis membranes have been extensively tested for human space flight wastewater treatment. Despite the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a challenge to produce reliable membranes with anti-fouling properties, chemical resistance, and high flux and selectivity. Synthetic biological membranes that mimic the ones present in nature, which underwent millions of years of evolution, represent a potential solution for further development and progress in membrane technology. Biomimetic forward osmosis membranes based on a polymeric support filter and coated with surfactant multilayers have been engineered to investigate how different manufacturing processes impact the performance and structure of the membrane. However, initial results of the first generation prototype membranes tests reveal a high scatter in the data, due to the current testing apparatus set up. The testing apparatus has been upgraded to improve data collection, reduce errors, and to allow higher control of the testing process.

  10. 1,2,4-oxadiazole nucleus with versatile biological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arshad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Azoles are the five-membered heterocyclic compounds with two or three nitrogen atoms, constitute a large group of organic substances and have been long targeted for their use as therapeutic agents. 1,2,4-oxadiazoles is a member of azole family containing two nitrogen atoms, two carbon and one oxygen atom in the ring.1,2,4- oxadiazoles have been found to possess variety of biological activities such as human tryptase inhibitory activity, antitrypanosomal activity, β-amyloid imaging agents in Alzheimer’s disease, genotoxic activity, peptide inhibitory activity, antihyperglycemic activity, potential combretastatin A-4 (CA-4 analogs and oxadiazole mannich bases show antimyco-bacterial activity. Here in this review article we have reported the recent development in the pharmacological activity of some newly synthesized 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives.

  11. A flexible mobile-device biosensing instrumentation platform for point-of-care medical diagnostics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem;

    2014-01-01

    The early diagnosis and monitoring of chronic diseases still constitutes today one of the major healthcare challenges in our society. Advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics have been increasingly empowering researchers and engineers with tools to develop integrated biosensing solutions...... for this work. We present a mobile-device based, PoC biosensing instrumentation platform, designed for multiplexed high-impedance sensing and the electrochemical detection of biological species on a LoC. The proposed system is thus designed as a flexible, user-friendly hardware and software platform allowing...... programmable electrical readout from LoCs potentially comprehending varied transducers addressing different targeted biological markers. A smart-phone/tablet docking-station embeds the hardware interface necessary for the implementation of a smart-phone digital lock-in amplifier. The platform is tested...

  12. Biclustering methods: biological relevance and application in gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghabian, Ali; Kilpinen, Sami; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Czeizler, Elena

    2014-01-01

    DNA microarray technologies are used extensively to profile the expression levels of thousands of genes under various conditions, yielding extremely large data-matrices. Thus, analyzing this information and extracting biologically relevant knowledge becomes a considerable challenge. A classical approach for tackling this challenge is to use clustering (also known as one-way clustering) methods where genes (or respectively samples) are grouped together based on the similarity of their expression profiles across the set of all samples (or respectively genes). An alternative approach is to develop biclustering methods to identify local patterns in the data. These methods extract subgroups of genes that are co-expressed across only a subset of samples and may feature important biological or medical implications. In this study we evaluate 13 biclustering and 2 clustering (k-means and hierarchical) methods. We use several approaches to compare their performance on two real gene expression data sets. For this purpose we apply four evaluation measures in our analysis: (1) we examine how well the considered (bi)clustering methods differentiate various sample types; (2) we evaluate how well the groups of genes discovered by the (bi)clustering methods are annotated with similar Gene Ontology categories; (3) we evaluate the capability of the methods to differentiate genes that are known to be specific to the particular sample types we study and (4) we compare the running time of the algorithms. In the end, we conclude that as long as the samples are well defined and annotated, the contamination of the samples is limited, and the samples are well replicated, biclustering methods such as Plaid and SAMBA are useful for discovering relevant subsets of genes and samples. PMID:24651574

  13. Biclustering methods: biological relevance and application in gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Oghabian

