WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological corridors

  1. Mediating factors of land use change among coffee farmers in a biological corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand

    2012-01-01

    Trees in agricultural landscapes are important for the provision of environmental services. This study assesses the loss of shade coffee during a 9 year period in a biological corridor in Costa Rica, and investigates the mediating factors of land use change. Following a conceptual framework...... that presents how household and farm characteristics mediate the interplay between underlying and proximate causes of land use change, the effect of the mediating factors is determined by applying an ordered probit model to household and land use data for 2000 and 2009 from 217 former and present coffee farmers....... Additional 224 telephone interviews supplement the data on land use change. Results show a 50% reduction in the coffee area and a corresponding loss of trees. Family labor, age of household head, coffee prices, and use of shade tree products significantly reduce the probability of converting the coffee field...

  2. Consequences of Environmental Service Payments for Forest Retention and Recruitment in a Costa Rican Biological Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Hollenhorst

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Compensation to landowners for forest-derived environmental services has gained international recognition as a mechanism to combat forest loss and fragmentation. This approach is widely promoted, although there is little evidence demonstrating that environmental service payments encourage forest stewardship and conservation. Costa Rica provides a unique case study in which a 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited forest conversion to other land uses. We examined these novel policies to determine their influence on landowner decisions that affect forest change, carbon services, and connectivity in a 2425 km² biological corridor. We used Landsat images to compare land-cover changes before and after 1996, and linked these data to landowner surveys investigating land-use decisions. Carbon stocks and storage in secondary forests were also examined. Forest change observations were corroborated by landowner survey data, indicating that the 1996 Forestry Law and environmental service payments contributed positively to forest retention and recruitment. Socioeconomic conditions also favored forest protection. Rates of natural forest loss declined from -1.43% to -0.10%/yr after 1996. Forest cover and connectivity were maintained through tree plantations and secondary forest recruitment, although forest heterogeneity increased as these forest types sometimes replaced natural forest. Carbon storage in secondary forest approached levels in primary forest after 25–30 yr of succession, although few landowners retained natural regeneration. Secondary forests will persist as minor landscape components without legal or financial incentives. The Costa Rican experience provides evidence that environmental service payments can be effective in retaining natural forest and recruiting tree cover within biological corridors.

  3. A Regional Monitoring and Visualization System for Decision Support and Disaster Management Applications for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC)-a network of managed and protected areas extending from Mexico to Columbia-is a crucial initiative for the Mesoamerican region, with a central development concept of integrating conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity within the framework of sustainable economic development. The MBC is of particular importance to the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), which is comprised of the environmental ministers from the seven Central American countries. Responsible for determining priority areas for action in the corridor, CCAD decision makers require current and accurate information, and access to the dynamic knowledge of the changes in the MBC such as deforestation hotspots, fires, and the effects of natural disasters. Currently this information is not integrated and in disparate locations throughout the region and the world. Leveraging NASA technology, satellite data, and capability, we propose to team with the World Bank and the CCAD to develop a regional monitoring and visualization system-with central nodes at the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and at CCAD headquarters. This system will assimilate NASA spatial datasets (e.g. MODIS, Landsat, etc.), spatial data from other sources (commercial and public-domain), and ancillary data developed in each of the seven Central American countries (soils, transportation networks, biodiversity indicator maps, etc.). The system will function as a "virtual dashboard" for monitoring the MBC and provide the critical decision support tools for CCAD decision makers. The CCAD central node will also serve as a high-tech showcase for the corridor among the international community, other decision-makers, the media, and students.

