WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological design ii

  1. Learning Biology by Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Fred; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2010-01-01

    According to a century-old tradition in biological thinking, organisms can be considered as being optimally designed. In modern biology this idea still has great heuristic value. In evolutionary biology a so-called design heuristic has been formulated which provides guidance to researchers in the generation of knowledge about biological systems.…

  2. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  3. Structure-based design, synthesis and biological testing of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds designed to covalently bind to topoisomerase II and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Arun A; Wu, Xing; Patel, Daywin; Yalowich, Jack C; Hasinoff, Brian B

    2014-11-01

    Drugs that target DNA topoisomerase II isoforms and alkylate DNA represent two mechanistically distinct and clinically important classes of anticancer drugs. Guided by molecular modeling and docking a series of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds were designed, synthesized and biologically characterized. These hybrids were designed to alkylate nucleophilic protein residues on topoisomerase II and thus produce inactive covalent adducts and to also alkylate DNA. The most potent hybrid had a mean GI(50) in the NCI-60 cell screen 17-fold lower than etoposide. Using a variety of in vitro and cell-based assays all of the hybrids tested were shown to target topoisomerase II. A COMPARE analysis indicated that the hybrids had NCI 60-cell growth inhibition profiles matching both etoposide and the N-mustard compounds from which they were derived. These results supported the conclusion that the hybrids displayed characteristics that were consistent with having targeted both topoisomerase II and DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design, synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity studies of copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of 6-amino benzothiazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daravath, Sreenu; Kumar, Marri Pradeep; Rambabu, Aveli; Vamsikrishna, Narendrula; Ganji, Nirmala; Shivaraj

    2017-09-01

    Two novel Schiff bases, L1 = (2-benzo[d]thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl)-4,6-dichlorophenol), L2 = (1-benzo[d]thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenol) and their bivalent transition metal complexes [M(L1)2] and [M(L2)2], where M = Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, IR, UV-visible, mass, magnetic moments, ESR, TGA, SEM, EDX and powder XRD. Based on the experimental data a square planar geometry around the metal ion is assigned to all the complexes (1a-2c). The interaction of synthesized metal complexes with calf thymus DNA was explored using UV-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The experimental evidence indicated that all the metal complexes strongly bound to CT-DNA through an intercalation mode. DNA cleavage experiments of metal(II) complexes with supercoiled pBR322 DNA have also been explored by gel electrophoresis in the presence of H2O2 as well as UV light, and it is found that the Cu(II) complexes cleaved DNA more effectively compared to Co(II), Ni(II) complexes. In addition, the ligands and their metal complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity and it is found that all the metal complexes were more potent than free ligands.

  5. On extracting design principles from biology: II. Case study—the effect of knee direction on bipedal robot running efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberland, M; Kim, S

    2015-01-01

    Comparing the leg of an ostrich to that of a human suggests an important question to legged robot designers: should a robot's leg joint bend in the direction of running (‘forwards’) or opposite (‘backwards’)? Biological studies cannot answer this question for engineers due to significant differences between the biological and engineering domains. Instead, we investigated the inherent effect of joint bending direction on bipedal robot running efficiency by comparing energetically optimal gaits of a wide variety of robot designs sampled at random from a design space. We found that the great majority of robot designs have several locally optimal gaits with the knee bending backwards that are more efficient than the most efficient gait with the knee bending forwards. The most efficient backwards gaits do not exhibit lower touchdown losses than the most efficient forward gaits; rather, the improved efficiency of backwards gaits stems from lower torque and reduced motion at the hip. The reduced hip use of backwards gaits is enabled by the ability of the backwards knee, acting alone, to (1) propel the robot upwards and forwards simultaneously and (2) lift and protract the foot simultaneously. In the absence of other information, designers interested in building efficient bipedal robots with two-segment legs driven by electric motors should design the knee to bend backwards rather than forwards. Compared to common practices for choosing robot knee direction, application of this principle would have a strong tendency to improve robot efficiency and save design resources. (paper)

  6. On extracting design principles from biology: II. Case study-the effect of knee direction on bipedal robot running efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, M; Kim, S

    2015-02-02

    Comparing the leg of an ostrich to that of a human suggests an important question to legged robot designers: should a robot's leg joint bend in the direction of running ('forwards') or opposite ('backwards')? Biological studies cannot answer this question for engineers due to significant differences between the biological and engineering domains. Instead, we investigated the inherent effect of joint bending direction on bipedal robot running efficiency by comparing energetically optimal gaits of a wide variety of robot designs sampled at random from a design space. We found that the great majority of robot designs have several locally optimal gaits with the knee bending backwards that are more efficient than the most efficient gait with the knee bending forwards. The most efficient backwards gaits do not exhibit lower touchdown losses than the most efficient forward gaits; rather, the improved efficiency of backwards gaits stems from lower torque and reduced motion at the hip. The reduced hip use of backwards gaits is enabled by the ability of the backwards knee, acting alone, to (1) propel the robot upwards and forwards simultaneously and (2) lift and protract the foot simultaneously. In the absence of other information, designers interested in building efficient bipedal robots with two-segment legs driven by electric motors should design the knee to bend backwards rather than forwards. Compared to common practices for choosing robot knee direction, application of this principle would have a strong tendency to improve robot efficiency and save design resources.

  7. Preliminary PBFA II design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; VanDevender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network

  8. Towards Logical Designs In Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Towards Logical Designs in Biology. Garima Agarwal. General Article Volume 12 Issue 2 February 2007 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/02/0029-0038. Keywords. Synthetic biology; logic gates; regulatory modules; gene circuits. Author Affiliations.

  9. Facilities design for TIBER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of the reactor building and reactor maintenance building for the TIBER II tokamak. These buildings are strongly influenced by the reactor configuration, and their characterization allows a better understanding of the economic and technical implications of the reactor design. Key features of TIBER II that affect the facilities design are the small size and compact arrangement, the use of an external vacuum vessel, and the complete reliance on remote maintenance. The building design incorporates requirements for equipment layout, maintenance operations and equipment, safety, and contamination control. 4 figs

  10. Towards Logical Designs In Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    This article highlights an emerging field known as syn- thetic biology that envisions integrating designed circuits into living organisms in order to instruct them to make logical decisions based on the prevailing intracellular and extracellular conditions and produce a reliable behavior. The attempt is to design cells capable of ...

  11. The PEP-II design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II) is a design for a high-luminosity, asymmetric energy, electron-positron colliding beam accelerator that will operate at the center-of-mass energy of the Υ4S (10.58 GeV). The goal of the design is to achieve a large enough integrated luminosity with a moving center-of-mass reference frame to he able to observe the predicted rare decay modes of the Υ4S that do not conserve charge parity (CP)

  12. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Metal based biologically active compounds: Design, synthesis, DNA binding and antidiabetic activity of 6-methyl-3-formyl chromone derived hydrazones and their metal (II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jessica Elizabeth; Shahid, Muhammad; Prathapachandra Kurup, M R; Velayudhan, Mohanan Puzhavoorparambil

    2017-10-01

    Two chromone hydrazone ligands HL 1 and HL 2 were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1 H NMR & 13 C NMR, electronic absorption and mass spectra. The reactions of the chromone hydrazones with transition metals such as Ni, Cu, and Zn (II) salts of acetate afforded mononuclear metal complexes. Characterization and structure elucidation of the prepared chromone hydrazone metal (II) complexes were done by elemental, IR, electronic, EPR spectra and thermo gravimetric analyses as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The spectroscopic data showed that the ligand acts as a mono basic bidentate with coordination sites are azomethine nitrogen and hydrazonic oxygen, and they exhibited distorted geometry. The biological studies involved antidiabetic activity i.e. enzyme inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, Calf Thymus - DNA (CT-DNA) interaction and molecular docking. Potential capacity of synthesized compounds to inhibit the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity was assayed whereas DNA interaction studies were carried out with the help UV-Vis absorption titration and viscosity method. The docking studies of chromone hydrazones show that they are minor groove binders. Complexes were found to be good DNA - intercalates. Chromone hydrazones and its transition metal complexes have shown comparable antidiabetic activity with a standard drug acarbose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pareto Optimal Design for Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Andrea; Santoro, Andrea; Costanza, Jole; Carapezza, Giovanni; Nicosia, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in synthetic biology call for robust, flexible and efficient in silico optimization methodologies. We present a Pareto design approach for the bi-level optimization problem associated to the overproduction of specific metabolites in Escherichia coli. Our method efficiently explores the high dimensional genetic manipulation space, finding a number of trade-offs between synthetic and biological objectives, hence furnishing a deeper biological insight to the addressed problem and important results for industrial purposes. We demonstrate the computational capabilities of our Pareto-oriented approach comparing it with state-of-the-art heuristics in the overproduction problems of i) 1,4-butanediol, ii) myristoyl-CoA, i ii) malonyl-CoA , iv) acetate and v) succinate. We show that our algorithms are able to gracefully adapt and scale to more complex models and more biologically-relevant simulations of the genetic manipulations allowed. The Results obtained for 1,4-butanediol overproduction significantly outperform results previously obtained, in terms of 1,4-butanediol to biomass formation ratio and knock-out costs. In particular overproduction percentage is of +662.7%, from 1.425 mmolh⁻¹gDW⁻¹ (wild type) to 10.869 mmolh⁻¹gDW⁻¹, with a knockout cost of 6. Whereas, Pareto-optimal designs we have found in fatty acid optimizations strictly dominate the ones obtained by the other methodologies, e.g., biomass and myristoyl-CoA exportation improvement of +21.43% (0.17 h⁻¹) and +5.19% (1.62 mmolh⁻¹gDW⁻¹), respectively. Furthermore CPU time required by our heuristic approach is more than halved. Finally we implement pathway oriented sensitivity analysis, epsilon-dominance analysis and robustness analysis to enhance our biological understanding of the problem and to improve the optimization algorithm capabilities.

  15. Belle II Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K; Arai, Y; Arefiev, A; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barvich, T; Belous, K; Bergauer, T; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Cao, G; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C -C; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Chung, K; Comerma, A; Cooney, M; Cowley, D E; Critchlow, T; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dieguez, A; Dierlamm, A; Dillon, M; Dingfelder, J; Dolenec, R; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Enomoto, A; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Garcia, M Fernandez; Fifield, T; Fischer, P; Flanagan, J; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Freixas, L; Frey, A; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fukuma, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Fuster, J; Gabyshev, N; Cueto, A Gaspar de Valenzuela; Garmash, A; Garrido, L; Geisler, Ch; Gfall, I; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Gorton, I; Grzymkowski, R; Guo, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Haruyama, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashi, K; Hayashii, H; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Heller, C; Hemperek, T; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Huang, C -H; Hwang, S; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iglesias, C; Iida, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Irmler, C; Ishizuka, M; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jang, H; Ji, X; Jinno, T; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kageyama, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, M; Kawai, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kennedy, J; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, M; Kiesling, C; Kim, B K; Kim, G N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J -B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, K T; Kim, T Y; Kinoshita, K; Kishi, K; Kisielewski, B; van Dam, K Kleese; Knopf, J; Ko, B R; Koch, M; Kodys, P; Koffmane, C; Koga, Y; Kohriki, T; Koike, S; Koiso, H; Kondo, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreidl, Ch; Kreps, M; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Krueger, H; Kruth, A; Kuhn, W; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kupper, S; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lacasta, C; Lange, J S; Lee, I -S; Lee, M J; Lee, M W; Lee, S -H; Lemarenko, M; Li, J; Li, W D; Li, Y; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Liventsev, D; Virto, A Lopez; Makida, Y; Mao, Z P; Marinas, C; Masuzawa, M; Matvienko, D; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Miyoshi, T; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Moser, H -G; Martin, D Moya; Mueller, T; Muenchow, D; Murakami, J; Myung, S S; Nagamine, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nam, S -H; Natkaniec, Z; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Ninkovic, J; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Novikov, E; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohshima, T; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Olsen, S L; Ono, M; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Peng, T; Peric, I; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Regimbal, K; Reisert, B; Richter, R H; Riera-Babures, J; Ritter, A; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Roehrken, M; Rorie, J; Rosen, M; Rozanska, M; Ruckman, L; Rummel, S; Rusinov, V; Russell, R M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sasaki, T; Sato, N; Sato, Y; Scheirich, J; Schieck, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seljak, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O -S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shiizuka, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Simonis, H J; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitarz, M; Smerkol, P; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Suetsugu, Y; Sugihara, S; Sugimura, T; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Takagaki, H; Takasaki, F; Takeichi, H; Takubo, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Taniguchi, N; Tarkovsky, E; Tatishvili, G; Tawada, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsunada, K; Tu, Y -C; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S; Valentan, M; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vazquez, P; Vila, I; Vilella, E; Vinokurova, A; Visniakov, J; Vos, M; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wassatch, A; Watanabe, M; Watase, Y; Weiler, T; Wermes, N; Wescott, R E; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Williams, K M; Won, E; Xu, H; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yin, Y; Yoon, H; Yu, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zdybal, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O

    2010-01-01

    The Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider has collected almost 1 billion Y(4S) events in its decade of operation. Super-KEKB, an upgrade of KEKB is under construction, to increase the luminosity by two orders of magnitude during a three-year shutdown, with an ultimate goal of 8E35 /cm^2 /s luminosity. To exploit the increased luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector has been proposed. A new international collaboration Belle-II, is being formed. The Technical Design Report presents physics motivation, basic methods of the accelerator upgrade, as well as key improvements of the detector.

  16. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  17. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-01-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES and H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the

  18. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  19. Design principles in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sidhartha

    Much of biology emerges from networks of interactions. Even in a single bacterium such as Escherichia coli, there are hundreds of coexisting gene and protein networks. Although biological networks are the outcome of evolution, various physical and biological constraints limit their functional capacity. The focus of this thesis is to understand how functional constraints such as optimal growth in mircoorganisms and information flow in signaling pathways shape the metabolic network of bacterium E. coli and the quorum sensing network of marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, respectively. Metabolic networks convert basic elemental sources into complex building-blocks eventually leading to cell's growth. Therefore, typically, metabolic pathways are often coupled both by the use of a common substrate and by stoichiometric utilization of their products for cell growth. We showed that such a coupled network with product-feedback inhibition may exhibit limit-cycle oscillations which arise via a Hopf bifurcation. Furthermore, we analyzed several representative metabolic modules and find that, in all cases, simple product-feedback inhibition allows nearly optimal growth, in agreement with the predicted growth-rate by the flux-balance analysis (FBA). Bacteria have fascinating and diverse social lives. They display coordinated group behaviors regulated by quorum sensing (QS) systems. The QS circuit of V. harveyi integrates and funnels different ecological information through a common phosphorelay cascade to a set of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that enables collective behavior. We analyzed the signaling properties and information flow in the QS circuit, which provides a model for information flow in signaling networks more generally. A comparative study of post-transcriptional and conventional transcriptional regulation suggest a niche for sRNAs in allowing cells to transition quickly yet reliably between distinct states. Furthermore, we develop a new framework for analyzing signal

  20. Synthesis and biological activity of olomoucine II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, Vladimír; Lenobel, R.; Havlíček, Libor; Kuzma, Marek; Strnad, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 22 (2002), s. 3283-3286 ISSN 0960-894X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.10; GA ČR GA301/02/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : purine * olomoucine II * purvalanol A Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2002

  1. Automated Design Framework for Synthetic Biology Exploiting Pareto Optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Muras, Irene; Banga, Julio R

    2017-07-21

    In this work we consider Pareto optimality for automated design in synthetic biology. We present a generalized framework based on a mixed-integer dynamic optimization formulation that, given design specifications, allows the computation of Pareto optimal sets of designs, that is, the set of best trade-offs for the metrics of interest. We show how this framework can be used for (i) forward design, that is, finding the Pareto optimal set of synthetic designs for implementation, and (ii) reverse design, that is, analyzing and inferring motifs and/or design principles of gene regulatory networks from the Pareto set of optimal circuits. Finally, we illustrate the capabilities and performance of this framework considering four case studies. In the first problem we consider the forward design of an oscillator. In the remaining problems, we illustrate how to apply the reverse design approach to find motifs for stripe formation, rapid adaption, and fold-change detection, respectively.

  2. Biological Systems Thinking for Control Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Murray-Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are often quoted in discussions about the contribution of biological systems thinking to engineering design. This paper reviews work on the neuromuscular system, a field in which biological systems thinking could make specific contributions to the development and design of automatic control systems for mechatronics and robotics applications. The paper suggests some specific areas in which a better understanding of this biological control system could be expected to contribute to control engineering design methods in the future. Particular emphasis is given to the nonlinear nature of elements within the neuromuscular system and to processes of neural signal processing, sensing and system adaptivity. Aspects of the biological system that are of particular significance for engineering control systems include sensor fusion, sensor redundancy and parallelism, together with advanced forms of signal processing for adaptive and learning control. 

  3. PBFA II energy storage section design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    PBFA II will be the second thirty-six module accelerator built at Sandia National Laboratories for particle beam fusion feasibility studies. Each module of the machine will deliver 2.8 terawatts to a central experimental chamber. The total power delivered (100 terawatts) is expected to permit ignition scaling studies beginning in 1986. The PBFA II energy storage system consists of thirty-six 6.0 mv, 400 kj. Marx generators with their high voltage trigger and charging systems, and electromechanical output switching system. The paper describes the current design of this section of the machine. Constraints imposed by the existing tank and building are presented, as they relate to locating support systems in the oil section of PBFA II. The charging system and output switches have been designed and are described. A conceptual design for the Marx triggering system is also presented. Additional hardware (monitors, grounding connections, etc.) is discussed briefly with design details given where available

  4. PBFA II energy-storage-section design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. M.

    PBFA II will be the second thirty-six module accelerator built at Sandia National Laboratories for particle beam fusion feasibility studies. Each module of the machine will deliver 2.8 terawatts to a central experimental chamber. The total power delivered (100 terawatts) is expected to permit ignition scaling studies beginning in 1986. The FBFA II energy storage system consists of thirty-six 6.0-MV, 400-kJ, Marx generators with their high voltage trigger and charging systems, and electro-mechanical output switching system. The current design of this section of the machine is described. Constraints imposed by the existing tank and building are presented, as they relate to locating support systems in the oil section of PBFA II. The charging system and output switches were designed and are described. A conceptual design for the Marx triggering system is also presented. Additional hardware (monitors, grounding connections, etc.) is discussed briefly with design given where available.

  5. Leveraging advances in biology to design biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max; Mooney, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Biomaterials have dramatically increased in functionality and complexity, allowing unprecedented control over the cells that interact with them. From these engineering advances arises the prospect of improved biomaterial-based therapies, yet practical constraints favour simplicity. Tools from the biology community are enabling high-resolution and high-throughput bioassays that, if incorporated into a biomaterial design framework, could help achieve unprecedented functionality while minimizing the complexity of designs by identifying the most important material parameters and biological outputs. However, to avoid data explosions and to effectively match the information content of an assay with the goal of the experiment, material screens and bioassays must be arranged in specific ways. By borrowing methods to design experiments and workflows from the bioprocess engineering community, we outline a framework for the incorporation of next-generation bioassays into biomaterials design to effectively optimize function while minimizing complexity. This framework can inspire biomaterials designs that maximize functionality and translatability.

  6. Free radicals in biology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    This volume continues the treatment of topics in free radical biology and free radical pathology from Volume I. In the first chapter, pyridinyl radicals, radicals which are models for those derived from NAD, are discussed. Pyridinyl radicals can be synthesized and isolated and directly studied in a number of chemical systems. The next chapter treats the role of glutathione in the cell. It is becoming even more apparent that this vital thiol controls a large number of important cellular functions. The GSH/GSSG balance has recently been implicated as a control for cellular development; this balance also may be important in relaying the effects of oxidants from one site to another in the body. The next chapter outlines the reactions of singlet oxygen; some of these involve free radicals and some do not. This reactive intermediate appears to be important both in photochemical smog and in cellular chemistry where singlet oxygen is produced by nonphotochemical processes. The production of free radicals from dry tissues, a controversial area with conflicting claims is reviewed. The next chapter outlines the current status of the studies of photochemical smog. The next two chapters treat specific reactive materials which are present in smog. The first discusses the chemistry of nitrogen oxides and ozone. The second chapter treats the chemistry of the peroxyacyl nitrites. These compounds, although present in only small concentration, are among the most toxic components of smog. The last two chapters treat radiation damage to proteins and radiation protection and radical reactions produced by radiation in nucleic acids

  7. An engineering design approach to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Kevin A; Chandran, Preethi L; Ford, Roseanne M; Lazzara, Matthew J; Papin, Jason A; Peirce, Shayn M; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2017-07-17

    Measuring and modeling the integrated behavior of biomolecular-cellular networks is central to systems biology. Over several decades, systems biology has been shaped by quantitative biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and engineers in different ways. However, the basic and applied versions of systems biology are not typically distinguished, which blurs the separate aspirations of the field and its potential for real-world impact. Here, we articulate an engineering approach to systems biology, which applies educational philosophy, engineering design, and predictive models to solve contemporary problems in an age of biomedical Big Data. A concerted effort to train systems bioengineers will provide a versatile workforce capable of tackling the diverse challenges faced by the biotechnological and pharmaceutical sectors in a modern, information-dense economy.

  8. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed. © 2013 The Authors.Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod II design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nightingale, N.P.

    1986-10-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod II, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, and demonstrate poor performance. Installed in a General Motors 1985 Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/L (41 mi/gal) - a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod II Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation. 35 figs.

  10. The PIP-II Reference Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri, [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-06-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is a high-intensity proton facility being developed to support a world-leading neutrino program over the next two decades at Fermilab. PIP-II is an integral part of the U.S. Intensity Frontier Roadmap as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 [1]. As an immediate goal PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing a beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of LBNF [1,2] operations. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term concept for a sustained campaign of upgrades and improvements to achieve multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab. PIP-II is based on three major thrusts. They are (1) the recently completed upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector (MI) for the NOvA experiment, (2) the Proton Improvement Plan [3] currently underway, and (3) the Project X Reference Design [4]. Note that: The Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) consolidates a set of improvements to the existing Linac, Booster, and Main Injector (MI) aimed at supporting 15 Hz Booster beam operation. In combination, the NOvA upgrades and PIP create a capability of delivering 700 kW beam power from the Main Injector at 120 GeV; The scope of the Project X Reference Design Report was aimed well beyond PIP. It described a complete concept for a multi-MW proton facility that could support a broad particle physics program based on neutrino, kaon, muon, and nucleon experiments [5,6]. The Project X conceptual design has evolved over a number of years, incorporating continuous input on physics research goals and advances in the underlying technology development programs [7,8,9]. PIP-II, to high degree, inherits these goals as the goals for future developments and upgrades. This document (PIP-II Reference Design Report) describes an initial step in the development of the Fermilab accelerating complex. The plan described in this Report balances the far-term goals of the Laboratory

  11. PIP-II Transfer Line Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivoli, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-15

    The U.S. Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report encouraged the realization of Fermilab's Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) to support future neutrino programs in the United States. PIP-II aims at enhancing the capabilities of the Fermilab existing accelerator complex while simultaneously providing a flexible platform for its future upgrades. The central part of PIP-II project is the construction of a new 800 MeV H- Superconducting (SC) Linac together with upgrades of the Booster and Main Injector synchrotrons. New transfer lines will also be needed to deliver beam to the down-stream accelerators and facilities. In this paper we present the recent development of the design of the transfer lines discussing the principles that guided their design, the constraints and requirements imposed by the existing accelerator complex and the following modifications implemented to comply with a better understanding of the limitations and further requirements that emerged during the development of the project.

  12. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  13. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-03-18

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams are used for shielding and blast protection. The system is designed for an 8 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (20 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head

  15. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber design refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, P.A.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams (Li 2 BeF 4 ) are used for shielding and blast protection of the chamber walls. The system is designed for a 6 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (>12 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head. Cost estimates for a 1 GWe and 2 GWe reactor chamber are presented

  16. Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye

    2010-01-01

    We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

  17. Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye, E-mail: makcak2@ese.wustl.ed, E-mail: nehorai@ese.wustl.ed [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

  18. Digital logic circuit design with ALTERA MAX+PLUS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Yong Su; Lee, Ju Heon

    2006-03-01

    Contents of this book are the kinds of integrated circuit, design process of integrated circuit, introduction of ALTERA MAX+PLUS II, designing logic circuit with VHDL of ALTERA MAX+PLUS II, grammar and practice of VHDL of ALTERA MAX+PLUS II, design for adder, subtractor, parallel binary subtractor, BCD design, CLA design, code converter design, ALU design, register design, counter design, accumulator design, state machine design, frequency divider design, circuit design with TENMILLION counter, LCD module, circuit design for control the outside RAM in training kit and introduction for HEB-DTK-20K-240/HBE-DTK-IOK.

  19. Comparing novelty of designs from biological-inspiration with those from brainstorming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshwani, Sonal; Lenau, Torben Anker; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand the significance of biological-analogies in fostering novelty by comparing biological-analogies with other design methods for idea generation. Among other design methods, brainstorming was chosen here as benchmark. Four studies were conducted to compare: (i) the l...... reasons behind the results. The results demonstrate that the design methods substantially influence the novelty of concepts generated, while indicating the need for better training in effective use of biological-analogies.......This research aims to understand the significance of biological-analogies in fostering novelty by comparing biological-analogies with other design methods for idea generation. Among other design methods, brainstorming was chosen here as benchmark. Four studies were conducted to compare: (i......) the levels of abstraction at which concepts were ideated using biological inspiration (represented using biocards) with that using traditional brainstorming; and (ii) the novelty of concepts produced by using these two design methods. Concepts produced in these studies were evaluated for levels...

  20. Biological wastewater treatment. II Nutrient elimination; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales. II Eliminacion de nutrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Most biological wastewater processes are designed for carbonaceous compounds removal. In some cases, nutrient removal is required. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal are described. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Engineering Design of an Adaptive Leg Prosthesis Using Biological Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Dentel, Andy; Invarsdottir, Thorunn

    2010-01-01

    The biomimetic design process is explored through a design case: An adaptive leg prosthesis. The aim is to investigate if the biomimetic design process can be carried out with a minimum of biological knowledge and without using advanced design methods. In the design case biomimetic design was suc...... was successfully carried out using library search resulting in 14 biological analogies for the design problem 'shape adaption'. It is proposed that search results are handled using special cards describing the biological phenomena and the functional principles....

  2. The PIP-II Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Burov, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chase, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chakravarty, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chen, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dixon, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Edelen, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Holmes, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kazakov, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Klebaner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kourbanis, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Leveling, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Melnychuk, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Nicol, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostiguy, J. -F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasquinelli, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Passarelli, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ristori, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pellico, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patrick, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rakhno, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Saini, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schappert, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Steimel, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Scarpine, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vivoli, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Warner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yakovlev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostroumov, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conway, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) encompasses a set of upgrades and improvements to the Fermilab accelerator complex aimed at supporting a world-leading neutrino program over the next several decades. PIP-II is an integral part of the strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 and formalized through the Mission Need Statement approved in November 2015. As an immediate goal, PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing proton beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNF/DUNE) program, currently anticipated for the mid- 2020s. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term goal of establishing a high-intensity proton facility that is unique within the world, ultimately leading to multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab....

  3. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book is written about design and management of waste water disposal like settling, floating, aeration and filtration. It explains in detail solo settling, flocculant settling, zone settling, multi-level settling, floating like PPI oil separator, structure of skimming tank and design of skimming tank, water treatment and aeration, aeration device, deaeration like deaeration device for disposal processing of sewage, filtration such as structure and design of Micro-floc filtration, In-line filtration and design of slow sand filter bed.

  4. Electrophoretic studies on biologically important copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paper electrophoresis is used for the study of equilibria in binary complex systems in solution. The stability constants of ML and ML2 complex species of some metal ions copper(II), manganese(II) and uranyl(II) with a-aminobutenoic acid and hydroxyproline were determined at an ionic strength of 0.1 M and 35 ºC.

  5. Conceptual design study on inertial confinement reactor ''SENRI-II''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ouura, H.

    1983-01-01

    Design features of a laser fusion reactor concept SENRI-II are reviewed and discussed. A conceptual design study of the ICF reactor SENRI-II (an advanced design of SENRI-I) has been carried out over 2 years in the Research Committee of ICF Reactors, Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. While the ICF reactor SENRI-I utilized a magnetic field to guide and control an inner liquid lithium flow, SENRI-II is designed to use porous metal as the liquid lithium flow guide. In the design of SENRI-II, a metal porous lithium blanket serves as the protection of a wall against fusion products and as wall per se. Because of the separation of these two functions, a high power density can be attained

  6. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  7. Rapid Robot Design Validation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  8. Template Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, Zn(IIComplexes with Isonicotinoylhydrazone--2-aldehydefluorene Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is about synthesizing new complex combinations of Cu(II, Ni(II,Co(II, Zn(II with aroylhydrazone ligand isonicotinoylhydrazone-2-aldehydefluorene (INHAF made by condensation of isonicotinoylhydrazine with 2-aldehydefluorene. The complexes have been characterized by analytical data, IR, UV-Vis, NMR spectra, magnetic susceptibility values, thermal analysis and for the Cu(II complex the ESR spectrum has been registered. For all complexes the biological activity against the Staphylo-coccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebssiella pneumoniae bacteria has been investigated. The experimental data sustain stoichiometry of 1:2 (metal/ligand for the Cu(II, Ni(II, Zn(II complexes and of 1:1 for the complex with Co(II. The electronic spectra and the magnetic moments suggest octahedral stereochemistry at the complexes with Cu(II, Ni(II and the tetrahedral geometry for the Co(II complex. The INHAF ligand is coordinated bidentate by the O=C amide oxygen and the azomethine nitrogen in the complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II and monodentate by the azomethine nitrogen in the complex of Zn(II.

  9. Aseismic design of the Heysham II Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description of the seismic criteria established for use with the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SCHWR) and taken for the Heysham II Project is given. The qualification strategy adopted for Heysham II is described, and a brief overview is given of some of the more important design changes required for seismic purposes on that station

  10. Toward scalable parts families for predictable design of biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucks, Julius B; Qi, Lei; Whitaker, Weston R; Arkin, Adam P

    2008-12-01

    Our current ability to engineer biological circuits is hindered by design cycles that are costly in terms of time and money, with constructs failing to operate as desired, or evolving away from the desired function once deployed. Synthetic biologists seek to understand biological design principles and use them to create technologies that increase the efficiency of the genetic engineering design cycle. Central to the approach is the creation of biological parts--encapsulated functions that can be composited together to create new pathways with predictable behaviors. We define five desirable characteristics of biological parts--independence, reliability, tunability, orthogonality and composability, and review studies of small natural and synthetic biological circuits that provide insights into each of these characteristics. We propose that the creation of appropriate sets of families of parts with these properties is a prerequisite for efficient, predictable engineering of new function in cells and will enable a large increase in the sophistication of genetic engineering applications.

  11. HYLIFE-II reactor chamber mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical design features of the reactor chamber for the HYLIFE-11 inertial confinement fusion power plant are presented. A combination of oscillating and steady, molten salt streams are used for shielding and blast protection. The system is designed for an 8 Hz repetition rate. Beam path clearing, between shots, is accomplished with the oscillating flow. The mechanism for generating the oscillating streams is described. A design configuration of the vessel wall allows adequate cooling and provides extra shielding to reduce thermal stresses to tolerable levels. The bottom portion of the reactor chamber is designed to minimize splash back of the high velocity (20 m/s) salt streams and also recover up to half of the dynamic head

  12. The systems biology of MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC class II) are one of the key regulators of adaptive immunity because of their specific expression by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). They present peptides derived from endocytosed material to T helper lymphocytes. Consequently, MHC class

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  14. Refreshment topics II: Design of distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For distillation column design it is necessary to define all the variable parameters such as component concentrations in different streams temperatures, pressures, mass and energy flow, which are used to represent the separation process of some specific system. They are related to each other according to specific laws, and if the number of such parameters exceeds the number of their relationships, in order to solve a problem some of them must be specified in advance or some constraints assumed for the mass balance, the balance of energy, phase equilibria or chemical equilibria. Knowledge of specific elements which are the constituents of a distillation unit must be known to define the number of design parameters as well as some additional apparati also necessary to realize the distilation. Each separate apparatus might be designed and constructed only if all the necessary and variable parameters for such a unit are defined. This is the right route to solve a distilation unit in many different cases. The construction of some distillation unit requires very good knowledge of mass, heat and momentum transfer phenomena. Moreover, the designer needs to know which kind of apparatus will be used in the distillation unit to realize a specific production process. The most complicated apparatus in a rectification unit is the distillation column. Depending on the complexity of the separation process one, two or more columns are often used. Additional equipment are heat exchangers (reboilers, condensers, cooling systems, heaters, separators, tanks for reflux distribution, tanks and pumps for feed transportation, etc. Such equipment is connected by pipes and valves, and for the normal operation of a distillation unit other instruments for measuring the flow rate, temperature and pressure are also required. Problems which might arise during the determination and selection of such apparati and their number requires knowledge of the specific systems which must

  15. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non-expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the…

  16. Data Integration and Mining for Synthetic Biology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mısırlı, Göksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Pocock, Matthew; Lord, Phillip; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Sauro, Herbert; Wipat, Anil

    2016-10-21

    One aim of synthetic biologists is to create novel and predictable biological systems from simpler modular parts. This approach is currently hampered by a lack of well-defined and characterized parts and devices. However, there is a wealth of existing biological information, which can be used to identify and characterize biological parts, and their design constraints in the literature and numerous biological databases. However, this information is spread among these databases in many different formats. New computational approaches are required to make this information available in an integrated format that is more amenable to data mining. A tried and tested approach to this problem is to map disparate data sources into a single data set, with common syntax and semantics, to produce a data warehouse or knowledge base. Ontologies have been used extensively in the life sciences, providing this common syntax and semantics as a model for a given biological domain, in a fashion that is amenable to computational analysis and reasoning. Here, we present an ontology for applications in synthetic biology design, SyBiOnt, which facilitates the modeling of information about biological parts and their relationships. SyBiOnt was used to create the SyBiOntKB knowledge base, incorporating and building upon existing life sciences ontologies and standards. The reasoning capabilities of ontologies were then applied to automate the mining of biological parts from this knowledge base. We propose that this approach will be useful to speed up synthetic biology design and ultimately help facilitate the automation of the biological engineering life cycle.

  17. SMART core preliminary nuclear design-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Chan; Ji, Seong Kyun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1997-06-01

    Three loading patterns for 330 MWth SMART core are constructed for 25, 33 and 29 CRDMs, and one loading pattern for larger 69-FA core with 45 CRDMs is also constructed for comparison purpose. In this study, the core consists of 57 reduced height Korean Optimized Fuel Assemblies (KOFAs) developed by KAERI. The enrichment of fuel is 4.95 w/o. As a main burnable poison, 35% B-10 enriched B{sub 4}C-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shim is used. To control stuck rod worth, some gadolinia bearing fuel rods are used. The U-235 enrichment of the gadolinia bearing fuel rods is 1.8 w/o as used in KOFA. All patterns return cycle length of about 3 years. Three loading patterns except 25-CRDM pattern satisfy cold shutdown condition of keff {<=} 0.99 without soluble boron. These three patterns also satisfy the refueling condition of keff {<=} 0.95. In addition to the construction of loading pattern, an editing module of MASTER PPI files for rod power history generation is developed and rod power histories are generated for 29-CRDM loading pattern. Preliminary Fq design limit is suggested as 3.71 based on KOFA design experience. (author). 9 tabs., 45 figs., 16 refs.

  18. Electron Transfer Studies of Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Biologically Important Phenolic Acids and Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy; Ramdass, Arumugam; Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2016-03-01

    The ruthenium(II) complexes having 2,2'-bipyridine and phenanthroline derivatives are synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes at pH 12.5 are studied. The electron transfer reaction of biologically important phenolic acids and tyrosine are studied using absorption, emission and transient absorption spectral techniques. Semiclassical theory is applied to calculate the rate of electron transfer between ruthenium(II) complexes and biologically important phenolic acids.

  19. Studies in Course Design. Volume 1. Case Study I: One Year Postgraduate Course in Teaching for Biology Graduates. Case Study II: A Course for Teachers in General Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Dorothy; And Others

    A collection of working papers from the course design process of two education courses is presented with attention focused on the category systems employed to set out course objectives and methods. The two studies illustrate the use of a grid to establish the relationships between various course objectives. The first collection of papers is based…

  20. A predictive probability design for phase II cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Jack; Liu, Diane D

    2008-01-01

    Two- or three-stage designs are commonly used in phase II cancer clinical trials. These designs possess good frequentist properties and allow early termination of the trial when the interim data indicate that the experimental regimen is inefficacious. The rigid study design, however, can be difficult to follow exactly because the response has to be evaluated at prespecified fixed number of patients. Our goal is to develop an efficient and flexible design that possesses desirable statistical properties. A flexible design based on Bayesian predictive probability and the minimax criterion is constructed. A three-dimensional search algorithm is implemented to determine the design parameters. The new design controls type I and type II error rates, and allows continuous monitoring of the trial outcome. Consequently, under the null hypothesis when the experimental treatment is not efficacious, the design is more efficient in stopping the trial earlier, which results in a smaller expected sample size. Exact computation and simulation studies demonstrate that the predictive probability design possesses good operating characteristics. The predictive probability design is more computationally intensive than two- or three-stage designs. Similar to all designs with early stopping due to futility, the resulting estimate of treatment efficacy may be biased. The predictive probability design is efficient and remains robust in controlling type I and type II error rates when the trial conduct deviates from the original design. It is more adaptable than traditional multi-stage designs in evaluating the study outcome, hence, it is easier to implement. S-PLUS/R programs are provided to assist the study design.

  1. Any light particle search II. Technical Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, Robin; Doebrich, Babette; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan

    2013-02-01

    This document constitutes an excerpt of the Technical Design Report for the second stage of the ''Any Light Particle Search'' (ALPS-II) at DESY as submitted to the DESY PRC in August 2012 and reviewed in November 2012. ALPS-II is a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' experiment which searches for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles. These are often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model and motivated by astrophysical phenomena. The first phases of the ALPS-II project were approved by the DESY management on February 21st, 2013.

  2. Any light particle search II. Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehre, Robin [Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover (Germany); Doebrich, Babette; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2013-02-15

    This document constitutes an excerpt of the Technical Design Report for the second stage of the ''Any Light Particle Search'' (ALPS-II) at DESY as submitted to the DESY PRC in August 2012 and reviewed in November 2012. ALPS-II is a ''Light Shining through a Wall'' experiment which searches for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles. These are often predicted by extensions of the Standard Model and motivated by astrophysical phenomena. The first phases of the ALPS-II project were approved by the DESY management on February 21st, 2013.

  3. Predicting Translation Initiation Rates for Designing Synthetic Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Benjamin; Hargest, Thomas [Centre for Synthetic Biology and Innovation, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Charlie [Centre for Synthetic Biology and Innovation, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Ellis, Tom, E-mail: t.ellis@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Synthetic Biology and Innovation, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-20

    In synthetic biology, precise control over protein expression is required in order to construct functional biological systems. A core principle of the synthetic biology approach is a model-guided design and based on the biological understanding of the process, models of prokaryotic protein production have been described. Translation initiation rate is a rate-limiting step in protein production from mRNA and is dependent on the sequence of the 5′-untranslated region and the start of the coding sequence. Translation rate calculators are programs that estimate protein translation rates based on the sequence of these regions of an mRNA, and as protein expression is proportional to the rate of translation initiation, such calculators have been shown to give good approximations of protein expression levels. In this review, three currently available translation rate calculators developed for synthetic biology are considered, with limitations and possible future progress discussed.

  4. Predicting Translation Initiation Rates for Designing Synthetic Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, Benjamin; Hargest, Thomas; Gilbert, Charlie; Ellis, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In synthetic biology, precise control over protein expression is required in order to construct functional biological systems. A core principle of the synthetic biology approach is a model-guided design and based on the biological understanding of the process, models of prokaryotic protein production have been described. Translation initiation rate is a rate-limiting step in protein production from mRNA and is dependent on the sequence of the 5′-untranslated region and the start of the coding sequence. Translation rate calculators are programs that estimate protein translation rates based on the sequence of these regions of an mRNA, and as protein expression is proportional to the rate of translation initiation, such calculators have been shown to give good approximations of protein expression levels. In this review, three currently available translation rate calculators developed for synthetic biology are considered, with limitations and possible future progress discussed.

  5. Catalytic aspects of a copper (II) complex: biological oxidase to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This copper complex displays excellent catalytic efficiency, kcat /KM (h⁻¹) = 6.17 × 10⁵ towards the oxidative coupling of 2-aminophenol (2-AP) to aminophenoxazin-3-one. Further, upon stoichiometric addition of copper(II) complex to 3,5-DTBC in presence of molecular oxygen in ethanol medium, the copper complex ...

  6. The Optical Design of the PEP-II Injection Beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, T

    1996-01-01

    The optical design of the PEP-II electron and positron Injection Beamlines is described. Use of the existing high power, low emittance beams available from the SLC damping rings require that pulsed extraction of 9.0 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons for injection into the PEP-II rings occur in the early sectors of the accelerator. More than 5 kilometers of new beam transport lines have been designed and are being constructed to bring these beams to their respective rings. The optical design maximizes the tolerance to errors especially to those contributing to beam size and position jitter. Secondly, the design minimizes costs by utilizing existing components or component designs and minimizing the number required. Here we discuss important attributes including choice of lattice, specification of error tolerances, including errors in construction, alignment, field errors, power supply stability, and orbit correction.

  7. The Optical Design of the PEP-II Injection Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieguth, Ted

    2003-05-23

    The optical design of the PEP-II electron and positron Injection Beamlines is described. Use of the existing high power, low emittance beams available from the SLC damping rings require that pulsed extraction of 9.0 GeV electrons and 3.1 GeV positrons for injection into the PEP-II rings occur in the early sectors of the accelerator. More than 5 kilometers of new beam transport lines have been designed and are being constructed to bring these beams to their respective rings. The optical design maximizes the tolerance to errors especially to those contributing to beam size and position jitter. Secondly, the design minimizes costs by utilizing existing components or component designs and minimizing the number required. Here we discuss important attributes including choice of lattice, specification of error tolerances, including errors in construction, alignment, field errors, power supply stability, and orbit correction.

  8. Topical Conference on Oportunities in Biology for Physicists II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Judy R.

    2004-02-01

    In 2002, the American Physical Society (APS) organized and held the first topical conference in Boston, MA, as a way of informing physicists, particularly those just entering the field, of opportunities emerging at the interface of physics and biology. Because of the tremendous success of the first conference, it was decided to organize a second conference, similar in nature and focus, but with different presentation topic areas. Again the intended audience would be graduate students and postdocs considering applying methods of physics to biological research, and those who advise others on such opportunities.