    Full Text Available DNA microarray technologies are used extensively to profile the expression levels of thousands of genes under various conditions, yielding extremely large data-matrices. Thus, analyzing this information and extracting biologically relevant knowledge becomes a considerable challenge. A classical approach for tackling this challenge is to use clustering (also known as one-way clustering methods where genes (or respectively samples are grouped together based on the similarity of their expression profiles across the set of all samples (or respectively genes. An alternative approach is to develop biclustering methods to identify local patterns in the data. These methods extract subgroups of genes that are co-expressed across only a subset of samples and may feature important biological or medical implications. In this study we evaluate 13 biclustering and 2 clustering (k-means and hierarchical methods. We use several approaches to compare their performance on two real gene expression data sets. For this purpose we apply four evaluation measures in our analysis: (1 we examine how well the considered (biclustering methods differentiate various sample types; (2 we evaluate how well the groups of genes discovered by the (biclustering methods are annotated with similar Gene Ontology categories; (3 we evaluate the capability of the methods to differentiate genes that are known to be specific to the particular sample types we study and (4 we compare the running time of the algorithms. In the end, we conclude that as long as the samples are well defined and annotated, the contamination of the samples is limited, and the samples are well replicated, biclustering methods such as Plaid and SAMBA are useful for discovering relevant subsets of genes and samples.

  14. Selective Chemical-Lithographic Reaction Techniques Using Radiation Technology for Biological Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, titled 'selective Chemical-Lithographic Reaction Techniques Using Radiation Technology for Biological Application' contains a research summary, 1) development of selective reaction technology using irradiation of electron beams, 2) preparation of functional surfaces using selective radiation technology on carbon-based nanomaterials, and 3) development of bio-applicable biochips using combinatorial surface modification

  15. Applications of Magnetic Micro- and Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, J.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were first proposed for biomedical applications in the 1970s - primarily as targeted drug delivery vehicles and MRI contrast agents. Since that time, such particles have found application in a variety of biomedical techniques. In addition to drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles are now used routinely as MRI contrast agents as well as for magneto-immunoassay and cell sorting. More recently, magnetic micro- and nanoparticles have been used to investigate and manipulate cellular processes both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, biogenic magnetic nanoparticles are also produced in the human body. The iron storage protein, ferritin, consists of a superparamagnetic ferrihydrite core and biogenic magnetite (a ferrimagnet) has also been found in the brain and other organs. Though the role of ferritin and several other magnetic iron oxides in the body is well understood, the origin and role of biogenic magnetite is only now coming to light - and this may have profound implications for our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. This talk will review applications related to magnetic particle-mediated activation of cellular processes for tissue engineering applications and novel methods of magnetofection which have the potential to provide enhanced transfection for non-viral therapeutic gene delivery. It will also briefly highlight new techniques recently developed for the mapping and characterization of magnetic iron compounds related to neurodegenerative diseases and how rock magnetic techniques have been adapted to study magnetic iron compounds in the brain and other organs.

  16. Promising Tools for Biological Applications: Nanoparticles and Polyelectrolyte Polymer Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Almudena

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we address two different structures whose sizes are in the nanoscopic and microscopic range, namely nanoparticles and polyelectrolyte polymer capsules respectively. Among a wide variety of their promising applications, some are discussed. Synthesis, characterization and surface modification of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS and metallic Au nanoparticles are presented. Au nanoparticles were synthesized directly in organic sol...

  17. Hydrogen doped thin film diamond. Properties and application for electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Looi, H J

    2000-01-01

    generation remains unknown and based on the experimental results in this work, a model is proposed. The Hall measurements conducted on this conductive layer revealed a p-type nature with promising properties for electronic device application. A more detail study based on electrical and surface science methods were carried out to identify the stability and operating conditions for this dopant. The properties of metal-semiconductor contacts on these surfaces were investigated. The fundamental knowledge is essential for exploring more advanced electronic devices such as the field effect transistors (FETs). Diamond is the only material suitable for detecting UV in the 220nm wavelength without any appreciable visible response. The prospect of introducing a doped layer based on Schottky mode for UV detection is important as it allows monolithic integration with other electronic devices. The face centered cubic allotrope of carbon, diamond, is a semiconducting material which possesses a valuable combination of extre...