  4. A preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor for protecting potential Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) habitat in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Eduardo; Fuller, Trevon L; Thomassen, Henri A; Buermann, Wolfgang; Ramírez-Mejía, Diana; Smith, Thomas B

    2013-03-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is one of the most emblematic mammals of Mesoamerica, but like other large-bodied animals, it is facing an increasing risk of extinction due primarily to habitat loss. Mexico's 'ortion of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC-M) is located in one of the main strongholds for Bairds tapir. To assess the MBC-M's effectiveness for tapir conservation, we estimated the distribution of the species' potential habitat by applying 2 modelling approaches (random forest and Maxent) to a set of uncorrelated environmental variables and a 157-point presence dataset. We calculated the extent of tapir habitat in within the MBC-M and modelled new corridors and conservation areas, which we compared to the MBC-M. Moreover, we assessed deforestation patterns in the region. Twenty-seven percent of highly suitable tapir habitat occurred in protected areas, 15% in corridors and 58.3% was outside the MBC-M and associated reserves. The spatial configuration of the MBC-M was partially concordant with the modelled set of conservation areas and corridors. The main dissimilarity was that the modelled corridors traversed forests in Belize and Guatemala to connect conservation areas. Analyses of deforestation since 1993 and human population density in the vicinity of the MBC-M indicated that future conservation efforts should give particular attention to the Montes Azules-El Triunfo Corridor due to greater habitat threat. The MBC-M has a great potential to play a prominent role in the conservation of tapir habitat but there is an urgent need to implement management plans that reinforce and complement this conservation initiative.

  5. Sahara: Barrier or corridor? Nonmetric cranial traits and biological affinities of North African late Holocene populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2012-02-01

    The Garamantes flourished in southwestern Libya, in the core of the Sahara Desert ~3,000 years ago and largely controlled trans-Saharan trade. Their biological affinities to other North African populations, including the Egyptian, Algerian, Tunisian and Sudanese, roughly contemporary to them, are examined by means of cranial nonmetric traits using the Mean Measure of Divergence and Mahalanobis D(2) distance. The aim is to shed light on the extent to which the Sahara Desert inhibited extensive population movements and gene flow. Our results show that the Garamantes possess distant affinities to their neighbors. This relationship may be due to the Central Sahara forming a barrier among groups, despite the archaeological evidence for extended networks of contact. The role of the Sahara as a barrier is further corroborated by the significant correlation between the Mahalanobis D(2) distance and geographic distance between the Garamantes and the other populations under study. In contrast, no clear pattern was observed when all North African populations were examined, indicating that there was no uniform gene flow in the region.

  6. Upper Kenai Corridor Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai Corridor study describes and evaluates the Upper Kenai River and the land which embraces it. It also places the river corridor in its regional...

  7. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...

  8. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  9. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  10. A geospatial data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity in Costa Rica's San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnie, Steven E.

    Landcover change has substantially reduced the amount of tropical rain forest since the 1950s. Little is known about the extent of remaining forest types. A multivariate analysis of 144 forest plots across Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor resulted in eight floristically defined old-growth forest categories. Spectral separability was tested between categories using Landsat TM bands and vegetation indices for old-growth types, palm swamps, tree plantations and regrowth. Image filtering and NDVI increased spectral separability among categories by 30%. Separability tests resulted in seven well-discriminated forest categories. Factors driving forest beta-diversity are not well quantified for wet tropical environments. We examined the relationship between rain forest composition and environmental variation for a 3000 km2 area in northeastern Costa Rica. Mid- to upper-canopy tree species abundance and soil characteristics were measured from 127, 0.25-ha plots across Caribbean lowlands and foothills. Partial Mantel tests produced significant correlations between floristic distance and soil, terrain, and climate variables controlling the effects of geographical distance. Niche-factors showed a significant trend with forest composition more than dispersal limitation or disturbance related factors. Variables such as terrain features, climatic variation and Landsat TM bands associated with forest composition were assessed with two decision tree models. Thirty-two landcover types were compared for a 15-year time interval. Ten were floristic alliances from a cluster analysis of forest plots and wetland categories. A subset of 12 spectral and spatial predictor variables produced accuracies of 93%+/-7% and 83%+/-15% for QUEST and CRUISE classifiers, respectively. The QUEST classifier was accurate for habitat mapping and change detection important to biodiversity monitoring objectives. A 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited

  11. The Corridor Chronicles. Integrated perspectives on European transport corridor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to clarify the added value of an integrated perspective on corridor development in Europe. For many years, knowledge on corridors has been developed in a sectoral, technocratic manner, despite a growing call for an integrated analysis of corridor issues. The integration argume

  12. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  13. Green corridors and network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the relation between the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and the green corridor concept. First, the need is established for a corridor governance structure that enables the close cooperation among the numerous stakeholders from both the public...... and private sectors engaged in all corridor related issues ranging from network design to the provision of integrated logistical solutions. The governance scheme of the recently introduced TEN-T core network corridors seems to fulfil this requirement. Following a brief history of TEN-T development, the 2013...... major overhaul of the EU transportation infrastructure policy is outlined and the basic differences with the past are pinpointed. The provisions of the new TEN-T Guidelines are scrutinized so as to check whether the TEN-T core network corridors exhibit the characteristics of a green corridor...

  14. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  15. A Green Corridor Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green transport corridors represent trans-shipment routes with a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and long distances of transport marked by reduced environmental and climate impact. Important characteristics of green corridors are their network structures, their transnational character and their high involvement of public and private stakeholders, including political level requiring new governance models. Network-oriented controlling of green transport corridors require new concepts and instruments concentrating on multi-dimensional evaluation of collective strategies and processes in an international environment with a focus on cross-company aspects.

  16. Mirmecofauna asociada con sistemas agroforestales en el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano en Tabasco, México Mirmecofauna associated with agroforestry systems in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A. González-Valdivia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la riqueza, la abundancia y la distribución de hormigas como indicadores para monitoreo ecológico en los sistemas agroforestales en 3 regiones dentro del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano en Tabasco, México. Los sistemas agroforestales (SAF analizados fueron de árboles en linderos (AL y de árboles dispersos en potreros (ADP. El estudio establece una línea de base para evaluar el estado de conservación de este grupo biológico en SAF de las regiones prioritarias para el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano (municipios de Huimanguillo, Tacotalpa y Tenosique. Se recolectaron 52 792 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 131 especies, asignadas a 7 subfamilias. Se presentan 32 especies como nuevos registros y 7 morfoespecies catalogadas como affinis para Tabasco. La riqueza total para ADP consistió en 16 (±6 especies en Tenosique, 19 (±6 en Huimanguillo y 20 (±4 en Tacotalpa. La riqueza de especies para AL fue de 20 (±5 especies en Tenosique, 21 (±5 en Huimanguillo y 21 (±4 en Tacotalpa. La diversidad de la mirmecofauna en ADP fue de 1.52 (±0.36 en Tenosique, 0.84 (±0.49 en Huimanguillo y de 1.35 (±0.44 en Tacotalpa. La diversidad en AL se estimó en 1.87 (±0.36 en Tenosique, 1.06 (±0.55 en Huimanguillo y 1.33 (±0.45 en Tacotalpa. La dominancia de especies tanto en AL como ADP de las 3 regiones fue D > 0.26. Las comunidades no se distribuyeron equitativamente y la mayor homogeneidad fue alcanzada en Tenosique (J≥ 0.57 en ADP y 0.63 en AL, respectivamente. La composición de hormigas difirió entre sistemas y regiones. Ninguna especie se detectó como indicadora, ya que éstas utilizan ampliamente todos estos agroecosistemas.Myrmecofaunal richness, abundance and distribution were studied as indicators for ecological monitoring of agroforestry systems (SAF in 3 regions in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor of Tabasco, Mexico. The agroforestry systems analyzed were linearly arranged trees (AL and scattered trees on pastures (ADP

  17. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  18. Capitalizing on spatiality in European transport corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.; van Oort, F.G.; Wiegmans, B.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    After half a century of corridor development in Europe, the corridor concept is well-established in the academic discourse on transportation. Transport corridors have also been common practice in European transport policy since the creation of a borderless Europe in the 1990s. What is largely lackin

  19. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  20. The role of green corridors for wildlife conservation in urban landscape: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H. A.; Rasidi, M. H.