  9. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  10. Design and fabrication of the magnets for BEPC II project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Caitu; Ni Ganlin; Sun Xianjing

    2008-01-01

    The BEPC II is the upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), According to the BEPC II double ring design scheme, a new ring will be added in the existing BEPC tunnel. The machine will provide electron and positron beams with an energy range from 1.0 GeV to 2.1 GeV for high energy physics research, and an electron beam of 2.5 GeV, 250 mA for synchrotron radiation. So actually there are three storage rings for the BEPC II machine. Due to the limited space of the existing BEPC tunnel and the requirement of high luminosity, the antechamber type vacuum chamber is used, that makes the BEPC II magnets' design and fabrication very difficult. In the paper the general features of the design and fabrication of several kinds of main magnets for the BEPC II storage ring and its interaction region are introduced. And the magnetic field measurement results are presented. (authors)

  11. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated

  12. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, B.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Noda, N. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  13. Cu(II AND Zn(II COMPLEX COMPOUNDS WITH BIGUANIDES AROMATIC DERIVATIVES. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticuţa Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new complex compounds of hetero-aromatic biguanides ligands, chlorhexidine base (CHX and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXac2 with metallic ions Cu(II and Zn(II, in different molar ratio. The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis and differential thermal analysis. The stereochemistry of the metallic ions was determined by infrared spectra, UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility in the aim to establish the complexes structures. The biological activity of the new complex compounds was identified in solid technique by measuring minimum inhibition diameter of bacterial and fungal culture, against three standard pathogen strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results show an increased specific antimicrobial activity for the complexes chlorhexidine:Cu(II 1:1 and 1:2 compared with the one of the Zn(II complexes.

  14. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Quadrupole Prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehak,M.; Jain, A. K.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    The design and measurement of the NSLS-II ring quadrupoles prototypes are presented. These magnets are part of a larger prototype program described in [1]. Advances in software, hardware, and manufacturing have led to some new level of insight in the quest for the perfect magnet design. Three geometric features are used to minimize the first three allowed harmonics by way of optimization. Validations through measurement and confidence levels in calculations are established.

  15. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sub +}e{sub {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings.

  16. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations

  17. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  18. How Biology Teachers Can Respond to Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of biology and related subjects are increasingly meeting objections from students and their parents to the teaching of evolution and the exclusion of what is called the theory of Intelligent Design. This paper attempts to draw together arguments and evidence which may be used by such teachers. Four lessons are drawn from the 1982…

  19. Engineering design for the PBFA-II pulse forming section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyes, J.D.; Cap, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the conceptual and detailed mechanical design of the PBFA-II Pulse Forming Section. The design goals were configuration specification, modularity for ease of installation and maintenance, durability and low cost. The design process began by determining the basic configuration. As was true throughout the design, access for ease of maintenance was a major driving factor. Initial assembly requirements dictated a design of separate, modular units for the intermediate store, line one, and line two/three. Integration with the laser system used to trigger the main gas switch put location, stability and adjustment requirements on both the intermediate store and line one. Cost forced the hardware to be fabricated of aluminum. Design for ease of fabrication further held these costs down. Survival in the water shock environment was addressed through specific design and weld techniques

  20. Biological parametric mapping accounting for random regressors with regression calibration and model II regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Lauzon, Carolyn B; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Resnick, Susan M; Landman, Bennett A

    2012-09-01

    Massively univariate regression and inference in the form of statistical parametric mapping have transformed the way in which multi-dimensional imaging data are studied. In functional and structural neuroimaging, the de facto standard "design matrix"-based general linear regression model and its multi-level cousins have enabled investigation of the biological basis of the human brain. With modern study designs, it is possible to acquire multi-modal three-dimensional assessments of the same individuals--e.g., structural, functional and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, alongside functional and ligand binding maps with positron emission tomography. Largely, current statistical methods in the imaging community assume that the regressors are non-random. For more realistic multi-parametric assessment (e.g., voxel-wise modeling), distributional consideration of all observations is appropriate. Herein, we discuss two unified regression and inference approaches, model II regression and regression calibration, for use in massively univariate inference with imaging data. These methods use the design matrix paradigm and account for both random and non-random imaging regressors. We characterize these methods in simulation and illustrate their use on an empirical dataset. Both methods have been made readily available as a toolbox plug-in for the SPM software. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time

  2. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  4. UWMAK-II: a conceptual tokamak reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a Tokamak fusion power reactor, UWMAK-II. The aim of this study is to perform a self consistent and thorough analysis of a probable future fusion power reactor in order to assess the technological problems posed by such a system and to examine feasible solutions. UWMAK-II is a conceptual Tokamak fusion reactor designed to deliver 1716 MWe continuously and to generate 5000 MW(th) during the plasma burn. The structural material is 316 stainless steel and the primary coolant is helium. UWMAK-II is a low aspect ratio, low field design and includes a double null, axisymmetric poloidal field divertor for impurity control. In addition, a carbon curtain, made of two dimensional woven carbon fiber, is mounted on the first vacuum chamber wall to protect the plasma from high Z impurities and to protect the first wall from erosion by charged particle bombardment. The blanket is designed to minimize the inventory of both tritium and lithium while achieving a breeding ratio greater than one. This has led to a blanket design based on the use of a solid breeding material (LiAlO 2 ) with beryllium as a neutron multiplier. The lithium is enriched to 90 percent 6 Li and the blanket coolant is helium at a maximum pressure of 750 psia (5.2 x 10 6 N/m 2 ). A cell of the UWMAK-II blanket design is shown. The breeding ratio is between 1.11 and 1.19 based on one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculations, depending on the method of homogenization. Detailed Monte Carlo calculations, which take into account the more complicated geometry, give a breeding ratio of 1.06. The total energy per fusion is 21.56 MeV, which is fairly high

  5. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part ''series'' including Drs. McKenna and Dritschilo. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  6. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part 'series' including Drs. Martin Brown and Amato Giaccia. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II) and Palladium (II) Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC)

    OpenAIRE

    Sk Imadul Islam; Suvendu Bikash Das; Sutapa Chakrabarty; Sudeshna Hazra; Akhil Pandey; Animesh Patra

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of square planar Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coor...

  8. Ion transport across the biological membrane by computational protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Gevorg

    The cellular membrane is impermeable to most of the chemicals the cell needs to take in or discard to survive. Therefore, transporters-a class of transmembrane proteins tasked with shuttling cargo chemicals in and out of the cell-are essential to all cellular life. From existing crystal structures, we know transporters to be complex machines, exquisitely tuned for specificity and controllability. But how could membrane-bound life have evolved if it needed such complex machines to exist first? To shed light onto this question, we considered the task of designing a transporter de novo. As our guiding principle, we took the ``alternating-access model''-a conceptual mechanism stating that transporters work by rocking between two conformations, each exposing the cargo-binding site to either the intra- or the extra-cellular environment. A computational design framework was developed to encode an anti-parallel four-helix bundle that rocked between two alternative states to orchestrate the movement of Zn(II) ions across the membrane. The ensemble nature of both states was accounted for using a free energy-based approach, and sequences were chosen based on predicted formation of the targeted topology in the membrane and bi-stability. A single sequence was prepared experimentally and shown to function as a Zn(II) transporter in lipid vesicles. Further, transport was specific to Zn(II) ions and several control peptides supported the underlying design principles. This included a mutant designed to retain all properties but with reduced rocking, which showed greatly depressed transport ability. These results suggest that early transporters could have evolved in the context of simple topologies, to be later tuned by evolution for improved properties and controllability. Our study also serves as an important advance in computational protein design, showing the feasibility of designing functional membrane proteins and of tuning conformational landscapes for desired function

  9. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  10. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Correctors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataro, C.; Danby, G.; Jackson, J.W.; Jain, A.K.; Rehak, M.; Singh, O. Skaritka, J.

    2009-05-04

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory will be a new state-of-the-art 3 Gev electron storage ring designed to deliver world-leading intensity and brightness, and will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS at Brookhaven. The 792-meter circumference storage ring is comprised of approximately 1000 magnetic elements, 300 of which are discrete corrector magnets. The three variants are: 120 of the 100 mm aperture correctors, 60 of the 156 mm aperture correctors, and 90 of the air core correctors.[1] The 100 mm and 156 mm horizontal and vertical dipole correctors come in two varieties: with and without a DC skew quad corrector. The air core is strictly an AC horizontal and vertical dipole corrector. The specifications are listed. Discrete corrector magnets are used for the 230 horizontal and vertical steering magnets in the NSLS-II storage ring. A unique design incorporates both dipole and skew quad correctors for (DC) steering in the same magnet. Separate AC (orbit feedback) correctors have also been designed. Comparison with alternate designs are presented as well as prototype measurements.

  11. Advances and Computational Tools towards Predictable Design in Biological Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated.

  12. Biologically-inspired hexapod robot design and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenschied, Kenneth S.; Quinn, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of a biologically-inspired hexapod robot is presented. A previously developed simulation is modified to include models of the DC drive motors, the motor driver circuits and their transmissions. The application of this simulation to the design and development of the robot is discussed. The mechanisms thought to be responsible for the leg coordination of the walking stick insect were previously applied to control the straight-line locomotion of a robot. We generalized these rules for a robot walking on a plane. This biologically-inspired control strategy is used to control the robot in simulation. Numerical results show that the general body motion and performance of the simulated robot is similar to that of the robot based on our preliminary experimental results.

  13. Computational design of binding proteins to EGFR domain II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sup Choi

    Full Text Available We developed a process to produce novel interactions between two previously unrelated proteins. This process selects protein scaffolds and designs protein interfaces that bind to a surface patch of interest on a target protein. Scaffolds with shapes complementary to the target surface patch were screened using an exhaustive computational search of the human proteome and optimized by directed evolution using phage display. This method was applied to successfully design scaffolds that bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR domain II, the interface of EGFR dimerization, with high reactivity toward the target surface patch of EGFR domain II. One potential application of these tailor-made protein interactions is the development of therapeutic agents against specific protein targets.

  14. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance. LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed in Ref. 1: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM in Ref. 2: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility

  15. RF system design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    The paper presents an overview of the design of the RF system for the PEP-II B Factory. An RF station consists of either two or four single-cell cavities driven by a 1.2 MW klystron through a waveguide distribution network. A variety of feedback loops stabilize the RF and its interaction with the beam. System parameters and all the relevant parameters of klystron and cavities are given

  16. Design of the TJ-II remote participation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, J.; Sánchez, E.; López, A.; Portas, A.; Ochando, M.; Mollinedo, A.; Sánchez, A.; Ruiz, M.; López, S.; Barrera, E.

    2003-03-01

    The TJ-II remote participation design has focused initially on providing remote access to elements that depend exclusively on characteristics of the TJ-II environment: data acquisition, data access, and diagnostics control systems. Aspects related to advanced display tools, audio information from the control room or videoconference sessions can be addressed, at least in a first step, by using standard solutions. Remote access will be accomplished through http servers and web browsers as they are standard elements available on all platforms. Access security rests on a validation scheme in which users are identified through a username and password, these data being transferred in a secure way by using a secure socket layer (SSL). After username and password validation, the security system assigns a session ticket to the user, in which the user profile (access authorization list) is encoded. User profiles determine several access levels to the system. Such levels delimit the authorizations for accessing different services according to the allowed degree of interaction of remote users with the TJ-II environment. The ticket will be sent in every user query, in order to test user permission for the requested action. Services can be classified into five groups: Measurement channel setup, read/write access to the TJ-II databases (raw data, analyzed data, elaborated data, and relational databases), diagnostic control system monitoring/programming, advanced data acquisition system configuration and, finally, reading/writing information on TJ-II operation logbook. The TJ-II remote participation system is strongly coupled with the local data acquisition system.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II and Palladium (II Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Imadul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of square planar Ni(II and Pd(II complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coordination of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC takes place through the two sulphur atoms in a symmetrical bidentate fashion. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that complexes have higher activity than the free ligand.

  18. Design of the RFID for Storage of Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hee Son

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in RFID (radio frequency identification technology promises to create a wireless circuitry capable of interfacing with biological systems for acquisition, identification and processing of biological data based on radio frequency interaction. Thus, the RFID tag can be attached not only to consumer products and form part of the supply chain, but also to animals, plants and in particular human body. This paper describes the strategy for the design of a novel RFID tag, which stores vital biological information such as body temperature and blood pressure and heartbeat in accordance with the EPC global Class-1 standard. Biological data is obtained from a sensor technology that is based on resistance deviation-to-pulse width converter. The integrated chip consists of an analog front end, command interpreter, collision avoidance block, data storage, sensors, and interface circuitry. The system is capable of supporting heartbeats in the range of 40~200 beats per a minute and blood pressure 0~300mmHg. The proposed system employs collision free algorithm that supports access to single tag within a multiple tag environment. The approach facilitates intelligent management of patients in hospitals as part of an integrated healthcare management system.

  19. Status of TRR-II project: Conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Y.C.; Hsia, D.Y.; Chen, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR) operated by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) went critical in 1973 but was permanently shut down in 1988. In order to reconstruct the original TRR into a new multi-purpose and state-of-the-art research reactor, a 'TRR System Improvement and Utilization Promotion' (TRR-II) project was proposed by INER since 1989. After a long series of review and modification processes, the TRR-II project finally got a green light from the government in October 1998. The major tasks of the project include removing the old reactor vessel from its original location, dismantling the old core internals, constructing a new open pool type reactor, installing various modern experimental facilities, and training personnel necessary for operation and utilization of the new reactor as well. Most of the conceptual design of these tasks have been completed by the TRR-II project team and reviewed by a team of international experts. This paper describes the major characteristics of TRR, the way of handling the original TRR reactor vessel, the design concepts of the new reactor and the experimental facilities associated with it. Finally, the strategy as well as the approach to promoting the utilization of the new reactor will also be outlined. (author)

  20. Biological shielding design calculation for agricultural radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Sandha, R.S.; Soni, H.C.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    An electron beam radiation processing facility for agricultural products is being set-up at Centre for Advanced Technology Indore. The facility will be based on a pulsed linear accelerator and will be used in electron and photon modes to process various products e.g. onion, potato, home-pack items and medical products. When electron beam interact with structural components of accelerator or high Z-target used in photon mode, it generates intense Bremsstrahlung radiation field, which poses radiation protection problem. Biological shielding has been designed to provide protection against the generated radiation. Different conveying schemes and hence design of irradiation cell have been studied and results are presented for two promising designs. (author)

  1. Design of Special Light Source for Biological Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Steinbauer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents information about design of special light sources, which is intended for photosynthesis process research, especially for photoinhibition effect. Required properties were continuous spectral characteristic with respect to photosynthetically active wavelength area, possibility of luminous flux regulation and practically zero thermal effect to illuminated object. Owing to new high-performance LED this type of light source was selected. Design of light source consisting of high efficient white LED’s, as well as experimental results, are presented. The special light source was designed and constructed for the research activity on the lichen structure in the Antarctica. This research is made by the Institute of Experimental Biology, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science.

  2. A systematic design method for robust synthetic biology to satisfy design specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chih-Hung

    2009-06-30

    Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine, and is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the functioning of complex biological systems. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations of intra- and extra-cellular environments. The design method for a robust synthetic gene network that works properly in a host cell under these intrinsic parameter uncertainties and external disturbances is the most important topic in synthetic biology. In this study, we propose a stochastic model that includes parameter fluctuations and external disturbances to mimic the dynamic behaviors of a synthetic gene network in the host cell. Then, based on this stochastic model, four design specifications are introduced to guarantee that a synthetic gene network can achieve its desired steady state behavior in spite of parameter fluctuations, external disturbances and functional variations in the host cell. We propose a systematic method to select a set of appropriate design parameters for a synthetic gene network that will satisfy these design specifications so that the intrinsic parameter fluctuations can be tolerated, the external disturbances can be efficiently filtered, and most importantly, the desired steady states can be achieved. Thus the synthetic gene network can work properly in a host cell under intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations. Finally, a design procedure for the robust synthetic gene network is developed and a design example is given in silico to confirm the performance of the proposed method. Based on four design specifications, a systematic design procedure is developed for designers to engineer a robust synthetic biology network that can achieve its desired steady state behavior

  3. A systematic design method for robust synthetic biology to satisfy design specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chih-Hung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine, and is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the functioning of complex biological systems. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations of intra- and extra-cellular environments. The design method for a robust synthetic gene network that works properly in a host cell under these intrinsic parameter uncertainties and external disturbances is the most important topic in synthetic biology. Results In this study, we propose a stochastic model that includes parameter fluctuations and external disturbances to mimic the dynamic behaviors of a synthetic gene network in the host cell. Then, based on this stochastic model, four design specifications are introduced to guarantee that a synthetic gene network can achieve its desired steady state behavior in spite of parameter fluctuations, external disturbances and functional variations in the host cell. We propose a systematic method to select a set of appropriate design parameters for a synthetic gene network that will satisfy these design specifications so that the intrinsic parameter fluctuations can be tolerated, the external disturbances can be efficiently filtered, and most importantly, the desired steady states can be achieved. Thus the synthetic gene network can work properly in a host cell under intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations. Finally, a design procedure for the robust synthetic gene network is developed and a design example is given in silico to confirm the performance of the proposed method. Conclusion Based on four design specifications, a systematic design procedure is developed for designers to engineer a robust synthetic biology

  4. Chiral mixed ligand Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes: synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivankar, Vitthal S; Thakkar, Narendra V

    2004-01-01

    Chiral mixed ligand (CML) transition metal complexes of the type MQL.2H2O, where M is Co(II)/Ni(II), Q is deprotonated 8-hydroxyquinoline and L is a deprotonated chiral saccharide such as (+)-glucose and (-)-fructose, have been synthesized. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and various physicochemical techniques such as molar conductance, specific rotation measurements, magnetic, spectral and thermal studies. The cup-plate method has been used to study the antibacterial activity of the compounds against some of the pathogenic bacteria such as C. diphtheriae, E. coli, S. typhi, S. dysenteriae, S. aureus and V. cholerae. The antifungal activity of the complexes against some of the pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger has been studied by the tube dilution method. The results have been compared against those of controls, which were screened simultaneously. The complexes have been screened for acute oral toxicity in albino rats. The method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon has been used to determine the LD50 values.

  5. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  6. Bionics, biological systems and the principle of optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, A I

    The living world is an exciting and inexhaustible source of high performance solutions to the multitude of biological problems, which were attained as a result of a natural selection, during the millions and millions years evolution of life on Earth. This work presents and comments some examples of high performances of living beings, in the light of the universal principle governing the realm of living matter: Optimal Design Principle. At the same time, the transfer of these optimal solutions, from living matter to the technologies, is also discussed. This transfer is offering new and fertile perspectives to future technologies, which must be more efficient, cheaper and in perfect harmony with the biosphere.

  7. Design of the PEP-II Interaction Region Septum Quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Younger, F.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II QF2 magnet is one of the final focus quadrupoles for the Low-Energy Ring (LER) and utilizes a septum aperture to accommodate the adjacent High-Energy Ring (HER) beamline. The LER lattice design specification calls for an extremely high field quality for this magnet. A conventional water-cooled copper coil and laminated steel core design was selected to allow adjustment in the excitation. The close proximity between the LER and HER beamlines and the required integrated quadrupole strength result in a moderately high current density septum design. The QF2 magnets are imbedded in a confined region at each end of the BaBar detector, thus requiring a small magnet core cross section. Pole face windings are included in the QF2 design to buck the skew octupole term induced by the solenoidal fringe field that leaks out of the detector. Back-leg windings are included to buck a small dipole component induced by the lack of perfect quadrupole symmetry in this septum design. 2D pole contour optimization and 3D end chamfers are used to minimize harmonic errors; a separate permanent-magnet Harmonic Corrector Ring compensates for remaining field errors. The design methods and approach, 2D and 3D analyses, and the resulting expected magnet performance are described in this paper.

  8. Beta II plasma-gun mechanical design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.; Deis, G.; Wong, R.; Calderon, M.; Chargin, A.; Garner, D.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetized coaxial plasma gun (located on the east end of the Beta II facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory) will be used to test a new method of initiating a field reversed mirror plasma. The field-reversed mirror is expected to improve the mirror-fusion reactor by enhancing the ratio of fusion power to injected power. This paper concentrates on the mechanical design and construction of the magnetized coaxial plasma gun and also discusses the diagnostic devices necessary to demonstrate the formation of field-reversed rings

  9. Water chemistry of Atucha II PHWVR. Design concepts and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Rodriguez, Ivanna; Duca, Jorge; Fernandez, Ricardo; Rico, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Atucha II is a pressurized heavy water vessel reactor designed by Siemens-KWU, currently part of AREVA NP, of 745 MWe and similar to Atucha I, which has been in operation over 25 years. The primary heat transport system (PHTS) is composed by vertical channels (277-313 C degrees) that allocate the fuel elements while the moderator circuit is composed by a partially separated circuit (142-173 C degrees). The moderation power is transferred to the feedwater through the moderator heat exchangers (HX). These HXs operate as the last, high pressure water-steam cycle heaters as well. Materials (with exception of fuel channels and fuel sheaths which are made of zirconium alloys) are all austenitic steels while cobalt containing alloys have been all replaced at the design stage. Steam generator and moderator HX tubing are Alloy 800 made. The core is operated without boron except with the first fresh nucleus. The secondary circuit or Balance of plant (BOP) is similar in conception to that of a PWR but the moderator HXs. It is entirely built of ferrous alloys, has a feedwater-deaerator tank and moisture separator. The energy sink is the Rio de la Plata River. The Reactors Chemistry Department, Chemistry Division, National Atomic Energy Commission, in its character of R and D institution has been committed by CNA II-N.A.S.A Project to prepare the water chemistry specifications, water chemistry engineering and manuals, considering the type of reactor, design and construction aspects and operation characteristics, taking into account the current state-of-the art and worldwide standards. This includes conceptual aspects and implementation and operative aspects as well. This documentation will be released after a designer's review as it has been stated in the respective agreement. Respecting the confidentiality agreement between CNEA and NASA and the confidentiality regarding handling original documentation provided by the designer, it is considered illustrative to

  10. Removal design report for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Most of the 100-F facilities were deactivated with the reactor and have since been demolished. Of the dozen or so reactor-related structures, only the 105-F Reactor Building and the 108-F Biology Laboratory remain standing today. The 108-F Biology Laboratory was intended to be used as a facility for the mixing and addition of chemicals used in the treatment of the reactor cooling water. Shortly after F Reactor began operation, it was determined that the facility was not needed for this purpose. In 1949, the building was converted for use as a biological laboratory. In 1962, the lab was expanded by adding a three-story annex to the original four-story structure. The resulting lab had a floor area of approximately 2,883 m 2 (main building and annex) that operated until 1973. The building contained 47 laboratories, a number of small offices, a conference room, administrative section, lunch and locker rooms, and a heavily shielded, high-energy exposure cell. The purpose of this removal design report is to establish the methods of decontamination and decommissioning and the supporting functions associated with facility removal and disposal

  11. Removal design report for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Most of the 100-F facilities were deactivated with the reactor and have since been demolished. Of the dozen or so reactor-related structures, only the 105-F Reactor Building and the 108-F Biology Laboratory remain standing today. The 108-F Biology Laboratory was intended to be used as a facility for the mixing and addition of chemicals used in the treatment of the reactor cooling water. Shortly after F Reactor began operation, it was determined that the facility was not needed for this purpose. In 1949, the building was converted for use as a biological laboratory. In 1962, the lab was expanded by adding a three-story annex to the original four-story structure. The resulting lab had a floor area of approximately 2,883 m{sup 2} (main building and annex) that operated until 1973. The building contained 47 laboratories, a number of small offices, a conference room, administrative section, lunch and locker rooms, and a heavily shielded, high-energy exposure cell. The purpose of this removal design report is to establish the methods of decontamination and decommissioning and the supporting functions associated with facility removal and disposal.

  12. Advances in metabolome information retrieval: turning chemistry into biology. Part II: biological information recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Afonso, Carlos; Bekri, Soumeya

    2017-08-25

    This work reports the second part of a review intending to give the state of the art of major metabolic phenotyping strategies. It particularly deals with inherent advantages and limits regarding data analysis issues and biological information retrieval tools along with translational challenges. This Part starts with introducing the main data preprocessing strategies of the different metabolomics data. Then, it describes the main data analysis techniques including univariate and multivariate aspects. It also addresses the challenges related to metabolite annotation and characterization. Finally, functional analysis including pathway and network strategies are discussed. The last section of this review is devoted to practical considerations and current challenges and pathways to bring metabolomics into clinical environments.

  13. Biosimilars design and analysis of follow-on biologics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    "This book extensively covers both statistical and regulatory considerations from design to analysis of biosimilarity. … it is well presented and comprehensively covers fundamental issues and some of the newly developed methods for biosimilarity studies. The book is very balanced between scientific aspects and regulatory requirements. In addition, the reference lists give readers helpful information. … a valuable resource for anyone interested and involved in biosimilarity studies."-Biometrics, September 2014"[Professor] Chow's book Biosimilars: Design and Analysis of Follow-On Biologics … is the first book ever written on this topic. I commend Professor Chow for his effort to introduce the topic … Overall, this is a worthwhile reference book for statisticians interested in understanding biosimilar product development and evaluation." -Yi Tsong, PhD, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, USA, in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics>.

  14. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E's perspective on how these systems will operate

  15. RIP Input Tables from WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.M. Monib

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document (1) the Waste Package Degradation (WAPDEG) version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b. ''Software Routine Report for WAPDEG'' (Version 3.09)) simulations used to analyze degradation and failure of 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields (that are placed over waste packages composed of a 2-cm thick Alloy 22 corrosion resistant material (CRM) as the outer barrier and an unspecified material to provide structural support as the inner barrier) as well as degradation and failure of the waste packages themselves, and (2) post-processing of these results into tables of drip shield/waste package degradation time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer code. This calculation supports Performance Assessment analysis of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II-3. The aging period in the EDA II design (CRWMS M and O 1999f. ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'', Item 1 Row 9 Column 3) was replaced in the case of EDA II-3 with 25 years preclosure ventilation, leading to a total of 50 years preclosure ventilation. The waste packages are line loaded in the repository and no backfill is used

  16. Research of CITP-II tritium production irradiation device design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihua; Deng Yongjun; Mi Xiangmiao; Li Rundong; Liu Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    As the core component of CITP-II, the online tritium production irradiation device is the pivotal equipment in the research on tritium production and release of tritium breeders. The design of CITP-II online tritium production irradiation device creatively makes replacing the breeders online come true; as tritium production capacity, the self-shielding factor of device, and neutron flux were studied. The influence of different load models and load thicknesses of breeders to tritium production capacity was calculated. The hydrodynamics parameters of device in solid-gas phase were computed. Thermal parameters, such as the heat power of breeders, hotspot, temperature grads distributions, utmost temperature, uneven factors, were analyzed. Creatively designed nonlinear electric heater equalized breeders' even heat power. The influence laws of the components, pressure of gap gas and carrier gas to the balance temperature were got. And the key thermal parameters were ascertained. The key thermal parameters and the changing laws were got and provide the basis for structural optimization and safety analysis. They can also be referenced for the study of breeders' tritium production and release. (authors)

  17. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J

    2011-11-16

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that

  18. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.

    2011-01-01

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that LCLS-II only

  19. Simulation of a Congress at the Chair of Biology II in Bioengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, A V; Reznichenco, V; Lopez, N; Hernandez, R; Bajinay, S

    2007-01-01

    This work has been developed in the Chair of Biology II, the curricular contents of which correspond to Human Anatomy. This subject is taught in the second semester of the second year of studies in Bioengineering. Our main objective is that the students attending the course may integrate the syllabus contents of Anatomy with those of other subjects in the career. Ever since 1998 we have organized a congress named Congreso Intracatedra de BiologIa II (Intra Chair Congress on Biology II). This is the last assignment in the semester and is compulsory for regular students of the subject. It consists in simulating a scientific congress with international characteristics. The guidelines for the congress are made known to the students at the beginning of the semester. In groups of up to three members, the students must undertake a work that relates aspects of Anatomy with Bioengineering. Students are expected to investigate on diagnostic and/or therapeutic technology in order to write a paper that must be accepted in advance of the event. The presentation of the work must be made through PowerPoint. The originality of the research work done and the wide range of topics selected are surprising. Problems are tackled from the standpoints both of the various medical fields and of bioengineering despite the fact that they are just students of the second year in Bioengineering

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II Complexes of N-Thiophenoyl-N′-Phenylthiocarbohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II complex of N-thiophenoyl -N′-phenylthiocarbohydrazide (H2 TPTH have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, NMR, electronic, and ESR spectral studies. The complexes were found to have compositions [Mn(H TPTH2], [Co(TPTH (H2O2], [Ni(TPTH (H2O2], [Cu(TPTH], [Zn(H TPTH], [Cd(H TPTH2], and [Fe(H TPTH2(EtOH]. The magnetic and electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for [Cu(TPTH], tetrahedral geometry for [Zn(TPTH] and [Cd(H TPTH2], and octahedral geometry for rest of the complexes. The infrared spectral studies of the 1 : 1 deprotonated complexes suggest bonding through enolic oxygen, thiolato sulfur, and both the hydrazinic nitrogens. Thus, H2TPTH acts as a binegative tetradentate ligand. H2 TPTH and its metal complexes have been screened against several bacteria and fungi.

  1. Reactor building design of nuclear power plant ATUCHA II, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufino, R.E.; Hermann, E.R.; Richter, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented the civil engineering project carried out by the joint venture Hochtief - Techint-Bignoli (HTB) for the reactor building at the Atucha II power plant (PHWR of 745 MWe) in Buenos Aires. All the other civil projects at Atucha II are also being carried out by HTB. This building has the same general characteristics of the PWR plants developed by KWU in Germany, known for the spherical steel containment 56m in diameter. Nevertheless, it differs from those principally in the equipment lay-out and the remarkable foundation depth. From the basic engineering provided by ENACE, the joint venture has had to face the challenge of designing a tridimensional structure of large size. This has necessitated using simplified models which had to be superimposed, since the use of only one spatial mode would be highly inadequate, lacking the flexibility necessary to absorb the numerous modifications that this type of project undergoes during construction. In addition, this procedure has eliminated resorting to numerous and costly computer processings. (Author) [pt

  2. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Biological Applications of Designed Hairpin Peptides: As Antimicrobials and as Inhibitors of Amyloidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesam, Kalkena

    More than 40 diseases have been associated with the misfolding of peptides (or proteins) that form fibrils with a very specific morphology. These peptides classified as amyloidogenic peptides have been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Type II Diabetes, Hungtinton's Disease etc. To date, these diseases have no cure, only therapies that can ameliorate the symptoms to a degree. Inhibition of the amyloidogenesis of these peptides has been proposed as a possible treatment option. While small molecules have been heavily tested as inhibitors of amyloidogenesis, peptides have emerged as potential inhibitors. In this work, the ability of a set of designed hairpin peptides to inhibit the amyloidogenesis of two different systems, alpha-synuclein (implicated in Parkinson's Disease) and human amylin (implicated in Type II Diabetes) is tested. Using circular dichroism and thioflavin T fluorescence, the ability of these peptides to inhibit amyloidogenesis is tested. The binding loci of these inhibitors to alpha-synuclein are also explored. The use of peptides as antimicrobials on the other hand is not a novel concept. However, most antimicrobial peptides, both natural and designed, rely heavily on covalent stabilizations in order to maintain secondary structure. In this study, non-covalent stabilizations are applied to a couple of natural as well as designed antimicrobials in order to study the effects of secondary structure stabilization on biological activity.

  4. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  5. The application of 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy to define the biological chemistry of HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranzo, Olga; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Ryu, Seung-baek

    2007-01-01

    The use of de novo designed peptides is a powerful strategy to elucidate HgII-protein interactions and to gain insight into the chemistry of HgII in biological systems. Cysteine derivatives of the designed -helical peptides of the TRI family [Ac-G-(LaKbAcLdEeEfKg)4-G-NH2] bind HgII at high p......H values and at peptide/HgII ratios of 3:1 with an unusual trigonal thiolate coordination mode. The resulting HgII complexes are good water-soluble models for HgII binding to the protein MerR. We have carried out a parallel study using 199Hg NMR and 199mHg perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy...... to characterize the distinct species that are generated under different pH conditions and peptide TRI L9C/HgII ratios. These studies prove for the first time the formation of [Hg{(TRI L9C)2-(TRI L9C H)}], a dithiolate-HgII complex in the hydrophobic interior of the three-stranded coiled coil (TRI L9C)3. 199Hg NMR...

  6. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy–time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431524

  7. Divertor and first wall design for TIBER-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallix, R.; Bourque, R.; Baxi, C.; Creedon, L.; Schultz, K.; Vance, D.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design of the double-null divertor plates and the first wall armor for the TIBER-II fusion engineering test reactor is presented. The divertor plates, which receive a steady-state heat flux of up to 4.3 MW/m 2 , are actively cooled. They consist of small carbon or tungsten tiles brazed on water-cooled copper tubes which are fed by a dedicated cooling system. The first wall armor protects the water-cooled shield and blanket modules which form the walls of the plasma chamber. The armor receives an average, steady-state heat flux of 0.23 MW/m 2 and up to 2.4 MJ/m 2 during plasma disruptions. It consists of radiation-cooled, carbon-carbon composite tiles. The tiles cover the entire inboard wall and form 16 discrete poloidal limiters attached to the bare stainless steel outboard wall. Due to potentially severe plasma erosion, the components are designed for remote replacement

  8. HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The HYLIFE-II inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets, to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-I used liquid lithium. HYLIFE-II avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li 2 BeF 4 ) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 Gj from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-I. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. In addition, although not adequately considered for HYLIFE-I, there is liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, at higher repetition rates than 1 Hz. Splash removal is accomplished in the central region by oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW·h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost, that is, a zero cost driver would give a calculated cost of electricity of 0.045 $/kWh

  9. Genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I and Group II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Andrew T; Peck, Michael W

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in whole genome sequencing have made a substantial contribution to understanding the genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I (proteolytic C. botulinum) and C. botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic C. botulinum). Two different approaches are used to study genomics in these bacteria; comparative whole genome microarrays and direct comparison of complete genome DNA sequences. The properties of the different types of neurotoxin formed, and different neurotoxin gene clusters found in C. botulinum Groups I and II are explored. Specific examples of botulinum neurotoxin genes are chosen for an in-depth discussion of neurotoxin gene evolution. The most recent cases of foodborne botulism are summarised. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. Calculation of neutron fluxes in biological shield of the TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, M.; Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.

    2001-01-01

    The complete calculation of neutron fluxes in biological shield and verification with experimental results is presented. Calculated results are obtained with TORT code (TORT-Three Dimensional Oak Ridge Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code). Experimental results used for comparison are available from irradiation experiment with selected type of concrete and other materials in irradiation channel 4 in TRIGA Mark II reactor. These experimental results were used as a benchmark. Homogeneous type of problem (without inserted irradiation channel) and problem with asymmetry (inserted beam port 4, filled with different materials) were of interest for neutron flux calculation. Deviation from material data set up as original parameters is also considered (first of all presence of water in concrete and density of concrete) for type of concrete in biological shield and for selected type of concrete in irradiation channel. BUGLE-96 (47 neutron energy groups) library is used. Excellent agreement between calculated and experimental results for reaction rate is received.(author)

  11. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report II. Breckinridge Project design basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The Breckinridge Project is a pioneer endeavor involving the engineering, construction, and operation of a commercial facility that will convert 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine, high-sulfur coal into 50,000 barrels per day of liquid hydrocarbons equivalent to those produced from crude oil. The Initial Effort, now complete, was executed under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-80OR20717 between the Department of Energy and the Participants, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Airco Energy Company, Inc. The Initial Effort produced a preliminary design, capital estimate, and economic analysis of the commercial plant, as well as a plan for the design, construction, and operation of that plant. The extensive and rigorous attention given to environmental, socioeconomic, safety, and health considerations is indicative of the high priority these issues will continue to receive throughout the life of the project. The Breckinridge Energy Company, a partnership of several major corporations, is being formed to finance, own, and manage the Breckinridge Project. Report II is intended for the reader who is primarily interested in less detailed discussion of the coal liquefaction process and Breckinridge facility than presented in the eleven volumes of Reports IV and V. The overview section describes the project goals and briefly introduces the coal liquefaction process. The report continues with a discussion of the history of the project and the H-COAL process from its concept to the proposed commercialization technology. The report describes the site, the Breckinridge Facility, and concludes with a summary of the eleven reports that contain the deliverable documentation of the Initial Effort or Development Phase of the project.

  12. A Hierarchical Biology Concept Framework: A Tool for Course Design

    OpenAIRE

    Khodor, Julia; Halme, Dina Gould; Walker, Graham C.

    2004-01-01

    A typical undergraduate biology curriculum covers a very large number of concepts and details. We describe the development of a Biology Concept Framework (BCF) as a possible way to organize this material to enhance teaching and learning. Our BCF is hierarchical, places details in context, nests related concepts, and articulates concepts that are inherently obvious to experts but often difficult ...

  13. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II

  14. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Sextupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spataro,C.; Jain, A.K.; Rehak, M; Skaritka, J.

    2009-05-04

    The Sextupole magnets for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) have stringent performance requirements. These magnets have a faceted pole profile that departs from the cubic shape due to constraints imposed by the vacuum chamber. Various geometric features were used to fine tune and minimize the harmonics. Prototypes have been built and measured and have satisfactory field performance.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biological assay of Salicylaldehyde Schiff base Cu(II) complexes and their precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Bushra; Javed, Kanwal; Khan, Muhammad Saif Ullah; Akhter, Zareen; Mirza, Bushra; Mckee, Vickie

    2018-03-01

    Three new Schiff base ligands were synthesized by the reaction of Salicylaldehyde with semi-aromatic diamines, prepared by the reduction of corresponding dinitro-compounds, and were further used for the formation of complexes with Cu(II) metal ion. The structural features of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by their physical properties and infrared, electronic and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The studies revealed that the synthesized Schiff bases existed as tetradentate ligands and bonded to the metal ion through the phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. One of the dinitro precursors was also analyzed by single crystal X-ray crystallography, which showed that it crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P2/n. The thermal behavior of the Cu(II) complexes was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and kinetic parameters were evaluated from the data. Schiff base ligands, their precursors and metal complexes were also screened for antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, Brine shrimp lethality, DPPH free radical scavenging and DNA damage assays. The results of these analyses indicated the substantial potential of the synthesized Schiff bases, their precursors and Cu(II) complexes in biological field as future drugs.

  16. Spectroscopic, thermal, catalytic and biological studies of Cu(II) azo dye complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Shoair, A. F.; Hussein, M. A.; El-Boz, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    New complexes of copper(II) with azo compounds of 5-amino-2-(aryl diazenyl)phenol (HLn) are prepared and investigated by elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, 1H NMR, UV-Visible, mass, ESR spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The complexes have a square planar structure and general formula [Cu(Ln)(OAc)]H2O. Study the catalytic activities of Cu(II) complexes toward oxidation of benzyl alcohol derivatives to carbonyl compounds were tested using H2O2 as the oxidant. The intrinsic binding constants (Kb) of the ligands (HLn) and Cu(II) complexes (1-4) with CT-DNA are determined. The formed compounds have been tested for biological activity of antioxidants, antibacterial against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and yeast Candida albicans. Antibiotic (Ampicillin) and antifungal against (Colitrimazole) and cytotoxic compounds HL1, HL2, HL3 and complex (1) showed moderate to good activity against S. aureus, E. coli and Candida albicans, and also to be moderate on antioxidants and toxic substances. Molecular docking is used to predict the binding between the ligands with the receptor of breast cancer (2a91).

  17. AC Calorimetric Design for Dynamic of Biological Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeo Imaizumi

    2006-01-01

    We developed a new AC calorimeter for the measurement of dynamic specific heat capacity in liquids, including aqueous suspensions of biological materials. This method has several advantages. The first is that a high-resolution measurement of heat capacity, inmillidegrees, can be performed as a function of temperature, even with a very small sample. Therefore, AC calorimeter is a powerful tool to study critical behavior a tphase transition in biological materials. The second advantage is that ...

  18. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1 the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2 the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3 the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  19. Synthetic biology: tools to design, build, and optimize cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  20. The environmental audit. II. Application to stream network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, James A.; Schaeffer, David J.; Kerster, Harold W.; Herricks, Edwin E.

    1985-05-01

    The planning and execution of water quality management programs requires careful collection and analysis of data coupled with a systematic review and analysis of programmatic success. The environmental audit is a tool which facilitates improved water quality planning and management. This article demonstrates the utility of the environmental audit by reviewing portions of a comprehensive review of the water quality management program for the state of Idaho. The audit is a tool which forces careful design of a sampling program before data are collected. In the audit approach, program objectives are clearly stated prior to initiation of sampling. Stated objectives are also evaluated regularly to identify tension points, that is, conflicts between expectations and reality. In the example taken from Idaho, a management review team followed a directive to redesign the water quality monitoring program. We present a summary of the redesign as proposed by that team, to illustrate the results of a typical review of monitoring programs. That summary is followed by an example of how the proposed program would differ if the audit approach had been used. The two approaches offered both coincident and conflicting recommendations. Management review team and audit recommendations for lake sampling programs were similar even though a different process was used to develop the recommendations. The most striking contrast between the two results lies in the review team's approach to the problem. The directives followed, and the team's responses, concentrate on tools, such as increasing biological monitoring or reliance on monthly BWMP stations. In contrast, the audit results stress addressing management questions for which clear objectives have been stated, depending on specific tools only as needed to meet stated objectives. Although the audit does integrate externalities in its structure, it is little affected by economic or political influences. A major strength of the audit approach

  1. MARS II: A design improvement to reduce construction time and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caira, M.; Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Socrate, S.

    The design criteria of the Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, Inherently Safe MARS II are examined. The remarkable aspects of the MARS II basic design and the description of the main systems, components and buildings are reported. A rough cost evaluation is performed.

  2. Structural and functional investigations of biological catalysts for optimization of solar-driven H II production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul W.; Svedruzic, Drazenka; Cohen, Jordi; Schulten, Klaus; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2006-08-01

    Research efforts to develop efficient systems for H II production encompass a variety of biological and chemical approaches. For solar-driven H II production we are investigating an approach that integrates biological catalysts, the [FeFe] hydrogenases, with a photoelectrochemical cell as a novel bio-hybrid system. Structurally the [FeFe] hydrogenases consist of an iron-sulfur catalytic site that in some instances is electronically wired to accessory iron-sulfur clusters proposed to function in electron transfer. The inherent structural complexity of most examples of these enzymes is compensated by characteristics desired for bio-hybrid systems (i.e., low activation energy, high catalytic activity and solubility) with the benefit of utilizing abundant, less costly non-precious metals. Redesign and modification of [FeFe] hydrogenases is being undertaken to reduce complexity and to optimize structural properties for various integration strategies. The least complex examples of [FeFe] hydrogenase are found in the species of photosynthetic green algae and are being studied as design models for investigating the effects of structural minimization on substrate transfer, catalytic activity and oxygen sensitivity. Redesigning hydrogenases for effective use in bio-hybrid systems requires a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and catalysis. To achieve better mechanistic understanding of [FeFe] hydrogenases both structural and dynamic models are being used to identify potential substrate transfer mechanisms which are tested in an experimental system. Here we report on recent progress of our investigations in the areas of [FeFe] hydrogenase overexpression, minimization and biochemical characterization.