  18. Liquid Crystal-Based Beam Steering Device Development for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Bos, Philip; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Wang, Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program is supporting the development of liquid crystal-based beam steering devices. The device would use inexpensive, light-weight, optical components, and it would have the following capabilities: electronic beam scanning to angles above 1 milliradian, and submicroradian beam pointing accuracy. In order to correct for the imperfections resulting from the space-deployable optics, the technique of wave-front correction would be implemented. Hence, the output beam quality would be maintained. The potential applications could include satellite tracking, near-Earth inter-satellite communications, deep-space communications, and optical phased array systems. The status of the beam steering device development based on the liquid crystal technology and its relationship to prospective NASA mission scenarios will be described.

  19. Some examples of applications of a microthermal desorption device in the forensic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasko, Jan

    2009-09-01

    Several applications of a microthermal desorption device for analysis of small forensic samples are presented. The method uses a solid phase microextraction holder with the fiber removed. In addition to samples of inks on paper, this device was successfully used for analysis of toners, various stains on bank notes, and lipstick stains on paper. Other small items encountered in a forensic science laboratory were also analyzed: particles of smokeless powder, particles of coffee, and automotive clear topcoat layer. The desorbed compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This device can be used in connection with any kind of gas chromatograph. By selection of different injector temperatures, fractionated thermal desorption of samples is achieved. The procedure was demonstrated on samples of ballpoint pen ink of various age. PMID:19686398

  20. Test of charge injection device, phase 1. [prospective star tracker application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, A.; Sayles, M. B.; Peters, D.; Buckley, P.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-controlled automatic facility containing two interactive microprocessors, peripherals, and an optical bench was used to obtain device characteristics for use in evaluating CID's as the sensor element in a prospective star tracker application. Each of the ST-256 chips tested contains a 256 x 256 pixel element array with 65536 picture elements. Two ST-256 devices were tested at 20 C under light levels of 10%, 0.1%, and 0.01% saturation, and in darkness. The saturation level was established at 0.95 microwatts sq cm as measured by the radiometeric sensor. Two test runs under each condition were performed for each chip. Two complete sets of data for each of the devices were thus obtained. A separate data field was used to store the results of each test condition. Repetitive runs of a test condition were stored sequentially in the same file. Examination of the data using print-outs is shown in examples.

  1. Nanoscale technology in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Ralph S; Smith, R Lane

    2004-01-01

    Reviewing recent accomplishments in the field of nanobiology Nanoscale Technology in Biological Systems introduces the application of nanoscale matrices to human biology. It focuses on the applications of nanotechnology fabrication to biomedical devices and discusses new physical methods for cell isolation and manipulation and intracellular communication at the molecular level. It also explores the application of nanobiology to cardiovascular diseases, oncology, transplantation, and a range of related disciplines. This book build a strong background in nanotechnology and nanobiology ideal for

  2. A mobile-device based applications software for industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses a mobile device based application software for performing calculations required in industrial film radiography using radioisotope sources. The application enables the user to find residual life of a radioactive source, saving multiple source details in the phone memory, exposure time calculation required in gamma radiography and running multiple countdown clocks for accurate and convenient counting of exposure time. The application is also able to provide vibrating and audio alarms when the countdown finishes, automatic SMS facility to multiple users informing details of low activity sources in custody and cordon-off distances for open-source radiography. The application has been developed to work under Android, I-phone (Apple), Blackberry (RIM), Windows, Symbian operating systems and J2ME enabled feature phones. A simplified version of this application with limited features runs on java enabled low-cost mobile phones and tablets. (author)

  3. Applications of Discrete Molecular Dynamics in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Elizabeth A; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2016-04-01

    Discrete Molecular Dynamics (DMD) is a physics-based simulation method using discrete energetic potentials rather than traditional continuous potentials, allowing microsecond time scale simulations of biomolecular systems to be performed on personal computers rather than supercomputers or specialized hardware. With the ongoing explosion in processing power even in personal computers, applications of DMD have similarly multiplied. In the past two years, researchers have used DMD to model structures of disease-implicated protein folding intermediates, study assembly of protein complexes, predict protein-protein binding conformations, engineer rescue mutations in disease-causative protein mutants, design a protein conformational switch to control cell signaling, and describe the behavior of polymeric dispersants for environmental cleanup of oil spills, among other innovative applications. PMID:26638022

  4. The application of statistical physics to evolutionary biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sella, Guy; Hirsh, Aaron E

    2005-01-01

    A number of fundamental mathematical models of the evolutionary process exhibit dynamics that can be difficult to understand analytically. Here we show that a precise mathematical analogy can be drawn between certain evolutionary and thermodynamic systems, allowing application of the powerful machinery of statistical physics to analysis of a family of evolutionary models. Analytical results that follow directly from this approach include the steady-state distribution of fixed genotypes and th...