    2014-02-01

    Green corridors are an attempt to mitigate negative effects of the built environment of cities and towns. The corridors act as conservation for rapidly extreme intervention and development of the urban environment. Most importantly, it enables dispersal movement of animals within city areas. Issues relate to wildlife conservation in urban areas has been studied for many years and thus, the research makes a review for how the green corridors contribute to the conservation of urban wildlife. This study reviews groups of articles in disciplines of urban landscape planning and biology conservation to discuss the relationship between elements of green corridors and urban wildlife dispersal movement behaviour in Malaysian context. Accordingly, this research is purposely studied to give understanding on how green corridors contribute to the animals' ability of moving and dispersing within the built-up areas. In advance, it is found that there are three factors contribute to the capability of colonization among urban wildlife which are individual, physical and social factor. Green corridor has been defined as one of the physical factor that influence urban wildlife behaviour movement. Consequently, safety area indicating to animals species for traversing in any time such as at night can be defined as the primary potential corridor.

  1. 78 FR 77550 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... is extending the application period for the Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants... Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants. The purpose of this notice was to invite...

  2. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  3. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  4. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  5. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  6. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  7. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjona Ramiadantsoa

    Full Text Available In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2 in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  8. 78 FR 65751 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... States, Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO), and local governments that intend to initiate or continue Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) development with their partners, such as arterial...

  9. 76 FR 72029 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... Corridor Operations and Management Program as authorized in 23 U.S.C. 511. This notice and correction... eligible entities interested in participating in the FHWA Multistate Corridor Operations and...

  10. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Graham S; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with participants involved in this land-use planning process, and our involvement with the issue from 1990 through 2002. Conservation biology had a major influence on the outcome of the land-use planning process for this moraine. The landform was identified as an area of value by the environmental movement within the context of a number of ongoing government studies that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Conservation biologists and planners in government, the environmental movement, and the private sector carried out work related to conservation biology, including inventories and the development and application of criteria for the delineation of core areas and conservation corridors. Once the political timing was favorable (2001-2002), decision makers linked the science of conservation biology to planning policies and law in Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine land-use planning process was precedent setting in Canada, and possibly internationally. To our knowledge this is the first time long, wide conservation corridors on private lands were regulated through land-use-planning legislation and led to restrictions on urban development and aggregate resource extraction.

  11. Corridors promote fire via connectivity and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Wagner, Stephanie A; Damschen, Ellen I

    2012-04-01

    Landscape corridors, strips of habitat that connect otherwise isolated habitat patches, are commonly employed during management of fragmented landscapes. To date, most reported effects of corridors have been positive; however, there are long-standing concerns that corridors may have unintended consequences. Here, we address concerns over whether corridors promote propagation of disturbances such as fire. We collected data during prescribed fires in the world's largest and best replicated corridor experiment (Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA), six -50-ha landscapes of open (shrubby/herbaceous) habitat within a pine plantation matrix, to test several mechanisms for how corridors might influence fire. Corridors altered patterns of fire temperature through a direct connectivity effect and an indirect edge effect. The connectivity effect was independent of fuel levels and was consistent with a hypothesized wind-driven "bellows effect." Edges, a consequence of corridor implementation, elevated leaf litter (fuel) input from matrix pine trees, which in turn increased fire temperatures. We found no evidence for corridors or edges impacting patterns of fire spread: plots across all landscape positions burned with similar probability. Impacts of edges and connectivity on fire temperature led to changes in vegetation: hotter-burning plots supported higher bunch grass cover during the field season after burning, suggesting implications for woody/herbaceous species coexistence. To our knowledge, this represents the first experimental evidence that corridors can modify landscape-scale patterns of fire intensity. Corridor impacts on fire should be carefully considered during landscape management, both in the context of how corridors connect or break distributions of fuels and the desired role of fire as a disturbance, which may range from a management tool to an agent to be suppressed. In our focal ecosystem, longleaf pine woodland, corridors might provide a previously