  3. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  4. Single-arm phase II trial design under parametric cure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The current practice of designing single-arm phase II survival trials is limited under the exponential model. Trial design under the exponential model may not be appropriate when a portion of patients are cured. There is no literature available for designing single-arm phase II trials under the parametric cure model. In this paper, a test statistic is proposed, and a sample size formula is derived for designing single-arm phase II trials under a class of parametric cure models. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed test and sample size formula perform very well under different scenarios. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Isothiosemicarbazones with Antimycobacterial Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, E.; Waisser, K.; Kuneš, J.; Palát, K.; Skálová, L.; Szotáková, B.; Buchta, V.; Stolaříková, J.; Ulmann, V.; Pávová, Marcela; Weber, Jan; Komrsková, J.; Hašková, P.; Vokřál, I.; Wsól, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e1700020. ISSN 0365-6233 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological activity * cytotoxicity * isocitrate lyase * isothiosemicarbazone * tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2016

  6. General-purpose heat source development. Phase II: conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.; Grinberg, I.M.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1978-11-01

    Basic geometric module shapes and fuel arrays were studied to determine how well they could be expected to meet the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) design requirements. Seven conceptual designs were selected, detailed drawings produced, and these seven concepts analyzed. Three of these design concepts were selected as GPHS Trial Designs to be reanalyzed in more detail and tested. The geometric studies leading to the selection of the seven conceptual designs, the analyses of these designs, and the selection of the three trial designs are discussed

  7. A review on the wettability of dental implant surfaces II: Biological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittens, Rolando A; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank; Hyzy, Sharon L; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2014-07-01

    Dental and orthopedic implants have been under continuous advancement to improve their interactions with bone and ensure a successful outcome for patients. Surface characteristics such as surface topography and surface chemistry can serve as design tools to enhance the biological response around the implant, with in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies confirming their effects. However, the comprehensive design of implants to promote early and long-term osseointegration requires a better understanding of the role of surface wettability and the mechanisms by which it affects the surrounding biological environment. This review provides a general overview of the available information about the contact angle values of experimental and of marketed implant surfaces, some of the techniques used to modify surface wettability of implants, and results from in vitro and clinical studies. We aim to expand the current understanding on the role of wettability of metallic implants at their interface with blood and the biological milieu, as well as with bacteria, and hard and soft tissues. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review on the Wettability of Dental Implant Surfaces II: Biological and Clinical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittens, Rolando A.; Scheideler, Lutz; Rupp, Frank; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Dental and orthopaedic implants have been under continuous advancement to improve their interactions with bone and ensure a successful outcome for patients. Surface characteristics such as surface topography and surface chemistry can serve as design tools to enhance the biological response around the implant, with in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies confirming their effects. However, the comprehensive design of implants to promote early and long-term osseointegration requires a better understanding of the role of surface wettability and the mechanisms by which it affects the surrounding biological environment. This review provides a general overview of the available information about the contact angle values of experimental and of marketed implant surfaces, some of the techniques used to modify surface wettability of implants, and results from in vitro and clinical studies. We aim to expand the current understanding on the role of wettability of metallic implants at their interface with blood and the biological milieu, as well as with bacteria, and hard and soft tissues. PMID:24709541

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new palladium(II) complex with deoxyalliin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbi, P.P.; Massabni, A.C. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept., Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrocorbi@yahoo.com; Moreira, A.G. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Medrano, F.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas (Brazil); Jasiulionis, M.G. [Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, Dept. de Micro-Imuno-Parasitologia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Costa-Neto, C.M. [Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2005-02-15

    Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new water-soluble Pd(II)-deoxyalliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine) complex are described in this article. Elemental and thermal analysis for the complex are consistent with the formula [Pd(C{sub 6}H{sub 10}NO{sub 2}S){sub 2}]. {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 1}H NMR, and IR spectroscopy show coordination of the ligand to Pd(II) through S and N atoms in a square planar geometry. Final residue of the thermal treatment was identified as a mixture of PdO and metallic Pd. Antiproliferative assays using aqueous solutions of the complex against HeLa and TM5 tumor cells showed a pronounced activity of the complex even at low concentrations. After incubation for 24 h, the complex induced cytotoxic effect over HeLa cells when used at concentrations higher than 0.40 mmol/L. At lower concentrations, the complex was nontoxic, indicating its action is probably due to cell cycle arrest, rather than cell death. In agreement with these results, the flow cytometric analysis indicated that after incubation for 24 h at low concentrations of the complex cells are arrested in G0/G1. (author)

  10. Biological evaluation of transdichloridoplatinum(II) complexes with 3- and 4-acetylpyridine in comparison to cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, Lana; Arandelovic, Sandra; Gligorijevic, Nevenka; Krivokuca, Ana; Jankovic, Radmila; Srdic-Rajic, Tatjana; Rakic, Gordana; Tesic, Zivoslav; Radulovic, Sinisa

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study we reported the synthesis and cytotoxicity of two trans-platinum(II) complexes: trans-[PtCl 2 (3-acetylpyridine) 2 ] (1) and trans-[PtCl 2 (4-acetylpyridine) 2 ] (2), revealing significant cytotoxic potential of 2. In order to evaluate the mechanism underlying biological activity of both trans-Pt(II) isomers, comparative studies versus cisplatin were performed in HeLa, MRC-5 and MS1 cells. The cytotoxic activity of the investigated complexes was determined using SRB assay. The colagenolytic activity was determined using gelatin zymography, while the effect of platinum complexes on matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Apoptotic potential and cell cycle alterations were determined by FACS analyses. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the effect on expression of DNA-repair enzyme ERCC1, and quantitative real-time PCR was used for the ERCC1 mRNA expression analysis. In vitro antiangiogenic potential was determined by tube formation assay. Platinum content in intracellular DNA and proteins was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Compound 2 displayed an apparent cytoselective profile, and flow cytometry analysis in HeLa cells indicated that 2 exerted antiproliferative effect through apoptosis induction, while 1 induced both apoptosis and necrosis. Action of 1 and 2, as analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, was associated with down-regulation of ERCC1. Both trans-complexes inhibited MMP-9 mRNA expression in HeLa, while 2 significantly abrogated in vitro tubulogenesis in MS1 cells. The ability of 2 to induce multiple and selective in vitro cytotoxic effects encourages further investigations of trans-platinum(II) complexes with substituted pyridines

  11. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  12. Design of NSLS-II High Order Multipole Correctors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehak,M.; Danby, G.; Bengtsson, Jo; Jackson, J.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    Feasibility studies for two families of corrector magnets for NSLS-II are presented. The first family of magnets are generalizations of figure eight quadrupoles using rotationally symmetric breaks in the return yoke to fit in available space. Properties specific to figure eight magnet are identified. The second type of magnet is a combined sextupole/dipole trim.

  13. Design, synthesis and biological study of new antiparasitic spiroarsoranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, P M; Rekik, L; Madaule, Y; Gayral, P; Wolf, J G

    1993-09-01

    Thirty-eight new spiroarsoranes were synthesized after structure-activity relationship studies from the first series. These compounds were predicted to cross more easily the membrane of protozoae or the cuticle of Nematodes and to reach their biological target with efficiency. The spiroarsoranes were evaluated for their antiparasitic properties, on helminths and protozoa models in regard of their parent arsonic acids. The following parasite models were used: Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro; Molinema dessetae infective larvae in vitro, adults and microfilariae in vivo; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infective larvae in vitro. The results obtained on these models indicated that the "spiranization" of arsonic acids produced new compounds with a biological activity 10-fold superior to those of arsonic acids. Nevertheless, each parasite had its own sensitivity to spiroarsoranes. Moreover, in vivo results showed that the lipophilicity of the molecules should be optimal to avoid high toxicity in host such as arsenical encephalopathy.

  14. Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Christopher [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-07-01

    SEED2014 focused on advances in the science and technology emerging from the field of synthetic biology. We broadly define this as technologies that accelerate the process of genetic engineering. It highlighted new tool development, as well as the application of these tools to diverse problems in biotechnology, including therapeutics, industrial chemicals and fuels, natural products, and agriculture. Systems spanned from in vitro experiments and viruses, through diverse bacteria, to eukaryotes (yeast, mammalian cells, plants).

  15. Designer's Situation Awareness Toolbox (DeSAT), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will develop a design decision support tool that will assist designers in providing a powerful, supportive work environment for aviation crews that support...

  16. Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every...

  17. Multi-Disciplinary Multi-Fidelity Design Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the design challenges of tomorrow, NASA and industry require advancements in the state-of-the-art for physics-based design and analysis frameworks. In...

  18. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSerrano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s, thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s, which phenotypically resemble mutation(s of the encoding gene(s. A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1 a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2 a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3 an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound’s mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  19. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  20. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  1. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M and O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M and O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M and O and DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, ''Performance

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of PKD Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Céline Frantz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D (PKD belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in basic cellular processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Progress in our understanding of the biological functions of PKD has been limited due to the lack of a PKD-specific inhibitor. The benzoxoloazepinolone CID755673 was recently reported as the first potent and kinase-selective inhibitor for this enzyme. For structure-activity analysis purposes, a series of analogs was prepared and their in vitro inhibitory potency evaluated.

  3. Spectral, NLO, Fluorescence, and Biological Activity of Knoevenagel Condensate of β-Diketone Ligands and Their Metal(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone-based ligands of the type ML (where M=  Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II; L=  3-(aryl-pentane-2,4-dione have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, H1NMR, mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are nonelectrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest square planar geometry for copper(II, cobalt(II, and nickel(II complexes of 3-(3-phenylallylidenepentane-2,4-dione and octahedral geometry for other metal(II complexes. The redox behaviors of the copper(II complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against bacteria and fungus. The metal(II complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG efficiency of the ligands was found to have considerable effect compared to that of urea and KDP.

  4. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research, CSCL (computer supported collaborative learning), ICT4D (information and communication technology for development), design anthropology, design psychology, design Industry and the Arts. The conference has helped to broaden participatory approaches in design around a variety of arenas including....... • In “Expanding the ‘How’ of Participatory Design”, five papers provide insights into techniques and methods that support novel perspectives on how participatory design activities might be practiced or reflected upon. This includes examples that should benefit practitioners and researchers who wish to think...... and approaches that they might consider. Interactive Exhibitions is a new format at PDC and aims to enable the sharing of concrete participatory design experiences in an interactive format during the main PDC 2016 conference program. Submissions were divided into three tracks – Research, Industry cases, and Arts...

  5. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    information and communication technologies, work, healthcare, learning, new media and digital culture, community settings, architecture and the urban environment, visual communication, interaction design and service design to mention some of the fields involved. The Short Papers programme captures...... that provide insightful examples of ‘with whom’ contemporary participatory design activities are being undertaken. Here we have examples of participatory design being conducted at the scale of low income households, to neighbourhoods, geographically tied communities and distributed communities of practice......Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 2 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory...

  6. Novel Carbonyl Analogs of Tamoxifen: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos M. Kasiotis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to provide tamoxifen analogs with enhanced estrogen receptor (ER binding affinity. Hence, several derivatives were prepared using an efficient triarylethylenes synthetic protocol. The novel compounds bioactivity was evaluated through the determination of their receptor binding affinity and their agonist/antagonist activity against breast cancer tissue using a MCF-7 cell-based assay. Phenyl esters 6a,b and 8a,b exhibited binding affinity to both ERα and ERβ higher than 4-hydroxytamoxifen while compounds 13 and 14 have shown cellular antiestrogenic activity similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen and the known ER inhibitor ICI182,780. Theoretical calculations and molecular modeling were applied to investigate, support and explain the biological profile of the new compounds. The relevant data indicated an agreement between calculations and demonstrated biological activity allowing to extract useful structure-activity relationships. Results herein underline that modifications of tamoxifen structure still provide molecules with substantial activity, as portrayed in the inhibition of MCF-7 cells proliferation.

  7. Novel Carbonyl Analogues of Tamoxifen: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M.; Lambrinidis, George; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Tzanetou, Evangelia N.; Mikros, Emmanuel; Haroutounian, Serkos A.

    2017-09-01

    Aim of this work was to provide tamoxifen analogues with enhanced estrogen receptor binding affinity. Hence, several derivatives were prepared using an efficient triarylethylenes synthetic protocol. The novel compounds bioactivity was evaluated through the determination of their receptor binding affinity and their agonist/antagonist activity against breast cancer tissue using a MCF-7 cell-based assay. Phenyl esters 6a,b and 8a,b exhibited binding affinity to both ERα and ERβ higher than 4-hydroxytamoxifen while compounds 13 and 14 have shown cellular antiestrogenic activity similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen and the known estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI182,780. Theoretical calculations and molecular modelling were applied to investigate, support and explain the biological profile of the new compounds. The relevant data indicated an agreement between calculations and demonstrated biological activity allowing to extract useful structure-activity relationships. Results herein underline that modifications of tamoxifen structure still provide molecules with substantial activity, as portrayed in the inhibition of MCF-7 cells proliferation.

  8. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During initial design studies, parametric variation of vehicle geometry is routine. In addition, rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate...

  9. Physics-Based Conceptual Design Tools, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Approaches for weight prediction, in the conceptual design phase, typically consist of parametric relations or empirical databases. Historical databases work...

  10. Photoactive platinum(II) complexes of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen: Interaction with biological targets, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Payal; Singh, Khushbu; Verma, Madhu; Sivakumar, Sri; Patra, Ashis K

    2018-01-20

    The effect on the therapeutic efficacy of Pt(II) complexes on combining non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is an attractive strategy to circumvent chronic inflammation mediated by cancer and metastasis. Two square-planar platinum(II) complexes: [Pt(dach)(nap)Cl] (1) and [Pt(dach)(nap) 2 ] (2), where dach = (1R,2R)-dichloro(cyclohexane-1,2-diamine) and NSAID drug naproxen (nap), have been designed for studying their biological activity. The naproxen bound to the Pt(II) centre get released upon photoirradiation with low-power UV-A light as confirmed by the significant enhancement in emission intensities of the complexes. The compounds were evaluated for their photophysical properties, photostability, reactivity with 5'-guanosine monophophosphate (5'-GMP), interactions with CT-DNA and BSA, antioxidant activity and reactive oxygen species mediated photo-induced DNA damage properties. ESI-MS studies demonstrated the formation of bis-adduct with 5'-GMP and the formation of Pt II -DNA crosslinks by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay and ITC studies. The interaction of the complexes 1 and 2 with the CT-DNA exhibits potential binding affinity (K b  ∼ 10 4  M -1 , K app ∼ 10 5  M -1 ), implying intercalation to CT-DNA through planar naphthyl ring of the complexes. Both the complexes also exhibit strong binding affinity towards BSA (K BSA ∼ 10 5  M -1 ). The complexes exhibit efficient DNA damage activity on irradiation at 365 nm via formation of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and hydroxyl radical ( • OH) under physiological conditions. Both the complexes were cytotoxic in dark and exhibit significant enhancement of cytotoxicity upon photo-exposure against HeLa and HepG2 cancer cells giving IC 50 values ranging from 8 to 12 μM for 1 and 2. The cellular internalization data showed cytosolic and nuclear localization of the complexes in the HeLa cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests.

  12. La sparizione del design. Parte II: Less is Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Interaction Design could be read as a radicalization of the dogma of modern functionalism, Less is More, and a "rediscovery" of certain theories of Minimal Art. This radicalization is reflected in the same evolution that has taken place since the early Nineties within the Human-Computer Interaction, with the gradual replacement of User Experience as a major category of interaction design. Designing the interactive experience (emotional and aesthetic becomes more important than Usability. But if the experience becomes the specific object of design, the materiality of the object, its shell, loses its importance. The evolution of design, through the spread of computing,  leads to a pervasive dematerialization of everyday objects.

  13. Alternative Designs for the NSLS-II Injection Straight Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaftan,T.; Heese, R.; Weihreter, E.; Willeke, F.; Rehak, M.; Meier, R.; Fliller, R.; Johnson, E. D.

    2009-05-04

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is developing a state-of-the-art 3 GeV synchrotron light source, the NSLS-II [1]. The 9.3 meter-long injection straight section of its storage ring now fits a conventional injection set-up consisting of four kickers producing a closed bump, together with a DC septum and a pulsed septum. In this paper, we analyze an alternative option based on injection via a pulsed sextupole magnet. We discuss the dynamics of the injected and stored beams and, subsequently, the magnet's specifications and tolerances. We conclude by summarized the advantages and drawbacks of each injection scheme.

  14. Lightweight Design of an HTS Coil for the VASIMR Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR contract Tai-Yang Research Company of Tennessee proposes to design, fabricate, and test an ultra-lightweight High Temperature Superconducting...

  15. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 2, 3.0 Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II Tokamak. This particular volume discusses: mechanical systems; electrical systems; shield nuclear analysis and tritium issues; reactor building facilities; and tritium systems

  16. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Arylpiperazine-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding of apoptosis or programmed cell death has provided the basis for novel therapeutics that has resulted in rationally designed anticancer strategies. Recently, inducers of apoptosis have been used in cancer therapy. In this work, we describe the role of chiral phthalimides functionalized with piperazines ...

  17. Molecular design, synthesis and evaluation of chemical biology tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin

    2017-01-01

    Chapter 1 provides a perspective of synthetic organic chemistry as a discipline involved in the design, synthesis and evaluation of complex molecules. The reader is introduced with a brief history of synthetic organic chemistry, all the while dealing with different aspects of

  18. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  19. Design of coke ovens. Part II. Types of coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroka, E.; Haratyk, J.

    1983-08-01

    Design of 4 coke oven types is discussed: H. Koppers ovens, PWR ovens (developed by Giprokoks in the USSR), Koppers-Becker ovens and Nittetsu ovens. Design of each coke oven type is shown in a scheme. Distribution of heat and heat control in the heating walls of coke ovens are analyzed: burners, distribution of flue channels in heating walls, systems for temperature control of gases in flue channels. Gas flow in flue channels of 4 coke oven types is evaluated. Effects of coke oven design on its performance and on coke quality are also discussed.

  20. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  1. Automated Computational Fluid Dynamics Design With Shape Optimization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as an analysis tool to help the designer gain greater understanding of the fluid flow phenomena involved in the components...

  2. Evaluation of technical design of advanced information display(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Woo Chang; Kang, Young Ju; Ji, Jung Hun; Jang, Sung Pil; Jung, Sung Hae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2004-02-01

    As the computer technology is highly developed, the mental model of computer users including NPP operators has been changed from analogue display type-based stereotype to digitalized one. Therefore, it is necessary and confident to consider the issues to evaluate system suitability of advanced information display on visual display terminal such as CRT. This document is intended for providing an updated and expanded set of user-interface guidelines that meet the needs of designing information display on CRT by finding the generic guidelines involving information display design issues, and the relationship among the guidelines. The design issues and resolutions from the finding may provide the cues for the designers and evaluators of the specific man machine interfaces of digitalized devices

  3. Turbopump Design for Deep Throttling Capability, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will demonstrate the benefits of a partial emission pump coupled with a zero net positive suction pressure inducer design to achieve robust, deep...

  4. Evaluation of technical design of advanced information display(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Woo Chang; Kang, Young Ju; Ji, Jung Hun; Jang, Sung Pil; Jung, Sung Hae; Park, Hyun Jin [Kumoh National Univ., Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    As the computer technology is highly developed, the mental model of computer users including NPP operators has been changed from analogue display type-based stereotype to digitalized one. Therefore, it is necessary and confident to consider the issues to evaluate system suitability of advanced information display on visual display terminal such as CRT. This document is intended for providing an updated and expanded set of user-interface guidelines that meet the needs of designing information display on CRT by finding the generic guidelines involving information display design issues, and the relationship among the guidelines. The design issues and resolutions from the finding may provide the cues for the designers and evaluators of the specific man machine interfaces of digitalized devices.

  5. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to significantly improve upon the integration (performed in Phase 1) of a new sweep/taper...

  6. Contact Stress Design Parameters for Titanium Bearings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock's Phase I effort tested the effects of ball induced contact stresses on Titanium bearing races. The contact stress design limit that would achieve a...

  7. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  8. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not…

  9. Reactivity of 5a,6-anhydrotetracycline platinum(II) complex with biological nucleophiles: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, Bruna L.; Santos, Helio F. dos; Costa, Luiz Antonio S.; Almeida, Wagner B. de

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of the interaction between 5a,6-anhydrotetracycline platinum(II) complex (AHTC-Pt) and some biological nucleophiles; adenine (A), guanine (G), cysteine (Cys) and methionine (Met). The aquated species [Pt(AHTC)Cl(H 2 O)] + was taken as reagent for the processes studied here. For DNA bases (A and G), the calculated values for ΔG a,aq at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level were 21.7 and 20.7 kcal mol -1 for interaction with A and G, respectively, which are in accordance with the expected behavior of faster process involving G. These values are higher than the experimental activation energy for the parent compound cisplatin (18.5 kcal mol -1 for interaction with G). For the process involving the amino-acids, the barriers were 17.6 (Cys) and 18.5 kcal mol -1 (Met), which are lower than the observed values for cisplatin (20.5 and 20.2 kcal mol -1 , respectively). These outcomes show that AHTC-Pt hybrid complex may be considered a promising lead compound in the development of novel anticancer drugs based on platinum complex. (author)

  10. Reactivity of 5a,6-anhydrotetracycline platinum(II) complex with biological nucleophiles: a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcial, Bruna L.; Santos, Helio F. dos [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Nucleo de Estudos em Quimica Computacional; Costa, Luiz Antonio S. [Escola Preparatoria de Cadetes do Ar, Barbacena, MG (Brazil). Comando da Aeronautica. Dept. de Ensino da Aeronautica; Almeida, Wagner B. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Quimica Computacional e Modelagem Molecular]. E-mail: helio.santos@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of the interaction between 5a,6-anhydrotetracycline platinum(II) complex (AHTC-Pt) and some biological nucleophiles; adenine (A), guanine (G), cysteine (Cys) and methionine (Met). The aquated species [Pt(AHTC)Cl(H{sub 2}O)]{sup +} was taken as reagent for the processes studied here. For DNA bases (A and G), the calculated values for {delta}G{sub a,aq} at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level were 21.7 and 20.7 kcal mol{sup -1} for interaction with A and G, respectively, which are in accordance with the expected behavior of faster process involving G. These values are higher than the experimental activation energy for the parent compound cisplatin (18.5 kcal mol{sup -1} for interaction with G). For the process involving the amino-acids, the barriers were 17.6 (Cys) and 18.5 kcal mol{sup -1} (Met), which are lower than the observed values for cisplatin (20.5 and 20.2 kcal mol{sup -1}, respectively). These outcomes show that AHTC-Pt hybrid complex may be considered a promising lead compound in the development of novel anticancer drugs based on platinum complex. (author)

  11. Antitumor and biological investigation of doubly cyclometalated ruthenium(II) organometallics derived from benzimidazolyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Palani; Jeong, Yong Joon; Park, Dae Won; Kim, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hyunuk; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2016-04-21

    In this study, we report the synthesis, anticancer and biological properties of three doubly cyclometalated phenylbenzimidazole derived ruthenium(ii) organometallics () and their corresponding three organic ligands. The structures of were fully characterized by various analytical techniques, and the meso stereoisomer of the doubly cyclometalated ruthenacycle was unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The anticancer effects of the newly synthesized compounds were tested against selected human cancer cell lines AGS (gastric carcinoma), SK-hep-1 (hepatocellular carcinoma), and HCT-15 (colorectal carcinoma). The growth inhibitory effects of ruthenacycles on cancer cells were found to be considerably more effective against the abovementioned cancer cells than the reference drug oxaliplatin. Compound exhibited a more specific effect on the AGS cells. Gene-fishing and ELISA array were performed to analyze the target genes and cytokine secretion by . As a result, a significant reduction was observed in RPS21 by . Moreover, increased the secretion of cytokines such as IFNγ in macrophages and reduced the release of cytokines such as rantes and IGF-1. These results show that could be a very good anticancer drug through the regulation of the RPS21 gene and cytokines.

  12. Chemical Posttranslational Modification with Designed Rhodium(II) Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S C; Minus, M B; Ball, Z T

    2016-01-01

    Natural enzymes use molecular recognition to perform exquisitely selective transformations on nucleic acids, proteins, and natural products. Rhodium(II) catalysts mimic this selectivity, using molecular recognition to allow selective modification of proteins with a variety of functionalized diazo reagents. The rhodium catalysts and the diazo reactivity have been successfully applied to a variety of protein folds, the chemistry succeeds in complex environments such as cell lysate, and a simple protein blot method accurately assesses modification efficiency. The studies with rhodium catalysts provide a new tool to study and probe protein-binding events, as well as a new synthetic approach to protein conjugates for medical, biochemical, or materials applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mixed response and time-to-event endpoints for multistage single-arm phase II design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xin; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying

    2015-06-04

    The objective of phase II cancer clinical trials is to determine if a treatment has sufficient activity to warrant further study. The efficiency of a conventional phase II trial design has been the object of considerable debate, particularly when the study regimen is characteristically cytostatic. At the time of development of a phase II cancer trial, we accumulated clinical experience regarding the time to progression (TTP) for similar classes of drugs and for standard therapy. By considering the time to event (TTE) in addition to the tumor response endpoint, a mixed-endpoint phase II design may increase the efficiency and ability of selecting promising cytotoxic and cytostatic agents for further development. We proposed a single-arm phase II trial design by extending the Zee multinomial method to fully use mixed endpoints with tumor response and the TTE. In this design, the dependence between the probability of response and the TTE outcome is modeled through a Gaussian copula. Given the type I and type II errors and the hypothesis as defined by the response rate (RR) and median TTE, such as median TTP, the decision rules for a two-stage phase II trial design can be generated. We demonstrated through simulation that the proposed design has a smaller expected sample size and higher early stopping probability under the null hypothesis than designs based on a single-response endpoint or a single TTE endpoint. The proposed design is more efficient for screening new cytotoxic or cytostatic agents and less likely to miss an effective agent than the alternative single-arm design.

  14. DNA binding and biological activity of mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II with quinolones and N donor ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M M Akram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractMixed ligand complexes of  Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II have been synthesized by using levofloxacin and bipyridyl and characterized using spectral and analytical techniques. The binding behavior of the Ni(II and Cu(II complexes with herring sperm DNA(Hs-DNA were determined using electronic absorption titration, viscometric measurements and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The binding constant calculated  for Cu(II and Ni(II complexes are 2.0 x 104 and 4.0 x 104 M-1 respectively. Detailed analysis reveals that these metal complexes interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. The nuclease activity of  Cu(II and Ni(II complexes with ct-DNA was carried out using agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The antioxidant activities for the synthesized complexes have been tested and the antibacterial activity for Ni(II complex was also checked.Key words: Intercalation, hypochromism, red shift and  peak potential.

  15. Design and Biological Evaluation of Delivery Systems Containing Bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Aderibigbe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates have found application in the treatment of reoccurrence of bone diseases, breast cancer, etc. They have also been found to exhibit antimicrobial, anticancer and antimalarial activities. However, they suffer from pharmacological deficiencies such as toxicity, poor bioavailability and low intestinal adsorption. These shortcomings have resulted in several researchers developing delivery systems that can enhance their overall therapeutic effectiveness. This review provides a detailed overview of the published studies on delivery systems designed for the delivery of bisphosphonates and the corresponding in vitro/in vivo results.

  16. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H.

    2007-06-01

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  17. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H

    2007-06-15

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

  18. Design concepts for PBFA-II's applied-B ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovang, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium ion diode to be used at the center of Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-II (PBFA-II) at Sandia National Laboratories is an applied-B ion diode. The center section of the PBFA-II accelerator is where the electrical requirements of the accelerator, the design requirements of the diode, and the operational requirements must all be satisfied simultaneously for a successful experiment. From an operational standpoint, the ion diode is the experimental hub of the accelerator and needs to be easily and quickly installed and removed. Because of the physical size and geometry of the PBFA-II center section, achieving the operational requirements has presented an interesting design challenge. A discussion of the various design requirements and the proposed concepts for satisfying them is presented

  19. META II Complex Systems Design and Analysis (CODA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    vales (Yij) which captures the component interconnections. Solving the two 32 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited equations for...Re la tiv e u sa ge rules feature 1. Rule-based approach for higher level abstraction. 2. When design progresses to low level abstractions, more

  20. Design of multiphysics actuators using topology optimization - Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    . Several of the examples from Part I are repeated, allowing for the introduction of a second material in the design domain. The second material can differ in mechanical properties such as Young's modulus or electrical and thermal conductivity. In some cases there are significant gains in introducing...

  1. Characterization and biological studies on Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of carbohydrazones ending by pyridyl ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Ghazy, S. E.; Radwan, A. H.

    2013-03-01

    The chelating behavior of ligands based on carbohydrazone core modified with pyridine end towards Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions have been examined. The ligands derived from the condensation of carbohydrazide with 2-acetylpyridine (H2APC) and 4-acetylpyridine (H2APEC). The 1H NMR, IR data and the binding energy calculations of H2APC revealed the presence of two stereoisomers syn and anti in the solid state and in the solution. The 1H NMR, IR data and the binding energy calculations confirmed the presence of H2APEC in one keto form only in the solid state and in the solution. The spectroscopic data confirmed that H2APC behaves as a monobasic pentadentate in Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes and as mononegative tetradentate in Ni(II) complex. On the other hand, H2APEC acts as a mononegative tridentate in Co(II) complex, neutral tridentate in Ni(II) complex and neutral bidentate in Cu(II) complex. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements of complexes as well as the ESR of the copper complexes suggested the octahedral geometry. The bond length and bond angles were evaluated by DFT method using material studio program. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The antioxidant (DDPH and ABTS methods), anti-hemolytic and in vitro Ehrlich ascites of the compounds have been screened.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, DFT and biological studies of isatinpicolinohydrazone and its Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gammal, O. A.; Rakha, T. H.; Metwally, H. M.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    Isatinpicolinohydrazone (H2IPH) and its Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized and investigated using physicochemical techniques viz. IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis spectrometric methods and magnetic moment measurements. The investigation revealed that H2IPH acts as binegative tetradentate in Zn(II), neutral tridentate in Cd(II) and as neutral bidentate towards Hg(II) complex. Octahedral geometry is proposed for all complexes. The bond length, bond angle, chemical reactivity, energy components (kcal/mol), binding energy (kcal/mol) and dipole moment (Debyes) for all the title compounds were evaluated by DFT and also MEP for the ligand is shown. Theoretical infrared intensities of H2IPH and also the theoretical electronic spectra of the ligand and its complexes were calculated. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The in vitro antibacterial studies of the complexes proved them as growth inhibiting agents. The DDPH antioxidant of the compounds have been screened. Antitumor activity, carried out in vitro on human mammary gland (breast) MCF7, have shown that Hg(II) complex exhibited potent activity followed by Zn(II), Cd(II) complexes and the ligand.

  3. Practical biological spread-out Bragg peak design for a carbon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Lee, Hwa-Ryun; Chang, Seduk; Jang, Hong Suk; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Dong Wook; Hwang, Won Taek; Yang, Tea-Keun

    2015-10-01

    In radiation therapy, the carbon beams has more advantages with respect to biological properties then a proton beam. The carbon beam has a high linear energy transfer (LET) to the medium and a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To design the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) of biological dose for a carbon beam, we propose a practical method using the linear-quadratic (LQ) model and the Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation code. Various Bragg peak profiles and LETs were calculated for each slice in the target region. To generate an appropriate biological SOBP, we applied a set of weighting factors, which are power functions in terms of energy steps, to each obtained physical dose. The designed biological SOBP showed a uniformity of 1.34%.

  4. Seismic Design Considerations : Volume I, Technical Approaches and Results; Volume II, Appendices II-VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    NJDOT has adopted AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design approved by the Highway : Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures in 2007. The main objective of research presented in this report has : been to resolve following issue...

  5. The Impact of Broccoli II & Tomato II on European patents in conventional breeding, GMO’s and Synthetic Biology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    biological processes are – unlike individual plant varieties – principally patentable under the European Patent Convention (EPC). This decision leaves considerable leeway for patenting novel and inventive plants and products thereof, which have been produced by “conventional” methods including breeding steps...... of the EPC and the Biotech Directive, and the need for legal certainty and harmonization, led the EPO to stay ex officio all the proceedings in which the decision depended entirely on the patentability of a plant or animal obtained by an essentially biological process. Then, on June 29, 2017......, the Administrative Council of the EPO decided to amend Rules 27 and 28 of the Implementing Regulation. According to these amendments products (animals or plants) obtained exclusively from essentially biological process are now effectively excluded from patentability. Notwithstanding that this contradicts the earlier...

  6. Synthesis, characterization, biological activity and DNA cleavage studies of tridentate Schiff bases and their Co(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a series of Co(II complexes of formyl chromone Schiff bases have been synthesized characterized by analytical, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic susceptibility, thermal, fluorescence and powder XRD measurements and screened for various biological activities (antimicrobial, antioxidant, nematicidal, DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity. In all the Co(II complexes 1:2 metal to ligand molar ratio was obtained from analytical data. The molar conductance data confirm that all complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Based on the electronic and magnetic data, an octahedral geometry is ascribed for all the Co(II complexes. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes. The X-ray analysis data show that all the Co(II complexes have triclinic crystal system with different unit cell parameters. Metal complexes have greater antimicrobial activity than ligands. Antioxidant and nematicidal activities indicate that the ligands exhibit greater activity when compared to their respective Co(II complexes. All ligands and Co(II complexes of HL1 and HL2 showed considerable anticancer activity against Raw, MCF-7 and COLO 205 cell lines. All ligands and their Co(II complexes showed more pronounced DNA cleavage activity in the presence of H2O2.

  7. Sharing Structure and Function in Biological Design with SBOL 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Beal, Jacob; Clancy, Kevin; Bartley, Bryan; Misirli, Goksel; Grünberg, Raik; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Bissell, Michael; Madsen, Curtis; Nguyen, Tramy; Zhang, Michael; Zhang, Zhen; Zundel, Zach; Densmore, Douglas; Gennari, John H; Wipat, Anil; Sauro, Herbert M; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) is a standard that enables collaborative engineering of biological systems across different institutions and tools. SBOL is developed through careful consideration of recent synthetic biology trends, real use cases, and consensus among leading researchers in the field and members of commercial biotechnology enterprises. We demonstrate and discuss how a set of SBOL-enabled software tools can form an integrated, cross-organizational workflow to recapitulate the design of one of the largest published genetic circuits to date, a 4-input AND sensor. This design encompasses the structural components of the system, such as its DNA, RNA, small molecules, and proteins, as well as the interactions between these components that determine the system's behavior/function. The demonstrated workflow and resulting circuit design illustrate the utility of SBOL 2.0 in automating the exchange of structural and functional specifications for genetic parts, devices, and the biological systems in which they operate.

  8. Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II complexes with ligand containing thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone moiety: synthesis, characterization and biological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULEKH CHANDRA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nickel(II, palladium(II and platinum(II complexes with thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone of p-tolualdehyde are reported. All the new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, 1H-NMR, IR and electronic spectral studies. Based on the molar conductance measurements in DMSO, the complexes may be formulated as [Ni(L2Cl2] and [M(L2]Cl2 (where M = Pd(II and Pt(II due to their non-electrolytic and 1:2 electrolytic nature, respectively. The spectral data are consistent with an octahedral geometry around Ni(II and a square planar geometry for Pd(II and Pt(II, in which the ligands act as bidentate chelating agents, coordinated through the nitrogen and sulphur/oxygen atoms. The ligands and their metal complexes were screened in vitro against fungal species Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium odum, using the food poison technique.

  9. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses

  10. Fable II: Design of a Modular Robot for Creative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Moises; Fogh, Rune; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    Robotic systems have a high potential for creative learning if they are flexible, accessible and engaging for the user in the experimental process of building and programming robots. In this paper we describe the Fable modular robotic system for creative learning which we develop to enable...... a simple visual programming language to powerful conventional ones. This paper provides an overview of the design of Fable for different user groups and an evaluation of critical issues when we attempt to integrate the system into an everyday teaching context....

  11. Low convergence path to fusion II: An integrated NIF design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mark J.; Molvig, K.; McCall, G. H.; Edgel, D. H.; Myatt, J. E.; Betti, R.; Froula, D. H.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Revolver design methodology for achieving ignition using large diameter (6mm) Be shells to efficiently ( 10%) convert laser energy from a short, 5 ns, 320TW laser pulse on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) into a dynamic pressure source for inertial confinement fusion. It is shown that this source can be used to kinetically drive two nested internal shells to achieve ignition conditions inside a central liquid DT core. Using principles recently elucidated [K. Molvig, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 255003, 2016], we formulate a robust optimization of a triple shell target that mitigates long-standing issues with conventional ignition schemes including drive non-uniformities, laser plasma instabilities (including the hot electrons they produce), non-local heat conduction and deceleration Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mix. Rad-hydro simulations predict ignition initiating at 2.5keV with 90% of the maximum inner shell velocity remaining (before deceleration RT can cause significant mix in the compressed DT fuel). Simulations in 2D show that the short pulse design produces a spatially uniform kinetic drive that is tolerant to random 5% variations in laser cone power. Moreover, it will be shown that intra-shell parameters can be adjusted to mitigate convergence growth of capsule spatial non-uniformities. This research supported by the US DOE/NNSA, performed in part at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  12. Leatherback sea turtle shell: A tough and flexible biological design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irene H; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A

    2015-12-01

    The leatherback sea turtle is unique among chelonians for having a soft skin which covers its osteoderms. The osteoderm is composed of bony plates that are interconnected with collagen fibers in a structure called suture. The soft dermis and suture geometry enable a significant amount of flexing of the junction between adjacent osteoderms. This design allows the body to contract better than a hard-shelled sea turtle as it dives to depths of over 1,000 m. The leatherback turtle has ridges along the carapace to enhance the hydrodynamic flow and provide a tailored stiffness. The osteoderms are of two types: flat and ridged. The structure of the two types of osteoderms is characterized and their mechanical properties are investigated with particular attention to the failure mechanisms. They both are bony structures with a porous core sandwiched between compact layers that form the outside and inside surfaces. The compressive strength is highly anisotropic by virtue of the interaction between loading orientation and arrangement of porous and compact components of osteoderms. The angle of interpenetration at the suture of osteoderms is analyzed and compared with analytical predictions. The sutures have a triangular shape with an angle of ∼30° which provides a balance between the tensile strength of the osteoderms and shear strength of the collagen fiber layer and is verified by Li-Ortiz-Boyce in a previous study. This is confirmed by an FEM analysis. A calculation is developed to quantify the flexibility of the carapace and plastron as a function of the angular displacement at the sutures, predicting the interdependence between geometrical parameters and flexibility. The leatherback turtle is a magnificent chelonian whose decreasing numbers have brought it to the brink of extinction in the Pacific Ocean. This first study of the structure of its shell provides important new insights that explain its amazing capacity for diving: depths of over 1,000 m have been recorded

  13. The SBOL Stack: A Platform for Storing, Publishing, and Sharing Synthetic Biology Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Curtis; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Mısırlı, Göksel; Pocock, Matthew; Flanagan, Keith; Hallinan, Jennifer; Wipat, Anil

    2016-06-17

    Recently, synthetic biologists have developed the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a data exchange standard for descriptions of genetic parts, devices, modules, and systems. The goals of this standard are to allow scientists to exchange designs of biological parts and systems, to facilitate the storage of genetic designs in repositories, and to facilitate the description of genetic designs in publications. In order to achieve these goals, the development of an infrastructure to store, retrieve, and exchange SBOL data is necessary. To address this problem, we have developed the SBOL Stack, a Resource Description Framework (RDF) database specifically designed for the storage, integration, and publication of SBOL data. This database allows users to define a library of synthetic parts and designs as a service, to share SBOL data with collaborators, and to store designs of biological systems locally. The database also allows external data sources to be integrated by mapping them to the SBOL data model. The SBOL Stack includes two Web interfaces: the SBOL Stack API and SynBioHub. While the former is designed for developers, the latter allows users to upload new SBOL biological designs, download SBOL documents, search by keyword, and visualize SBOL data. Since the SBOL Stack is based on semantic Web technology, the inherent distributed querying functionality of RDF databases can be used to allow different SBOL stack databases to be queried simultaneously, and therefore, data can be shared between different institutes, centers, or other users.

  14. Biological low pH Mn(II) oxidation in a manganese deposit influenced by metal-rich groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Akob, Denise M.; Abratis, Michael; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms, key organisms, and geochemical significance of biological low-pH Mn(II) oxidation are largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the structure of indigenous Mn(II)-oxidizing microbial communities in a secondary subsurface Mn oxide deposit influenced by acidic (pH 4.8) metal-rich groundwater in a former uranium mining area. Microbial diversity was highest in the Mn deposit compared to the adjacent soil layers and included the majority of known Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and two genera of known Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (MOF). Electron X-ray microanalysis showed that romanechite [(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10] was conspicuously enriched in the deposit. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that certain fungal, bacterial, and archaeal groups were firmly associated with the autochthonous Mn oxides. Eight MOB within the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and one MOF strain belonging to Ascomycota were isolated at pH 5.5 or 7.2 from the acidic Mn deposit. Soil-groundwater microcosms demonstrated 2.5-fold-faster Mn(II) depletion in the Mn deposit than adjacent soil layers. No depletion was observed in the abiotic controls, suggesting that biological contribution is the main driver for Mn(II) oxidation at low pH. The composition and species specificity of the native low-pH Mn(II) oxidizers were highly adapted to in situ conditions, and these organisms may play a central role in the fundamental biogeochemical processes (e.g., metal natural attenuation) occurring in the acidic, oligotrophic, and metalliferous subsoil ecosystems.