  5. Criterion of positivity for semilinear problems with applications in biology

    OpenAIRE

    Duprez, Michel; Perasso, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide an useful criterion of positivity and well-posedness for a wide range of infinite dimensional semilinear abstract Cauchy problems. This criterion is based on some weak assumptions on the non-linear part of the semilinear problem and on the existence of a strongly continuous semigroup generated by the differential operator. To illustrate a large variety of applications, we exhibit the feasibility of this criterion through three examples in mathematical bi...

  6. DIAMAGNETIC LEVITATION ABOVE MICROMAGNETS: APPLICATIONS TO DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS AND BIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffmann, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is one of the rare way to compensate action of gravity. This kind of repulsion is negligible at our scale. However, at microscale, this effect becomes significant and can achieve levitation of diamagnetic objects. Through the development of micromagnets, analytical and numerical models, and experiments, applications of diamagnetic levitation of microdroplets and trapping of cells in paramagnetic media is explored. It is shown that diamagnetic levitation allows quantifyi...

  7. Thin film diamond. Electronic devices for high temperature, high power and high radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ideal form diamond displays extreme physical, optical and electronic properties, making this material interesting for many device applications. However, natural or high pressure, high temperature synthesised forms of diamond are not useful since they are only available as small irregular crystallites and are expensive. The emergence of commercially accessible techniques for the formation of thin films of diamond over relatively large areas has changed this situation, enabling the prospects for the use of diamond as an electronic material to be truly evaluated. Thin film diamond is a defective polycrystalline material. It is difficult to dope n- and p-type and resists conventional chemical etching. Thus, despite the superlative properties of ideal diamond, the realisation of useful devices from this material is far from simple. This thesis considers how the problems may be overcome such that high performance diamond devices can be realised for use in high temperature, high power and high radiation environments. Following a review of the current state-of-the-art in diamond device technology the experimental techniques used throughout this study are summarised. Field effect transistors (FETs) have been designed for operation at high (>300 deg. C) temperatures. Boron-doped (p-type) diamond was used to form the active channel, with insulating diamond acting as the gate to the FET structure. Polycrystalline diamond devices with the highest yet reported transconductance values, which display full turn-off characteristics have been produced. To enable room temperature operation, where boron is an ineffective dopant, a novel doping approach has been established using hydrogen; devices with transconductance, power handling and full pinch-off characteristic have been realised for the first time with this approach. More complex devices require patterning of the diamond substrate material; reactive ion etching using oxygen and chlorinated fluorocarbons have been studied

  8. Infrared spectroscopic imaging microscopy: Applications to biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupling of imaging modalities with spectroscopic techniques adds additional dimensions to sample analysis in both the spectroscopic and spatial domains. The particular ability of infrared (IR) imaging to explore the spatial distribution of chemically distinct species on length scales ranging from microns to kilometers demonstrates the versatility and diversity of spectroscopic imaging. In this paper, we focus on the further development of our Fourier-transform (FT) based mid-IR spectroscopic imaging technique which combines the analytical capabilities of mid-IR spectroscopy with the morphological information obtained from optical imaging. The seamless combination of spectroscopy for molecular analysis with the power of visualization represents the future of infrared microscopy. Our spectroscopic imaging instrument integrates several infrared focal-plane arrays with a Michelson step-scan interferometer, generating high-fidelity and high spectral resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic images. The instrumentation produces multidimensional, chemically specific images, while simultaneously obtaining high resolution spectra for each detector pixel. The spatial resolution of the images approaches the diffraction limit for mid-infrared wavelengths, while the spectral resolution is determined by the interferometer, and can be 4 cm-1 or higher. Data derived from a variety of materials, particularly biological samples, illustrate the capabilities of the technique for readily visualizing chemical complexity and for providing statistical data on sample heterogeneity