  12. KPI Building Blocks For Successful Green Transport Corridor Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green transport corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development of integrated and sustainable transport solutions. Important properties of green corridors are their transnational character and their high involvement of large numbers of public and private stakeholders, including political level, requiring sophisticated approaches for implementation, management and governance. The current scientific discussion focusses on Key Performance Indicators (KPI for monitoring and management of green transport corridor performance emphasizing the operational aspects.

  13. Complexity Analysis of Traffic in Corridors-in-the-Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2010-01-01

    The corridors-in-the-sky concept imitates the highway system in ground transportation. The benefit expected from a corridor relies on its capability of handling high density traffic with negligible controller workload, the acceptance of extra fuel or distance, and the complexity reduction in underlying sectors. This work evaluates a selected corridor from these perspectives through simulations. To examine traffic inside the corridor, a corridor traffic simulation tool that can resolve conflicts is developed using C language. Prescribed conflict resolution maneuvers mimic corridor users behaviors and conflict resolution counts measure complexity. Different lane options and operational policies are proposed to examine their impacts on complexity. Fuel consumption is calculated and compared for corridor traffic. On the other hand, to investigate the complexity of non-corridor traffic in underlying sectors, the existing Airspace Concept Evaluation System tool is utilized along with the Automated Airspace Concept tool. The number of conflict resolutions is examined and treated as the complexity measurement. The results show heavy traffic can be managed with low complexity for a historical traffic schedule simulated with appropriate operational policies and lane options. For instance, with 608 flights and peak aircraft count of 100, only 84 actions need to be taken in a 24-hour period to resolve the conflicts for an 8-lane corridor. Compared with the fuel consumptions with great circle trajectories, the simulation of corridor traffic shows that the total extra fuel for corridor flights is 26,373 gallons, or 2.76%, which is 0.38% less than flying filed flight plans. Without taking climb and descent portions of corridor traffic, the complexity of underlying sectors is reduced by 17.71%. However the climb and descent portions will eliminate the reduction and the overall complexity of sectors is actually increased by 9.14%.

  14. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; McShea, William J; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Hao; Lu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda movements caused by

  15. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda

  16. HISTORICAL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS IN HEXI CORRIDOR, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nai-ang; ZHANG Chun-hui; LI Gang; CHENG Hong-yi

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 2000 years, approximately 38 ancient cities were abandoned through desertification in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Among them, 21.05% were abandonedduring the Northern and Southern Dynasties, 21.05% during the end of the Tang Dynasty andthe Five Dynasties, and 57.9% during the Ming and Qing dynas ties. At the same time, main lakes were shrinking rapidly from the 5th Century to the 6th Century and the end of the Qing Dynasty. The climate in these periods was relatively arid and cold with frequent dusts. The phase of these changes indicated that there were three periods of desertification enlargement in the northern China. They were Northern and Southern Dynasties, the end of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Ming and Qing dynasties. The macro-process of desertification in the study area was controlled mainly by the climatic changes. But from the facts that the population density in the middle of Qing Dynasty had exceeded the critical index of population pressure in arid area and the usage rate of water resources had exceeded 40% in Hexi Corridor, this paper also suggests that human activities have played an important role in desertification processes of the study area mainly during the recent 300 years.

  17. Planning of transport corridors by use of GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Grevy, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The paper adresses principles for the application of geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool in the planning of transport corridors. Specifically, the paper describes the COPE (corridor planning and evaluation) model that has been developed within the EU 4th FP Strategic Transport projects...