  15. Computer Aided Design of Polygalacturonase II from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants and consisting mainly of esterified D-galacturonic acid resides in α-(1-4 chain. In production of fruit juice, pectin contributes to fruit juice viscosity, thereby reducing the juice production and increasing the filtration time. Polygalacturonase improves the juice production process by rapid degradation of pectin. In this project we have designed a novel polygalacturonase enzyme using computer aided design approaches. The three dimension structure of polygalacturonase is first modeled on the basis of the known crystal structure. The active site in this enzyme is identified by manual and automated docking methods. Lamarckian genetic algorithm is used for automated docking and the active site is validated by comparing with existing experimental data. This is followed by in silico mutations of the enzymes and the automated docking process is repeated using the mutant enzymes. The strength of the binding of the ligands inside the active site is evaluated by computing the binding score using Potential Mean Force (PMF method. The in silico mutations R256Q and K258N are found to decrease the binding strength of the ligand at the active site, indicating lowering of enzyme activity, which is consistent with the experimental results. Hence in silico mutations can be used to design new polygalacturonase enzymes with improved enzyme activity.ABSTRAK: Pektin adalah polisakarida kompleks yang terdapat di dalam dinding sel tumbuhan dan sebahagian besarnya terdiri daripada asid D-galakturonik terester yang ditemui di dalam rantaian α-(1-4. Dalam penghasilan jus buah-buahan, pektin menyumbang dalam kepekatan jus buah-buahan, di mana ia mengurangkan penghasilan jus dan menambahkan masa penapisan. Poligalakturonase meningkatkan proses penghasilan jus dengan pemecahan pektin dengan cepat. Dalam projek ini, kami telah merangka satu enzim poligalakturonase baru dengan menggunakan pendekatan reka

  16. Biomimicry, Biofabrication, and Biohybrid Systems: The Emergence and Evolution of Biological Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Ritu; Bashir, Rashid

    2017-10-01

    The discipline of biological design has a relatively short history, but has undergone very rapid expansion and development over that time. This Progress Report outlines the evolution of this field from biomimicry to biofabrication to biohybrid systems' design, showcasing how each subfield incorporates bioinspired dynamic adaptation into engineered systems. Ethical implications of biological design are discussed, with an emphasis on establishing responsible practices for engineering non-natural or hypernatural functional behaviors in biohybrid systems. This report concludes with recommendations for implementing biological design into educational curricula, ensuring effective and responsible practices for the next generation of engineers and scientists. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that changes the material and socio-economic contexts of production. At the same time, centralization of the Internet, big data and large-scale infrastructuring challenge the core democratic ideals of PD. The Participatory Design Conferences (PDC) continue to be the main gathering point of the PD community...... of participation. Public engagement in radical social innovation is used to address shrinking finances to public services, which has resulted in citizeninvolving projects and labs in various domains. Maker technologies, notions of hacking and shared data, are promoting civic engagement with technology innovation...... will provide for lively, engaging interaction and spur fruitful conversions around PD. The Doctoral Colloquium received 17 applications of mostly middle to advanced stage of doctoral studies. The accepted twelve submissions cover a range of core PD topics: from locality based community participation to digital...

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) power system development (PDS) II. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    This report documents the results and conclusions of the PDS II, Phase I, preliminary design of a 10 MWe OTEC power system, using enhanced plate type heat exchangers, and of representative 0.2 MWe test articles. It further provides the documentation (specifications, drawings, trade studies, etc.) resulting from the design activities. The data and discussions of the technical concepts are organized to respond to the PDS II, Phase II proposal evaluation criteria. This volume, which specifically addresses the three evaluation categories (heat exchangers, rotating machinery, and power system configuration and performance) is an integral part of the Phase II plans (proposal) which describe the technical approach to delivering test articles to OTEC-1. In addition, there is a section which addresses power system cost and net energy analysis and another which discusses the results of stainless steel feasibility studies. Supporting documentation is contained in two appendix volumes.

  19. Reproducible Design for the Optical Screening and Sensing of Hg(II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Elshehy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated silica nanotubes with hexagonally ordered mesopores (6 nm inside a membrane disc with a uniform channel neck size of 200 nm and a longitudinal thickness of 60 μm to design an optical sensor membrane (OSM for the screening and sensing of extremely toxic Hg(II ions. The optical detection and quantitative recognition of Hg(II ions in water were conducted even at trace concentrations without the need for sophisticated instruments. The OSM design was based on the physical interaction of a responsive organic probe with silica pore surfaces followed by strong and selective binding Hg(II–probe interactions under specific sensing conditions, particularly at pH 5. Ultra-trace concentrations of Hg(II ions were easily detected with the naked eye using the OSM. The remarkable ion spectral response of Hg(II ion–OSM ensured the excellent quantification of the OSM for Hg(II ion sensing over a wide range of concentrations with a detection limit of 1.75 × 10−9 M. This result indicated that low concentrations of Hg(II ions can be detected with a high sensitivity. One of the key issues of OSM is the Hg(II ion-selective workability even in the presence of high doses of competitive matrices and species. The OSM design showed significant Hg(II ion-sensing capability despite the number of reuse/recycles using simple decomplexation. Given its high selectivity, fast response, and sensitivity, the OSM could be developed into a specific Hg(II ion-sensing kit in aqueous solutions.

  20. Ship Pipe Routing Design Using NSGA-II and Coevolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentie Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipe route design plays a prominent role in ship design. Due to the complex configuration in layout space with numerous pipelines, diverse design constraints, and obstacles, it is a complicated and time-consuming process to obtain the optimal route of ship pipes. In this article, an optimized design method for branch pipe routing is proposed to improve design efficiency and to reduce human errors. By simplifying equipment and ship hull models and dividing workspace into three-dimensional grid cells, the mathematic model of layout space is constructed. Based on the proposed concept of pipe grading method, the optimization model of pipe routing is established. Then an optimization procedure is presented to deal with pipe route planning problem by combining maze algorithm (MA, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II, and cooperative coevolutionary nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (CCNSGA-II. To improve the performance in genetic algorithm procedure, a fixed-length encoding method is presented based on improved maze algorithm and adaptive region strategy. Fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise pipeline from Pareto optimal solutions. Simulation test of branch pipe and design optimization of a fuel piping system were carried out to illustrate the design optimization procedure in detail and to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  1. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  2. Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 3. Design Guidance: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering for Highways. Volume II - Design Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This document presents a series of five design examples illustrating the principles and methods of geotechnical earthquake engineering and seismic design for highway facilities. These principles and methods are described in Volume I - Design Principl...

  3. The Design and Performance of the 384: Element Submillimeter Detector Array for SHARC II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Samuel H.; Allen, Christine; Benford, Dominic; Silverberg, Robert; Staguhn, Johannes; Dowell, Darren; Phillips, Tom

    2003-01-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12 x 32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera (HAWC) for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 microns.

  4. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  6. Synthesis, spectral analysis, stability constants, antioxidant and biological activities of Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) mixed ligand complexes of nicotinamide, theophylline and thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Özlen; Şuözer, Mehtap

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, transition metal complexes or coordination entities with metal precursors such as Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) of mixed ligands namely, nicotinamide (NA), theophylline (TP) and KSCN in water were synthesized under refluxing conditions. The optimization of the reactions to obtain the composition of complexes was performed. The structural elucidation of the complexes was undertaken by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, FT-IR, Mass and XRD) and thermal analysis. The spectral measurements of mixed ligands with the Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) complexes are compared with each other in determining which atoms of the ligand are coordinated to the metal ion. Based on spectral and magnetic moment measurements, all the coordination entities were identified as in distorted octahedral structure and have the form [M(NA)2 (TP)2(SCN)2]·xH2O. In addition, K (stability constant) and ΔG (Gibbs free energy) values were calculated by using the Babko and Stanley & Turner's methods. Antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the complexes were studied.

  7. HYLIFE-II inertial confinement fusion reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-12-14

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW{center dot}h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Relative biological effectiveness of 160 MeV protons. II. Biological data and their interpretation in terms of microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Kellerer, A.M.; Rossi, H.H.; Lam, Y.M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The radiobiological effectiveness of 160 MeV protons was measured relative to 60 Co γ rays using Chinese hamster cells cultured in vitro. Separate experiments were performed with cells irradiated in suspension, or attached to plastic tissue culture flasks. Proton irradiations were performed in the incident plateau of the depth dose profile and with the Bragg peak spread out to cover 10 cm. In all cases the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for protons relative to gamma rays was 1.2 for doses in excess of about 200 rad. The attached cell experiments indicate an increasing RBE at low doses, which is consistent with the microdosimetric measurements

  9. Synthetic Biology in Leishmaniasis: Design,simulation and validation of constructed Genetic circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Limbachiya, Dixita

    2013-01-01

    Building circuits and studying their behavior in cells is a major goal of systems and synthetic biology. Synthetic biology enables the precise control of cellular states for systems studies, the discovery of novel parts, control strategies, and interactions for the design of robust synthetic systems. To the best of our knowledge,there are no literature reports for the synthetic circuit construction for protozoan parasites. This paper describes the construction of genetic circuit for the targe...

  10. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H.

    1988-03-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high power density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MWm/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a passive safety assurance design. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Cheng, E.T. (General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)); Grotz, S.P.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. for Plasma and Fusion Research); TITAN Research Group

    1989-04-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a level 2 of passive safety assurance design. (orig.).

  12. Activity on Trypanosoma cruzi, erythrocytes lysis and biologically relevant physicochemical properties of Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazones derived from 1-indanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diego; Parajón-Costa, Beatriz; Rossi, Miriam; Caruso, Francesco; Benítez, Diego; Varela, Javier; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Gómez, Natalia; Caputto, María E; Moglioni, Albertina G; Moltrasio, Graciela Y; Finkielsztein, Liliana M; Gambino, Dinorah

    2012-12-01

    American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease, caused by the protist parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is a major health concern in Latin America. In the search for new bioactive compounds, eight Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazones derived from 1-indanones (HL) were evaluated as potential anti-T. cruzi compounds. Their unspecific cytotoxicity was determined on human erythrocytes. Two physicochemical features, lipophilicity and redox behavior, that could be potentially relevant for the biological activity of these complexes, were determined. Crystal structure of [Pd(HL1)(L1)]Cl·CH(3)OH, where HL1=1-indanone thiosemicarbazone, was solved by X-ray diffraction methods. Five of the eight metal complexes showed activity against T. cruzi with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range and showed significantly higher activity than the corresponding free ligands. Four of them resulted more active against the parasite than the reference antitrypanosomal drug Nifurtimox. Anti-T. cruzi activity and selectivity towards the parasite were both higher for the Pd(II) compounds than for the Pt(II) analogues, showing the effect of the metal center selection on the biological behavior. Among both physicochemical features tested for this series of compounds, lipophilicity and redox behavior, only the former seemed to show correlation with the antiproliferative effects observed. Metal coordination improved bioactivity but lead to an increase of mammalian cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some of the metal complexes tested in this work still show suitable selectivity indexes and deserve further developments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium study and biological activity of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes of polydentate Schiff base ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A.; Shehata, Mohamed R.; Shoukry, Mohamed M.; Barakat, Mohammad H.

    2012-10-01

    Schiff base ligand, 1,4-bis[(2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)propyl]piperazine (BHPP), and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR and UV-vis) studies. The ground state of BHPP ligand was investigated using the BUILDER module of MOE. Metal complexes are formed in the 1:1 (M:L) ratio as found from the elemental analysis and found to have the general formula [ML]·nH2O, where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), L = BHPP. In all the studied complexes, the (BHPP) ligand behaves as a hexadentate divalent anion with coordination involving the two azomethine nitrogen's, the two nitrogen atoms of piperazine ring and the two deprotonated phenolic OH-groups. The magnetic and spectral data indicates octahedral geometry of metal(II) complexes. The ligand and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method against the selected bacteria and fungi. They were found to be more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Protonation constants of (BHPP) ligand and stability constants of its Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ complexes were determined by potentiometric titration method in 50% DMSO-water solution at ionic strength of 0.1 M sodium nitrate. It has been observed that the protonated Schiff base ligand (BHPP) have four protonation constants. The divalent metal ions Cu2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ form 1:1 complexes.

  14. From bricolage to BioBricks™: Synthetic biology and rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic biology is often described as a project that applies rational design methods to the organic world. Although humans have influenced organic lineages in many ways, it is nonetheless reasonable to place synthetic biology towards one end of a continuum between purely 'blind' processes of organic modification at one extreme, and wholly rational, design-led processes at the other. An example from evolutionary electronics illustrates some of the constraints imposed by the rational design methodology itself. These constraints reinforce the limitations of the synthetic biology ideal, limitations that are often freely acknowledged by synthetic biology's own practitioners. The synthetic biology methodology reflects a series of constraints imposed on finite human designers who wish, as far as is practicable, to communicate with each other and to intervene in nature in reasonably targeted and well-understood ways. This is better understood as indicative of an underlying awareness of human limitations, rather than as expressive of an objectionable impulse to mastery over nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, DFT calculations and biological evaluation of benzothiazole derivative bearing Mn(II) and Ni(II) metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.; Ali, Korany A.

    2017-11-01

    N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-3-oxo-3-phenylpropanamide ligand and its Nickel and Manganese complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, diffuse reflectance, mass and UV-Vis spectra, molar conductance and magnetic moment measurements. The decomposition mechanism and thermal stability of the investigated complexes are interpreted in terms of their structures. The thermal behaviour of the complexes has been studied and different thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method. N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-3-oxo-3-phenylpropanamide is a neutral bidentate ligand coordinating metal ions via thiazole ring nitrogen and amide carbonyl O forming high spin octahedral complexes with Mn(II) (2) and distorted square planar in case of Ni(II) (1). Natural bond orbital analysis and geometry optimization were carried out at DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory for the ligand and the mentioned complexes. Ab inito computations at the HF/6-31G(d) level of the theory is conducted in order to detect any probability of a hydrogen bond formation in the ligand. The dipole moment of the Ni(II) and Mn(II) complexes is recorded to be 9.69 and 7.39 Debye, respectively, indicating that the complexes are more polarized than the ligand 2.39 Debye. The in vitro biological activity of the metal chelates is screened against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), fungus (Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans). Ni(II) complexes displayed the highest activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 13, 30 μg/cm3, respectively.

  16. An adaptive design for phase II non-oncology dose selection clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    A non-oncology dose selection phase II trial tests multiple active doses in a controlled fashion, and it not only needs to determine whether the treatment is effective but also to select the 'lowest efficacious' dose if the treatment is indeed efficacious. Few approaches exist in the literature for designing phase II non-oncology dose selection trials, and the standard design with a fixed sample size has been widely used. The objective of this study was to develop a more efficient design for phase II dose selection trials that terminates the trial early for futility and adjusts the sample size and number of doses at interim analyses when appropriate. One-sided statistical tests and confidence intervals were used to develop an adaptive design for non-oncology phase II dose selection trials. With several interim analyses built in, the adaptive design uses accumulated data to determine, at each interim analysis, whether the highest dose is efficacious and whether the low doses are as efficacious as the highest dose. Once a confident answer to either or both of these questions can be obtained, the trial may either be terminated early or some of the lower doses may be dropped to prevent assigning more patients to inferior doses and thus reduce the total sample size needed. Theoretical analyses and simulation studies show that the proposed adaptive design significantly outperforms the standard design with a fixed sample size. The proposed adaptive design should be preferred over the standard design especially in cases where enrolment is slow and efficacy can be measured after a relatively short period of time.

  17. Investigation of biologically-designed metal-specific chelators for potential metal recovery and waste remediation applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria, algae and plants produce metal-specific chelators to capture required nutrient or toxic trace metals. Biological systems are thought to be very efficient, honed by evolutionary forces over time. Understanding the approaches used by living organisms to select for specific metals in the environment may lead to design of cheaper and more effective approaches for metal recovery and contaminant-metal remediation. In this study, the binding of a common siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO-B), to three aqueous metal cations, Fe(II), Fe(III), and UO{sub 2}(VI) was investigated using classical molecular dynamics. DFO-B has three acetohydroxamate groups and a terminal amine group that all deprotonate with increasing pH. For all three metals, complexes with DFO-B (-2) are the most stable and favored under alkaline conditions. Under more acidic conditions, the metal-DFO complexes involve chelation with both acetohydroxamate and acetylamine groups. The approach taken here allows for detailed investigation of metal binding to biologically-designed organic ligands.

  18. Global stability analysis and robust design of multi-time-scale biological networks under parametric uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Anke; Koshkouei, Ali J; Emmett, Mark R; Goodall, David P

    2009-01-01

    Biological networks are prone to internal parametric fluctuations and external noises. Robustness represents a crucial property of these networks, which militates the effects of internal fluctuations and external noises. In this paper biological networks are formulated as coupled nonlinear differential systems operating at different time-scales under vanishing perturbations. In contrast to previous work viewing biological parametric uncertain systems as perturbations to a known nominal linear system, the perturbed biological system is modeled as nonlinear perturbations to a known nonlinear idealized system and is represented by two time-scales (subsystems). In addition, conditions for the existence of a global uniform attractor of the perturbed biological system are presented. By using an appropriate Lyapunov function for the coupled system, a maximal upper bound for the fast time-scale associated with the fast state is derived. The proposed robust system design principles are potentially applicable to robust biosynthetic network design. Finally, two examples of two important biological networks, a neural network and a gene regulatory network, are presented to illustrate the applicability of the developed theoretical framework.

  19. Optical design and simulation of a new coherence beamline at NSLS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Garth J.; Chubar, Oleg; Berman, Lonny; Chu, Yong S.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2017-08-01

    We will discuss the optical design for a proposed beamline at NSLS-II, a late-third generation storage ring source, designed to exploit the spatial coherence of the X-rays to extract high-resolution spatial information from ordered and disordered materials through Coherent Diffractive Imaging, executed in the Bragg- and forward-scattering geometries. This technique offers a powerful tool to image sub-10 nm spatial features and, within ordered materials, sub-Angstrom mapping of deformation fields. Driven by the opportunity to apply CDI to a wide range of samples, with sizes ranging from sub-micron to tens-of-microns, two optical designs have been proposed and simulated under a wide variety of optical configurations using the software package Synchrotron Radiation Workshop. The designs, their goals, and the results of the simulation, including NSLS-II ring and undulator source parameters, of the beamline performance as a function of its variable optical components is described.

  20. Cosmic-ray interaction data for designing biological experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T.; Slaba, T. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Braby, L. A.

    2017-05-01

    There is growing interest in flying biological experiments beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) to measure biological responses potentially relevant to those expected during a human mission to Mars. Such experiments could be payloads onboard precursor missions, including unmanned private-public partnerships, as well as small low-cost spacecraft (satellites) designed specifically for biosentinel-type missions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide physical cosmic-ray interaction data and related information useful to biologists who may be planning such experiments. It is not the objective here to actually design such experiments or provide radiobiological response functions, which would be specific for each experiment and biological endpoint. Nuclide-specific flux and dose rates were calculated using OLTARIS and these results were used to determine particle traversal rates and doses in hypothetical biological targets. Comparisons are provided between GCR in interplanetary space and inside the ISS. Calculated probabilistic estimates of dose from solar particle events are also presented. Although the focus here is on biological experiments, the information provided may be useful for designing other payloads as well if the space radiation environment is a factor to be considered.

  1. Design of the shield door and transporter for the Culham Conceptual Tokamak Reactor Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, J.A.S.

    1980-04-01

    In the Culham Conceptual Tokamak Reactor MK II access to the interior for blanket maintenance is through large openings in the fixed shield structure closed by removable shield doors when the reactor is operational. This report describes the design of the 200 tonne doors and the associated special-purpose remote operating transporter manipulator. The design, which has not been optimised, generally uses available commercial equipment and state-of-the-art techniques. (U.K.)

  2. Design layout for gas monitoring system II, GMS-2, computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, V.; Philipp, B.L.; Manke, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a general overview of the computer systems software that perform the data acquisition and control for the 241-SY-101 Gas Monitoring System II (GMS-2). It outlines the system layout, and contains descriptions of components and the functions they perform. The GMS-2 system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company

  3. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 1, 1. 0 Introduction; 2. 0 plasma engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II tokamak test reactor. Specific topics discussed are the physics objectives for Tiber, magnetics, baseline operating point, pulsed inductive operation, edge physics and impurity control, fueling, disruption control, vertical stability and impurity flow reversal. (LSP)

  4. Design of coupler for the NSLS-II storage ring superconducting RF cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeddulla, M.; Rose, J.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II is a 3GeV, 500mA, high brightness, 1 MW beam power synchrotron facility that is designed with four superconducting cavities working at 499.68 MHz. To operate the cavities in over-damped coupling condition, an External Quality Factor (Qext) of {approx}65000 is required. We have modified the existing coupler for the CESR-B cavity which has a Qext of {approx}200,000 to meet the requirements of NSLS-II. CESR-B cavity has an aperture coupler with a coupler 'tongue' connecting the cavity to the waveguide. We have optimized the length, width and thickness of the 'tongue' as well as the width of the aperture to increase the coupling using the three dimensional electromagnetic field solver, HFSS. Several possible designs will be presented. We have modified the coupler of the CESR-B cavity to be used in the storage ring at the NSLS-II project using HFSS and verified using CST Microwave Studio. Using a combination of increasing the length and width of the coupler tongue and increasing the width of the aperture, the external Q of the cavity coupler was decreased to {approx}65000 as required for the design of the NSLS-II storage ring design.

  5. Design and synthesis of ruthenium(II) OCO pincer type NHC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design and synthesis of ruthenium(II) OCO pincer type NHC complexes and their catalytic role towards the synthesis of ... of generation of vacant coordination site and cataly- tically active species. It was naturally obvious that ..... The NHC proligand 1,3-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydro- xyphenyl)imidazolinium chloride (HL) was ...

  6. Development of biological criteria for the design of advanced hydropower turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coutant, Charles C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitney, Richard R. [Leavenworth, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.

  7. Traditional Versus Online Biology Courses: Connecting Course Design and Student Learning in an Online Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Rachel; Brame, Cynthia J

    2016-12-01

    Online courses are a large and growing part of the undergraduate education landscape, but many biology instructors are skeptical about the effectiveness of online instruction. We reviewed studies comparing the effectiveness of online and face-to-face (F2F) undergraduate biology courses. Five studies compared student performance in multiple course sections at community colleges, while eight were smaller scale and compared student performance in particular biology courses at a variety of types of institutions. Of the larger-scale studies, two found that students in F2F sections outperformed students in online sections, and three found no significant difference; it should be noted, however, that these studies reported little information about course design. Of the eight smaller scale studies, six found no significant difference in student performance between the F2F and online sections, while two found that the online sections outperformed the F2F sections. In alignment with general findings about online teaching and learning, these results suggest that well-designed online biology courses can be effective at promoting student learning. Three recommendations for effective online instruction in biology are given: the inclusion of an online orientation to acclimate students to the online classroom; student-instructor and student-student interactions facilitated through synchronous and asynchronous communication; and elements that prompt student reflection and self-assessment. We conclude that well-designed online biology courses can be as effective as their traditional counterparts, but that more research is needed to elucidate specific course elements and structures that can maximize online students' learning of key biology skills and concepts.

  8. Assessment of Biology Majors’ Versus Nonmajors’ Views on Evolution, Creationism, and Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-y-Miño C., Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The controversy around evolution, creationism, and intelligent design resides in a historical struggle between scientific knowledge and popular belief. Four hundred seventy-six students (biology majors n=237, nonmajors n=239) at a secular liberal arts private university in Northeastern United States responded to a five-question survey to assess their views about: (1) evolution, creationism, and intelligent design in the science class; (2) students’ attitudes toward evolution; (3) students’ position about the teaching of human evolution; (4) evolution in science exams; and (5) students’ willingness to discuss evolution openly. There were 60.6% of biology majors and 42% of nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in the science class, while 45.3% of nonmajors and 32% of majors were willing to learn equally about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (question 1); 70.5% of biology majors and 55.6% of nonmajors valued the factual explanations evolution provides about the origin of life and its place in the universe (question 2); 78% of the combined responders (majors plus nonmajors) preferred science courses where evolution is discussed comprehensively and humans are part of it (question 3); 69% of the combined responders (majors plus nonmajors) had no problem answering questions concerning evolution in science exams (question 4); 48.1% of biology majors and 26.8% of nonmajors accepted evolution and expressed it openly, but 18.2% of the former and 14.2% of the latter accepted evolution privately; 46% of nonmajors and 29.1% of biology majors were reluctant to comment on this topic (question 5). Combined open plus private acceptance of evolution within biology majors increased with seniority, from freshman (60.7%) to seniors (81%), presumably due to gradual exposure to upper-division biology courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Spectroscopic Properties and Potential Biological Activities of Salicylate‒Neocuproine Ternary Copper(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kucková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand copper(II complexes containing derivatives of salicylic acid and heterocyclic ligands with nitrogen donor atoms have been the subject of various studies and reviews. In this paper, synthesis and characterization of the ternary copper(II complexes of neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, Neo and salicylate ligands (Sal are reported. In addition, the crystal structures of ([Cu(H2O(5-Cl-Sal(Neo] (1, [Cu(μ-Sal(Neo]2 (2, Cu2(μ-5-Cl-Sal(5-Cl-HSal2(Neo2]·EtOH (3 were determined. In order to compare structural and biological properties of the prepared complexes, spectroscopic and biological studies were performed. Results of X-ray diffraction show that prepared complexes form three types of crystal structures in a given system: monomeric, dimeric and dinuclear complex. The preliminary study on the DNA cleavage activity has shown that the complexes under study behave as the chemical nucleases in the presence of added hydrogen peroxide with slight differences in the activity (1 > 2 > 3. The complexes 1 and 2 exhibited nuclease activity itself indicating the interaction of complexes with the DNA. It has been proposed that the enhanced destructive effect of the complexes 1 and 2 on the DNA is a result of two possible mechanisms of action: (i the conversion of closed circular DNA (form I to the nicked DNA (form II caused by the copper complex itself and (ii damage of DNA by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS—products of the interaction of copper with hydrogen peroxide by means of Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radicals. Thus the biological activity of the prepared Cu(II complexes containing derivatives of salicylic acid and phenanthroline molecules is substantiated by two independent mechanisms. While derivatives of salicylic acids in the coordination sphere of copper complexes are responsible for radical-scavenging activity (predominantly towards superoxide radical anion, the presence of chelating ligand 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline

  10. Overview of the TIBER II [Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor] design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    The TIBER II Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. While subsystems will be covered extensively in other reports, this overview will attempt to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER II can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition, 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling. The TIBER II design has been the US option in preparation for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Other equivalent national designs are the NET in Europe, the FER in Japan and the OTR in the USSR. These designs will help set the basis for the new international design effort. 9 refs

  11. Biological, social, and urban design factors affecting young street tree mortality in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline W.T. Lu; Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Jennifer Greenfeld; Jessie Braden; Kristen King; Nancy. Falxa-Raymond

    2010-01-01

    In dense metropolitan areas, there are many factors including traffic congestion, building development and social organizations that may impact the health of street trees. The focus of this study is to better understand how social, biological and urban design factors affect the mortality rates of newly planted street trees. Prior analyses of street trees planted by the...

  12. Biological removal of nickel (II by Bacillus sp. KL1 in different conditions: optimization by Taguchi statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taran Mojtaba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is the removal of heavy-metals such as nickel (Ni using microorganisms and has been considered as an important field in the biotechnology. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms exhibiting bioremediation activities and their optimization to treat polluted wastewaters is a vital and difficult task in remediation technologies. In this study, investigation was carried out to isolate Ni (II remediating microbial strains from soils contaminated with municipal solid waste leachate. Furthermore, Taguchi design of experiments were used to evaluate the influence of concentration, pH, temperature, and time on bioremediation of Ni (II using isolated bacteria. This study concluded that Bacillus sp. KL1 is a Ni (II-resistant strain and had Ni (II bioremediation activity. The highest bioremediation of Ni (II was observed as 55.06% after 24 h at 30ºC, pH 7, and 100 ppm concentration. Moreover, it was also observed that concentration is the most effective factor in the bioremediation process. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that bacteria isolated from soils contaminated with garbage leachate have the Bacillus sp. KL1 bacteria which can efficiently uptake and eliminate Ni (II from contaminated sites and thus makes it possible to treat heavy-metal containing wastewaters in industry by using this microorganism at optimized conditions.

  13. Copper(II) and zinc(II) dinuclear enzymes model compounds: The nature of the metal ion in the biological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresso, L. G.; de Arruda, E. G. R.; de Moraes, T. P. L.; Fazzi, R. B.; Da Costa Ferreira, A. M.; Abbehausen, C.

    2017-12-01

    First series transition metals are used abundantly by nature to perform catalytic transformations of several substrates. Furthermore, the cooperative activity of two proximal metal ions is common and represents a highly efficient catalytic system in living organisms. In this work three dinuclear μ-phenolate bridged metal complexes were prepared with copper(II) and zinc(II), resulting in a ZnZn, CuCu and CuZn with the ligand 2-ethylaminodimethylamino phenol (saldman) as model compounds of superoxide dismutase (CuCu and CuZn) and metallo-β-lactamases (ZnZn). Metals are coordinated in a μ-phenolate bridged symmetric system. Cu(II) presents a more distorted structure, while zinc is very symmetric. For this reason, [CuCu(saldman)] shows higher water solubility and also higher lability of the bridge. The antioxidant and hydrolytic beta-lactamase-like activity of the complexes were evaluated. The lability of the bridge seems to be important for the antioxidant activity and is suggested to because of [CuCu(saldman)] presents a lower antioxidant capacity than [CuZn(saldman)], which showed to present a more stable bridge in solution. The hydrolytic activity of the bimetallic complexes was assayed using nitrocefin as substrate and showed [ZnZn(saldman)] as a better catalyst than the Cu(II) analog. The series demonstrates the importance of the nature of the metal center for the biological function and how the reactivity of the model complex can be modulated by coordination chemistry.

  14. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola,Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  15. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola, Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  16. Design, development, and application of LANDIS-II, a spatial landscape simulation model with flexible temporal and spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Scheller; James B. Domingo; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jeremy S. Williams; Arnold Rudy; Eric J. Gustafson; David J. Mladenoff

    2007-01-01

    We introduce LANDIS-II, a landscape model designed to simulate forest succession and disturbances. LANDIS-II builds upon and preserves the functionality of previous LANDIS forest landscape simulation models. LANDIS-II is distinguished by the inclusion of variable time steps for different ecological processes; our use of a rigorous development and testing process used...

  17. Proceedings of Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, Pamela [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); SEED 2015 Conference Chair; Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers; SEED 2015 Conference Organizer

    2016-10-27

    Synthetic Biology is an emerging discipline that seeks to accelerate the process of engineering biology. As such, the tools are broadly applicable to application areas, including chemicals and biofuels, materials, medicine and agriculture. A characteristic of the field is to look holistically at cellular design, from sensing and genetic circuitry to the manipulation of cellular processes and actuators, to controlling metabolism, to programming multicellular behaviors. Further, the types of cells that are manipulated are broad, from in vitro systems to microbes and fungi to mammalian and plant cells and living animals. Many of the projects in synthetic biology seek to move biochemical functions across organisms. The field is highly interdisciplinary with faculty and students spread across departments that focus on engineering (biological, chemical, electrical, mechanical, civil, computer science) and basic science (biology and systems biology, chemistry, physics). While there have been many one-off workshops and meeting on synthetic biology, the 2014 Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) was the first of an annual conference series that serves as a reliable place to pull together the involved disciplines in order to organize and exchange advances in the science and technology in the field. Further, the SEED conferences have a strong focus on industry, with many companies represented and actively participating. A number of these companies have started major efforts in synthetic biology including large companies (e.g., Pfizer, Novartis, Dow, Dupont, BP, Total), smaller companies have recently gone public (e.g., Amyris, Gevo, Intrexon), and many start-ups (e.g., Teslagen, Refactored Materials, Pivot, Genomatica). There are a number of loosely affiliated Synthetic Biology Centers, including ones at MIT, Boston University, UCSD, UCSF, UC-Berkeley, Imperial College, Oxford, and ETH. SEED 2015 will serve as the primary meeting at which international

  18. Phase II trial design with Bayesian adaptive randomization and predictive probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guosheng; Chen, Nan; Lee, J Jack

    2012-03-01

    We propose a randomized phase II clinical trial design based on Bayesian adaptive randomization and predictive probability monitoring. Adaptive randomization assigns more patients to a more efficacious treatment arm by comparing the posterior probabilities of efficacy between different arms. We continuously monitor the trial by using the predictive probability. The trial is terminated early when it is shown that one treatment is overwhelmingly superior to others or that all the treatments are equivalent. We develop two methods to compute the predictive probability by considering the uncertainty of the sample size of the future data. We illustrate the proposed Bayesian adaptive randomization and predictive probability design by using a phase II lung cancer clinical trial, and we conduct extensive simulation studies to examine the operating characteristics of the design. By coupling adaptive randomization and predictive probability approaches, the trial can treat more patients with a more efficacious treatment and allow for early stopping whenever sufficient information is obtained to conclude treatment superiority or equivalence. The design proposed also controls both the type I and the type II errors and offers an alternative Bayesian approach to the frequentist group sequential design.

  19. Cu(II) coordination chemistry of patellamide derivatives: possible biological functions of cyclic pseudopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Gahan, Lawrence R; Haberhauer, Gebhard; Hanson, Graeme R; Noble, Christopher J; Seibold, Björn; Vadivelu, Prabha

    2012-02-27

    Two synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring cyclic pseudooctapeptides patellamide  A-F and ascidiacyclamide, that is, H(4)pat(2), H(4)pat(3), as well as their Cu(II) complexes are described. These cyclic peptide derivatives differ from the naturally occurring macrocycles by the variation of the incorporated heterocyclic donor groups and the configuration of the amino acids connecting the heterocycles. The exchange of the oxazoline and thiazole groups by dimethylimidazoles or methyloxazoles leads to more rigid macrocycles, and the changes in the configuration of the side chains leads to significant differences in the folding of the cyclic peptides. These variations allow a detailed study of the various possible structural changes on the chemistry of the Cu(II) complexes formed. The coordination of Cu(II) with these macrocyclic species was monitored by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), spectrophotometric (UV/Vis) and circular dichroic (CD) titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular mechanics (MM) simulations have been used to model the structures of the Cu(II) complexes and provide a detailed understanding of their geometric preferences and conformational flexibility. This is related to the Cu(II) coordination chemistry and the reactivity of the dinuclear Cu(II) complexes towards CO(2) fixation. The variation observed between the natural and various synthetic peptide systems enables conclusions about structure-reactivity correlations, and our results also provide information on why nature might have chosen oxazolines and thiazoles as incorporated heterocycles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis, molecular structure, biological properties and molecular docking studies on Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes containing bipyridine-azide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamilarasan, Vijayan; Jayamani, Arumugam; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi

    2015-01-07

    Metal complexes of the type Mn(bpy)2(N3)2 (1), Co(bpy)2(N3)2·3H2O (2) and Zn2(bpy)2(N3)4 (3) (Where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral (FT-IR, UV-vis) studies. The structure of complexes (1-3) have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and the configuration of ligand-coordinated metal(II) ion was well described as distorted octahedral coordination geometry for Mn(II), Co(II) and distorted square pyramidal geometry for Zn(II) complexes. DNA binding interaction of these complexes (1-3) were investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence circular dichroism spectral and molecular docking studies. The intrinsic binding constants Kb of complexes 1, 2 and 3 with CT-DNA obtained from UV-vis absorption studies were 8.37 × 10(4), 2.23 × 10(5) and 5.52 × 10(4) M(-1) respectively. The results indicated that the three complexes are able to bind to DNA with different binding affinity, in the order 2 > 1 > 3. Complexes (1-3) exhibit a good binding propensity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins having relatively high binding constant values. Gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated the ability of the complexes 1-3 promote the cleavage ability of the pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of the reducing agent 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) but with different cleavage mechanisms: the complex 3 cleaves DNA via hydrolytic pathway (T4 DNA ligase assay), while the DNA cleavage by complexes 1 and 2 follows oxidative pathway. The chemical nuclease activity follows the order: 2 > 1 > 3. The effects of various activators were also investigated and the nuclease activity efficacy followed the order MPA > GSH > H2O2 > Asc. The cytotoxicity studies of complexes 1-3 were tested in vitro on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and they found to be active. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. FASOR II: Correlative Biological and Acoustical Studies in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    recorded by regonal area. LEGS NO] 10,4-3 STATION 0 001 0 010 0100 1.0 A 10001i A 01 PACIFIC IS N W PACIFIC F CKNOtSK SEAN E COAST Of I JAPAN I K SEA OF...were common as in the Northeast Pacific. 53 UI𔃾ltSIU,~th. MCCI I 1- 14*11 - ~ - I -u II Aqu fit ,.j 6"I’z Whip lf OPI UI- ) I Vde ~) 1 II4E~.-eWW-I r

  2. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  3. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  4. Medicinal Chemistry of Annonaceous Acetogenins: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kojima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most Annonaceous acetogenins are characterized by between one and three THF ring(s with one or two flanking hydroxyl group(s in the center of a C32/34 fatty acid, and the terminal carboxylic acid is combined with a 2-propanol unit to form an α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone. While many studies have addressed the properties and synthesis of natural acetogenins due to their attractive biological activities and unique structural features, a number of analogues have also been described. This review covers the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of acetogenin analogues.

  5. Designing a 'neotissue' using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannaparaju, Madhusudhan; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim S

    2012-01-01

    The traditional methods of treating musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are not completely effective and have several limitations. Tissue engineering involves using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering to design a 'neotissue' that augments a malfunctioning in vivo tissue. The main requirements for functional engineered tissue include reparative cellular components that proliferate on a scaffold grown within a bioreactor that provides specific biochemical and physical signals to regulate cell differentiation and tissue assembly. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of common musculoskeletal tissue and discuss their common pathologies. We also describe the commonly used stem cells, scaffolds and bioreactors and evaluate their role in issue engineering.

  6. Control console conceptual design for sheet type fuels of Triga Mark-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Priyono; Kurnia Wibowo; Anang Susanto

    2016-01-01

    The control console conceptual design for sheet type fuel of TRIGA Mark-II reactor has been made. The control console conceptual design was made with refer study result of instrument and control system which is used in BATAN'S reactor i.e TRIGA-2000 Bandung, TRIGA Yogyakarta and MPR-30 Serpong. The control console conceptual design was made by using AutoCad software. The control console conceptual design reactor for sheet type fuel of TRIGA Mark-II reactor consist of 5 segments that is 3 segments for placing the computer monitors, 1 segment for placing bargraph displays and recorders and 1 segment for placing panel meters. There are the door on front and back position at each segment for enter and out devices in the console. The control console conceptual design is also equipped by the table along in front of console for placing reactor panel control and for writing, 3 drawers for 3 keyboards. The dimension of console will refer control room size and the components will be placed on console which will be detailed in detail design if this conceptual design has been approved. (author)

  7. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume II. Commercial plant design (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume II presents the commercial plant design and various design bases and design analyses. The discussion of design bases includes definition of plant external and internal considerations. The basis is described for process configuration selection of both process units and support facilities. Overall plant characteristics presented include a summary of utilities/chemicals/catalysts, a plant block flow diagram, and a key plot plan. Each process unit and support facility is described. Several different types of process analyses are presented. A synopsis of environmental impact is presented. Engineering requirements, including design considerations and materials of construction, are summarized. Important features such as safety, startup, control, and maintenance are highlighted. The last section of the report includes plant implementation considerations that would have to be considered by potential owners including siting, coal and water supply, product and by-product characteristics and uses, overall schedule, procurement, construction, and spare parts and maintenance philosophy.

  8. Fluxes at experiment facilities in HEU and LEU designs for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    An Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime(50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 -s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Several issues that were raised by TUM have been addressed in Refs. 1-3. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses four additional issues that have been raised in several forums, including Ref 4: heat generation in the cold neutron source (CNS), the gamma and fast neutron fluxes which are components of the reactor noise in neutron scattering experiments in the experiment hall of the reactor, a fuel cycle length difference, and the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities. The results show that: (a) for the same thermal neutron flux, the neutron and gamma heating in the CNS is smaller in the LEU design than in the HEU design, and cold neutron fluxes as good or better than those of the HEU design can be obtained with the LEU design; (b) the gamma and fast neutron components of the reactor noise in the experiment hall are about the same in both designs; (c) the fuel cycle length is 50 days for both designs; and (d) the absolute value of the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities is smaller in the LEU design, allowing its fuel cycle length to be increased to 53 or 54 days. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in all analyses, the RERTR Program reiterates its conclusion that there are no major technical

  9. Recent Development of the Two-Stroke Engine. II - Design Features. 2; Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, J.

    1945-01-01

    Completing the first paper dealing with charging methods and arrangements, the present paper discusses the design forms of two-stroke engines. Features which largely influence piston running are: (a) The shape and surface condition of the sliding parts. (b) The cylinder and piston materials. (c) Heat conditions in the piston, and lubrication. There is little essential difference between four-stroke and two-stroke engines with ordinary pistons. In large engines, for example, are always found separately cast or welded frames in which the stresses are taken up by tie rods. Twin piston and timing piston engines often differ from this design. Examples can be found in many engines of German or foreign make. Their methods of operation will be dealt with in the third part of the present paper, which also includes the bibliography. The development of two-stroke engine design is, of course, mainly concerned with such features as are inherently difficult to master; that is, the piston barrel and the design of the gudgeon pin bearing. Designers of four-stroke engines now-a-days experience approximately the same difficulties, since heat stresses have increased to the point of influencing conditions in the piston barrel. Features which notably affect this are: (a) The material. (b) Prevailing heat conditions.

  10. Mechanical design of EFW Exo II: A hybrid exoskeleton for elbow-forearm-wrist rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Hui; Chen, Ziye; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Tieshi

    2017-07-01

    The use of rehabilitation exoskeleton has become an important means for the treatment of stroke patients. A hybrid exoskeleton named EFW Exo II is developed for the motor function rehabilitation of elbow, forearm and wrist. The EFW Exo II is based on a parallel 2-URR/RRS mechanism and a serial R mechanism. It could fit both left and right arms for the symmetrical and open structure, and the distance between the elbow and wrist could automatically adjust for different forearm length. Details of the mechanical design are introduced. Brushless DC servo motors with planetary gear reducer are used as the actuators of the exoskeleton. Gear drive and belt drive are used for power transmission. A three dimensional force sensor is mounted in the handle to regulate the interaction between the exoskeleton and patient. The EFW Exo II can realize rehabilitation exercise for each joint and the ranges of motion meet the rehabilitation demands of daily living.

  11. Catalytic aspects of a copper(II) complex: biological oxidase to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BISWAJIT CHOWDHURY

    2017-10-03

    Oct 3, 2017 ... been synthesized and crystallographically characterized. X-ray structure analysis revealed that this ... 2.2 Synthesis of [Cu(dpa)2(O Ac)](ClO4)(1). The copper(II) complex was synthesized by addition of aque- ..... 2,2'-bipyridine host: synthesis, crystal structure, DNA cleavage, molecular docking and ...

  12. Biological and Molecular Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Isolate Causing Severe Mosaic in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Singh, Lakhmir; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a wide host range causing severe damage in many important agricultural and ornamental crops. Earlier reports showed the prevalence of CMV subgroup I isolates in India. However, some recent reports point towards increasing incidence of subgroup II isolates in the country. The complete genome of a CMV isolate causing severe mosaic in cucumber was characterized and its phylogenetic analysis with other 21 CMV isolates reported worldwide clustered it with subgroup II strains. The genome comprised of RNA 1 (3,379 nucleotides), RNA 2 (3,038 nucleotides) and RNA 3 (2,206 nucleotides). The isolate showed highest homology with subgroup II isolates: 95.1-98.7, 87.7-98.0, and 85.4-97.1 % within RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3, respectively. RNA1 and RNA2 were closely related to the Japanese isolate while RNA3 clustered with an American isolate. Host range studies revealed that isolate showed severe mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana spp. and Cucumis spp. The isolate induced leaf deformation and mild filiform type symptoms in tomato. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CMV subgroup II isolate from India.