  9. Cystitis: From Urothelial Cell Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystitis is a urinary bladder disease with many causes and symptoms. The severity of cystitis ranges from mild lower abdominal discomfort to life-threatening haemorrhagic cystitis. The course of disease is often chronic or recurrent. Although cystitis represents huge economical and medical burden throughout the world and in many cases treatments are ineffective, the mechanisms of its origin and development as well as measures for effective treatment are still poorly understood. However, many studies have demonstrated that urothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role. In the present review we first discuss fundamental issues of urothelial cell biology, which is the core for comprehension of cystitis. Then we focus on many forms of cystitis, its current treatments, and advances in its research. Additionally we review haemorrhagic cystitis with one of the leading causative agents being chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide and summarise its management strategies. At the end we describe an excellent and widely used animal model of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis, which gives researches the opportunity to get a better insight into the mechanisms involved and possibility to develop new therapy approaches.

  10. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  11. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rietman Edward A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.

  12. High temperature performance of Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Devices for High Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Shashikala

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wide bandgap III-Nitride semiconductor materials possess superior properties as compared to silicon and other IIIV compound materials. GaN has recently attracted a lot of interest for applications in high power electronics capable of operation at elevated temperatures. Modeling of the drift region properties of GaN Schottky rectifiers and power MOSFET to achieve breakdown voltages ranging from 200 to 5kV is presented. 1kV and 3kV Schottky rectifiers are simulated and the characteristics of the GaN devices compared with those of Si devices. The specific on- resistance Ron,sp of a GaN MOSFET is at least three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding n-resistance for a Si device. 5kV GaN Schottky rectifiers can deliver on-state current density of 100 A/cm2 at room temperature with aforward drop of only 1.29V because of very low drift region resistance. GaN devices would allow operation at higher breakdown voltages than the conventional Si devices.

  13. A new automatic design method to develop multilayer thin film devices for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical thin film devices play a major role in many areas of frontier technology like development of various laser systems to the designing of complex and precision optical systems. Design and development of these devices are really challenging when they are meant for high power laser applications. In these cases besides desired optical characteristics, the devices are expected to satisfy a whole range of different needs like high damage threshold, durability etc. In the present work a novel completely automatic design method based on Modified Complex Method has been developed for designing of high power thin film devices. Unlike most of the other methods it does not need any suitable starting design. A quarterwave design is sufficient to start with. If required, it is capable of generating its own starting design. The computer code of the method is very simple to implement. This report discusses this novel automatic design method and presents various practicable output designs generated by it. The relative efficiency of the method along with other powerful methods has been presented while designing a broadband IR antireflection coating. The method is also incorporated with 2D and 3D electric field analysis programmes to produce high damage threshold designs. Some experimental devices developed using such designs are also presented in the report. (author). 36 refs., 41 figs

  14. Resistive switching behavior of reduced graphene oxide memory cells for low power nonvolatile device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Xiao, Bo; Mishra, Saswat; Killam, Alex; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) based low cost flexible electronics and memory cell have recently attracted more attention for the fabrication of emerging electronic devices. As a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory technology, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can be widely used for non-volatile switching memory applications because of its large surface area, excellent scalability, retention, and endurance properties. We demonstrated that the fabricated metal/RGO/metal memory device exhibited excellent switching characteristics, with on/off ratio of two orders of magnitude and operated threshold switching voltage of less than 1 V. The studies on different cell diameter, thickness, scan voltages and period of time corroborate the reliability of the device as resistive random access memory. The microscopic origin of switching operation is governed by the establishment of conducting filaments due to the interface amorphous layer rupturing and the movement of oxygen in the GO layer. This interesting experimental finding indicates that device made up of thermally reduced GO shows more reliability for its use in next generation electronics devices.

  15. Recent Developments in Optical Detection Technologies in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Miguel Matos Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of microfluidics has yet to develop practical devices that provide real clinical value. One of the main reasons for this is the difficulty in realizing low-cost, sensitive, reproducible, and portable analyte detection microfluidic systems. Previous research has addressed two main approaches for the detection technologies in lab-on-a-chip devices: (a study of the compatibility of conventional instrumentation with microfluidic structures, and (b integration of innovative sensors contained within the microfluidic system. Despite the recent advances in electrochemical and mechanical based sensors, their drawbacks pose important challenges to their application in disposable microfluidic devices. Instead, optical detection remains an attractive solution for lab-on-a-chip devices, because of the ubiquity of the optical methods in the laboratory. Besides, robust and cost-effective devices for use in the field can be realized by integrating proper optical detection technologies on chips. This review examines the recent developments in detection technologies applied to microfluidic biosensors, especially addressing several optical methods, including fluorescence, chemiluminescence, absorbance and surface plasmon resonance.