  18. Variable input parameter influence on river corridor prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfu, T.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the erodible river corridor, which is the area in which the main river channel is free to migrate over a period of time. Due to growing anthropogenic pressure, predicting the corridor width has become increasingly important for the planning of development along rivers. Several a

  19. National Borders and Transport corridors in Europe: Evidence of linkages in the Dublin-Belfast corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Williams, Brendan; Shahumyan, Harutyun;

    2012-01-01

    . The growth of urban areas is associated with acces-sibility to transportation routes, and has become the most important factor in landscape and land use change throughout Europe. Apart from providing links between cities, transport corridors are also exten-sions of cities' functionality which allow...... Member States (MS) where a new phase of urbanization is un-derway, dramatically changing land use patterns. The aim of the present work is to reflect on the European perspective concerning spatial development strategies, particularly cross-border transport corridors; to assess the role......Europe’s urban life focuses around a major network of cities, which exchange population, goods, and services of every kind both within regions and across borders. By their very nature, urban questions thus have a transnational dimension, and constitute a fruitful area of Euro-pean cooperation...

  20. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  1. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; White, James D [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  2. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GUANGZHOU-HONG KONG CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; CAO Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    With its rapid development in the past two decades, the Pearl River Delta has become one of the most developed regions in China. During this period, an important corridor between Hong Kong and Guangzhou has emerged and shaped the spatial structure of the region. The growth of this region has been greatly marched with the twin poles of Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and the economic and social development h. as taken place in a corridor between these two metropolises. This paper provides an analysis of the significance of this corridor in terms of its infrastructure, population, land use, and economic development. Massive infrastructure construction in the corridor has played an important role in its development. The corridor has high-frequent transport, and each transport mode has contributed in a different way to the process of development of the corridor, With high land use intensity and high population density, it is developing the characteristics of a megalopolis. As a pathway of connection between Guangzhou and Hong Kong, the corridor includes not only physical infrastructure, such as roads, railways and airports, but also logistics operations, human resources, information and capital, which plays important roles in accelerating business development. It demonstrates how this Main Street has become one of the most important factors in regional development.

  3. Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Ruter, Anthony; Schweger, Charles; Friebe, Harvey; Staff, Richard A.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Mendoza, Marie L. Z.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Zutter, Cynthia; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Potter, Ben A.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Rainville, Rebecca A.; Orlando, Ludovic; Meltzer, David J.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-09-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr BP), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear when plants and animals colonized this corridor and it became biologically viable for human migration. We obtained radiocarbon dates, pollen, macrofossils and metagenomic DNA from lake sediment cores in a bottleneck portion of the corridor. We find evidence of steppe vegetation, bison and mammoth by approximately 12.6 cal. kyr BP, followed by open forest, with evidence of moose and elk at about 11.5 cal. kyr BP, and boreal forest approximately 10 cal. kyr BP. Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north-south passageway.

  4. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  5. Maximum currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  6. 78 FR 7477 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... system management and operations. This notice seeks applications for available fiscal year (FY) 2012... Operations and Management (MCOM) programs and projects. The purpose of these investments is to...

  7. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... Operations and Management (MCOM) Program authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient... transportation challenges facing the efficient and effective operation and management of...

  8. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  9. Road and Street Centerlines, h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor'. The...

  10. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  11. 变革理论在高黎贡山国家级自然保护区生物走廊带环境保护与教育中的应用%Revolution Theory for Environmental Protection and Education in Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve Biological Corridors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红莲; 蔺汝涛; 何茜