  13. Synthesis, thermal, spectral, and biological properties of zinc(II) 4-aminobenzoate complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homzová, K.; Györyová, K.; Hudecová, D.; Koman, M.; Melník, M.; Kovářová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 2 (2017), s. 1065-1082 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : zinc(II) 4-aminobenzoate * thermal * spectral Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2016

  14. Biological iron(II) oxidation as pre-treatment to limestone neutralisation of acid water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (II) should be oxidised to iron (III) before the neutralisation of acid water with limestone, otherwise the oxidation will occur downstream of the neutralisation plant with the formation of acid (reactions 1 and 2). This study aimed...

  15. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations. PMID:28953953

  17. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linnea M.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, D.J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  18. Transient analyses for HEU and LEU designs of the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    An Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 -s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Several issues raised by TUM have been addressed in Refs. 1-4. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. In this paper, two typical design basis transients are analyzed: control rod withdrawal at different power levels and loss of primary flow. The results show that the HEU and the LEU cores behave in a similar manner and both have excellent safety margins. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in all analyses, the RERTR Program reiterates its conclusion that there are no major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility

  19. Safety Evaluation Report related to the final design approval of the GESSAR II BWR/6 Nuclear Island Design (Docket No. 50-447). Supplement No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Supplement 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) for the application filed by General Electric Company for the final design approval for the GE BWR/6 nuclear island design has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report supplements the GESSAR II SER (NUREG-0979), issued in April 1983, summarizing the results of the staff's safety review of the GESSAR II BWR/6 nuclear island design. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this supplement, the staff concludes that the GESSAR II design satisfactorily addresses the severe-accident concerns described in draft NUREG-1070

  20. Design guide for category II reactors light and heavy water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynda, W.J.; Lobner, P.R.; Powell, R.W.; Straker, E.A.

    1978-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in the ERDA Manual, requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification operation, maintainance, and decommissioning of DOW-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guide and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirements of Category II reactor structure, components, and systems

  1. [Adaptation and Neurosciences II: Biological, Psychological and Social Adaptation, and Psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin

    In this article, we address adaptation in relation to the neurosciences. Adaptation is examined at the individual as well as various environmental levels: biological, psychological, and social. We then briefly discuss, from a neuroscientific perspective, the concept of adaptation in relation to psychopathology, including attachment theory and the third wave of cognitive-behavioral therapies.

  2. Design and characterization of a biologically inspired quasi-passive prosthetic ankle-foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke M; Lai, Cara H; Rouse, Elliott J

    2014-01-01

    By design, commonly worn energy storage and release (ESR) prosthetic feet cannot provide biologically realistic ankle joint torque and angle profiles during walking. Additionally, their anthropomorphic, cantilever architecture causes their mechanical stiffness to decrease throughout the stance phase of walking, opposing the known trend of the biological ankle. In this study, the design of a quasi-passive pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that is able to replicate the biological ankle's torque and angle profiles during walking. The prosthetic ankle is comprised of a pneumatic piston, bending spring and solenoid valve. The mechanical properties of the pneumatic ankle prosthesis are characterized using a materials testing machine and the properties are compared to those from a common, passive ESR prosthetic foot. The characterization spanned a range of ankle equilibrium pressures and testing locations beneath the foot, analogous to the location of center of pressure within the stance phase of walking. The pneumatic ankle prosthesis was shown to provide biologically appropriate trends and magnitudes of torque, angle and stiffness behavior, when compared to the passive ESR prosthetic foot. Future work will focus on the development of a control system for the quasi-passive device and clinical testing of the pneumatic ankle to demonstrate efficacy.

  3. Design of the thermal neutron detection system for CJPL-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhao-Ming; Gong, Hui; Li, Jian-Min; Yue, Qian; Zeng, Zhi; Cheng, Jian-Ping

    2017-05-01

    A low background thermal neutron flux detection system has been designed to measure the ambient thermal neutron flux of the second phase of the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL-II), right after completion of the rock bolting work. A 3He proportional counter tube combined with an identical 4He proportional counter tube was employed as the thermal neutron detector, which has been optimised in energy resolution, wall effect and radioactivity of construction materials for low background performance. The readout electronics were specially designed for long-term stable operation and easy maintenance in an underground laboratory under construction. The system was installed in Lab Hall No. 3 of CJPL-II and accumulated data for about 80 days. The ambient thermal neutron flux was determined under the assumption that the neutron field is fully thermalized, uniform and isotropic at the measurement position. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475094)

  4. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    development of possible cultural resource mitigation mea- sures; and i! E-TR-48-1I-I o Native American consultations. The results of these additional tasks...dog (Cynomys parvidens) UT E Black footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) UT E Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) UT, NV E American peregrine falcon...Myocaster coypus River otter Lutra canadensis Other Animals Mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa Protected Pika Ochotona princeps Protected Douglas squirrel

  5. Structural, spectral, DFT and biological studies on macrocyclic mononuclear ruthenium (II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukkumar, M.; Kamal, C.; Venkatesh, G.; Kaya, C.; Kaya, S.; Enoch, Israel V. M. V.; Vennila, P.; Rajavel, R.

    2017-11-01

    Macrocyclic mononuclear ruthenium (II) complexes have been synthesized by condensation method [Ru (L1, L2, L3) Cl2] L1 = (C36 H31 N9), L2= (C42H36N8), L3= (C32H32 N8)]. These ruthenium complexes have been established by elemental analyses and spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 1H- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C- NMR and Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)). The coordination mode of the ligand has been confirmed and the octahedral geometry around the ruthenium ion has been revealed. Binding affinity and binding mode of ruthenium (II) complexes with Bovine serum Albumin (BSA) have been characterized by Emission spectra analysis. UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques have also been utilized to examine the interaction between ligand and its complexes L1, L2, & L3 with BSA. Chemical parameters and molecular structure of Ru (II) complexes L1H, L2H, & L3H have been determined by DFT coupled with B3LYP/6-311G** functional in both the gaseous and aqueous phases.

  6. New Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II, Pb(II complexes with 2-methylbenzimidazole and other ligands. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, crystal structure, magnetic susceptibility and biological activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayma A. Shaker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Pb(II mixed ligand complexes of 2-methylbenzimidazole with other ligands have been reported. The structure of the ligands and their complexes was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, UV–Vis, (1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy, molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. In all the studies of complexes, the 2-methylbenzimidazole behaves as a neutral monodentate ligand which is coordinated with the metal ions through the N atom. While benzotriazole behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand which is coordinated with the Ni(II ion through the two N atoms. Moreover, the N-acetylglycine behaves as a bidentate ligand which is coordinated with the Mn(II, Ni(II and Pb(II ions through the N atom and the terminal carboxyl oxygen atom. The magnetic and spectral data indicate the tetrahedral geometry for Mn(II complex, irregular tetrahedral geometry for Pb(II complex and octahedral geometry for Ni(II complex. The X-ray single crystal diffraction method was used to confirm a centrosymmetric dinuclear Cd(II complex as each two metal ions are linked by a pair of thiocyanate N = S bridge. Two 2-methylbenzimidazole N-atom donors and one terminal thiocyanate N atom complete a highly distorted square pyramid geometry around the Cd atom. Besides, different cell types were used to determine the inhibitory effect of Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Pb(II complexes on cell growth using MTT assay. Cd(II complex showed cytotoxic effect on various types of cancer cell lines with different EC50 values.

  7. Design and Analysis of Piping System with Supports Using CAESAR-II

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jamuna Rani; K. Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    A steam power plant is housed with various types of equipments like boiler, turbine, heat exchanger etc. These equipments are mainly connected with piping systems. Such a piping layout design depends mainly on stress analysis and flexibility. It will vary with respect to pipe geometrical properties, pressure, temperature, and supports. The present paper is to analyze the presence and effect of hangers and expansion joints in the piping layout/routing using CAESAR-II software. Main aim of pipi...

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Some Aspects of the Biological Activity of Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunova, G A; Shishkina, A V; Skulachev, M V

    2017-07-01

    This review summarizes for the first time data on the design and synthesis of biologically active compounds of a new generation - mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, which are natural (or synthetic) p-benzoquinones conjugated via a lipophilic linker with (triphenyl)phosphonium or ammonium cations with delocalized charge. It also describes the synthesis of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants - uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation - based on fluorescent dyes.

  9. PASS-predicted design, synthesis and biological evaluation of cyclic nitrones as nootropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Alka; Goel, R K; Mahajan, Mohinder P

    2007-09-15

    Out of 400 virtually designed imidazoline N-oxides, five cyclic nitrones were selected on the basis of PASS prediction as potent nootropics and were evaluated for their biological activities in albino mice. The selected N-alkyl and aryl-substituted nitrones were found to be excellent nootropics. A series of lead compounds acting as cognition enhancers have been provided, which can be further exploited in search of such New Chemical Entities (NCEs).

  10. Biological assessment of the advanced turbine design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rakowski, C. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 2005 versus a conventional Kaplan turbine, Unit 9. The studies included an evaluation of blade-strike using deterministic and probabilistic models, integrated analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish to sever hydraulic events within the turbine system, and a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile salmonids in the field.

  11. Building Design Guidelines of Interior Architecture for Bio safety Levels of Biology Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElDib, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the pivotal role of the Interior Architecture As one of the scientific disciplines minute to complete the Architectural Sciences, which relied upon the achievement and development of facilities containing scientific research laboratories, in terms of planning and design, particularly those containing biological laboratories using radioactive materials, adding to that, the application of the materials or raw materials commensurate with each discipline of laboratory and its work nature, and by the discussion the processing of design techniques and requirements of interior architecture dealing with Research Laboratory for electronic circuits an their applications with the making of its prototypes

  12. Modernization design of neutron radiography of ITU TRIGA Mark-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.; Bilge, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    ITU TRIGA MARK-II Research and Training Reactor has a power of 250 KW and has three beam tubes. One of them is tangential beam tube used for neutron radiography. In this study, the neutron radiography set in the tangential beam tube is described with its problems for ITU TRIGA Reactor. After that modernization of the system is designed and the applicability of the direct and indirect methods is evaluated. Improving the ratio of length to diameter for the beam tube, elimination the fogging on the film and constructive design for practice and secure application of the technique is developed. (author)

  13. Controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design references manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  14. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  15. DEVELOPING THE PHYSICS DESIGN FOR NDCX-II, A UNIQUE PULSE-COMPRESSING ION ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2009-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the 'warm dense matter' regime at ∼ + ions to ∼1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over ∼15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  16. Mechanical Design and Analysis of LCLS II 2 K Cold Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Rath, D.; Bevins, M.; Bai, H.; Kaminski, S.; Ravindranath, V.

    2017-12-01

    The mechanical design and analysis of the LCLS II 2 K cold box are presented. Its feature and functionality are discussed. ASME B31.3 was used to design its internal piping, and compliance of the piping code was ensured through flexibility analysis. The 2 K cold box was analyzed using ANSYS 17.2; the requirements of the applicable codes—ASME Section VIII Division 2 and ASCE 7-10—were satisfied. Seismic load was explicitly considered in both analyses.

  17. Design of traveling wave windows for the PEP-II RF coupling network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Ng, C.K.; Judkins, J.; Neubauer, M.

    1995-05-01

    The waveguide windows in the PEP-II RF coupling network have to withstand high power of 500 kW. Traveling wave windows have lower power dissipation than conventional self-matched windows, thus rendering the possibility of less stringent mechanical design. The traveling wave behavior is achieved by providing a reflecting iris on each side of the window, and depending on the configuration of the irises, traveling wave windows are characterized as inductive or capacitive types. A numerical design procedure using MAFIA has been developed for traveling wave windows. The relative advantages of inductive and capacitive windows are discussed. Furthermore, the issues of bandwidth and multipactoring are also addressed

  18. Application of Biologically Activated Brown Coal in Cu(II Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beňová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters using different adsorbents is currently of great interest. Adsorption of cooper ions from aqueous solutions on biologically activated brown coal was investigated. Four families of adsorbents were prepared from brown coal by microorganisms activity. There were used soi microfungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma viride. The equilibrium of the adsorption process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum capacity of the sorbents was determined.

  19. VisBOL: Web-Based Tools for Synthetic Biology Design Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James Alastair; Pocock, Matthew; Mısırlı, Göksel; Madsen, Curtis; Wipat, Anil

    2016-08-19

    VisBOL is a Web-based application that allows the rendering of genetic circuit designs, enabling synthetic biologists to visually convey designs in SBOL visual format. VisBOL designs can be exported to formats including PNG and SVG images to be embedded in Web pages, presentations and publications. The VisBOL tool enables the automated generation of visualizations from designs specified using the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) version 2.0, as well as a range of well-known bioinformatics formats including GenBank and Pigeoncad notation. VisBOL is provided both as a user accessible Web site and as an open-source (BSD) JavaScript library that can be used to embed diagrams within other content and software.

  20. Ultra-Structure database design methodology for managing systems biology data and analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminger Bradley M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern, high-throughput biological experiments generate copious, heterogeneous, interconnected data sets. Research is dynamic, with frequently changing protocols, techniques, instruments, and file formats. Because of these factors, systems designed to manage and integrate modern biological data sets often end up as large, unwieldy databases that become difficult to maintain or evolve. The novel rule-based approach of the Ultra-Structure design methodology presents a potential solution to this problem. By representing both data and processes as formal rules within a database, an Ultra-Structure system constitutes a flexible framework that enables users to explicitly store domain knowledge in both a machine- and human-readable form. End users themselves can change the system's capabilities without programmer intervention, simply by altering database contents; no computer code or schemas need be modified. This provides flexibility in adapting to change, and allows integration of disparate, heterogenous data sets within a small core set of database tables, facilitating joint analysis and visualization without becoming unwieldy. Here, we examine the application of Ultra-Structure to our ongoing research program for the integration of large proteomic and genomic data sets (proteogenomic mapping. Results We transitioned our proteogenomic mapping information system from a traditional entity-relationship design to one based on Ultra-Structure. Our system integrates tandem mass spectrum data, genomic annotation sets, and spectrum/peptide mappings, all within a small, general framework implemented within a standard relational database system. General software procedures driven by user-modifiable rules can perform tasks such as logical deduction and location-based computations. The system is not tied specifically to proteogenomic research, but is rather designed to accommodate virtually any kind of biological research. Conclusion We find

  1. Joseph S. Weiner and the foundation of post-WW II human biology in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael A; Collins, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Both the United States and the United Kingdom experienced a transformation in the science of physical anthropology from the period before World War II until the post-war period. In the United States, Sherwood L. Washburn is credited with being a leading figure in this transformation. In the United Kingdom, two individuals were instrumental in bringing about a similar change in the profession. These were Joseph S. Weiner at the University of Oxford and Nigel Barnicot at the University of London, with Weiner playing the principal role as leader in what Washburn called the "New Physical Anthropology," that is, the application of evolutionary theory, the de-emphasis on race classification, and the application of the scientific method and experimental approaches to problem solving. Weiner's contributions to physical anthropology were broad-based--climatic and work physiology, paleoanthropology, and human variation--in what became known as human biology in the U.K. and human adaptability internationally. This biographical essay provides evidence for the significant influence of J.S. Weiner on the post-war development of human biology (biological or physical anthropology) inthe U.K. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Medulloblastoma in children and adolescents: a systematic review of contemporary phase I and II clinical trials and biology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Francisco; Fioravantti, Victoria; de Rojas, Teresa; Carceller, Fernando; Madero, Luis; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Moreno, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    Survival rates for patients with medulloblastoma have improved in the last decades but for those who relapse outcome is dismal and new approaches are needed. Emerging drugs have been tested in the last two decades within the context of phase I/II trials. In parallel, advances in genetic profiling have permitted to identify key molecular alterations for which new strategies are being developed. We performed a systematic review focused on the design and outcome of early-phase trials evaluating new agents in patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, and references from selected studies were screened to identify phase I/II studies with reported results between 2000 and 2015 including patients with medulloblastoma aged <18 years. A total of 718 studies were reviewed and 78 satisfied eligibility criteria. Of those, 69% were phase I; 31% phase II. Half evaluated conventional chemotherapeutics and 35% targeted agents. Overall, 662 patients with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors were included. The study designs and the response assessments were heterogeneous, limiting the comparisons among trials and the correct identification of active drugs. Median (range) objective response rate (ORR) for patients with medulloblastoma in phase I/II studies was 0% (0-100) and 6.5% (0-50), respectively. Temozolomide containing regimens had a median ORR of 16.5% (0-100). Smoothened inhibitors trials had a median ORR of 8% (3-8). Novel drugs have shown limited activity against relapsed medulloblastoma. Temozolomide might serve as backbone for new combinations. Novel and more homogenous trial designs might facilitate the development of new drugs. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Helene Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  4. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  5. Geometric design method for occlusal outlines of complex class I and class II inlay cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Takada, Yukyo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a geometric design method for the occlusal outlines of complex inlay cavities as a continuation study of a previous design method for simple class I inlay cavity. A method for extending the occlusal outline to the buccal or lingual groove and to three preparation types of the proximal portions of class II inlay cavities -namely, straight line preparation, sweeping curve preparation, and reverse curve preparation- was investigated. To ensure the smoothness of the occlusal outline, a Bézier curve was introduced in the design. A minimal number of control points for the curve was applied to define each preparation type. The design method was experimentally applied to mandibular and maxillary first molars. Smooth outlines of the complex inlay cavities in the molars with tool accessibility throughout the cavities were achievable by using the present method.

  6. The PEP-II Asymmetric B Factory: Design details and R ampersand D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.; DeStaebler, H.; Dorfan, J.

    1994-06-01

    PEP-II, a 9 GeV x 3.1 GeV electron-positron collider with a design luminosity of 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 has now been approved for construction by SLAC, LBL and LLNL for the purpose of studying CP violation in the B bar B system. This upgrade project involves replacing the vacuum and RF systeum of PEP, which will serve as the high-energy ring (HER), along with the addition of a new low-energy ring (LER) mounted atop the HER. Designs for both rings are described, and the anticipated project construction schedule is indicated. Collider operation will begin at the end of 1998. An aggressive R ampersand D program has been carried out to validate our design choices; key results in the areas of lattice design, vacuum, RF, and multibunch feedback are summarized

  7. Statistical issues for design and analysis of single-arm multi-stage phase II cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. In spite of the fast progress in design and analysis methods, single-arm two-stage design is still the most popular for phase II cancer clinical trials. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage single arm phase II trials, Simon's method has been the standards for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm two-stage phase II trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rational chemical design of the next generation of molecular imaging probes based on physics and biology: mixing modalities, colors and signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Longmire, Michelle R; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, numerous in vivo molecular imaging probes have been developed. As a consequence, much has been published on the design and synthesis of molecular imaging probes focusing on each modality, each type of material, or each target disease. More recently, second generation molecular imaging probes with unique, multi-functional, or multiplexed characteristics have been designed. This critical review focuses on (i) molecular imaging using combinations of modalities and signals that employ the full range of the electromagnetic spectra, (ii) optimized chemical design of molecular imaging probes for in vivo kinetics based on biology and physiology across a range of physical sizes, (iii) practical examples of second generation molecular imaging probes designed to extract complementary data from targets using multiple modalities, color, and comprehensive signals (277 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Safety Evaluation Report related to the final design approval of the GESSAR II BWR/6 nuclear island design (Docket No. 50-447). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Supplement 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) for the application filed by General Electric Company for the final design approval for the GE BWR/6 nuclear island design (GESSAR II) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report supplements the GESSAR II SER (NUREG-0979) issued in April 1983 summarizing the results of the staff's safety review of the GESSAR II BWR/6 nuclear island design; Supplement 1, issued in July 1983; Supplement 2, issued in November 1984; and Supplement 3, issued in January 1985. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this supplement, the staff concludes that the GESSAR II design satisfactorily addresses the severe-accident concerns described in the Commission's Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants

  10. Safety Evaluation Report related to the final design approval of the GESSAR II BWR/6 Nuclear Island design, Docket No. 50-447

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by General Electric Company for the Final Design Approval for the General Electric Standard Safety Analysis Report (GESSAR II FSAR) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report summarizes the results of the staff's safety review of the GESSAR II BWR/6 Nuclear Island Design. Subject to favorable resolution of items discussed in the Safety Evaluation Report, the staff concludes that the facilities referencing GESSAR II, subject to approval of the balance-of-plant design, can conform with the provisions of the Act and the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  11. Advanced Design of the First Quasi-optical Transmission Line for ECRH at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Likin, K.; Martin, R.

    1999-01-01

    TJ-II plasma start-up and heating are made by electron cyclotron resonance waves at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency. The microwave power of the gyrotrons is transmitted by two quasi-optical transmission lines. The first line launches the microwave power under fixed injection geometry, i. e. there is no a possibility to change the launching angle the wave polarization. Due to the long distance between the last focusing mirror and the center TJ-II vessel the beam is quite wide at plasma border. The second line has a moveable mirror installed inside the TJ-II vessel. To get high absorption efficiency and a narrow energy deposition profile the internal mirror focuses the wave beam at plasma center. The beam width is about 2 cm. To get more flexibility in experiments on heating and current drive the first transmission line needs to be upgraded. The designs is presented in this report. It includes and internal mirror to focus the beam and to change the injection angle. A polarizer consisting in two corrugated mirrors will be incorporated to get any wave polarization. Two mirrors with an array of coupling holes and calorimetric measurements of the energy absorbed in the barrier window will permit the estimation of the microwave power launched the TJ-II. (Author) 13 refs

  12. Studies on Brewers Spent Grains (BSG) Biomethanation: II - Biological Efficiency of Digester Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeonu, F. C.; Udedi, S. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Dangogo and Fernando suggested that a laboratory qualitative assessment of the manurial quality of digester slurry can be achieved by analyzing nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content. Analyzing data from our study indicate an approximate range of nutrient contents of BSG digester manure to be within the following ranges, 0.50 - 0.61%, phosphorus, 0.55- 0.58% potassium and 3.14 - 3.48'% nitrogen for dried sludge. (Figures are not corrected for loss of nitrogen and other nutrients on drying). From the field study, it is apparent from the percentage biological yield that the digester dry manure is a better fertilizer than humus

  13. Biological shielding design and qualification of concreting process for construction of electron beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Kumar, P.; Suresh, N.; Parchani, G.; Dwivedi, J.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food and agricultural products is being set-up by RRCAT at Indore. The facility design is based on linear electron accelerator with maximum beam power of 10 kW and can be operated either in electron mode at 10 MeV or photon modes at 5/7.5 MeV. Biological shielding has been designed in accordance with NCRP 51 to achieve dose rate at all accessible points outside the irradiation vault less than the permissible limit of 0.1 mR/hr. In addition to radiation attenuation property, concrete must have satisfactory mechanical properties to meet the structural requirements. There are number of site specific variables which affect the structural, thermal and radiological properties of concrete, leading to considerable difference in actual values and design values. Hence it is essential to establish a suitable site and environmental specific process to cast the concrete and qualify the process by experimental measurement. For process qualification we have cast concrete test blocks of different thicknesses up to 3.25 m and evaluated the radiological and mechanical properties by radiometry, ultrasonic and mechanical tests. In this paper we describe the biological shielding design of the facility and analyse the results of tests carried out for qualification of the process. (author)

  14. Properties of alternative microbial hosts used in synthetic biology: towards the design of a modular chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyun; Salvador, Manuel; Saunders, Elizabeth; González, Jaime; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The chassis is the cellular host used as a recipient of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology. They are required to propagate the genetic information and to express the genes encoded in it. Despite being an essential element for the appropriate function of genetic circuits, the chassis is rarely considered in their design phase. Consequently, the circuits are transferred to model organisms commonly used in the laboratory, such as Escherichia coli, that may be suboptimal for a required function. In this review, we discuss some of the properties desirable in a versatile chassis and summarize some examples of alternative hosts for synthetic biology amenable for engineering. These properties include a suitable life style, a robust cell wall, good knowledge of its regulatory network as well as of the interplay of the host components with the exogenous circuits, and the possibility of developing whole-cell models and tuneable metabolic fluxes that could allow a better distribution of cellular resources (metabolites, ATP, nucleotides, amino acids, transcriptional and translational machinery). We highlight Pseudomonas putida, widely used in many different biotechnological applications as a prominent organism for synthetic biology due to its metabolic diversity, robustness and ease of manipulation. PMID:27903818

  15. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. © 2016 L. A.-R. M. Warfa. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Evaluation of Beam Losses and Energy Depositions for a Possible Phase II Design for LHC Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cerutti, F; Doyle, E; Ferrari, A; Keller, L; Lundgren, S; Keller, L; Mauri, M; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Smith, J; Vlachoudis, V; Weiler, T

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beams are designed to have high stability and to be stored for many hours. The nominal beam intensity lifetime is expected to be of the order of 20h. The Phase II collimation system has to be able to handle particle losses in stable physics conditions at 7 TeV in order to avoid beam aborts and to allow correction of parameters and restoration to nominal conditions. Monte Carlo simulations are needed in order to evaluate the behavior of metallic high-Z collimators during operation scenarios using a realistic distribution of losses, which is a mix of the three limiting halo cases. Moreover, the consequences in the IR7 insertion of the worst (case) abnormal beam loss are evaluated. The case refers to a spontaneous trigger of the horizontal extraction kicker at top energy, when Phase II collimators are used. These studies are an important input for engineering design of the collimation Phase II system and for the evaluation of their effect on adjacent components. The goal is to build collimators that can ...

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Ru(II) and Pt(II) Complexes Bearing Carboxyl Groups as Potential Anticancer Targeted Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ma Ángeles; Carranza, M Pilar; Massaguer, Anna; Santos, Lucia; Organero, Juan A; Aliende, Cristina; de Llorens, Rafael; Ng-Choi, Iteng; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta; Rodríguez, Ana M; Manzano, Blanca R; Espino, Gustavo; Jalón, Félix A

    2017-11-20

    The synthesis and characterization of Pt(II) (1 and 2) and Ru(II) arene (3 and 4) or polypyridine (5 and 6) complexes is described. With the aim of having a functional group to form bioconjugates, one uncoordinated carboxyl group has been introduced in all complexes. Some of the complexes were selected for their potential in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The molecular structures of complexes 2 and 5, as well as that of the sodium salt of the 4'-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine ligand (cptpy), were determined by X-ray diffraction. Different techniques were used to evaluate the binding capacity to model DNA molecules, and MTT cytotoxicity assays were performed against four cell lines. Compounds 3, 4, and 5 showed little tendency to bind to DNA and exhibited poor biological activity. Compound 2 behaves as bonded to DNA probably through a covalent interaction, although its cytotoxicity was very low. Compound 1 and possibly 6, both of which contain a cptpy ligand, were able to intercalate with DNA, but toxicity was not observed for 6. However, compound 1 was active in all cell lines tested. Clonogenic assays and apoptosis induction studies were also performed on the PC-3 line for 1. The photodynamic behavior for complexes 1, 5, and 6 indicated that their nuclease activity was enhanced after irradiation at λ = 447 nm. The cell viability was significantly reduced only in the case of 5. The different behavior in the absence or presence of light makes complex 5 a potential prodrug of interest in PDT. Molecular docking studies followed by molecular dynamics simulations for 1 and the counterpart without the carboxyl group confirmed the experimental data that pointed to an intercalation mechanism. The cytotoxicity of 1 and the potential of 5 in PDT make them good candidates for subsequent conjugation, through the carboxyl group, to "selected peptides" which could facilitate the selective vectorization of the complex toward receptors that are overexpressed in

  18. Disasters and mass casualties: II. explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Christopher T; Briggs, Susan M; Ciraulo, David L; Frykberg, Eric R; Hammond, Jeffrey S; Hirshberg, Asher; Lhowe, David W; O'Neill, Patricia A; Mead, Joann

    2007-08-01

    Terrorists' use of explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents constitutes the potential for catastrophic events. Understanding the unique aspects of these agents can help in preparing for such disasters with the intent of mitigating injury and loss of life. Explosive agents continue to be the most common weapons of terrorists and the most prevalent cause of injuries and fatalities. Knowledge of blast pathomechanics and patterns of injury allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents, their attendant clinical symptoms, and recommended management strategies is an important prerequisite for optimal preparation and response to these less frequently used agents of mass casualty. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the principles of management of catastrophic events. Stress is less an issue when one is adequately prepared. Decontamination is essential both to manage victims and prevent further spread of toxic agents to first responders and medical personnel. It is important to assess the risk of potential threats, thereby allowing disaster planning and preparation to be proportional and aligned with the actual casualty event.

  19. Effects of human serun albumin in some biological properties of rhodium(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espósito Breno P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The affinities for human albumin (HSA of five rhodium(II complexes of general formula [Rh2(bridge4] (bridge = acetate, propionate, butyrate, trifluoroacetate and trifluoroacetamidate were determined by spectrophotometry. In the case of the alkylcarboxylates, an inverse correlation of affinity with their liposolubilities was observed. Diffusion of the free or protein-bound complexes into Ehrlich cells in vitro seems to be primarily governed by the hydrophobic character of the complex. The complex [Rh2(tfc4] exhibited affinity towards the protein (K = 214.1 as well as cell partition both in the absence (32.1% and presence (48.6% of HSA. The compound HSA: [Rh2(tfc4] has had its antitumoral action in tumor-bearing Balb-c mice investigated, showing that HSA can be a drug reservoir for the rhodium complex.

  20. Heteroleptic Palladium(II) dithiocarbamates: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro biological screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahan Zeb; Zia-ur-Rehman; Amir, Muhammad Kashif; Ullah, Imdad; Akhter, M. S.; Bélanger-Gariepy, Francine

    2018-03-01

    Two new heteroleptic Pd(II) complexes of sodium 4-(2-pyrimidyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioate with tris-p-flourophenylphosphine (1) and tris-p-chlorophenylphosphine (2) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, multinuclear NMR {1H, 13C and 31P} and single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurement. In both complexes, Pd exhibit pseudo square planner geometry mediated by SS chelate, P and Cl. In vitro cytotoxicity against five different cancer cell lines using staurosporine as a standard revealed 1 to be more cytotoxic than 2, though both complexes are more active than cisplatin. Subsequent DNA binding studies revealed that non-covalent complex-DNA interaction may be the reason for arresting cancer cell growth. Furthermore, 1 and 2 are potent antioxidant agents.

  1. Design in nature how the constructal law governs evolution in biology, physics, technology, and social organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In this groundbreaking book, Adrian Bejan takes the recurring patterns in nature—trees, tributaries, air passages, neural networks, and lightning bolts—and reveals how a single principle of physics, the constructal law, accounts for the evolution of these and many other designs in our world. Everything—from biological life to inanimate systems—generates shape and structure and evolves in a sequence of ever-improving designs in order to facilitate flow. River basins, cardiovascular systems, and bolts of lightning are very efficient flow systems to move a current—of water, blood, or electricity. Likewise, the more complex architecture of animals evolve to cover greater distance per unit of useful energy, or increase their flow across the land. Such designs also appear in human organizations, like the hierarchical “flowcharts” or reporting structures in corporations and political bodies. All are governed by the same principle, known as the constructal law, and configure and reconfigure themselves...

  2. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    The CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II) is being developed for precision ground-based astrometric and photometric astronomical observations. The 1.8m telescope will be stationary, near-zenith pointing and will feature a CCD-mosaic array operated in time-delay and integrate (TDI) mode to image a continuous strip of the sky in five bands. The heart of the telescope is a Nasmyth-like bent-Cassegrain optical system optimized to produce near diffraction-limited images with near zero distortion over a circular1.42 deg field. The optical design includes an f/2.2 parabolic ULE primary with no central hole salvaged from the original CTI telescope and adds the requisite hyperbolic secondary, a folding flat and a highly innovative all-spherical, five lens corrector which includes three plano surfaces. The reflective and refractive portions of the design have been optimized as individual but interdependent systems so that the same reflective system can be used with slightly different refractive correctors. At present, two nearly identical corrector designs are being evaluated, one fabricated from BK-7 glass and the other of fused silica. The five lens corrector consists of an air-spaced triplet separated from follow-on air-spaced doublet. Either design produces 0.25 arcsecond images at 83% encircled energy with a maximum of 0.0005% distortion. The innovative five lens corrector design has been applied to other current and planned Cassegrain, RC and super RC optical systems requiring correctors. The basic five lens approach always results in improved performance compared to the original designs. In some cases, the improvement in image quality is small but includes substantial reductions in distortion. In other cases, the improvement in image quality is substantial. Because the CTI-II corrector is designed for a parabolic primary, it might be especially useful for liquid mirror telescopes. We describe and discuss the CTI-II optical design with respect

  3. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations and biological studies of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes based on a tetradentate ONNO donor Schiff base ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H.; Ismail, Nabawia M.; Ismael, Mohamed; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Ebtehal Abdel-Hameed

    2017-04-01

    This study highlights synthesis and characterization of a tetradentate ONNO Schiff base ligand namely (1, 1‧- (pyridine-2, 3-dimethyliminomethyl) naphthalene-2, 2‧-diol) and hereafter denotes as "HNDAP″ and selected metal complexes including Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) as a central metal. HNDAP was synthesized from 1:2 M ratio condensation of 2, 3-diaminopyridine and 2- hydroxy-1-naphthaldhyde, respectively. The stoichiometric ratios of the prepared complexes were estimated using complementary techniques such as; elemental analyses (-C, H, N), FT-IR, magnetic measurements and molar conductivity. Furthermore, their physicochemical studies were carried out using thermal TGA, DTA and kinetic-thermodynamic studies along with DFT calculations. The results of elemental analyses showed that these complexes are present in a 1:1 metal-to- ligand molar ratio. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibilities values at room temperature revealed that Mn(II), Fe(II) and Co(II) complexes are paramagnetic in nature and have an octahedral (Oh) geometry. In contrast, Cd(II) is diamagnetic and stabilizes in square planar sites. The molar conductivity measurements indicated that all complexes are nonelectrolytes in dimethyl formamide. Spectral data suggested that the ligand is as tetradentate and coordinated with Co(II) ion through two phenolic OH and two azomethine nitrogen. However, for Mn(II), Fe(II) and Cd(II) complexes, the coordination occurred through two phenolic oxygen and two azomethine nitrogen with deprotonation of OH groups. The proposed chemical structures have been validated by quantum mechanics calculations. Antimicrobial activities of both the HNDAP Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against strains of Gram (-ve) E. coli and Gram (+ve) B. subtilis and S. aureus bacteria and C. albicans, A. flavus and T. rubrum fungi. All the prepared compounds showed good results of inhibition against the selected pathogenic microorganisms. The investigated

  4. Committee Report of the BEPC-II Project Design Review May 13-15, 2002, SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Traci M.

    2002-08-26

    As part of the US-China Cooperative Program in High Energy Physics for the year 2002, a BEPC-II Upgrade Review meeting was held at SLAC, May 13-15, 2002. The upgrade is aimed at improving the luminosity and performance of the BEPC facility at IHEP in Beijing, China with major upgrades to the injector linac, storage ring, and detector. This review addresses mainly the accelerator related issues. Prior to the review, an updated Draft Design Report was made available to the review team. Most important technical change since April 2001 has been a change from a single-ring configuration to a doublering. The goal of the review is to determine whether BEPC-II, if built as described, will meet the operations and physics goals. The charge to the review team is attached as Appendix A.

  5. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Verónica Leticia; Rodríguez, Analía; Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. PMID:22028591

  6. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Leticia Colin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel.

  7. Developing optimal input design strategies in cancer systems biology with applications to microfluidic device engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiwald Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of complex pathologies like cancer: acquiring information for a system understanding of complex reaction networks is time consuming and expensive. Stimulus response experiments (SRE have been used to gain a deeper insight into the details of biochemical mechanisms underlying cell life and functioning. Optimisation of the input time-profile, however, still remains a major area of research due to the complexity of the problem and its relevance for the task of information retrieval in systems biology-related experiments. Results We have addressed the problem of quantifying the information associated to an experiment using the Fisher Information Matrix and we have proposed an optimal experimental design strategy based on evolutionary algorithm to cope with the problem of information gathering in Systems Biology. On the basis of the theoretical results obtained in the field of control systems theory, we have studied the dynamical properties of the signals to be used in cell stimulation. The results of this study have been used to develop a microfluidic device for the automation of the process of cell stimulation for system identification. Conclusion We have applied the proposed approach to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor pathway and we observed that it minimises the amount of parametric uncertainty associated to the identified model. A statistical framework based on Monte-Carlo estimations of the uncertainty ellipsoid confirmed the superiority of optimally designed experiments over canonical inputs. The proposed approach can be easily extended to multiobjective formulations that can also take advantage of identifiability

  8. Cobalt (II, nickel (II, copper (II and zinc (II complexes of 1-(phenyl(phenylamino methylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione and 2-((phenylaminomethyl isoindoline-1,3-dione and their biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tamil Vendan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Mannich bases 1-(phenyl(phenylaminomethylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione (SBA was synthesized from the condensation of succinimide, benzaldehyde and aniline. 2-((phenylaminomethylisoindoline-1,3-dione (PFA was derived from pthalimide, formaldehyde and aniline. The general formula of the Co (II, Ni (II, Cu (II and Zn (II chloro complexes, ML2X2 are reported. The ligands and the complexes have been characterized by various physical-chemical techniques such as elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared and electronic spectra. The spectral analysis to ascertain mode of bonding and overall geometry of the complexes revealed octahedral geometries.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, DNA interaction and biological activities of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with [(1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylimino)methyl]naphthalene-2-ol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed; El-Wakiel, Nadia A.; El-Ghamry, Hoda; Fathalla, Shaimaa K.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of [(1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylimino)methyl]naphthalene-2-ol have been synthesized. The structure of complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements and spectral (IR, 1H NMR, EI-mass, UV-Vis and ESR), and thermal studies. The results showed that the chloro and nitrato Cu(II) complexes have octahedral geometry while Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes in addition to acetato Cu(II) complex have tetrahedral geometry. The possible structures of the metal complexes have been computed using the molecular mechanic calculations using the hyper chem. 8.03 molecular modeling program to confirm the proposed structures. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the thermal decomposition steps were calculated from the TG curves. The binding modes of the complexes with DNA have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration. The results showed that the mode of binding of the complexes to DNA is intercalative or non-intercalative binding modes. Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pesudomonas aeruginosa), fungi (Asperigllus flavus and Mucer) and yeast (Candida albicans and Malassezia furfur).

  10. Structure and biological properties of mixed-ligand Cu(II) Schiff base complexes as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Li, Jinlong; Fan, Boyi; Xu, Bohui; Zhou, Min; Yang, Feng

    2017-07-07

    We synthesized two mixed-ligand Cu(II) complexes containing different aroylhydrazone ligands and a pyridine co-ligand, namely, [Cu(L1)(Py)] (C1) and [Cu(L2)(Py)(Br)] (C2) (L1 = (E)-2-hydroxy-N'-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide, Py = pyridine, L2 = (E)-2-hydroxy-N'-(phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide), and assessed their chemical and biological properties to understand their marked activity. C2 showed better anticancer activity than C1 in various human cancer cell lines, including the cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell line A549cisR. Both Cu(II) complexes, especially C2, displayed promising anti-metastatic activity against HepG2 cells. Spectroscopic titration and agarose gel electrophoresis experiments indicated that C2 exhibited binding affinity toward calf-thymus DNA and efficient pBR322 DNA-cleaving ability. Further mechanistic studies showed that C2 effectively induced DNA damage and thus led to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and also stimulated mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by reactive oxygen species and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. SynBioHub: A Standards-Enabled Design Repository for Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James Alastair; Myers, Chris J; Zundel, Zach; Mısırlı, Göksel; Zhang, Michael; Ofiteru, Irina Dana; Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Wipat, Anil

    2018-02-16

    The SynBioHub repository ( https://synbiohub.org ) is an open-source software project that facilitates the sharing of information about engineered biological systems. SynBioHub provides computational access for software and data integration, and a graphical user interface that enables users to search for and share designs in a Web browser. By connecting to relevant repositories (e.g., the iGEM repository, JBEI ICE, and other instances of SynBioHub), the software allows users to browse, upload, and download data in various standard formats, regardless of their location or representation. SynBioHub also provides a central reference point for other resources to link to, delivering design information in a standardized format using the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). The adoption and use of SynBioHub, a community-driven effort, has the potential to overcome the reproducibility challenge across laboratories by helping to address the current lack of information about published designs.

  12. Experiment design through dynamical characterisation of non-linear systems biology models utilising sparse grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, M M; Buzzard, G T; Rundell, A E

    2010-07-01

    The sparse grid-based experiment design algorithm sequentially selects an experimental design point to discriminate between hypotheses for given experimental conditions. Sparse grids efficiently screen the global uncertain parameter space to identify acceptable parameter subspaces. Clustering the located acceptable parameter vectors by the similarity of the simulated model trajectories characterises the data-compatible model dynamics. The experiment design algorithm capitalizes on the diversity of the experimentally distinguishable system output dynamics to select the design point that best discerns between competing model-structure and parameter-encoded hypotheses. As opposed to designing the experiments to explicitly reduce uncertainty in the model parameters, this approach selects design points to differentiate between dynamical behaviours. This approach further differs from other experimental design methods in that it simultaneously addresses both parameter- and structural-based uncertainty that is applicable to some ill-posed problems where the number of uncertain parameters exceeds the amount of data, places very few requirements on the model type, available data and a priori parameter estimates, and is performed over the global uncertain parameter space. The experiment design algorithm is demonstrated on a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade model. The results show that system dynamics are highly uncertain with limited experimental data. Nevertheless, the algorithm requires only three additional experimental data points to simultaneously discriminate between possible model structures and acceptable parameter values. This sparse grid-based experiment design process provides a systematic and computationally efficient exploration over the entire uncertain parameter space of potential model structures to resolve the uncertainty in the non-linear systems biology model dynamics.

  13. Liquid metal blanket module testing and design for ITER/TIBER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Cha, Y.; Finn, P.A.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.; Stevens, H.; Turner, L.