  16. Top-down fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for thermoelectric applications: properties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennelli, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the most recent achievements in the field of device fabrication, based on nanostructured silicon, will be reviewed. Top-down techniques for silicon nanowire production based on lithography, oxidation and highly anisotropic etching (wet, plasma and metal assisted) will be discussed, illustrating both advantages and drawbacks. In particular, fabrication processes for a massive production of silicon nanowires, organized and interconnected in devices with macroscopic dimensions, will be shown and discussed. These macroscopic devices offer the possibility of exploiting the nanoscale thermoelectric properties of silicon in practical applications. In particular, the reduced thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires, with respect to bulk silicon, makes possible to obtain high efficiencies in the direct conversion of heat into electrical power, with intriguing applications in the field of green energy harvesting. The main experiments elucidating the electrical and thermal properties of silicon nanowire devices will be shown and discussed, and compared with the recent theoretical works developed on the subject. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Silicon and Silicon-related Materials for Thermoelectricity", edited by Dario Narducci.

  17. Guide for the preparation of applications for licenses for the use of radioactive materials in servicing preregistered gauges, measuring devices, and sealed sources used in such devices. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this regulatory guide is to provide assistance to applicants and licensees in preparing applications for new licenses, license amendments, and license renewals. This guide describes the information the NRC staff needs to evaluate an application for a license for the use of radioactive materials in certain commercial services for other NRC or Agreement State licensees. The services covered by this guide are the installation, relocation, maintenance, repair, and performance of the initial radiation survey of preregistered gauging or measuring devices containing licensed material and leak tests, installation, replacement, and disposal of sealed sources used in such devices. This guide also covers other essential services, as appropriate, such as training customer personnel on the radiation safety aspects of the use of the devices and on NRC regulatory requirements as they pertain to the customer's licensed devices. This regulatory guide is intended to provide the applicant or licensee with information that will enable him to understand specific regulatory requirements and licensing policies as they apply to the specified services that he provides. The information in this guide is not a substitute for training in radiation safety. After being issued a license, the program must be conducted in accordance with (1) the statements, representations, and procedures contained in your application, (2) the terms and conditions of the license, and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations. The information provided in the application should be clear, specific, and accurate

  18. Ultra Wide Wavelength Multiplexing/Demultiplexing Conventional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG Devices for Multi Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El–Naser A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has proposed new materials based conventional arrayed waveguide grating (AWG devices such as pure silica glass (SiO2, Lithium niobate (LiNbO3 , and gallium aluminum arsenide (Ga(1-xAl(xAs materials for multiplexing and demultiplexing applications in interval of 1.45 μm to 1.65 μm wavelength band, which including the short, conventional, long, and ultra long wavelength band. Moreover we have taken into account a comparison between these new materials within operating design parameters of conventional AWG devices such as diffraction order, length difference of adjacent waveguides, focal path length, free spectral range or region, maximum number of input/output wavelength channels, and maximum number of arrayed waveguides. As well as we have employed these materials based AWG to include Multi band applications under the effect of ambient temperature variations.

  19. Improved magnetic encoding device and method for making the same. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R.J.

    A magnetic encoding device and method for making the same are provided for use as magnetic storage media in identification control applications that give output signals from a reader that are of shorter duration and substantially greater magnitude than those of the prior art. Magnetic encoding elements are produced by uniformly bending wire or strip stock of a magnetic material longitudinally about a common radius to exceed the elastic limit of the material and subsequently mounting the material so that it is restrained in an unbent position on a substrate of nonmagnetic material. The elements are spot weld attached to a substrate to form a binary coded array of elements according to a desired binary code. The coded substrate may be enclosed in a plastic laminate structure. Such devices may be used for security badges, key cards, and the like and may have many other applications. 7 figures.

  20. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission's policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission's regulations and compliance with them is not required