    1988-05-01

    A major goal for ITER is the testing of nuclear components to demonstrate the integrated performance of the most attractive concepts that can lead to a commercial fusion reactor. As part of the ITER/TIBER II study, the test program and design of test models were examined for a number of blanket concepts. The work at Argonne National Laboratory focused on self-cooled liquid metal blankets. A test program for liquid metal blankets was developed based upon the ITER/TIBER II operating schedule and the specific data needs to resolve the key issues for liquid metals. Testing can begin early in reactor operation with liquid metal MHD tests to confirm predictive capability. Combined heat transfer/MHD tests can be performed during initial plasma operation. After acceptable heat transfer performance is verified, tests to determine the integrated high temperature performance in a neutron environment can begin. During the high availability phase operation, long term performance and reliability tests will be performed. It is envisioned that a companion test program will be conducted outside ITER to determine behavior under severe accident conditions and upper performance limits. A detailed design of a liquid metal test module and auxiliary equipment was also developed. The module followed the design of the TPSS blanket. Detailed analysis of the heat transfer and tritium systems were performed, and the overall layout of the systems was determined. In general, the blanket module appears to be capable of addressing most of the testing needs. 8 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs

  14. New palladium(II) hydrazone complexes: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyannan, Ganesan; Mohanraj, Maruthachalam; Raja, Gunasekaran; Bhuvanesh, Nanjan; Nandhakumar, Raju; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy

    2016-10-01

    Two new palladium(II) complexes of 4-hydoxy-benzoic acid (5-bromo-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazide (H2L) (1) with triphenylphosphine and triphenylarsine as coligand have been synthesized and characterized by the aid of various spectral techniques. The structure of the ligand and complexes was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The hydrazone ligand acts as a tridendate ligand with ONO as the donor sites and is preferably found in the enol form in all the complexes. The structural analysis of 2 and 3 confirms the square planar geometry of the two complexes. The DNA binding of these complexes and ligand calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by using various methods, which revealed that the compounds interacted with CT-DNA through intercalation. Binding properties of the free ligand and its complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein have been investigated using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic methods which indicated the stronger binding nature of the palladium complexes to BSA than the free hydrazone ligand. In addition, concentration dependent free radical scavenging potential of all the synthesized compounds (1-3) was also carried out under in vitro conditions. Further, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds was examined on a HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, which revealed that complex 2 exhibited a superior cytotoxicity than complex 3 and ligand 1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of copper(II) complexes with 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J.; Suman, A.; Nagashri, K.; Joseyphus, R. Selwin; Balakrishnan, Nisha

    2017-06-01

    Novel series of four copper(II) complexes with 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives (obtained from the Knoevenagel condensate of acetylacetone (obtained from acetylacetone and halogen substituted benzaldehydes) and 2-aminobenzimidazole) were synthesized. They were structurally characterized using elemental analysis, molar conductance, FAB mass, FT- IR, 1H &13C-NMR, UV-Vis., and EPR techniques. On the basis of analytical and spectral studies, the distorted square planar geometry was assigned for all the complexes. The antibacterial screening of the ligands and their copper complexes indicated that all the complexes showed higher anti microbial activities than the free ligands. Superoxide dismutase and antioxidant activities of the copper complexes have also been performed. In the electrochemical technique, the shift in ΔEp, E1/2 and Ipc values were explored for the interaction of the complexes with CT-DNA. During the electrolysis process, the present ligand system stabilizes unusual oxidation state of copper in the complexes. It is believed that the copper complexes with curcumin analogs may enhance chemotherapeutic behavior.

  16. Biological Potential of Halfsandwich Ruthenium(II) and Iridium (III) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Gerd; Mojić, Marija; Bulatović, Mirna; Mijatović, Sanja; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela; Steinborn, Dirk; Kaluđerović, Goran N

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies with the ruthenium(II) and analogous iridium(III) complexes [Ru(η6- p-cymene)Cl2{Ph2PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh-κP}], [Ru(η6-p-cymene)Cl{Ph2PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh- κP,κS}][PF6] (1-4), [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl2{Ph2PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh-κP}] and [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl{Ph2 PCH2CH2CH2S(O)xPh-κP,κS}][PF6] (5-8; x = 0, 1) revealed the high selectivity toward the 8505C, A253, MCF-7, SW480 and 518A2 cancer cell lines. Thus, the cationic ruthenium complex 4 proved to be the most selective one. In case of the neutral and cationic ruthenium complexes 1-4 the caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death was proven as the main cause of the drug's tumoricidal action on 8505C cell line.

  17. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghi, Matilde M; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO 2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD.

  18. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghix, Matilde M.; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. Results The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Conclusions Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD. PMID:27419272

  19. A Bayesian predictive two-stage design for phase II clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambucini, Valeria

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, we propose a Bayesian two-stage design for phase II clinical trials, which represents a predictive version of the single threshold design (STD) recently introduced by Tan and Machin. The STD two-stage sample sizes are determined specifying a minimum threshold for the posterior probability that the true response rate exceeds a pre-specified target value and assuming that the observed response rate is slightly higher than the target. Unlike the STD, we do not refer to a fixed experimental outcome, but take into account the uncertainty about future data. In both stages, the design aims to control the probability of getting a large posterior probability that the true response rate exceeds the target value. Such a probability is expressed in terms of prior predictive distributions of the data. The performance of the design is based on the distinction between analysis and design priors, recently introduced in the literature. The properties of the method are studied when all the design parameters vary.

  20. High-power RF window design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Hodgson, J.; Ng, C.; Schwarz, H.; Skarpaas, K.; Kroll, N.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the design of RF windows to transmit up to 500 kW CW to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. RF analysis of the windows using high-frequency simulation codes are described. These provide information about the power loss distribution in the ceramic and tim matching properties of the structure. Finite-element analyses of the resulting temperature distribution and thermal stresses are presented. Fabrication methods including a proposed scheme to compensate for thermal expansion s are discussed and hardware tests to validate this approach are described. The effects of surface coatings (intentional and otherwise) and the application of air cooling are considered

  1. Embedded SoPC design with NIOS II processor and VHDL examples

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Pong P

    2011-01-01

    The book is divided into four major parts. Part I covers HDL constructs and synthesis of basic digital circuits. Part II provides an overview of embedded software development with the emphasis on low-level I/O access and drivers. Part III demonstrates the design and development of hardware and software for several complex I/O peripherals, including PS2 keyboard and mouse, a graphic video controller, an audio codec, and an SD (secure digital) card. Part IV provides three case studies of the integration of hardware accelerators, including a custom GCD (greatest common divisor) circuit, a Mandelb

  2. Reaction-driven de novo design, synthesis and testing of potential type II kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gisbert; Geppert, Tim; Hartenfeller, Markus; Reisen, Felix; Klenner, Alexander; Reutlinger, Michael; Hähnke, Volker; Hiss, Jan A; Zettl, Heiko; Keppner, Sarah; Spänkuch, Birgit; Schneider, Petra

    2011-03-01

    De novo design of drug-like compounds with a desired pharmacological activity profile has become feasible through innovative computer algorithms. Fragment-based design and simulated chemical reactions allow for the rapid generation of candidate compounds as blueprints for organic synthesis. We used a combination of complementary virtual-screening tools for the analysis of de novo designed compounds that were generated with the aim to inhibit inactive polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a target for the development of cancer therapeutics. A homology model of the inactive state of Plk1 was constructed and the nucleotide binding pocket conformations in the DFG-in and DFG-out state were compared. The de novo-designed compounds were analyzed using pharmacophore matching, structure-activity landscape analysis, and automated ligand docking. One compound was synthesized and tested in vitro. The majority of the designed compounds possess a generic architecture present in known kinase inhibitors. Predictions favor kinases as targets of these compounds but also suggest potential off-target effects. Several bioisosteric replacements were suggested, and de novo designed compounds were assessed by automated docking for potential binding preference toward the inactive (type II inhibitors) over the active conformation (type I inhibitors) of the kinase ATP binding site. One selected compound was successfully synthesized as suggested by the software. The de novo-designed compound exhibited inhibitory activity against inactive Plk1 in vitro, but did not show significant inhibition of active Plk1 and 38 other kinases tested. Computer-based de novo design of screening candidates in combination with ligand- and receptor-based virtual screening generates motivated suggestions for focused library design in hit and lead discovery. Attractive, synthetically accessible compounds can be obtained together with predicted on- and off-target profiles and desired activities.

  3. Copper(ii) mixed-ligand polypyridyl complexes with doxycycline - structures and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosede, Olufunso O; Vyas, Nilima A; Singh, Sushma B; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Kate, Anup; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Khan, Ayesha; Erxleben, Andrea; Smith, Peter; de Kock, Carmen; Hoffmann, Frank; Obaleye, Joshua A

    2016-02-21

    Mixed-ligand Cu(ii) complexes of the type [Cu(doxycycline)(L)(H2O)2](NO3)2, where doxycycline = [4-(dimethylamino)-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide] and L = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, 1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 2), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 3) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 4) have been synthesised and characterised by structural, analytical, and spectral methods. The single-crystal X-ray structures of 1 and 2 exhibited two different geometries, distorted square-pyramidal and octahedral respectively as well as different coordination modes of doxycycline. Complexes 2-4 exhibit prominent plasmid DNA cleavage at significantly low concentrations probably by an oxidative mechanism. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-2) inhibition studies revealed that all complexes inhibit MMP-2 similar to doxycycline which is a well-known MMP inhibitor with 3 being the most potent. IC50 values of doxycycline and 1-4 against MCF-7 (human breast cancer) and HeLa cell lines were almost equal in which 3 showed the highest efficiency (IC50 = 0.46 ± 0.05 μM), being consistent with its increased MMP inhibition potency. The antimalarial activities of these complexes against the chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum NF54 and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 strains reveal that complex 3 exhibited a higher activity than artesunate drug against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 strain.

  4. Novel copper(II) complexes with hydrazides and heterocyclic bases: Synthesis, structure and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Drielly A; Marzano, Ivana M; Jaimes, Edgar H L; Pivatto, Marcos; Campos, Débora L; Pavan, Fernando R; Deflon, Victor M; Maia, Pedro Ivo da S; Da Costa Ferreira, Ana M; Uehara, Isadora A; Silva, Marcelo J B; Botelho, Françoise V; Pereira-Maia, Elene C; Guilardi, Silvana; Guerra, Wendell

    2017-07-01

    Five new copper(II) complexes of the type [Cu(NO)(NN)(ClO 4 ) 2 ], in which NO=4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid hydrazide (4-FH) or 4-nitrobenzoic hydrazide (4-NH) and NN=1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4-4'-dimethoxy-2-2'-bipyridine (dmb) or 2,2-bipyridine (bipy) were synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. The X-ray structural analysis of one representative compound indicates that the geometry around the copper ion is distorted octahedron, in which the ion is coordinated to hydrazide via the terminal nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen, and to heterocyclic bases via their two nitrogen atoms. Two perchlorate anions occupy the apical positions, completing the coordination sphere. The cytotoxic activity of compounds was investigated in three tumor cell lines (K562, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). Concerning K562 cell line, the complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline exhibit high cytotoxic activity and are more active than carboplatin, free ligands and [Cu(phen) 2 ] 2+ . Considering the cytotoxicity results, further investigations for the compounds [Cu(4-FH)(phen)(ClO 4 ) 2 ] I and [Cu(4-NH)(phen)(ClO 4 ) 2 ]∙H 2 O III were performed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that these complexes induce apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB-231 cell line and bind to DNA with K values of 4.38×10 4 and 2.62×10 4 , respectively. These compounds were also evaluated against wild type Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ATCC 27294) and exhibited antimycobacterial activity, displayed MIC values lower than those of the corresponding free ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical design report for the upgrade of the ICD for D-Zero Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, L.; De, K.; Draper, P.; Gallas, E.; Li, J.; Sosebee, M.; Stephens, R.W.; White, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Inter Cryostat Detector (ICD) used in Run I of the D0 Experiment will be inoperable in the central, high magnetic field planned for Run II. In Run I, the ICD enhanced the hermeticity and uniformity of the D0 calorimeter system, improving both missing transverse energy and jet energy resolution. The goals for the Run II ICD are the same. In this document, the physics arguments for maintaining the ICD are presented, followed by a detailed description of the planned design changes, prototype tests, construction, installation, and commissioning of the device for the Run II D0 detector. Estimates of costs and schedule can be found on //DOSERVER2/Operations/Upgrade Project/ subareas available via DZERO's WinFrame Program Manager. This detector is not intended to provide any ''L0'' capabilities (for luminosity monitoring), or to provide any EM coverage in the intermediate region, or to provide additional coverage in the intermediate regions, unlike previous upgrades proposed in this detector region. The ICD upgrade described here maintains most of the Run I capabilities in a high magnetic field environment

  6. Design and fabrication of two-dimensional semiconducting bolometer arrays for HAWC and SHARC-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rennick, Timothy; Shirron, Peter J.; Smith, W. W.; Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2003-02-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC "Pop-Up" Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 × 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 × 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  7. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  8. Technical design report for the upgrade of the ICD for D-Zero Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, L. [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); De, K. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States)], Draper, P. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States)], Gallas, E. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States)], Li, J. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States)], Sosebee, M. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States)], Stephens, R.W. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States)], White, A. [Texas Univ., Arlington, TX (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Inter Cryostat Detector (ICD) used in Run I of the D0 Experiment will be inoperable in the central, high magnetic field planned for Run II. In Run I, the ICD enhanced the hermeticity and uniformity of the D0 calorimeter system, improving both missing transverse energy and jet energy resolution. The goals for the Run II ICD are the same. In this document, the physics arguments for maintaining the ICD are presented, followed by a detailed description of the planned design changes, prototype tests, construction, installation, and commissioning of the device for the Run II D0 detector. Estimates of costs and schedule can be found on //DOSERVER2/Operations/Upgrade Project/ subareas available via DZERO`s WinFrame Program Manager. This detector is not intended to provide any ``L0`` capabilities (for luminosity monitoring), or to provide any EM coverage in the intermediate region, or to provide additional coverage in the intermediate regions, unlike previous upgrades proposed in this detector region. The ICD upgrade described here maintains most of the Run I capabilities in a high magnetic field environment.

  9. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Drugs and Biologics.'' The draft guidance provides sponsors and the review staff in FDA's Center for... guidance gives advice on various topics, such as what aspects of adaptive design clinical trials (i.e... and conducting adaptive design studies, what information to include in the adaptive design for FDA...

  10. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines ( 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on alterations in physiological functions

  11. GB3.0: a platform for plant bio-design that connects functional DNA elements with associated biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Vilar, Marta; Quijano-Rubio, Alfredo; Fernandez-Del-Carmen, Asun; Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Ochoa-Fernandez, Rocio; Ziarsolo, Peio; Blanca, José; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2017-02-28

    Modular DNA assembly simplifies multigene engineering in Plant Synthetic Biology. Furthermore, the recent adoption of a common syntax to facilitate the exchange of plant DNA parts (phytobricks) is a promising strategy to speed up genetic engineering. Following this lead, here, we present a platform for plant biodesign that incorporates functional descriptions of phytobricks obtained under pre-defined experimental conditions, and systematically registers the resulting information as metadata for documentation. To facilitate the handling of functional descriptions, we developed a new version (v3.0) of the GoldenBraid (GB) webtool that integrates the experimental data and displays it in the form of datasheets. We report the use of the Luciferase/Renilla (Luc/Ren) transient agroinfiltration assay in Nicotiana benthamiana as a standard to estimate relative transcriptional activities conferred by regulatory phytobricks, and show the consistency and reproducibility of this method in the characterization of a synthetic phytobrick based on the CaMV35S promoter. Furthermore, we illustrate the potential for combinatorial optimization and incremental innovation of the GB3.0 platform in two separate examples, (i) the development of a collection of orthogonal transcriptional regulators based on phiC31 integrase and (ii) the design of a small genetic circuit that connects a glucocorticoid switch to a MYB/bHLH transcriptional activation module. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  13. A Bayesian predictive strategy for an adaptive two-stage design in phase II clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambucini, Valeria

    2010-06-15

    Phase II clinical trials are typically designed as two-stage studies, in order to ensure early termination of the trial if the interim results show that the treatment is ineffective. Most of two-stage designs, developed under both a frequentist and a Bayesian framework, select the second stage sample size before observing the first stage data. This may cause some paradoxical situations during the practical carrying out of the trial. To avoid these potential problems, we suggest a Bayesian predictive strategy to derive an adaptive two-stage design, where the second stage sample size is not selected in advance, but depends on the first stage result. The criterion we propose is based on a modification of a Bayesian predictive design recently presented in the literature (see (Statist. Med. 2008; 27:1199-1224)). The distinction between analysis and design priors is essential for the practical implementation of the procedure: some guidelines for choosing these prior distributions are discussed and their impact on the required sample size is examined. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Statistical inference for extended or shortened phase II studies based on Simon's two-stage designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjun; Yu, Menggang; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-06-07

    Simon's two-stage designs are popular choices for conducting phase II clinical trials, especially in the oncology trials to reduce the number of patients placed on ineffective experimental therapies. Recently Koyama and Chen (2008) discussed how to conduct proper inference for such studies because they found that inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan used. In particular, they proposed an inference method for studies when the actual second stage sample sizes differ from planned ones. We consider an alternative inference method based on likelihood ratio. In particular, we order permissible sample paths under Simon's two-stage designs using their corresponding conditional likelihood. In this way, we can calculate p-values using the common definition: the probability of obtaining a test statistic value at least as extreme as that observed under the null hypothesis. In addition to providing inference for a couple of scenarios where Koyama and Chen's method can be difficult to apply, the resulting estimate based on our method appears to have certain advantage in terms of inference properties in many numerical simulations. It generally led to smaller biases and narrower confidence intervals while maintaining similar coverages. We also illustrated the two methods in a real data setting. Inference procedures used with Simon's designs almost always ignore the actual sampling plan. Reported P-values, point estimates and confidence intervals for the response rate are not usually adjusted for the design's adaptiveness. Proper statistical inference procedures should be used.

  15. Design of a minimally constraining, passively supported gait training exoskeleton: ALEX II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Kyle N; Stegall, Paul; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a new, minimally constraining, passively supported gait training exoskeleton known as ALEX II. This device builds on the success and extends the features of the ALEX I device developed at the University of Delaware. Both ALEX (Active Leg EXoskeleton) devices have been designed to supply a controllable torque to a subject's hip and knee joint. The current control strategy makes use of an assist-as-needed algorithm. Following a brief review of previous work motivating this redesign, we discuss the key mechanical features of the new ALEX device. A short investigation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the control strategy and impact of the exoskeleton on the gait of six healthy subjects. This paper concludes with a comparison between the subjects' gait both in and out of the exoskeleton. © 2011 IEEE

  16. The Design and Transformation of Biofundamentals: A Nonsurvey Introductory Evolutionary and Molecular Biology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymkowsky, Michael W; Rentsch, Jeremy D; Begovic, Emina; Cooper, Melanie M

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory biology courses amount to superficial surveys of disconnected topics. Often, foundational observations and the concepts derived from them and students' ability to use these ideas appropriately are overlooked, leading to unrealistic expectations and unrecognized learning obstacles. The result can be a focus on memorization at the expense of the development of a meaningful framework within which to consider biological phenomena. About a decade ago, we began a reconsideration of what an introductory course should present to students and the skills they need to master. The original Web-based course's design presaged many of the recommendations of the Vision and Change report; in particular, a focus on social evolutionary mechanisms, stochastic (evolutionary and molecular) processes, and core ideas (cellular continuity, evolutionary homology, molecular interactions, coupled chemical reactions, and molecular machines). Inspired by insights from the Chemistry, Life, the Universe & Everything general chemistry project, we transformed the original Web version into a (freely available) book with a more unified narrative flow and a set of formative assessments delivered through the beSocratic system. We outline how student responses to course materials are guiding future course modifications, in particular a more concerted effort at helping students to construct logical, empirically based arguments, explanations, and models. © 2016 M. W. Klymkowsky et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Life on rock. Scaling down biological weathering in a new experimental design at Biosphere-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    Biological colonization and weathering of bedrock on Earth is a major driver of landscape and ecosystem development, its effects reaching out into other major systems such climate and geochemical cycles of elements. In order to understand how microbe-plant-mycorrhizae communities interact with bedrock in the first phases of mineral weathering we developed a novel experimental design in the Desert Biome at Biosphere-2, University of Arizona (U.S.A). This presentation will focus on the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, six enclosed modules were designed to hold 288 experimental columns that will accommodate 4 rock types and 6 biological treatments. Each module is developed on 3 levels. A lower volume, able to withstand the weight of both, rock material and the rest of the structure, accommodates the sampling elements. A middle volume, houses the experimental columns in a dark chamber. A clear, upper section forms the habitat exposed to sunlight. This volume is completely sealed form exterior and it allows a complete control of its air and water parameters. All modules are connected in parallel with a double air purification system that delivers a permanent air flow. This setup is expected to provide a model experiment, able to test important processes in the interaction rock-life at grain-to- molecular scale.

  18. Realistic modeling of the biological channel for the design of implantable wireless UWB communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hadi; Gosselin, Benoit; Rusch, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    Several emerging medical applications require that a miniature data acquisition device be implanted into the head to extract and wirelessly communicate brain activity to other devices. Designing a reliable communication link for such an application requires a realistic model of the surrounding biological tissues. This paper exploits a realistic model of the biological channel to design a suitable wireless ultra wideband communication link in a brain monitoring application. Two scenarios for positioning the implanted transmitting antenna are considered. The 1(st) scenario places the antenna under the skull, whereas the 2(nd) scenario places the antenna under the skin, above the skull. The propagation characteristics of the signal through the tissues of the human head have been determined with full-wave electromagnetic simulation based on Finite Element Method. The implantable antenna and the external antenna are key components to establish an electromagnetic link between an implanted transmitter and an external receiver. The average specific absorption rate (ASAR) of the implantable antennas are evaluated and compared for the two proposed scenarios. Moreover, the maximum available power from the implanted antenna is evaluated to characterize the performance of the communication link established between the implantable antenna and the external antenna, with respect to spectrum and safety regulations. We show how sensitive the receiver must be in order to implement a reliable telemetry link based on the proposed model of the channel.

  19. Design study of a plasma-loaded CRM using TPD-II machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo

    2007-08-01

    Design study of an experiment for plasma-loaded cyclotron resonance maser (CRM) utilizing TPD-II Machine at NIFS, Japan is described in some detail. The principle of gyrotrons has been believed the CRM instability. However, all the existing linear theories of CRM instability include unphysical modes unstable at infinite values of axial wavenumber that can never be observed experimentally. To overcome the difficulty, we derive and analyze numerically an exact linear dispersion relation of a large orbit electron beam for CRM, and removed the unphysical modes. However, the relation is found to include two principles of cyclotron emission with oscillation frequencies above and below the branch of fast electron cyclotron wave. The former is CRM instability, and the latter is named Chrenkov instability in the azimuthal direction (CIAD). It is noted that the CIAD we found remains only a proposal of a new mechanism for cyclotron emission until the physical existence is verified experimentally. To verify the CIAD, the design study of a plasma-loaded CRM has been carried out. The apparatus consists of two portions installed in the TPD-II: A pair of helical wiggler windings to create a mono-energetic beam with 15 keV and pitch factor V θ /V z ≥1, and microwave circuits including a cylindrical TE 011 mode cavity with resonant frequency 3.45 GHz. For high plasma density n≥1.5x10 11 cm -3 from TPD-II, the CRM instability may be suppressed and the CIAD will take turn. The present experimental study contributes to a deeper understanding and a widened future prospect in gyrotron physics. (author)

  20. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  1. Utilizing subcooled, superfluid He-II in the design of a 12-Tesla tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Baldi, R.W.; Taylor, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    A design study of 12-T yin-yang coils for a conceptual Tandem Mirror Next Step facility has been recently performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Convair Division of General Dynamics. The large magnets have major and mirror radii of 3.7 and 1.5 m, 0.70 x 3.75 m 2 cross section, 46.3 MA turns, and an overall current density of 1765 A/cm 2 , obtained by the use of Nb 3 Sn and Nb-Ti superconductors. Each coil is composed of several subcoils separated by internal strengthening substructure to react the enormous electromagnetic forces. The size of the yin-yang coils, and hence the current density, was reduced by utilizing subcooled, superfluid He-II at 1.8 K for the coolant. This paper reviews the design study, with emphasis on He-II heat transport and conductor stability. Methods are also presented which allow the extension of Gorter-Mellink-channel calculations to encompass multiple, interconnecting coolant channels

  2. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters

  3. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  4. Design of a biologically inspired lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mingxing; Chen, Weihai; Ding, Xilun; Wang, Jianhua; Bai, Shaoping; Ren, Huichao

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel bionic model of the human leg according to the theory of physiology. Based on this model, we present a biologically inspired 3-degree of freedom (DOF) lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation, showing that the lower limb exoskeleton is fully compatible with the human knee joint. The exoskeleton has a hybrid serial-parallel kinematic structure consisting of a 1-DOF hip joint module and a 2-DOF knee joint module in the sagittal plane. A planar 2-DOF parallel mechanism is introduced in the design to fully accommodate the motion of the human knee joint, which features not only rotation but also relative sliding. Therefore, the design is consistent with the requirements of bionics. The forward and inverse kinematic analysis is studied and the workspace of the exoskeleton is analyzed. The structural parameters are optimized to obtain a larger workspace. The results using MATLAB-ADAMS co-simulation are shown in this paper to demonstrate the feasibility of our design. A prototype of the exoskeleton is also developed and an experiment performed to verify the kinematic analysis. Compared with existing lower limb exoskeletons, the designed mechanism has a large workspace, while allowing knee joint rotation and small amount of sliding.

  5. Structural and Computational Biology in the Design of Immunogenic Vaccine Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Liljeroos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is historically one of the most important medical interventions for the prevention of infectious disease. Previously, vaccines were typically made of rather crude mixtures of inactivated or attenuated causative agents. However, over the last 10–20 years, several important technological and computational advances have enabled major progress in the discovery and design of potently immunogenic recombinant protein vaccine antigens. Here we discuss three key breakthrough approaches that have potentiated structural and computational vaccine design. Firstly, genomic sciences gave birth to the field of reverse vaccinology, which has enabled the rapid computational identification of potential vaccine antigens. Secondly, major advances in structural biology, experimental epitope mapping, and computational epitope prediction have yielded molecular insights into the immunogenic determinants defining protective antigens, enabling their rational optimization. Thirdly, and most recently, computational approaches have been used to convert this wealth of structural and immunological information into the design of improved vaccine antigens. This review aims to illustrate the growing power of combining sequencing, structural and computational approaches, and we discuss how this may drive the design of novel immunogens suitable for future vaccines urgently needed to increase the global prevention of infectious disease.

  6. An optimal two-stage phase II design utilizing complete and partial response information separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panageas, Katherine S; Smith, Alex; Gönen, Mithat; Chapman, Paul B

    2002-08-01

    Phase II clinical trials in oncology are performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a new treatment regimen. A common measure of efficacy for these trials is the proportion of patients who obtain a response measured by tumor shrinkage. It is standard practice to classify this response into the following categories: (1) complete response (CR); (2) partial response (PR); (3) stable disease; and (4) progression of disease. Tumor response is then treated as a binary variable whereby patients who achieve either a CR or a PR are considered responders and all others nonresponders. A two-stage design that allows for early termination of the trial if the treatment shows little efficacy such as Gehan or Simon gives equal weight to a CR and a PR. However, a CR, defined as complete disappearance of the tumor, is more likely than a PR to signal an important antitumor effect and result in a survival advantage. We argue that CRs and PRs should be considered separately, and hence we propose a two-stage design with a multilevel endpoint (i.e., CR, PR, and nonresponders). This design is an extension of Simon's optimal two-stage design and is based on a trinomial model. For most scenarios the proposed design results in an improvement in expected sample size compared to Simon's optimal design. Design optimization was performed by a direct search based on enumerating exact trinomial probabilities. Sample size tables are provided for parameter sets commonly used in the oncologic setting. Software is available by contacting the authors.

  7. Physicochemical impact studies of gamma rays on "aspirin" analgesics drug and its metal complexes in solid form: Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological assessment of Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) aspirinate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Sharshar, T.; Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Heiba, Zein K.

    2013-09-01

    Metal aspirinate complexes, M2(Asp)4, where M is Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II) are formed by refluxed of aspirin (Asp) with divalent non-transition metal ions of group (II) and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic measurements (infrared, electronic, 1H NMR, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy). Elemental analysis of the chelates suggests the stoichiometry is 1:2 (metal:ligand). Infrared spectra of the complexes agree with the coordination to the central metal atom through three donation sites of two oxygen atoms of bridge bidentate carboxylate group and oxygen atom of sbnd Cdbnd O of acetyl group. Infrared spectra coupled with the results of elemental analyzes suggested a distorted octahedral structure for the M(II) aspirinate complexes. Gamma irradiation was tested as a method for stabilization of aspirin as well as their complexes. The effect of gamma irradiation, with dose of 80 Gy, on the properties of aspirinate complexes was studied. The aspirinate chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the free aspirin chelate.

  8. Design of a comprehensive biochemistry and molecular biology experiment: phase variation caused by recombinational regulation of bacterial gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation, antibody agglutination test, and PCR analysis. Phase variation was observed by baterial motility assay and identified by antibody agglutination test and PCR analysis. This comprehensive experiment can be performed to help students improve their ability to use the knowledge acquired in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Copyright © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Safety Evalution Report related to the final design approval of the GESSAR II BWR/6 nuclear island design (Docket No. 50-447)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report supplements the GESSAR II SER (NUREG-0979), issued in April 1983, summarizing the results of the staff's safety review of the GESSAR II BWR/6 nuclear island design. The review is carried out in accordance with the procedures for demonstrating the acceptability of the design for the severe-accident concerns described in draft NUREG-1070, NRC Policy on Future Reactor Designs: Decisions on Severe Accident Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Regulation. Supplement 2 also provides more recent information regarding resolution or update of the confirmatory items and FDA-1 conditions identified in SSER 1. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this supplement, the staff concludes that the GESSAR II design satisfactorily addresses the severe-accident concerns described in draft NUREG-1070

  10. Preparation, spectral, thermal, and biological properties of zinc(II) 4-chloro- and 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with methyl 3-pyridylcarbamate and phenazone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujdošová, Z.; Gyoryova, K.; Hudecová, D.; Kovářová, Jana; Halás, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2010), s. 584-591 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : zinc(II) chlorosalicylate * methyl 3-pyridylcarbamate * phenazone * thermal stability * biological properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.754, year: 2010

  11. Preliminary Conceptual Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Mark [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Plasma wakefield acceleration has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider is the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. The existing FACET National User Facility uses part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and positrons. FACET-II is a new test facility to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. It is the only facility in the world with high energy positron beams. FACET-II provides a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique. It will synergistically pursue accelerator science that is vital to the future of both advanced acceleration techniques for High Energy Physics, ultra-high brightness beams for Basic Energy Science, and novel radiation sources for a wide variety of applications. The design parameters for FACET-II are set by the requirements of the plasma wakefield experimental program. To drive the plasma wakefield requires a high peak current, in excess of 10kA. To reach this peak current, the electron and positron design bunch size is 10μ by 10μ transversely with a bunch length of 10μ. This is more than 200 times better than what has been achieved at the existing FACET. The beam energy is 10 GeV, set by the Linac length available and the repetition rate is up to 30 Hz. The FACET-II project is scheduled to be constructed in three major stages. Components of the project discussed in detail include the following: electron injector, bunch compressors and linac, the positron system, the Sector 20 sailboat and W chicanes

  12. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale L. Beach

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic “parts,” students construct a “reporter plasmid” expressing a reporter gene (GFP controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI. In combination with a “sensor plasmid,” the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey and end (post-survey of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05 for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe

  13. Design analysis report: high-integrity container for disposal of EPICOR-II prefilter liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.L.; Reno, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    A high-integrity container has been developed to (a) immobilize the EPIROC-II prefilter liners from Unit-2 of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station, and (b) protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The container is designed for disposal depths to 90 feet in either wet or dry subsurface conditions. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas and function as a water barrier at pressures reaching 45 psig. The container has outside dimensions of 62.5 inches diameter by 84 inches high, and is designed to ensure a 300-year functional life. Its design features multiple barriers that prevent corrosives from penetrating container walls. The multiple-barrier approach provides a 1204-year mean time to total failure, based on an assumed single-event-failure probability of 20%. The multiple-corrosion-barrier concept is supplemented by aluminum hydroxide, which reduces the chemical activity of corrosives potentially arising from chemical decomposition of organic resins in the EPICOR-II prefilter liner. Aluminum hydroxide, an effective amphoteric material, tends to neutralize both acids and bases. An epoxy seal between the lid and container body functions as a barrier against any loss of container contents. Two separate epoxy materials fill the space between the lid and container body; they form a seal, mechanically bonding the lid in place. After curing, this epoxy material has a greater strength than the concrete; thus, the concrete has to fail in order for the lid to loosen

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development (PSD) II. Preliminary design report. Appendix II: supporting data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-10

    The trade studies, calculations, and reports which provide the rationale for design conclusions for the 10 MWe OTEC power system are presented in this volume. These appendices include: (1) system design and optimization model; (2) system off-design performance computer model; (3) seawater system dynamics; (4) system mechanical design studies; (5) electrical design studies; (6) structural design studies; (7) tube cleaner design report and proposed brush test program; (8) heat exchangers: mechanical design; (9) heat exchangers: thermal hydraulic computer model; (10) heat exchangers: manufacturing flow plan; (11) heat exchangers: installation and removal procedures; (12) heat exchangers: stainless steel conceptual design; (13) heat exchangers: cost studies; (14)heat exchangers: materials selection and corrosion; and (15) heat exchangers: quality assurance. (WHK)

  15. Design of CMOS analog integrated fractional-order circuits applications in medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirimokou, Georgia; Elwakil, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design and realization of analog fractional-order circuits, which are suitable for on-chip implementation, capable of low-voltage operation and electronic adjustment of their characteristics. The authors provide a brief introduction to fractional-order calculus, followed by design issues for fractional-order circuits of various orders and types. The benefits of this approach are demonstrated with current-mode and voltage-mode filter designs. Electronically tunable emulators of fractional-order capacitors and inductors are presented, where the behavior of the corresponding chips fabricated using the AMS 0.35um CMOS process has been experimentally verified. Applications of fractional-order circuits are demonstrated, including a pre-processing stage suitable for the implementation of the Pan-Tompkins algorithm for detecting the QRS complexes of an electrocardiogram (ECG), a fully tunable implementation of the Cole-Cole model used for the modeling of biological tissues, and a simple, non-i...

  16. Biological design principles of complex feedback modules in the E. coli ammonia assimilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Koichi; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To synthesize natural or artificial life, it is critically important to understand the design principles of how biochemical networks generate particular cellular functions and evolve complex systems in comparison with engineering systems. Cellular systems maintain their robustness in the face of perturbations arising from environmental and genetic variations. In analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of modular structures within a cell can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. To reveal such biological design, the E. coli ammonia assimilation system is analyzed, which consists of complex but highly structured modules: the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity feedback control module with bifunctional enzyme cascades for catalyzing reversible reactions, and the GS synthesis feedback control module with positive and negative feedback loops. We develop a full-scale dynamic model that unifies the two modules, and we analyze its robustness and fine tuning with respect to internal and external perturbations. The GS activity control is added to the GS synthesis module to improve its transient response to ammonia depletion, compensating the tradeoffs of each module, but its robustness to internal perturbations is lost. These findings suggest some design principles necessary for the synthesis of life.

  17. Intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator designs for the HYLIFE-II fusion power plant using molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The HYLIFE-II fusion power plant employs the molten salt, Flibe, for the liquid jets which form the self-healing 'first wall' of the reactor. The molten salt, sodium fluoroborate then transports the heat from the IHX's to the steam generators. The design and optimization of the IHX's and the steam generators for use with molten salts has been done as part of the HYLIFE-II conceptual design study. The results of this study are described, and reference designs of these large heat exchangers are selected to minimize the cost of electricity while satisfying other important constraints

  18. Mechanical and Biological Interactions of Implants with the Brain and Their Impact on Implant Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanov, Dimiter; Delbeke, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Neural prostheses have already a long history and yet the cochlear implant remains the only success story about a longterm sensory function restoration. On the other hand, neural implants for deep brain stimulation are gaining acceptance for variety of disorders including Parkinsons disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is anticipated that the progress in the field has been hampered by a combination of technological and biological factors, such as the limited understanding of the longterm behavior of implants, unreliability of devices, biocompatibility of the implants among others. While the field's understanding of the cell biology of interactions at the biotic-abiotic interface has improved, relatively little attention has been paid on the mechanical factors (stress, strain), and hence on the geometry that can modulate it. This focused review summarizes the recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms of mechanical interaction between the implants and the brain. The review gives an overview of the factors by which the implants interact acutely and chronically with the tissue: blood-brain barrier (BBB) breach, vascular damage, micromotions, diffusion etc. We propose some design constraints to be considered in future studies. Aspects of the chronic cell-implant interaction will be discussed in view of the chronic local inflammation and the ways of modulating it.

  19. Biological channel modeling and implantable UWB antenna design for neural recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hadi; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rusch, Leslie A; Gosselin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) short-range communication systems have proved to be valuable in medical technology, particularly for implanted devices, due to their low-power consumption, low cost, small size, and high data rates. Neural activity monitoring in the brain requires high data rate (800 kb/s per neural sensor), and we target a system supporting a large number of sensors, in particular, aggregate transmission above 430 Mb/s (∼512 sensors). Knowledge of channel behavior is required to determine the maximum allowable power to 1) respect ANSI guidelines for avoiding tissue damage, and 2) respect FCC guidelines on unlicensed transmissions. We utilize a realistic model of the biological channel to inform the design of antennas for the implanted transmitter and the external receiver under these requirements. Antennas placement is examined under two scenarios having contrasting power constraints. Performance of the system within the biological tissues is examined via simulation and experiment. Our miniaturized antennas, 12 mm ×12 mm, need worst-case receiver sensitivities of -38 and -30.5 dBm for the first and second scenarios, respectively. These sensitivities allow us to successfully detect signals transmitted through tissues in the 3.1-10.6-GHz UWB band.

  20. Teaching Assistant Professional Development in Biology: Designed for and Driven by Multidimensional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Sara A; Long, Tammy M; Ebert-May, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are increasingly responsible for instruction in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Various professional development (PD) programs have been developed and implemented to prepare TAs for this role, but data about effectiveness are lacking and are derived almost exclusively from self-reported surveys. In this study, we describe the design of a reformed PD (RPD) model and apply Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Framework to evaluate multiple outcomes of TA PD before, during, and after implementing RPD. This framework allows evaluation that includes both direct measures and self-reported data. In RPD, TAs created and aligned learning objectives and assessments and incorporated more learner-centered instructional practices in their teaching. However, these data are inconsistent with TAs' self-reported perceptions about RPD and suggest that single measures are insufficient to evaluate TA PD programs. © 2014 Wyse et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Self-consistent QM/MM methodologies for structural refinement of photosystem II and other macromolecules of biological interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sproviero, Eduardo M [YALE UNIV; Newcomer, Michael [YALE UNIV; Gascon, Jose A [YALE UNIV; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is one of the most promising approaches to study the structure, function, and properties of proteins and nucleic acids. However, there some instances in which the limitations of either the MM (lack of a proper electronic description) or QM (limited to a few number of atoms) methods prevent a proper description of the system. To address this issue, we review here our approach to fine-tune the structure of biological systems using post-QM/MM refinements. These protocols are based on spectroscopy data, and/or partitioning of the system to extend the QM description to a larger region of a protein. We illustrate these methodologies through applications to several biomolecules, which were pre-optimized at the QM/MM level and then further refined using postQM/MM refinement methodologies: mod(QM/MM), which refines the atomic charges of the residues included in the MM region accounting for polarization effects; mod(QM/MM)-opt that partition the MM region in smaller parts and optimizes each part in an iterative. self-consistent way, and the Polarized-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (P-EXAFS) fitting procedure, which fine-tune the atomic coordinates to reproduce experimental polarized EXAFS spectra. The first two techniques were applied to the guanine quadruplex. while the P-EXAFS refinement was applied to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

  2. AN INTEGRATIVE WAY OF TEACHING MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY AND PROTEIN CHEMISTRY USING ACTIN IMMOBILIZATION ON CHITIN FOR PURIFYING MYOSIN II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Souza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our intent is to present our experience on teaching Molecular Cell Biology andProtein Chemistry at UNIRIO through an innovative approach that includes myosin IIextraction and purification. We took advantage of the properties of muscle contractionand propose a simple method for purifying myosin II by affinity chromatography. Thisoriginal method is based on the preparation of an affinity column containing actinmolecules covalently bound to chitin particles. We propose a three-week syllabus thatincludes lectures and bench experimental work. The syllabus favors the activelearning of protein extraction and purification, as well as, of scientific concepts suchas muscle contraction, cytoskeleton structure and its importance for the living cell. Italso promotes the learning of the biotechnological applications of chitin and theapplications of protein immobilization in different industrial fields. Furthermore, theactivities also target the development of laboratorial technical abilities, thedevelopment of problem solving skills and the ability to write up a scientific reportfollowing the model of a scientific article. It is very important to mention that thissyllabus can be used even in places where a facility such as ultra-centrifugation islacking.

  3. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy and Cellular Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eGattuso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects.

  4. Nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism: understanding the threat and designing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J D

    1999-01-01

    Today nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) terrorism is a serious issue. The threat of terrorist or rogue states acquiring and using NBC weapons has ushered in a new age of terrorism; an age that is far more dangerous than any previous period. It is an age of terrorism with which no one yet knows how to deal. This article reviews recent trends in terrorism, and identifies groups that have both the potential and the motive to use weapons of mass destruction. In addition, it discusses the design and implemention of effective measures to meet this threat, as well as the role of CISM teams in preparation for, and in the aftermath of, an incident involving NBC weapons.

  5. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of achiral analogs of duocarmycin SA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Kristen; Stewart, Michelle; Madsen, Erik; Le, Minh; Handl, Heather; Brooks, Natalie; Kiakos, Konstantinos; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2005-01-03

    The design, synthesis, as well as biochemical and biological evaluation of two novel achiral analogs of duocarmycin SA (DUMSA), 1 and 2, are described. Like CC-1065 and adozelesin, compounds 1 and 2 covalently reacted with adenine-N3 in AT-rich sequences and led to the formation of DNA strand breaks upon heating. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 against human cancer cells (K562, LS174T) was determined using a MTT assay giving IC(50) values in the low nanomolar. Further cytotoxicity screening of compound 2 conducted by the NCI against a panel of 60 different human cancer cell lines indicated that it was particularly active against several solid tumor cells lines derived from the lung, colon, CNS, skin, and breast.

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of lapachol derivatives possessing indole scaffolds as topoisomerase I inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Qu, Yan; Niu, Bingxuan

    2016-11-15

    A series of novel lapachol derivatives possessing indole scaffolds was designed and synthesized. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these novel compounds was evaluated in Eca109 and Hela cell lines. Almost all the tested compounds showed manifested potent inhibitory activity against the two tested cancer cell lines. Topo I-mediated DNA relaxation activity indicated that these novel compounds have potent Topoisomerase I inhibition activity. The most potent compounds 4n and 4k demonstrated more cytotoxicity than camptothecin and was comparable to camptothecin in inhibitory activities on Topoisomerase I in our biological assay. In addition, the Hoechst 33342 staining method also showed that the complex can induce Hela cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FIMic: design for ultimate 3D-integral microscopy of in-vivo biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrofani, G; Sola-Pikabea, J; Llavador, A; Sanchez-Ortiga, E; Barreiro, J C; Saavedra, G; Garcia-Sucerquia, J; Martínez-Corral, M

    2018-01-01

    In this work, Fourier integral microscope (FIMic), an ultimate design of 3D-integral microscopy, is presented. By placing a multiplexing microlens array at the aperture stop of the microscope objective of the host microscope, FIMic shows extended depth of field and enhanced lateral resolution in comparison with regular integral microscopy. As FIMic directly produces a set of orthographic views of the 3D-micrometer-sized sample, it is suitable for real-time imaging. Following regular integral-imaging reconstruction algorithms, a 2.75-fold enhanced depth of field and [Formula: see text]-time better spatial resolution in comparison with conventional integral microscopy is reported. Our claims are supported by theoretical analysis and experimental images of a resolution test target, cotton fibers, and in-vivo 3D-imaging of biological specimens.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, fluorescence and biological studies of Mn(II, Fe(III and Zn(II complexes of Schiff bases derived from Isatin and 3-substituted-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangamesh A. Patil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of Mn(II, Fe(III and Zn(II complexes have been synthesized with Schiff bases derived from isatin and 3-substituted-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole. The elemental, spectroscopic (Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet-visible, fast atom bombardment-mass, fluorescence and electrochemistry and magnetic studies suggested that the metal complexes possess octahedral geometry. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes exhibit fluorescent properties. The antimicrobial studies of Schiff bases and their metal complexes against various bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis and fungal (Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium chrysogenum species by the minimum inhibitory concentration method revealed that the metal complexes possess more healing antibacterial activities than the Schiff bases. DNA cleavage property of Mn(II, Fe(III and Zn(II complexes revealed the important role of metal ion in the biological system.

  9. Design of Networked Home Automation System Based on μCOS-II and AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the popularity of computers and smart phones and the development of intelligent building in electronics industry, people’s requirement of living environment is gradually changing. The intelligent home furnishing building has become the new focus of people purchasing. And the networked home automation system which relies on the advanced network technology to connect with air conditioning, lighting, security, curtains, TV, water heater and other home furnishing systems into a local area network becomes a networked control system. μC /OS is a real-time operating system with the free open-source code, the compact structure and the preemptive real-time kernel. In this paper, the author focuses on the design of home furnishing total controller based on AMAZON multimedia processor and μC/OS-II real-time operating system, and achieves the remote access connection and control through the Ethernet.

  10. Bottom-up synthetic biology: modular design for making artificial platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sagardip; Liu, Allen P.

    2018-01-01

    Engineering artificial cells to mimic one or multiple fundamental cell biological functions is an emerging area of synthetic biology. Reconstituting functional modules from biological components in vitro is a challenging yet an important essence of bottom-up synthetic biology. Here we describe the concept of building artificial platelets using bottom-up synthetic biology and the four functional modules that together could enable such an ambitious effort.

  11. The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    March John S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II, which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a "single doctor" versus "dual doctor" model of service delivery. A specific goal was to develop and test an easily disseminated protocol whereby child psychiatrists would provide instructions in core CBT procedures recommended for pediatric OCD (e.g., hierarchy development, in vivo exposure homework during routine medical management of OCD (I-CBT. The conventional "dual doctor" CBT protocol consists of 14 visits over 12 weeks involving: (1 psychoeducation, (2, cognitive training, (3 mapping OCD, and (4 exposure with response prevention (EX/RP. I-CBT is a 7-session version of CBT that does not include imaginal exposure or therapist-assisted EX/RP. In this study, we compared 12 weeks of medication management (MM provided by a study psychiatrist (MM only with two types of CBT augmentation: (1 the dual doctor model (MM+CBT; and (2 the single doctor model (MM+I-CBT. The design balanced elements of an efficacy study (e.g., random assignment, independent ratings with effectiveness research aims (e.g., differences in specific SRI medications, dosages, treatment providers. The study is wrapping up recruitment of 140 youth ages 7–17 with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Independent evaluators (IEs rated participants at weeks 0,4,8, and 12 during acute treatment and at 3,6, and 12 month follow-up visits. Trial registration NCT00074815

  12. The biological response to orthopedic implants for joint replacement. II: Polyethylene, ceramics, PMMA, and the foreign body reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Emmanuel; Córdova, Luis A; Lu, Laura; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yao, Zhenyu; Hamadouche, Moussa; Goodman, Stuart B

    2017-08-01

    Novel evidence-based prosthetic designs and biomaterials facilitate the performance of highly successful joint replacement (JR) procedures. To achieve this goal, constructs must be durable, biomechanically sound, and avoid adverse local tissue reactions. Different biomaterials such as metals and their alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites are currently used for JR implants. This review focuses on (1) the biological response to the different biomaterials used for TJR and (2) the chronic inflammatory and foreign-body response induced by byproducts of these biomaterials. A homeostatic state of bone and surrounding soft tissue with current biomaterials for JR can be achieved with mechanically stable, infection free and intact (as opposed to the release of particulate or ionic byproducts) implants. Adverse local tissue reactions (an acute/chronic inflammatory reaction, periprosthetic osteolysis, loosening and subsequent mechanical failure) may evolve when the latter conditions are not met. This article (Part 2 of 2) summarizes the biological response to the non-metallic materials commonly used for joint replacement including polyethylene, ceramics, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), as well as the foreign body reaction to byproducts of these materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1685-1691, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. H.; Allen, C. A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J.

    2004-03-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12×32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450μm.

  14. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, S.H. E-mail: moseley@stars.gsfc.nasa.gov; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C.D.; Harper, D.A.; Phillips, T.G.; Silverberg, R.F.; Staguhn, J

    2004-03-11

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12x32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 {mu}m.

  15. The design and performance of the 384-element imaging submillimeter detector arrays for HAWC and SHARC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, S.H.; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.; Dowell, C.D.; Harper, D.A.; Phillips, T.G.; Silverberg, R.F.; Staguhn, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the performance of the SHARC II detector, a 12x32 array of ion implanted Si pop-up bolometers. This 384 element detector array was built as a prototype for the High Angular Resolution Widefield Camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. We will discuss the design process, the characterization of the detectors, and the performance of the array in the SHARC II instrument. SHARC II is now a facility instrument on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, providing background-limited imaging at 350 and 450 μm

  16. The removal of Cu(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions using cross-linked chitosan-Evaluation by the factorial design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, Antonio R.; Vieira, Eunice F.S.; Oliveira, Iataanderson A. de; Bruns, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    A 2 3 factorial design was employed to evaluate the quantitative removal of Cu(II) and Co(II) on glutaraldehyde-cross-linked chitosan from kinetic isotherms, using chitosan masses of 100 and 300 mg and temperatures of 25 and 35 deg. C. The adsorption parameters were analyzed statistically using modeling polynomial equations and a cumulative normal probability plot. The results indicated the higher quantitative preference of the chitosan for Cu(II) in relation to Co(II). Increasing the chitosan mass decreases the adsorption/mass ratio (mol g -1 ) for both metals. The principal effect of the temperature did not show statistical importance. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters, namely Δ ads H, Δ ads G and Δ ads S, were determined. Exothermic and endothermic results were found in relation to a specific factorial design experiment. A comparison of Δ ads H values was made in relation to some metal-adsorbent interactions in literature. It is suggested that the adsorption thermodynamic parameters are determined by the influence of the principal and interactive experimental parameters and not by the temperature changes alone

  17. Structural, thermal, biological and semiconducting properties of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and VO(IV) complexes of Schiff base derived from resdiacetophenone and S-benzyldithiocarbazate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makode, J.T.; Bhadange, S.G.; Aswar, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    A series of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and VO(IV) complexes with Schiff base derived from resdiacetophenone and S-benzyldithiocarbazate have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moment, IR and electronic spectral studies and thermal analysis. The Schiff base functions as a binucleating tridentate chelating agent and coordinates via the deprotonated phenolic oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and thioenolate sulphur atoms to the metal ion favouring the formation of bimetallic complexes. From dynamic TG data, activation energy and other kinetic parameters have been computed using Freeman-Carroll-Wentworth and Coats-Redfern methods. Electrical conductivity of the complexes have also been studied between 313-473 in pellet forms and the complexes are found to exhibit semiconducting behaviour. The antimicrobial activity of the ligand and its complexes have been screened against various microorganisms and all of them found to be moderately active against the organisms. (author)

  18. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant; Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J; Butler, Matthew J; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km(2) cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions

  19. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  20. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  1. Methodology for designing and manufacturing complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators: prosthetic hand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Bean, E; Das, R; McDaid, A

    2016-10-31

    We present a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators. The methodology is applied to the design and manufacture of a prosthetic for the hand. Real human hands are scanned to produce a 3D model of a finger, and pneumatic networks are implemented within it to produce a biomimetic bending motion. The finger is then partitioned into material sections, and a genetic algorithm based optimization, using finite element analysis, is employed to discover the optimal material for each section. This is based on two biomimetic performance criteria. Two sets of optimizations using two material sets are performed. Promising optimized material arrangements are fabricated using two techniques to validate the optimization routine, and the fabricated and simulated results are compared. We find that the optimization is successful in producing biomimetic soft robotic fingers and that fabrication of the fingers is possible. Limitations and paths for development are discussed. This methodology can be applied for other fluidic soft robotic devices.

  2. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shin-Ming; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella's rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the "brake component" in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each "brake component" were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the "brake component". Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate "brake component" in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains.

  3. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ming Tien

    Full Text Available Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella's rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the "brake component" in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each "brake component" were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the "brake component". Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate "brake component" in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains.

  4. Conceptual design of a biological specimen holding facility. [Life Science Laboratory for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    An all-important first step in the development of the Spacelab Life Science Laboratory is the design of the Biological Specimen Holding Facility (BSHF) which will provide accommodation for living specimens for life science research in orbit. As a useful tool in the understanding of physiological and biomedical changes produced in the weightless environment, the BSHF will enable biomedical researchers to conduct in-orbit investigations utilizing techniques that may be impossible to perform on human subjects. The results of a comprehensive study for defining the BSHF, description of its experiment support capabilities, and the planning required for its development are presented. Conceptual designs of the facility, its subsystems and interfaces with the Orbiter and Spacelab are included. Environmental control, life support and data management systems are provided. Interface and support equipment required for specimen transfer, surgical research, and food, water and waste storage is defined. New and optimized concepts are presented for waste collection, feces and urine separation and sampling, environmental control, feeding and watering, lighting, data management and other support subsystems.

  5. RF Coupler Design for the TRIUMF ISAC-II Superconducting Quarter Wave Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Poirier, R L; Harmer, P; Laxdal, R E; Mitra, A K; Sekatchev, I; Waraich, B; Zvyagintsev, V

    2004-01-01

    An RF Coupler for the ISAC-II medium beta (β=0.058 and 0.071) superconducting quarter wave resonators was designed and tested at TRIUMF. The main goal of this development was to achieve stable operation of superconducting cavities at high acceleration gradients and low thermal load to the helium refrigeration system. The cavities will operate at 6 MV/m acceleration gradient in overcoupled mode at a forward power 200 W at 106 MHz. The overcoupling provides ±20 Hz cavity bandwidth, which improves the stability of the RF control system for fast helium pressure fluctuations, microphonics and environmental noise. Choice of materials, cooling with liquid nitrogen, aluminum nitride RF window and thermal shields insure a small thermal load on the helium refrigeration system by the Coupler. An RF finger contact which causedμdust in the coupler housing was eliminated without any degradation of the coupler performance. RF and thermal calculations, design and test results on the coupler are p...

  6. Reactor costs and maintenance, with reference to the Culham Mark II conceptual tokamak reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Mitchell, J.T.D.

    1977-01-01

    Published designs of tokamak reactors have proposed conceptual solutions for most of the technological problems encountered. Two areas which remain uncertain, however, are the capital cost of the reactor and the practicability of reactor maintenance. A cost estimate for the Culham Conceptual Tokamak Reactor (Mk I) is presented. The capital cost of a power station incorporating this reactor would be significantly higher than that of an equivalent fast breeder fission power station, mainly because of the low power density of the fusion reactor which affects both the reactor and building costs. To reduce the fusion station capital costs a new conceptual design is proposed (Mk II) which incorporates a shaped plasma cross-section to give a higher plasma pressure ratio, βsub(t) approximately 0.1. Since the higher power density implies more severe radiation damage of the blanket structure, the question of reactor maintenance assumes greater importance. With the proposed scheme for regular replacement of the blanket, a fusion power station availability around 0.9 should be achievable. (author)

  7. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Desgin Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M&O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M&O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M&O & DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the

  8. Optimal Continuous-Monitoring Design of Single-arm Phase II Trial Based on the Simulated Annealing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Lee, J. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Simon’s two-stage design is commonly used in phase II single-arm clinical trials because of its simplicity and smaller sample size under the null hypothesis compared to the one-stage design. Some studies extend this design to accommodate more interim analyses (i.e., three-stage or four-stage designs). However, most of these studies, together with the original Simon’s two-stage design, are based on the exhaustive search method, which is difficult to extend to high-dimensional, general multi-stage designs. In this study, we propose a simulated annealing (SA)-based design to optimize the early stopping boundaries and minimize the expected sample size for multi-stage or continuous monitoring single-arm trials. We compare the results of the SA method, the decision-theoretic method, the predictive probability method, and the posterior probability method. The SA method can reach the smallest expected sample sizes in all scenarios under the constraints of the same type I and type II errors. The expected sample sizes from the SA method are generally 10–20% smaller than those from the posterior probability method or the predictive probability method, and are slightly smaller than those from the decision-theoretic method in almost all scenarios. The SA method offers an excellent alternative in designing phase II trials with continuous monitoring. PMID:23545075

  9. Platinum(II/palladium(II complexes with n-propyldithiocarbamate and 2,2′-bipyridine: synthesis, characterization, biological activity and interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Pd(II and Pt(II complexes ([Pt(bpy(pr-dtc]Br and [Pd(bpy(pr-dtc]Br, where bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine and pr-dtc = n-propyldithiocarbamate were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN, molar conductivity measurements, Fourier transform infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and UV–visible techniques. In these complexes, the dithiocarbamato ligand coordinates to Pt(II or Pd(II center as bidentate with two sulfur atoms. The binding of these complexes to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA was investigated using various physicochemical methods such as spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric and gel filtration technique. The experimental results indicate that Pt(II and Pd(II complexes interact with CT-DNA in the intercalative mode. Both complexes unexpectedly denatured DNA at low concentration. Gel filtration studies indicated that the binding of complexes with DNA is strong enough and does not break readily. The cytotoxic activity of these metal complexes has been tested against human cell tumor lines (K562 and revealed much lower 50% cytotoxic concentration (Cc50 less than that of cisplatin. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic, fluorescence properties and biological evaluation of novel Pd(II) and Cd(II) complexes of NOON tetradentate Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omyma A M

    2014-01-01

    The solid complexes of Pd(II) and Cd(II) with N,N/bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L(1)), and N,N/bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L(2)) have been synthesized and characterized by several techniques using elemental analysis (CHN), FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis spectra and thermal analysis. Elemental analysis data proved 1:1 stoichiometry for the reported complexes while spectroscopic data indicated square planar and octahedral geometries for Pd(II) and Cd(II) complexes, respectively. The prepared ligands, Pd(II) and Cd(II) complexes exhibited intraligand (π-π(∗)) fluorescence and can potentially serve as photoactive materials. Thermal behavior of the complexes was studied and kinetic parameters were determined by Coats-Redfern method. Both the ligands and their complexes have been screened for antimicrobial activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study and design of a new over-damped cavity kicker for the PEP II longitudinal feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcellini, F.; Tobiyama, M.; MacIntosh, P.; Fox, J.; Schwarz, H.; Teytelman, D.; Young, A.

    2002-01-01

    PEP-II has been running for several years using drift-tube style longitudinal kickers. They have functioned well at the design current in the HER and LER. Machine upgrade plans for PEP-II have encouraged the analysis and design of cavity kickers for the longitudinal feedback systems in PEP-II. The cavity kicker design is based on the use of an extremely low Q cavity, where the Q of the system is determined primarily by ridged waveguides coupling to external loads. This kicker design has originally developed at LNF-INFN, and is attractive for use at PEP- II to reduce the kicker impedance at frequencies outside the working bandwidth and consequently reduce the strong beam-heating of the structure and the feedthroughs. The cavity-style kicker is also better suited to external cooling, as it is without internal elements which must be cooled through either radiation or conduction out through some path. The design options, including the choice of operating frequency (9/4*RF vs. 13/4*RF), the kicker shunt impedance, the number of external coupling ports (4 vs. 8) and the selection of the kicker bandwidth, are briefly described and three different solutions are proposed. Results are presented estimating the shunt impedance, bandwidth and HOM impedances via the use of the Ansoft HFSS code

  12. Lipophosphonoxins II: Design, Synthesis, and Properties of Novel Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydlová, Gabriela; Pohl, Radek; Zborníková, Eva; Ehn, Marcel; Šimák, Ondřej; Panova, Natalya; Kolář, Milan; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Večeřová, Renata; Fišer, Radovan; Šanderová, Hana; Vítovská, Dragana; Sudzinová, Petra; Pospíšil, Jiří; Benada, Oldřich; Křížek, Tomáš; Sedlák, David; Bartůněk, Petr; Krásný, Libor; Rejman, Dominik

    2017-07-27

    The increase in the number of bacterial strains resistant to known antibiotics is alarming. In this study we report the synthesis of novel compounds termed Lipophosphonoxins II (LPPO II). We show that LPPO II display excellent activities against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including pathogens and multiresistant strains. We describe their mechanism of action-plasmatic membrane pore-forming activity selective for bacteria. Importantly, LPPO II neither damage nor cross the eukaryotic plasmatic membrane at their bactericidal concentrations. Further, we demonstrate LPPO II have low propensity for resistance development, likely due to their rapid membrane-targeting mode of action. Finally, we reveal that LPPO II are not toxic to either eukaryotic cells or model animals when administered orally or topically. Collectively, these results suggest that LPPO II are highly promising compounds for development into pharmaceuticals.

  13. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Reversible Peptidyl FVIIa Inhibitors Rh-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis of Diaryl Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten

    This thesis describes two different projects. The first project deals with the design, synthesis and biological activity of novel reversible peptidyl FVIIa inhibitors (Chapter 1–3). FVIIa was launced as NovoSeven R over a decade ago by Novo Nordisk for the treatment of hemophilia A and B complica......This thesis describes two different projects. The first project deals with the design, synthesis and biological activity of novel reversible peptidyl FVIIa inhibitors (Chapter 1–3). FVIIa was launced as NovoSeven R over a decade ago by Novo Nordisk for the treatment of hemophilia A and B...

  14. Safe design of cooled tubular reactors for exothermic, multiple reactions; parallel reactions—II: The design and operation of an ethylene oxide reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Ptasiński, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    In part I a model and criteria have been developed for the safe design and operation of cooled tubular reactors for multiple reactions of the parallel type. In this Part II the model is extended to parallel reactions with an arbitrary stoichiometry. The results are applied to the industrial process

  15. Verification of annular fuel design code 'CEPTAR'. Verification with the irradiation data of JOYO Mk-II driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Ozawa, Takayuki

    2007-03-01

    Annual fuel design code 'CEPTAR' was verified with irradiation data of JOYO Mk-II driver fuel as part of high burn-up MOX fuel development. To estimate irradiation behavior of JOYO Mk-II driver fuel, the pellet swelling equation evaluated with the PIE data of JOYO Mk-II driver fuel and the PNC316 property equations (swelling and irradiation creep) were added to CEPTAR code. As a result of verification by using the irradiation data of JOYO Mk-II driver fuel, the calculated values with CEPTAR code were in agreement with the observed values from the result of PIEs up to pellet peak burn-up ∼76,000MWd/t. (author)

  16. A two-stage design for phase II trials with time-to-event endpoint using restricted follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Belin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In phase II oncology trials, the use of new cytostatic drugs raises some questions regarding the endpoint. Time-to-event endpoints such as Progression-Free Survival have been recommended and led to new designs. In 2003, Case and Morgan proposed a design based on the comparison of the cumulative hazards at a clinically relevant timepoint. In 2013, Kwak proposed a design based on the one-sample log-rank test. If all the patients are followed from their entry time to the analysis date, the Kwak and Jung’s design leads to a smaller sample size as compared to the Case-Morgan’s design. However, the Case and Morgan’s design requires less information since it only needs to follow every patient during a fixed interval of time. We propose a trade-off between these two approaches that corresponds to an adaptation of Kwak and Jung’s design when the follow-up is expected to be restricted. Our proposal is based on the one-sample log-rank test as the Kwak and Jung’s design but it uses the same follow-up information as the Case-Morgan’s design. Simulation study shows that our proposal allows reducing the sample size as compared to the Case-Morgan’s design (median difference of 23% [15%-33%]. Type I and type II error rates are close to their nominal rates planned in the protocol. A real phase II clinical trial in cervical cancer illustrated the interest of this new design. Thus, our proposal can be recommended as an alternative to the Kwak’s design when patients’ follow-up is restricted.

  17. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE SLOW COOLING DEVICE FOR CRYOPRESERVATION OF SMALL BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, Leonardo Juan; Robert, Maria Celeste; Graf, Daniel Adolfo; Guibert, Edgardo Elvio; Rodriguez, Joaquin Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Slow cooling is a cryopreservation methodology where samples are cooled to its storage temperature at controlled cooling rates. Design, construction and evaluation of a simple and low cost device for slow cooling of small biological samples. The device was constructed based on Pye's freezer idea. A Dewar flask filled with liquid nitrogen was used as heat sink and a methanol bath containing the sample was cooled at constant rates using copper bars as heat conductor. Sample temperature may be lowered at controlled cooling rate (ranging from 0.4°C/min to 6.0°C/min) down to ~-60°C, where it could be conserved at lower temperatures. An example involving the cryopreservation of Neuro-2A cell line showed a marked influence of cooling rate over post preservation cell viability with optimal values between 2.6 and 4.6°C/min. The cooling device proved to be a valuable alternative to more expensive systems allowing the assessment of different cooling rates to evaluate the optimal condition for cryopreservation of such samples.

  18. Design, synthesis, and biological testing of thiosalicylamides as a novel class of calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Ahmed S; Kim, Jin Yung

    2005-07-01

    The current research aimed to investigate the importance of the heterocyclic ring system in the structure of the cardiovascular drug diltiazem for its calcium channel blocking activity. The manuscript describes the design, synthesis, and biological testing of a total of 10 S-(p-methoxybenzyl), N-substituted thiosalicylamides as a series of non-cyclic compounds derived from diltiazem's structure. The new compounds maintained all diltiazem pharmacophores except the thiazepine ring system. In vitro evaluation of the new series for calcium channel blocking effects revealed moderate activities with IC50 values in the range of 4.8-56.0 microM. The data suggest that the ring system is not essential for activity; however, its absence leads to a considerable drop of activity relative to that of diltiazem (IC50=0.3 microM). Compounds of the current series showed optimum activity when the aliphatic alkyl chain on the salicylamide nitrogen is part of a piperidine or piperazine ring system substituted at the terminal nitrogen with a benzyl group.

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Vanillin Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives as Novel Peptide Deformylase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Qiu, Shengzhi; Liang, Li; Hao, Zhixiang; Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Fanfan; Mou, Jie; Lin, Qisi

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease is increasingly hampering human health, which challenge the discovery of new antibacterial target. Peptide deformylase (PDF), a metalloenzyme responsible for catalyzing the removal of the N-formyl group from nascent proteins, was considered as an important target in antibacterial drug discovery. Reported here are the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of vanillin hydroxamic acid derivatives. Analysis of the structure-activity relationships lead to the discovery of compound 8, which exhibits promising antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus foetidus with the MIC value of 0.32 µg/ml, 0.32 µg/ml, 0.16 µg/ml and 0.16 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking study was applied to elucidate binding interaction between compound 8 and PDF, which indicate that compound 8 not only shares the same binding pocket with actinonin, but also has a similar binding pattern. In silico pharmacokinetic and toxicity prediction studies also suggested that compound 8 has a relatively high drug score of 0.80, and has no risk of toxicity. Compound 8 might represent a promising scaffold for the further development of novel antibacterial drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  1. Biologically active Schiff bases containing thiophene/furan ring and their copper(II) complexes: Synthesis, spectral, nonlinear optical and density functional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Özsen, İffet; Alyar, Hamit; Alyar, Saliha; Özbek, Neslihan

    2016-09-01

    Schiff bases; 1,8-bis(thiophene-2-carboxaldimine)-p-menthane (L1) and 1,8-bis(furan-2-carboxaldimine)-p-menthane (L2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1Hsbnd 13C NMR, UV-vis, FT-IR and LC-MS methods. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for L1 and L2 were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The vibrational band assignments, nonlinear optical (NLO) activities, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and absorption spectrum have been investigated by the same basis set. Schiff base-copper(II) complexes have been synthesized and structurally characterized with spectroscopic methods, magnetic and conductivity measurements. The spectroscopic data suggest that Schiff base ligands coordinate through azomethine-N and thiophene-S/furan-O donors (as SNNS and ONNO chelating systems) to give a tetragonal geometry around the copper(II) ions. Schiff bases and Cu(II) complexes have been screened for their biological activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria, those are, Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtitilus, Yersinia enterotica, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pseudomonas by using microdilution technique (MIC values in mM). Biological activity results show that Cu(II) complexes have higher activities than parent ligands and metal chelation may affect significantly the antibacterial behavior of the organic ligands.

  2. Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Sumit [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Krok, Michael [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-02-08

    This document constitutes GE’s final report for the Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration program for DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Award DE-FC02-05CH11349. It contains the final report for Phase I in Appendix I, and the results the work performed in Phase II. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate a Microgrid Energy Management (MEM) framework for a broad set of Microgrid applications that provides unified controls, protection, and energy management. This project contributed to the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program goals by developing a fully automated power delivery microgrid network that: - Reduces carbon emissions and emissions of other air pollutants through increased use of optimally dispatched renewable energy, - Increases asset use through integration of distributed systems, - Enhances reliability, security, and resiliency from microgrid applications in critical infrastructure protection, constrained areas of the electric grid, etc. - Improves system efficiency with on-site, distributed generation and improved economic efficiency through demand-side management.

  3. Application of Central Composite Design in the Adsorption of Ca(II on Metakaolin Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upenyu Guyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metakaolin zeolite-A was synthesized from thermally activated kaolin clay and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction Spectroscopy. The effects of pH (2–10, contact time (10–180 min, initial concentration (5–120 mgL−1, and dosage (0.1–2 g and their interactions were investigated using response surface methodology following a central composite design. Optimum removal (87.70% was obtained at pH 6, contact time 180 min, initial concentration 40.0 mgL−1, and adsorbent dosage 1.0 g by Excel Solver using the GRG solving method. The adsorption data fitted best to the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient R2=0.993 and Chi-square value χ2=4.76. The Freundlich isotherm gave a correlation coefficient R2=0.933 and χ2=37.91. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process was endothermic and not thermodynamically spontaneous. The studied zeolite-A can therefore be used as a promising adsorbent for the removal of Ca(II ions from aqueous solutions.

  4. Design of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A History Driven by Biology to Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenqing; Jiang, Linlin; Xie, Yafei; Liu, Yuqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Guilong

    2015-01-01

    A brief history of the design of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is reviewed. The design of O-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors by structural modification of phlorizin, a naturally occurring O-glucoside, in the early stage was a process mainly driven by biology with anticipation of improving SGLT2/SGLT1 selectivity and increasing metabolic stability. Discovery of dapagliflozin, a pioneering C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitor developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, represents an important milestone in this history. In the second stage, the design of C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors by modifications of the aglycone and glucose moiety of dapagliflozin, an original structural template for almost all C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors, was mainly driven by synthetic organic chemistry due to the challenge of designing dapagliflozin derivatives that are patentable, biologically active and synthetically accessible. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the SGLT2 inhibitors are also discussed.

  5. ABWR-II Core Design with Spectral Shift Rods for Operation with All Control Rods Withdrawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Masanao; Aoyama, Motoo; Anegawa, Takafumi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Sakurada, Koichi; Tanabe, Akira

    2004-01-01

    An innovative reactor core concept applying spectral shift rods (SSRs) is proposed to improve the plant economy and the operability of the 1700-MW(electric) Advanced Boiling Water Reactor II (ABWR-II). The SSR is a new type of water rod in which a water level is naturally developed during operation and changed according to the coolant flow rate through the channel. By taking advantage of the large size of the ABWR-II bundle, the enhanced spectral shift operation by eight SSRs allows operation of the ABWR-II with all control rods withdrawn. In addition, the uranium-saving factor of 6 to 7% relative to the reference ABWR-II core with conventional water rods can be expected due to the greater effect of spectral shift. The combination of these advantages means the ABWR-II with SSRs should be an attractive alternative for the next-generation nuclear reactor

  6. A promising magnetic resonance stem cell tracer based on natural biomaterials in a biological system: manganese(II) chelated to melanin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Jie; Wang, Ling-Jie; Qiao, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Li, Li-Ping; Sun, Jing-Hua; He, Sheng; Xu, Wen; Yang, Xi; Cai, Wen-Wen; Li, Jian-Ding; Wang, Bin-Quan; Zhang, Rui-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Melanin and manganese are both indispensable natural substances that play crucial roles in the human body. Melanin has been used as a multimodality imaging nanoplatform for biology science research because of its natural binding ability with metal ions (eg, 64 Cu 2+ , Fe 3+ , and Gd 3+ ). Because of its effects on T1 signal enhancement, Mn-based nanoparticles have been used in magnetic resonance (MR) quantitative cell tracking in vivo. Stem cell tracking in vivo is an essential technology used to characterize engrafted stem cells, including cellular viability, biodistribution, differentiation capacity, and long-term fate. In the present study, manganese(II) ions chelated to melanin nanoparticles [MNP-Mn(II)] were synthesized. The characteristics, stem cell labeling efficiency, and cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles were evaluated. MR imaging of the labeled stem cells in vivo and in vitro were also further performed. In T1 relaxivity (r1), MNP-Mn(II) were significantly more abundant than Omniscan. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) can be labeled easily by coincubating with MNP-Mn(II), suggesting that MNP-Mn(II) had high biocompatibility. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays revealed that MNP-Mn(II) had almost no cytotoxicity when used to label BMSCs, even with a very high concentration (1,600 µg/mL). BMSCs labeled with MNP-Mn(II) could generate a hyperintense T1 signal both in vitro and in vivo, and the hyperintense T1 signal in vivo persisted for at least 28 days. Taken together, our results showed that MNP-Mn(II) possessed many excellent properties for potential quantitative stem cell tracking in vivo.

  7. Enhancement of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence by copper (II) in flow-injection analysis: optimization by factorial design analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, O.M.; den Nieuwenboer, H.C.M.; Lingeman, H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Holthuis, J.J.M.; Smilde, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (CL) detection was optimized by factorial design analysis in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ions. The carrier stream was a mixture of acetonitrile and an aqueous imidazole solution of pH 7.0. The effect of the metal ions

  8. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 1, 1.0 Introduction; 2.0 plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II tokamak test reactor. Specific topics discussed are the physics objectives for Tiber, magnetics, baseline operating point, pulsed inductive operation, edge physics and impurity control, fueling, disruption control, vertical stability and impurity flow reversal

  9. [Enhancement effect of low intensity ultrasound on biological wastewater treatment system in low temperature and design of application on biological wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yan, Yi-Xin

    2008-03-01

    This work aims to study the enhancement effects of low intensity ultrasound on biological wastewater treatment in low temperature. The activated sludge was irradiated by ultrasound with intensity of 0.3 W cm(-2) for 10 minutes, and then simulated SBR process in 4 degrees C. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and COD were determined to indicate the changes of sludge activity and the removal rate of organic matter after the ultrasonic irradiation in low temperature. Results showed that after ultrasonic enhancement, the sludge activity could be increased by 30%, and COD removal rate could keep the usual level as in the room temperature. Furthermore, the enhancement effect of ultrasonic irradiation was more significant in the low temperature than that in the room temperature. This paper also took the typical municipal wastewater secondary treatment technology and SBR technology as examples to illustrate the design and operation of the enhancement of biological wastewater treatment using low intensity ultrasound.

  10. Recommendations for designing and conducting veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K

    2017-01-01

    The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and sele......The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review...

  11. A randomized two-stage design for phase II clinical trials based on a Bayesian predictive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellamare, Matteo; Sambucini, Valeria

    2015-03-15

    The rate of failure in phase III oncology trials is surprisingly high, partly owing to inadequate phase II studies. Recently, the use of randomized designs in phase II is being increasingly recommended, to avoid the limits of studies that use a historical control. We propose a two-arm two-stage design based on a Bayesian predictive approach. The idea is to ensure a large probability, expressed in terms of the prior predictive probability of the data, of obtaining a substantial posterior evidence in favour of the experimental treatment, under the assumption that it is actually more effective than the standard agent. This design is a randomized version of the two-stage design that has been proposed for single-arm phase II trials by Sambucini. We examine the main features of our novel design as all the parameters involved vary and compare our approach with Jung's minimax and optimal designs. An illustrative example is also provided online as a supplementary material to this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. How to Generate Understanding of the Scientific Process in Introductory Biology: A Student-Designed Laboratory Exercise on Yeast Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Linda T.; Bell, Rebekah P.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy faculty teaching loads and limited funds biology teachers designed certain objectives in order to increase the understandability of the subject matter of the laboratory exercises they write. In relation to these objectives an old "cookbook" laboratory exercise on yeast fermentation is introduced which involve students asking questions,…

  13. Biological Active Cobalt(II and Nickel(II Complexes of 12-Membered Hexaaza [N6] Macrocyclic Ligand Synthetic and Spectroscopic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umendra Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New cobalt(II and nickel(II complexes of 12-membered macrocyclic Schiff - base ligand containing thiosemicarbazone moiety as a part of ring have been prepared having general composition [MLX2] where M = Co(II or Ni(II, L=3,4,9,10–tetra-2-furanyl-1,2,5,6,8,11- hexaazacyclododeca-7,12- dithione - 2,4,8,10 – tetraene, X = Cl-, NO3-, NCS-. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, spectral (IR, electronic, EPR techniques and thermal analysis. Spectroscopic studies suggested a six coordinated octahedral geometry for all the complexes. The IR spectra of complexes suggest that ligand is coordinated to the metal ion through its four imines nitrogen. Conductivity measurements supported the non electrolytic nature of the complexes. The antifungal activities of complexes have been studied against a number of pathogenic fungi under laboratory conditions. The complexes showed good antifungal results. Thermal analysis of reported complexes suggests the absence of water molecule either in or outside the coordination sphere.

  14. Quantitative drug design studies. II. Development and application of new electronic substituent parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, T

    1980-11-01

    New electronic substituent parameters for quantitative drug design were developed from the standpoint of the frontier orbital theory using the extended Hückel method. Each substituent was characterized by three constants (E, Re, I), which were derived from the SOMO (solely occupied molecular orbital) energy and the coefficient of the SOMO hybrid orbital responsible for bonding to the parent moiety. These correspond to the SOMO-SOMO energy difference (E), the resistivity of the path (Re), and the flow intensity (I) respectively, when the frontier electron flow occurs between the standard parent and the substituent. They can be regarded as major factors governing the electronic inductive-field effect of the substituent. As the result of analyses of various kinds of biological data, they were found to be excellent and widely applicable parameters to the structure-activity problems. In this paper, the new frontier substituent constant values for 150 kinds of substituents and 58 kinds of equations to which the new constants were successfully applied are presented.

  15. Design and synthesis of ruthenium(II) OCO pincer type NHC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    well-defined, air and moisture-stable tridentate type bis- phenolate ruthenium(II) N−heterocyclic carbene com- plexes. Herein, we report a full account on our studies of ruthenium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts in the dehydrogenative amide synthesis from alcohols with amines. 2. Experimental. 2.1 General comments.

  16. Novel Study Guides for Biochemistry Meaningful Learning in Biology: a Design-Based Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, C ; Galembeck, E. Costa, C ; Galembeck, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the difficulties for biochemistry learning is the persistence of traditional teaching methods, based on transmission and memorization of abstract and detailed information, usually in a decontextualized way. Such scenario results in surface learning and content reproduction. In order to address these problems, three interventions in a discipline (Metabolism for Biology majors were applied, in the form of innovative teaching tools (study guides. OBJECTIVES: The main goal is to evaluate the impact of these interventions on interest, motivation, and learning of the metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the development, application, and evaluation of two study guides – one created from a problem used as a contextual connection for glycogen metabolism study and another embedding an integrative view based on glutamate metabolism. Both materials were guided by broad themes like evolution, metabolic adaptation, and comparative biochemistry. The development of the study guides combined submicroscopic (molecular and macroscopic (body, environment levels, aiming to motivate reading and discussion. A design-based research with cycles of application and assessment was carried out, by means of classroom observation, grade analysis in written exams, and students’ interviews. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In general, based on in-class student feedback to professors and to the researcher in the interviews, the study guides arouse curiosity and fostered peer discussion. Final average grades indicate a good global performance in all proposed activities. Whole data from study guides’ application in classroom evidenced their impact on interest, motivation, and learning. The strategy of developing problem or integrative situation linking molecular (micro and contextual (macro levels were helpful to foster critical thinking and to value topics of scientific literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis and interpretation of the results point to benefits for

  17. Design and initial performance of SHARP, a polarimeter for the SHARC-II camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Dowell, C. D.; Kirby, L.; Novak, G.; Vaillancourt, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a foreoptics module that converts the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera generation II (SHARC-II) camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory into a sensitive imaging polarimeter at wavelengths of 350 and 450 μm. We refer to this module as "SHARP." SHARP splits the incident radiation into two orthogonally polarized beams that are then reimaged onto opposite ends of the 32×12 pixel detector array in SHARC-II. A rotating half-wave plate is used just upstream from the polarization-splitting optics. The effect of SHARP is to convert SHARC-II into a dual-beam 12×12 pixel polarimeter. A novel feature of SHARP's design is the use of a crossed grid in a submillimeter polarimeter. Here we describe the detailed optical design of SHARP and present results of tests carried out during our first few observing runs. At 350 μm, the beam size (9 arc sec), throughput (75%), and instrumental polarization (<1%) are all very close to our design goals.

  18. Radiation survey of first Hi-Art II Tomotherapy vault design in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Jamema, S.V.; Pai, Rajeshree; Sharma, P.K. Dash; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    A vault as per government-regulation compliance with adequate shielding needs was designed and constructed for Hi-Art II Tomotherapy machine being the first in India. Radiation measurements around this Tomotherapy treatment vault were carried out to check the shielding adequacy of the source housing and the vault. It was mandatory to get this un-conventional machine 'Type Approved' by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. The aim of this paper was to report on the radiation levels measured during the radiation survey carried out for this machine. The radiation levels in and around the vault were measured for stationary as well as rotational treatment procedures with the largest open field size (5 cm x 40 cm) at the isocenter with and without scattering medium. The survey was performed at three locations near each wall surrounding the vault as well. The leakage radiation from the source housing was measured both in the patient plane outside the treatment field and one meter distance from the source outside the patient plane. The radiation levels both for stationary as well as rotational procedures were within 1 mR/h. No significance difference was observed in the radiation levels measured for rotational procedures with and without scattering medium. The leakage radiation in the patient plane was found to be 0.04% (Tolerance 0.2%), while the head leakage was 0.007% (Tolerance 0.5%) of the dose rate at the isocenter. The treatment delivery with Tomotherapy does play safe radiation levels around the installation layout and also passes the leakage criteria as well.

  19. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel peptide MC2 analogues from Momordica charantia as potential anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baowei; Li, Xue; Zhang, Chenyu; Yan, Sijia; Wei, Wei; Wang, Xuekun; Deng, Xin; Qian, Hai; Lin, Haiyan; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-04-21

    Three series of Momordica charantia (MC)2 analogues were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-hyperglycaemic effects. Alanine scanning focusing on the peptide MC2 indicated the importance of the residues proline (Pro)(3), serine (Ser)(6), isoleucine (Ile)(7) and Ser(10) for anti-hyperglycaemic effects. Among the first series of MC2 analogues, peptide I-4 exhibited a better anti-hyperglycaemic effect and was chosen for further modification. A further two series of conformationally constrained analogues were designed by scanning the residues Pro(3), Ser(6), Ile(7), and Ser(10) with an i - (i + 2) lactam bridge consisting of a glutamic acid-Xaa-lysine (Glu-Xaa-Lys) scaffold and a diproline fragment. By screening in normal mice and mice with diabetes mellitus, peptides II-1, II-2 and III-3 showed a significant improvement in anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-oxidative activities compared with I-4. These data suggest that II-1, II-2 and III-3 could be candidates for future treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  20. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ELEMENTS OF PRECISION FARMING SYSTEMS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES BIOLOGIZATION, RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lobkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of practical methods of computer-aided design elements of precision farming systems on the basis of biological function, resource and environmental security for the producers of different specialization, ownership and financial security is the actual direction of development of modern agricultural science. Proposed development, which may serve as a basic programming model, allowing for expanded reproduction of soil fertility through the use of new ways to maximize the amount of phytomass in the agricultural lands, increase soil biological activity and reduce the costs of manufacturing nitrogen on yield formation of crops.

  1. Thermoanalytical investigation and biological properties of zinc(II) 4-chloro- and 5-chlorosalicylates with N-donor ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujdošová, Z.; Györyová, K.; Mudroňová, D.; Hudecová, D.; Kovářová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 1 (2012), s. 167-176 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chlorosalicylate * zinc(II) * nicotinamide derivatives Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  2. Magnetic Field Considerations for the Design and Location of a Diagnostic Neutral Beam Injector for the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Lopez Fraguas, A.; Balbin, R.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam injection system is being developed for the TJ-II stellarator. The principal goal is to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to provide spatial resolution along the plasma minor radius in Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis diagnostics, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies. After summarizing the compact diagnostic neutral beam injector system selected as well as the TJ-II vacuum vessel and coil geometry, we address the sensitivity of TJ-II magnetic configurations to the ferromagnetic materials that shield the ion source and neutralizer tubing of the neutral beam injection system using a popular approach in which the field is approximated via magnetic dipole moments, finally, the scientific and design trade-offs made to minimize the impact are discussed. (Author) 24 refs

  3. Magnetic Field Considerations for the Design and Location of a Diagnostic Neutral Beam Injector for the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Lopez Fraguas, A.; Balbin, R.

    2004-07-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam injection system is being developed for the TJ-II stellarator. The principal goal is to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to provide spatial resolution along the plasma minor radius in Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy and Neutral Particle Analysis diagnostics, while also opening up new opportunities for physics studies. After summarizing the compact diagnostic neutral beam injector system selected as well as the TJ-II vacuum vessel and coil geometry, we address the sensitivity of TJ-II magnetic configurations to the ferromagnetic materials that shield the ion source and neutralizer tubing of the neutral beam injection system using a popular approach in which the field is approximated via magnetic dipole moments, finally, the scientific and design trade-offs made to minimize the impact are discussed. (Author) 24 refs.

  4. The impact of technetium-99m-radiopharmaceuticals' design on their biological behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, D.Lj.; Djokic, D.Dj. . E-mail address of corresponding author: drinaj@vin.bg.ac.yu; Jankovic, D.)

    2005-01-01

    The coordination has a great and not always predictable impact on the in-vivo behaviour of the small molecule into which the technetium-bearing chelate units is integrated. The different valence state of technetium in the complexes with some ligands changes the properties of these complexes, such as physico-chemical parameters and biological behaviour. The change of their biological behaviour has a great impact on quality of imaging study and on radiation dose to the patient. The results of the labelling of DPD and EHIDA with 99mTc(I) and their biological behaviour, in comparison with the same one for 99mTc(III)-DPD and 99mTc(III)-EHIDA complexes, confirmed that different oxidation state of 99mTc make possible forming variety of complexes with quite a different and unexpected biological behaviour. (author)

  5. Strategies of Transition to Sustainable Agriculture in Iran II- Inputs Replacement and Designing Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustainable agricultural development is an important goal in economic planning and human development worldwide. A range of processes and relationships are transformed, beginning with aspects of basic soil structure, organic matter content, and diversity and activity of soil biota. Eventually, major changes also occur in the relationships among weed, insect, and disease populations, and in the balance between beneficial and pest organisms. Ultimately, nutrient dynamics and cycling, energy use efficiency, and overall system productivity are impacted. Measuring and monitoring these changes during the conversion period helps the farmer evaluate the success of the conversion process, and provides a framework to determine the requirements for sustainability. After improving resource use efficiency, replacement of ecological inputs with chemical inputs as second step and redesign of agro-ecosystems is as final step in transition of common to sustainable agriculture. The study was investigated to evaluation of Iran’s agricultural systems status. Materials and Methods Using organic and ecological inputs than chemicals is the second step for transition to sustainable agriculture. This study was performed to assess and measure the status of inputs replacement and agro-ecosystem designing based on ecological principle in Iran. For this purpose, we used 223 studied researches on agronomical and medicinal plants. After, they analyzed based on functional and structural characteristics and then used. Considering to the importance of multi-functionality in sustainable agriculture, in this study we considered the multiple managements for inputs replacement. The using functions in the study were: improving fertility and bio-chemical characteristics of soil, ecological managements of pest and diseases, reducing the energy usage, and increasing biodiversity. Using the organic and biological inputs, remaining the plant residual on soil, using

  6. The Design of a Molecular Assembly Line Based on Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    the biological molecules polyketide synthase and kinesin, and in some embodiments, may employ biomolecules like DNA as components of the system. The...and will demonstrate how one can construct a purely synthetic analogue of a polyketide synthase . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...scaffold in programmed assembly and molecular electronics. It is based on the principles of the biological molecules polyketide synthase and kinesin, and in

  7. Chemical and Biological Defense: Designated Entity Needed to Identify, Align, and Manage DOD’s Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    PAIO) , the analytical arm of the CBDP Enterprise, assessed the physical infrastructure capabilities that support the CBDP Enterprise’s mission and...of the physical infrastructure of the CBDP Enterprise. Page 3 GAO-15-257 Chemical and Biological Defense use threat data and the results...PAIO study made recommendations to address “ physical ” infrastructure capabilities, whereas the 2008 Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP

  8. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  9. OrFPGA: An Empirical Performance Tuning Tool for FPGA Designs, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II STTR project, RNET and its subcontractors are proposing to fully develop an empirical performance optimization tool called OrFPGA that efficiently...

  10. Designer ligands. Part 14. Novel Mn(lI), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of benzamide- and biphenyl-derived ligands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes have been prepared using various benzamideand biphenyl-derived ligands; their structures have been investigated using infrared spectroscopy and it is apparent that, depending on the ligand...

  11. Design and Fabrication of High-Performance LWIR Photodetectors Based on Type-II Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-11

    and strain-balanced InAs1-xSbx/InAs Type- II superlattices for LWIR detection and imaging . After this study, it is expected to achieve a superlattice...persistent surveillance applications. Improvement in material quality and processing technique, as well as evolutionary modifications in device... imaging . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Focal plane array, improved minority carrier lifetime, type II superlattice and infrared 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  12. Design and implementation of an MRP-II system in electronics industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cankat, A Burç

    1991-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1991. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1991. Includes bibliographical references leaves102-104 Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) system is a modern production planning and control method that is relatively new in our country. In today's competitive and continuously improving industrial scene MRP II systems play an important role in increasing produc...

  13. Thermal analysis of the forced cooled conductor for the TF [toroidal field] superconducting coils in the TIBER II ETR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J.A.; Slack, D.S.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER) is being designed to provide nuclear testing capabilities for first wall and blanket design concepts. The baseline design for TIBER II is to provide steady-state nuclear burn capabilities. These objectives must be met using reactor relevant components, such as state-of-the-art current drive schemes coupled with superconducting toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) coils. The design is also constrained to be cost effective, which forces the machine to be as small as possible. This last constraint limits the nuclear shielding in TIBER. Therefore, the TF coils will have a high nuclear heat load of up to 4.5 kW per coil. The cooling scheme and the thermal analysis for this design are presented

  14. Synthesis, Spectroscopy, Thermal Analysis, Magnetic Properties and Biological Activity Studies of Cu(II and Co(II Complexes with Schiff Base Dye Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Amani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three azo group-containing Schiff base ligands, namely 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-nitrobenzene (2a, 1-{3-[(3-hydroxypropyl-iminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzene (2b and 1-{3-[(3-hydroxy-propyliminomethyl]-4-hydroxyphenylazo}-4-chloro-3-nitrobenzene (2c were prepared. The ligands were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, 13C- and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Next the corresponding copper(II and cobalt(II metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the physicochemical and spectroscopic methods of elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and (DSC. The room temperature effective magnetic moments of complexes are 1.45, 1.56, 1.62, 2.16, 2.26 and 2.80 B.M. for complexes 3a, 3b, 3c, 4a 4b, and 4c, respectively, indicating that the complexes are paramagnetic with considerable electronic communication between the two metal centers.

  15. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project

  16. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic, photoluminescence properties and biological evaluation of novel Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes of NOON tetradentate Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, Ayman A.; Badr, Ibrahim H. A.; El-Sayed, Ibrahim S. A.

    2012-11-01

    Novel mononuclear Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes were synthesized from the reactions of Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and anhydrous AlCl3 with neutral N2O2 donor tetradentate Schiff bases; N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L1) and N,N'bis(salicylaldehyde)4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (H2L2). The new complexes were fully characterized by using micro analyses (CHN), FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis spectra and thermal analysis. The analytical data have been showed that, the stoichiometry of the complexes is 1:1. Spectroscopic data suggested tetrahedral and square pyramidal geometries for Zn(II) and Al(III) complexes, respectively. The synthesized Zn(II), and Al(III) complexes exhibited intense fluorescence emission in the visible region upon UV-excitation in methylene chloride solution at ambient temperature. This high fluorescence emission was assigned to the strong coordination of the ligands to the small and the highly charged Zn(II) and Al(III) ions. Such strong coordination seems to extend the π-conjugation of the complexes. Thermal analysis measurements indicated that the complexes have good thermal stability. As a potential application the biological activity (e.g., antimicrobial action) of the prepared ligands and complexes was assessed by in-vitro testing of their effect on the growth of various strains of bacteria and fungi.

  18. Catalytic inhibition of topoisomerase II by a novel rationally designed ATP-competitive purine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chène, Patrick; Rudloff, Joëlle; Schoepfer, Joseph; Furet, Pascal; Meier, Peter; Qian, Zhiyan; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc; Schmitz, Rita; Radimerski, Thomas

    2009-01-07

    Topoisomerase II poisons are in clinical use as anti-cancer therapy for decades and work by stabilizing the enzyme-induced DNA breaks. In contrast, catalytic inhibitors block the enzyme before DNA scission. Although several catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II have been described, preclinical concepts for exploiting their anti-proliferative activity based on molecular characteristics of the tumor cell have only recently started to emerge. Topoisomerase II is an ATPase and uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to orchestrate the movement of the DNA double strands along the enzyme. Thus, interfering with ATPase function with low molecular weight inhibitors that target the nucleotide binding pocket should profoundly affect cells that are committed to undergo mitosis. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel purine diamine analogue as a potent ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II. Quinoline aminopurine compound 1 (QAP 1) inhibited topoisomerase II ATPase activity and decatenation reaction at sub-micromolar concentrations, targeted both topoisomerase II alpha and beta in cell free assays and, using a quantitative cell-based assay and a chromosome segregation assay, displayed catalytic enzyme inhibition in cells. In agreement with recent hypothesis, we show that BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells have increased sensitivity to QAP 1. The results obtained with QAP 1 demonstrate that potent and selective catalytic inhibition of human topoisomerase II function with an ATP-competitive inhibitor is feasible. Our data suggest that further drug discovery efforts on ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitors are warranted and that such drugs could potentially be developed as anti-cancer therapy for tumors that bear the appropriate combination of molecular alterations.

  19. Catalytic inhibition of topoisomerase II by a novel rationally designed ATP-competitive purine analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaeppi Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topoisomerase II poisons are in clinical use as anti-cancer therapy for decades and work by stabilizing the enzyme-induced DNA breaks. In contrast, catalytic inhibitors block the enzyme before DNA scission. Although several catalytic inhibitors of topoisomerase II have been described, preclinical concepts for exploiting their anti-proliferative activity based on molecular characteristics of the tumor cell have only recently started to emerge. Topoisomerase II is an ATPase and uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to orchestrate the movement of the DNA double strands along the enzyme. Thus, interfering with ATPase function with low molecular weight inhibitors that target the nucleotide binding pocket should profoundly affect cells that are committed to undergo mitosis. Results Here we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel purine diamine analogue as a potent ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II. Quinoline aminopurine compound 1 (QAP 1 inhibited topoisomerase II ATPase activity and decatenation reaction at sub-micromolar concentrations, targeted both topoisomerase II alpha and beta in cell free assays and, using a quantitative cell-based assay and a chromosome segregation assay, displayed catalytic enzyme inhibition in cells. In agreement with recent hypothesis, we show that BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells have increased sensitivity to QAP 1. Conclusion The results obtained with QAP 1 demonstrate that potent and selective catalytic inhibition of human topoisomerase II function with an ATP-competitive inhibitor is feasible. Our data suggest that further drug discovery efforts on ATP-competitive catalytic inhibitors are warranted and that such drugs could potentially be developed as anti-cancer therapy for tumors that bear the appropriate combination of molecular alterations.

  20. Design characteristics of the CORRONA CERTAIN study: a comparative effectiveness study of biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis patients”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research has recently attracted considerable attention. The Comparative Effectiveness Registry to study Therapies for Arthritis and Inflammatory Conditions (CERTAIN) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of adult patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Methods/Design CERTAIN uses the existing Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) network of participating private and academic sites in order to recruit patients fulfilling the 1987 ACR criteria that have at least moderate disease activity. Patients starting or switching biologic agents either anti-TNF therapy or a non anti-TNF biologic are eligible for enrollment, depending on the treatment selected by their physician. Enrollment is expected to be completed by March of 2014, and 2711 patients will participate in the study. As of October 7th 2013, 2234 patients have been enrolled. Patient visits and laboratory blood work are mandated every three months for one year. Safety data is collected through one year and beyond. The primary comparative effectiveness endpoint is attainment of low RA disease activity at one year among patients who have been exposed to at least one prior TNF-α inhibitor agent prior to enrollment. Multiple secondary effectiveness and safety endpoints will be addressed by investigating the entire population enrolled (naïve and biologic experienced). Discussion The unique design features of CERTAIN will inform comparative effectiveness and safety questions for choosing biologic agents for the management of RA. PMID:24690143

  1. Design, modeling and control of a pneumatically actuated manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Rongjie; Branson, David T; Zheng, Tianjiang; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2013-09-01

    Biological tentacles, such as octopus arms, have entirely flexible structures and virtually infinite degrees of freedom (DOF) that allow for elongation, shortening and bending at any point along the arm length. The amazing dexterity of biological tentacles has driven the growing implementation of continuum manipulators in robotic systems. This paper presents a pneumatic manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures in some of their key features and functions, such as continuum morphology, intrinsic compliance and stereotyped motions with hyper redundant DOF. The kinematics and dynamics of the manipulator are formulated and identified, and a hierarchical controller taking inspiration from the structure of an octopus nervous system is used to relate desired stereotyped motions to individual actuator inputs. Simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the model and prototype where good agreement was found between the two.

  2. Design, modeling and control of a pneumatically actuated manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Rongjie; Zheng Tianjiang; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G; Branson, David T

    2013-01-01

    Biological tentacles, such as octopus arms, have entirely flexible structures and virtually infinite degrees of freedom (DOF) that allow for elongation, shortening and bending at any point along the arm length. The amazing dexterity of biological tentacles has driven the growing implementation of continuum manipulators in robotic systems. This paper presents a pneumatic manipulator inspired by biological continuum structures in some of their key features and functions, such as continuum morphology, intrinsic compliance and stereotyped motions with hyper redundant DOF. The kinematics and dynamics of the manipulator are formulated and identified, and a hierarchical controller taking inspiration from the structure of an octopus nervous system is used to relate desired stereotyped motions to individual actuator inputs. Simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the model and prototype where good agreement was found between the two. (paper)

  3. La conservación de los dibujos botánicos procedentes del Departamento de Biología Vegetal II de la Facultad de Farmacia

    OpenAIRE

    Tacón Clavaín, Javier

    2014-01-01

    En las páginas siguientes se da cuenta del proceso de limpieza, consolidación y reinstalación adecuada de un conjunto de dibujos originales de especímenes botánicos que se encontraban depositados en el Departamento de Biología Vegetal II de la Facultad de Farmacia de la UCM y que fueron trasladados a la Biblioteca Histórica. Gran parte de los trabajos relatados fueron realizados por alumnos complutenses en el contexto de las prácticas de los estudios de Grado llevados a cabo en la Biblioteca ...

  4. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR, Mark II containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Hsu, C.J.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark II containments (BWR Mark II's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Limerick and Shoreham plants and from other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark II to severe-accident containment loads were also noted. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark II, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Mark II plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of ferrocenyl indeno[1,2-c]isoquinolines as topoisomerase II inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambang, Nathalie; Schifano-Faux, Nadège; Aillerie, Alexandre; Baldeyrou, Brigitte; Jacquet, Camille; Bal-Mahieu, Christine; Bousquet, Till; Pellegrini, Sylvain; Ndifon, Peter T; Meignan, Samuel; Goossens, Jean-François; Lansiaux, Amélie; Pélinski, Lydie

    2016-02-15

    Three series of indeno[1,2-c]isoquinolines bearing a ferrocenyl entity were synthesized and evaluated for DNA interaction, topoisomerase I and II inhibition, and cytotoxicity against breast human cancer cell lines. In the first and second series, the ferrocenyl scaffold was inserted as a linker between the two nitrogen atoms. In the last series, it was introduced at the end of the carbon chain. The present study showed that the ferrocenyl entity enhanced the topoisomerase II inhibition. Most compounds showed a potent growth inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 cell line with the IC50 in μM range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Volume II. A compendium of human factors design data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-04-01

    This document is a compilation of human factors engineering design recommendations and data, selected and organized to assist in the design of a nuclear waste retrieval system. Design guidelines from a variety of sources have been evaluated, edited, and expanded for inclusion in this document, and, where appropriate, portions of text from selected sources have been included in their entirety. A number of human factors engineering guidelines for equipment designers have been written over the past three decades, each tailored to the needs of the specific system being designed. In the case of this particular document, a review of the preliminary human operator functions involved in each phase of the retrieval process was performed, resulting in the identification of areas of design emphasis upon which this document should be based. Documents containing information and design data on each of these areas were acquired, and data and design guidelines related to the previously identified areas of emphasis were extracted and reorganized. For each system function, actions were first assigned to operator and/or machine, and the operator functions were then described. Separate lists of operator functions were developed for each of the areas of retrieval activities - survey and mapping, remining, floor flange emplacement, plug and canister overcoring, plug and canister removal and transport, and CWSRS activity. These functions and the associated man-machine interface were grouped into categories based on task similarity, and the principal topics of human factors design emphasis were extracted. These topic areas are reflected in the contents of the 12 sections of this document

  7. Synthesis, characterization, DFT and biological studies of (Z)-N‧-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)picolinohydrazide and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, T. H.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Metwally, H. M.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.

    2014-03-01

    The picolinohydrazide derivative: (Z)-N‧-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)picolinohydrazide (H2IPH) and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and investigated by using the modern spectroscopic and physicochemical techniques viz. IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis spectrometric methods and magnetic moment measurements. The investigation study revealed that the ligand acts as monobasic tri- and tetradentate in Co(II) and Ni(II) complex, respectively and as neutral tridentate in Cu(II) complex. On the basis of magnetic moment and spectral studies, a six coordinated octahedral geometry is assigned for all complexes. The molecular modeling are drawn and showed the bond length, bond angle, chemical reactivity, energy components (kcal/mol) and binding energy (kcal/mol) for all the title compounds and also NLO for the ligand is shown. The energy gap between the HOMO and LUMO for Ni(II) complex is (-7 eV) which indicates that these compound is a promising structure for photovoltaic devices such as solar cells. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical spectra can be very useful in making correct assignments and understanding the basic chemical shift. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The in vitro antibacterial studies of these complexes screened against pathogenic bacteria proved them as growth inhibiting agents. Antitumor activity, carried out in vitro on human mammary gland (breast) MCF7, have shown that the Co(II) complex exhibited potent activity followed by the ligand, Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes.

  8. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  9. Design of Tokyo Tech nano-satellite Cute-1.7+APD II and its operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroki; Fujihashi, Kota; Inagawa, Shinichi; Miura, Yoshiyuki; Omagari, Kuniyuki; Miyashita, Naoki; Matunaga, Saburo; Toizumi, Takahiro; Kataoka, Jun; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Cute-1.7+APD II is the 3rd satellite developed by the Laboratory for Space Systems at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Cute-1.7+APD II is the current successor to Cute-1.7+APD. This new satellite is based on its predecessor but has some modifications to increase its reliability and robustness against radiation effects, electrical power shortage and so on. The satellite was launched by an ISRO PSLV-C9 rocket on April 28, 2008 and has operated for more than 9 months. Throughout its operation, many missions such as attitude determination and control experiments, scientific observations, photographing and communication experiments have been conducted. In this paper an overview of the Cute-1.7 series and configurations, modifications and operation results of Cute-1.7+APD II are introduced.

  10. A promising magnetic resonance stem cell tracer based on natural biomaterials in a biological system: manganese (II chelated to melanin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu SJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shi-Jie Liu,1,2,* Ling-Jie Wang,1,* Ying Qiao,1 Hua Zhang,1 Li-Ping Li,1 Jing-Hua Sun,1 Sheng He,1 Wen Xu,1,2 Xi Yang,1 Wen-Wen Cai,2 Jian-Ding Li,1 Bin-Quan Wang,3 Rui-Ping Zhang2 1Medical Imaging Department, First Clinical Medical College of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Imaging Department, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, The First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China *These authors contributed equally to the paper Background: Melanin and manganese are both indispensable natural substances that play crucial roles in the human body. Melanin has been used as a multimodality imaging nanoplatform for biology science research because of its natural binding ability with metal ions (eg, 64Cu2+, Fe3+, and Gd3+. Because of its effects on T1 signal enhancement, Mn-based nanoparticles have been used in magnetic resonance (MR quantitative cell tracking in vivo. Stem cell tracking in vivo is an essential technology used to characterize engrafted stem cells, including cellular viability, biodistribution, differentiation capacity, and long-term fate.Methods: In the present study, manganese(II ions chelated to melanin nanoparticles [MNP-Mn(II] were synthesized. The characteristics, stem cell labeling efficiency, and cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles were evaluated. MR imaging of the labeled stem cells in vivo and in vitro were also further performed. In T1 relaxivity (r1, MNP-Mn(II were significantly more abundant than Omniscan. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs can be labeled easily by coincubating with MNP-Mn(II, suggesting that MNP-Mn(II had high biocompatibility.Results: Cell Counting Kit-8 assays revealed that MNP-Mn(II had almost no cytotoxicity when used to label BMSCs, even with a very high concentration (1,600 µg/mL. BMSCs labeled with MNP-Mn(II could generate a hyperintense T1 signal both in vitro

  11. FIX-II scaling calculations for the design of the FIX-loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, P.-Aa.

    1980-01-01

    The reconstruction of the test apparatus FIX is outlined. The FIX test apparatus is located at the Thermal Engineering Laboratory of Studsvik Energiteknik AB. The apparatus is going to be used for investigations of reactor blow down heat transfer phenomena during representative loss of coolant accidents. For physical purposes, the Swedish BWR Oskarshamn II with external recirculation lines has been taken as the model. Performance predictions for the test apparatus are compared with expected BWR performance. The calculations are part of Phase I of the FIX-II project. (Auth.)

  12. Synthesis, biological and physicochemical properties of Zinc(II) salicylate and 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with theophylline and urea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujdošová, Z.; Gyoryova, K.; Kovářová, Jana; Hudecová, D.; Halás, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2009), s. 151-159 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : zinc(II) salicylate * theophylline * urea Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  13. Biologically relevant mono- and di-nuclear manganese II/III/IV complexes of mononegative pentadentate ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baffert, Carole; Collomb, Marie-Nöelle; Deronzier, Alain

    2003-01-01

    ,2-diamine) have been prepared. The crystal structure of the Mn(II)-aqua complex of 1, shows it to be dimeric via (mu-kappaO)-bridging through one carboxylate oxygen atom of each of the two ligands. The non-coordinated carboxylate oxygen atoms are H-bonded to the water ligands on the adjacent Mn ion......Manganese(II) complexes of mononegative pentadentate N4O ligands [Mn2(mgbpen)(2)(H2O)(2)](ClO4)(2) (1), (mgbpen(-) = N-methyl-N'-glycyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine) and [Mn-2(bzgbpen)(2)(H2O)(2)](ClO4)(2) ( 2), (bzgbpen(-)=N-benzyl-N'-glycyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1......-bridged dimanganese(III) and di-mu-oxo-dimanganese(II) complexes, depending on solvent. The [Mn(III)-OR](+), R = H or CH3 complexes are generated in water or methanol, respectively, and are potentially useful spectroscopic models for active Mn-lipoxygenases. In acetonitrile, di-mu-oxo-dimanganese(II) complexes...

  14. EPR interpretation, magnetism and biological study of a Cu(II) dinuclear complex assisted by a schiff base precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kuheli; Patra, Chiranjit; Sen, Chandana; Datta, Amitabha; Massera, Chiara; Garribba, Eugenio; El Fallah, Mohamed Salah; Beyene, Belete B; Hung, Chen-Hsiung; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Askun, Tulin; Celikboyun, Pinar; Escudero, Daniel; Frontera, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    A new Cu(II) dinuclear complex, Cu 2 L 2 (1) was afforded employing the potentially pentatentate Schiff base precursor H 2 L, a refluxed product of o-vanillin and diethylenetriamine in methanol. Complex 1 was systematically characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, emission and EPR spectrometry. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 1 reveals that the copper atom exhibits a distorted square planar geometry, comprising two pairs of phenolato-O and imine-N donors from two different H 2 L ligands. The temperature dependent magnetic interpretation agrees with the existence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the bridging dinuclear Cu(II) ions. A considerable body of experimental evidence has been accumulated to elucidate the magneto-structural relationship in this dinuclear Cu(II) complex by DFT computation. Both the ligand and complex 1 exhibit anti-mycobacterial activity and considerable efficacy on M. tuberculosis H 37 Ra (ATCC 25177) and M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv (ATCC 25618) strains. The practical applicability of the ligand and complex 1 has been examined in living cells (African Monkey Vero Cells). The MTT assay proves the non-toxicity of the probe up to 100 mg mL -1 . A new homometallic dinuclear Cu(II) complex is afforded with a tetradentate Schiff base precursor. EPR interpretation and temperature dependent magnetic studies show that complex 1 has weak antiferromagnetic coupling and DFT computation is governed to explain the magneto-structural correlation.

  15. Biologically relevant mono- and di-nuclear manganese II/III/IV complexes of mononegative pentadentate ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baffert, Carole; Collomb, Marie-Nöelle; Deronzier, Alain

    2003-01-01

    were characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, III-IV and II-III species were electrochemically generated. Thus the new mononegative pentadentate ligand systems display significant flexibility in the range of Mn oxidation states and species...

  16. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both…

  17. The Design and Transformation of Biofundamentals: A Nonsurvey Introductory Evolutionary and Molecular Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Rentsch, Jeremy D.; Begovic, Emina; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory biology courses amount to superficial surveys of disconnected topics. Often, foundational observations and the concepts derived from them and students' ability to use these ideas appropriately are overlooked, leading to unrealistic expectations and unrecognized learning obstacles. The result can be a focus on memorization at the…

  18. Exploring Cystic Fibrosis Using Bioinformatics Tools: A Module Designed for the Freshman Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2011-01-01

    We incorporated a bioinformatics component into the freshman biology course that allows students to explore cystic fibrosis (CF), a common genetic disorder, using bioinformatics tools and skills. Students learn about CF through searching genetic databases, analyzing genetic sequences, and observing the three-dimensional structures of proteins…

  19. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  20. Introduction to Biological Investigations: A First-Year Experience in Experimental Design and Scientific Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Linda C.; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction to Biological Investigations is a course that was developed to introduce the scientific method through practical application. This active, student-centered experience fosters fundamental skills that promote creativity, critical thinking, and scientific-communication. The course has been well received by first-year students, and…

  1. Test results of distributed ion pump designs for the PEP-II Asymmetric B-Factory collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, M.; Holdener, F.; Peterson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    The testing facility measurement methods and results of prototype distributed ion pump (DIP) designs for the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring are presented. Two basic designs with 5- or 7-anode plates were tested at LLNL with penning cell sizes of 15, 18, and 21 mm. Direct comparison of 5- and 7-plate anodes with 18 mm holes shows increased pumping speed with the 7-plate design. The 5-plate, 18 mm and 7-plate, 15 mm designs both gave an average pumping speed of 135 1/s/m at 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} Torr nitrogen base pressure in a varying 0.18 T peak B-field. Comparison of the three hole sizes indicates that cells smaller than the 15 mm tested can be efficiently used to obtain higher pumping speeds for the same anode plate sizes used.

  2. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch II: Biological response of Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall and Coccinella septempunctata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four systems of organic farming of spring vetsch on Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae and Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae population density and the toxicity of several products on predatory insects were studied. The variants were: Control (without using any biological products; combined treatment with Polyversum (biological foliar fertilizer and Biofa (biological plant growth regulator; treatment with NeemAzal T/S (biological insecticide, a.i. azadirachtin and treatment with a combination of NeemAzal with Polyversum and Biofa. Variant V was a conventional farming system in which a combination of Nurelle D (synthetic insecticide, Masterblend (foliar fertilizer and Flordimex 420 (growth regulator was used as a standard treatment. In the organic farming system that included treatment of plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal (azadirachtin, the reduction in A. intermedius abundance was 20.7% when it was applied alone and 24.6 % in combination with the organic products Polyversum and Biofa. NeemAzal achieved a lower reduction in the counts of predatory ladybirds C. septempunctata, from 14.9% (alone to 21.9% (combination. The biological insecticide, applied alone or in combination, was mostly harmless and rarely harmful to A. intermedius. NeemAzal manifested harmlessness to C. septempunctata as its toxic action did not exceed 25%. An analysis of variance regarding product toxicity to A. intermedius and C. septempunctata demonstrated that the type of treatment (the application of insecticides alone or in combination had the strongest effect on product toxicity. Тhe use of neem-based insecticides can be a substantial contribution towards preservation of biodiversity in ecosystems.

  3. 75 FR 17093 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... into class II with special controls will simplify the process of bringing these devices to market. In... costs associated with bringing the devices to market. Thus, the agency proposes to certify that the..., however, relative to the total cost of bringing a medical device to market. The sector of the device...

  4. Design of a peptidic turn with high affinity for HgII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara; Habjanic, Jelena; Sezer, Murat

    2012-01-01

    A four amino acid peptide containing the ß-turn template dPro-Pro in the middle and two cysteines (Cys) in the terminal positions (CdPPC) has been synthesized and its mercury(II) coordination properties studied using different spectroscopic methods. The UV-vis, CD, (199m)Hg PAC, and Raman...... spectroscopic studies indicate the binding of Hg(II) to the two Cys, forming the dithiolatemercury(II) complex Hg(CdPPC). Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry corroborates the 1:1 complex formation. A log K = 40.0 was determined for the formation constant of the Hg(CdPPC) complex using competition...... potentiometric studies. Replacement of the dPro-Pro motif by a Pro-Pro unit generated a peptide (CPPC) capable of forming a similar species [Hg(CPPC)] but showing a lower affinity for Hg(II) (at least 3-3.5 orders of magnitude lower). The introduction of the dPro-Pro motif is crucial to induce the folding...

  5. Bergmann's Rule, Adaptation, and Thermoregulation in Arctic Animals: Conflicting Perspectives from Physiology, Evolutionary Biology, and Physical Anthropology After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Joel B

    2017-05-01

    Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists. More generally, the rules provided strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Supporters of the rules tacitly, or often explicitly, assumed that the clines described by the rules reflected adaptations for thermoregulation. This assumption was challenged by the physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Scholander based on their arctic research conducted after World War II. Their critique spurred a controversy played out in a series of articles in Evolution, in Ernst Mayr's Animal Species and Evolution, and in the writings of other prominent evolutionary biologists and physical anthropologists. Considering this episode highlights the complexity and ambiguity of important biological concepts such as adaptation, homeostasis, and self-regulation. It also demonstrates how different disciplinary orientations and styles of scientific research influenced evolutionary explanations, and the consequent difficulties of constructing a truly synthetic evolutionary biology in the decades immediately following World War II.

  6. Exploring matter through photons and neutrons: from biological molecules to designer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.; Hosur, M.V.; Ramanadham, M.; Godwal, B.K.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding structure-property relationships of naturally occurring materials has been the aim of scientific research for centuries. The discovery of short wavelength x-rays and neutrons in the 20th century provided a means of studying molecular structure. The methodology of x-ray and neutron diffraction has been successfully applied to determine structures of molecules across disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, biochemistry and medicine. Typical applications in physics include study of phase transformations, elasticity measurements, magnetic structure, surface scattering etc. In chemistry, the applications have ranged from routine structure determinations of reaction intermediates or natural products to refinement of quantum chemical parameters of atomic and molecular charge densities. The science of crystallography has had a profound effect on the disciplines of biology and medicine. A whole new discipline and industry was created when the structure of DNA was discovered through x-ray diffraction

  7. Heteroaryl Chalcones: Design, Synthesis, X-ray Crystal Structures and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chalcone derivatives have attracted increasing attention due to their numerous pharmacological activities. Changes in their structures have displayed high degree of diversity that has proven to result in a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study highlights the synthesis of some halogen substituted chalcones 3(a–i containing the 5-chlorothiophene moiety, their X-ray crystal structures and the evaluation of possible biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal and reducing power abilities. The results indicate the tested compounds show a varied range of inhibition values against all the tested microbial strains. Compound 3c with a p-fluoro substituent on the phenyl ring exhibits elevated antimicrobial activity, whereas the compounds 3e and 3f displayed the least antimicrobial activities. The compounds 3d, 3e, 3f and 3i showed good ferric and cupric reducing abilities, and the compounds 3b and 3c showed the weakest reducing power in the series.

  8. Design of Ru(II) sensitizers endowed by three anchoring units for adsorption mode and light harvesting optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobello, Maria Grazia; Fantacci, Simona; Manfredi, Norberto; Coluccini, Carmine; Abbotto, Alessandro; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K.; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis and computational investigation of a class of Ru(II)-dyes based on mixed bipyridine ligands for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. These dyes are designed to preserve the optimal anchoring mode of the prototypical N719 sensitizer by three carboxylic groups, yet allowing for tunable optimization of their electronic and optical properties by selective substitution at one of the 4-4′ positions of a single bipyridine ligand with π-excessive heteroaromatic groups. We used Density Functional Theory/Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations to analyze the electronic structure and optical properties of the dye and to investigate the dye adsorption mode on a TiO 2 nanoparticle model. Our results show that we are effectively able to introduce three carboxylic anchoring units into the dye and achieve at the same time an enhanced dye light harvesting, demonstrating the design concept. As a drawback of this type of dyes, the synthesis leads to a mixture of dye isomers, which are rather tedious to separate. - Highlights: • We designed heteroleptic Ru(II) sensitizers with three carboxylic anchoring groups. • The three carboxylic anchoring groups are essential for high open circuit potentials. • Introduction of the mixed bipyridine ligand increases the dye light absorption. • Computational simulations confirm the three anchoring sites on TiO 2

  9. Design of Ru(II) sensitizers endowed by three anchoring units for adsorption mode and light harvesting optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobello, Maria Grazia; Fantacci, Simona [Computational Laboratory for Hybrid/Organic Photovoltaics (CLHYO), Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Via elce di Sotto 8, I-06213 Perugia (Italy); Manfredi, Norberto; Coluccini, Carmine [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center-MIB-Solar, University of Milano-Bicocca and INSTM, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Abbotto, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.abbotto@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center-MIB-Solar, University of Milano-Bicocca and INSTM, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K., E-mail: mdkhaja.nazeeruddin@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Station 6, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); De Angelis, Filippo, E-mail: filippo@thch.unipg.it [Computational Laboratory for Hybrid/Organic Photovoltaics (CLHYO), Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Via elce di Sotto 8, I-06213 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-02

    We report the design, synthesis and computational investigation of a class of Ru(II)-dyes based on mixed bipyridine ligands for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. These dyes are designed to preserve the optimal anchoring mode of the prototypical N719 sensitizer by three carboxylic groups, yet allowing for tunable optimization of their electronic and optical properties by selective substitution at one of the 4-4′ positions of a single bipyridine ligand with π-excessive heteroaromatic groups. We used Density Functional Theory/Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations to analyze the electronic structure and optical properties of the dye and to investigate the dye adsorption mode on a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle model. Our results show that we are effectively able to introduce three carboxylic anchoring units into the dye and achieve at the same time an enhanced dye light harvesting, demonstrating the design concept. As a drawback of this type of dyes, the synthesis leads to a mixture of dye isomers, which are rather tedious to separate. - Highlights: • We designed heteroleptic Ru(II) sensitizers with three carboxylic anchoring groups. • The three carboxylic anchoring groups are essential for high open circuit potentials. • Introduction of the mixed bipyridine ligand increases the dye light absorption. • Computational simulations confirm the three anchoring sites on TiO{sub 2}.

  10. Use of clearance indexes to assess waste disposal issues for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Sanz, J.; Latkowski, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the waste disposal rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of clearance index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the γ contact dose rate for recycling assessments and WDR as an index for waste disposal considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate CIs using the current international atomic energy agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design

  11. SciDBMaker: new software for computer-aided design of specialized biological databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliss Ismail

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exponential growth of research in molecular biology has brought concomitant proliferation of databases for stocking its findings. A variety of protein sequence databases exist. While all of these strive for completeness, the range of user interests is often beyond their scope. Large databases covering a broad range of domains tend to offer less detailed information than smaller, more specialized resources, often creating a need to combine data from many sources in order to obtain a complete picture. Scientific researchers are continually developing new specific databases to enhance their understanding of biological processes. Description In this article, we present the implementation of a new tool for protein data analysis. With its easy-to-use user interface, this software provides the opportunity to build more specialized protein databases from a universal protein sequence database such as Swiss-Prot. A family of proteins known as bacteriocins is analyzed as 'proof of concept'. Conclusion SciDBMaker is stand-alone software that allows the extraction of protein data from the Swiss-Prot database, sequence analysis comprising physicochemical profile calculations, homologous sequences search, multiple sequence alignments and the building of new and more specialized databases. It compiles information with relative ease, updates and compares various data relevant to a given protein family and could solve the problem of dispersed biological search results.

  12. SECLAF: A Webserver and Deep Neural Network Design Tool for Hierarchical Biological Sequence Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalkai, Balázs; Grolmusz, Vince

    2018-02-27

    Artificial intelligence (AI) tools are gaining more and more ground each year in bioinformatics. Learning algorithms can be taught for specific tasks by using the existing enormous biological databases, and the resulting models can be used for the high-quality classification of novel, un-categorized data in numerous areas, including biological sequence analysis. Here we introduce SECLAF, a webserver that uses deep neural networks for hierarchical biological sequence classification. By applying SECLAF for residue-sequences, we have reported (Methods (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2017.06.034) the most accurate multi-label protein classifier to date (UniProt -into 698 classes- AUC 99.99%; Gene Ontology -into 983 classes- AUC 99.45%). Our framework SECLAF can be applied for other sequence classification tasks, as we describe in the present contribution. The program SECLAF is implemented in Python, and is available for download, with example datasets at the website https://pitgroup.org/seclaf/. For Gene Ontology and UniProt based classifications a webserver is also available at the address above. grolmusz@pitgroup.org and szalkai@pitgroup.org.

  13. Biologically active and C-amidated hinnavinII-38-Asn produced from a Trx fusion construct in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Soo; Son, Seung-Yeol; Bang, In Seok

    2008-12-01

    The cabbage butterfly (Artogeia rapae) antimicrobial peptide hinnavinII as a member of cecropin family is synthesized as 37 residues in size with an amidated lysine at C-terminus and shows the humoral immune response to a bacterial invasion. In this work, a synthetic gene for hinnavinII-38-Asn (HIN) with an additional amino acid asparagine residue containing amide group at C-terminus was cloned into pET-32a(+) vector to allow expression of HIN as a Trx fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The resulting expression level of the fusion protein Trx-HIN could reach 15-20% of the total cell proteins and more than 70% of the target proteins were in soluble form. The fusion protein could be purified successfully by HiTrap Chelating HP column and a high yield of 15 mg purified fusion protein was obtained from 80 ml E. coli culture. Recombinant HIN was readily obtained by enterokinase cleavage of the fusion protein followed by FPLC chromatography, and 3.18 mg pure active recombinant HIN was obtained from 80 ml culture. The molecular mass of recombinant HIN determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer is 4252.084 Da which matches the theoretical mass (4252.0 Da) of HIN. Comparing the antimicrobial activities of the recombinant hinnavinII with C-amidated terminus to that without an amidated C-terminus, we found that the amide of asparagine at C-terminus of hinnavinII improved its potency on certain microorganism such as E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Designing and Performing Biological Solution Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Contrast Variation Experiments on Multi-component Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Solution small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) combined with contrast variation provides information about the size and shape of individual components of a multi-component biological assembly, as well as the spatial arrangements between the components. The large difference in the neutron scattering properties between hydrogen and deuterium is key to the method. Isotopic substitution of deuterium for some or all of the hydrogen in either the molecule or the solvent can greatly alter the scattering properties of the biological assembly, often with little or no change to its biochemical properties. Thus, SANS with contrast variation provides unique information not easily obtained using other experimental techniques.If used correctly, SANS with contrast variation is a powerful tool for determining the solution structure of multi-component biological assemblies. This chapter discusses the principles of SANS theory that are important for contrast variation, essential considerations for experiment design and execution, and the proper approach to data analysis and structure modeling. As sample quality is extremely important for a successful contrast variation experiment, sample issues that can affect the outcome of the experiment are discussed as well as procedures used to verify the sample quality. The described methodology is focused on two-component biological complexes. However, examples of its use for multi-component assemblies are also discussed.

  15. Mononuclear Pd(II) complex as a new therapeutic agent: Synthesis, characterization, biological activity, spectral and DNA binding approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidifar, Maryam; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Ahmadi Nasab, Navid; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    The binding ability between a new water-soluble palladium(II) complex [Pd(bpy)(bez-dtc)]Cl (where bpy is 2,2‧-bipyridine and bez-dtc is benzyl dithiocarbamate), as an antitumor agent, and calf thymus DNA was evaluated using various physicochemical methods, such as UV-Vis absorption, Competitive fluorescence studies, viscosity measurement, zeta potential and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The Pd(II) complex was synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurements, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and electronic spectra studies. The anticancer activity against HeLa cell lines demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than cisplatin. The binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters were determined at different temperatures (300 K, 310 K and 320 K) and shown that the complex can bind to DNA via electrostatic forces. Furthermore, this result was confirmed by the viscosity and zeta potential measurements. The CD spectral results demonstrated that the binding of Pd(II) complex to DNA induced conformational changes in DNA. We hope that these results will provide a basis for further studies and practical clinical use of anticancer drugs.

  16. Irregular designs and Darwinism in biology: Genomes as the test case

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B J Rao

    -living worlds) in fact has created a mid-way solution to this 'quandary' of irregular designs by offering recursive periodicity and/or symmetry even within 'irregular shapes'. While symmetry in irregular designs was long appreciated by mankind, ...

  17. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Frank

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  18. Design-Based Learning for Biology: Genetic Engineering Experience Improves Understanding of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Brinker, Rebecca A.; Vernacchio, Vincent J.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression is a difficult topic for students to learn and comprehend, at least partially because it involves various biochemical structures and processes occurring at the microscopic level. Designer Bacteria, a design-based learning (DBL) unit for high-school students, applies principles of DBL to the teaching of gene expression. Throughout…

  19. G‐LoSA: An efficient computational tool for local structure‐centric biological studies and drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Molecular recognition by protein mostly occurs in a local region on the protein surface. Thus, an efficient computational method for accurate characterization of protein local structural conservation is necessary to better understand biology and drug design. We present a novel local structure alignment tool, G‐LoSA. G‐LoSA aligns protein local structures in a sequence order independent way and provides a GA‐score, a chemical feature‐based and size‐independent structure similarity score. Our benchmark validation shows the robust performance of G‐LoSA to the local structures of diverse sizes and characteristics, demonstrating its universal applicability to local structure‐centric comparative biology studies. In particular, G‐LoSA is highly effective in detecting conserved local regions on the entire surface of a given protein. In addition, the applications of G‐LoSA to identifying template ligands and predicting ligand and protein binding sites illustrate its strong potential for computer‐aided drug design. We hope that G‐LoSA can be a useful computational method for exploring interesting biological problems through large‐scale comparison of protein local structures and facilitating drug discovery research and development. G‐LoSA is freely available to academic users at http://im.compbio.ku.edu/GLoSA/. PMID:26813336

  20. G-LoSA: An efficient computational tool for local structure-centric biological studies and drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil

    2016-04-01

    Molecular recognition by protein mostly occurs in a local region on the protein surface. Thus, an efficient computational method for accurate characterization of protein local structural conservation is necessary to better understand biology and drug design. We present a novel local structure alignment tool, G-LoSA. G-LoSA aligns protein local structures in a sequence order independent way and provides a GA-score, a chemical feature-based and size-independent structure similarity score. Our benchmark validation shows the robust performance of G-LoSA to the local structures of diverse sizes and characteristics, demonstrating its universal applicability to local structure-centric comparative biology studies. In particular, G-LoSA is highly effective in detecting conserved local regions on the entire surface of a given protein. In addition, the applications of G-LoSA to identifying template ligands and predicting ligand and protein binding sites illustrate its strong potential for computer-aided drug design. We hope that G-LoSA can be a useful computational method for exploring interesting biological problems through large-scale comparison of protein local structures and facilitating drug discovery research and development. G-LoSA is freely available to academic users at http://im.compbio.ku.edu/GLoSA/. © 2016 The Protein Society.