    2013-01-01

    瑞尔保护协会倡导的变革理论模型于2008~ 2010年在高黎贡山国家级自然保护区生物走廊带中推广.项目选择云南省隆阳区赧亢村为工作区域,通过保护意识教育、节柴改灶技术推广、节能改灶培训等基础工作,逐步改变工作区居民依赖薪柴的传统生产、生活方式.项目设置宣传栏3块,广告牌1块,年历10 000份,宣传海报600份,宣传笔记本1 000本,胸章4 000个;在社区支持节柴改灶100口,推广电饭锅154台、电磁炉154台;培训技工10名、社区村民200余人;1.4万元投入作为相关设施的建设配套资金和培训费.项目实施结束后,工作区域内薪柴消耗量显著下降,监测林地样方内伐桩数量趋于平衡,人对猿胁迫行为显著减少.变革理论在社区的环境教育中有积极的作用,项目在减少社区居民对森林资源的威胁方面是成功的.%Revolution theory model advocated by Rare Conservation was carried out in Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve biological corridors from 2008 to 2010. Nankang village of Longyang district was chosen as work area. Through foundation work such as: protection awareness education, popularized technology of saving firewood, training of energy-saving etc, this project was aimed to gradually change the traditional production and living way of work area residents' depended on firewood. Three bulletin boards, one billboard, 10, 000 calendar copies, 600 publicity flyer copies, 1000 notebooks, 4000 badges were set; 100 fuel saving stoves were supplied , 154 electric and 154 induction cookers were promo- ted; and 10 artificers and more than 200 community villagers have been trained. 14,000 yuan was invested as matching funds for the construction related in facilities and training fees. After implementation of this project, firewood consumption was significantly decreased in the work area, and the number of stumps in woodland quadrates was tend to balance, and the intimidated

  12. RIVER CORRIDOR BUILDINGS 324 & 327 CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.; SMITH, B.A.

    2006-02-09

    A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D&D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km{sup 2} (1 mi{sup 2})300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D&D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building.

  13. Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2001-01-01

    Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

  14. Corridor X in Serbia: Approach to spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the infrastructural corridor's area, of the national importance, is predicted making spatial plans of area of special use, as the most complex instruments for the developing and arranging management of these areas. These plans should have an integrative and problem-oriented approach towards development planning and arrangement of such an area, and it is obliged to include: a complex evaluation of state and function of infrastructural system in the corridor; an analysis of infrastructural corridor influence on the development of the planning area and its surrounding; an alternative conception of long-term protection, improvement, organization and use of the planning area; a choice of the priorities and assumption of the realization phases; instructions for the implementation of the plan etc. The approach in making of this category of plans, as well as, experiences in planning, arrangement and use of multimodal corridors, have been considered on the example of Spatial plan of the infrastructural corridor E-75 section Belgrade-Nis area.

  15. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Sargent, Sarah; Haddad, Nick M.

    2005-07-01

    Levey, Douglas, J., Benjamin M. Bolker, Joshua J. Tewksbury, Sarah Sargent, and Nick M. Haddad. 2005. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science 309:146-148. Abstract: Habitat fragmentation threatens biodiversity by disrupting dispersal. The mechanisms and consequences of this disruption are controversial, primarily because most organisms are difficult to track. We examined the effect of habitat corridors on long-distance dispersal of seeds by birds, and tested whether small-scale (G20 meters) movements of birds could be scaled up to predict dispersal of seeds across hundreds of meters in eight experimentally fragmented landscapes. A simulation model accurately predicted the observed pattern of seed rain and revealed that corridors functioned through edge following behavior of birds. Our study shows how models based on easily observed behaviors can be scaled up to predict landscape-level processes.

  16. FIXED-WING MICRO AERIAL VEHICLE FOR ACCURATE CORRIDOR MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  17. TRANSPORT CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR": PROBLEMS, EVOLUTION PATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tabakov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretic and methodological questions regarding the formation of a transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Analyzed are the main factors that affect the formation of the transport infrastructure. A big effect is centered around the world-view problem, which has to do with the occupation of a human, and the effect of it on nature. Put forth is the possibility to look upon the question of the formation of ma transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar" in the frame of the forming of the Ural-West-Siberian TPK, taking into account the global transport web.

  18. Normalizing and scaling of data to derive human response corridors from impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that variability is inherent in any biological experiment. Human cadavers (Post-Mortem Human Subjects, PMHS) are routinely used to determine responses to impact loading for crashworthiness applications including civilian (motor vehicle) and military environments. It is important to transform measured variables from PMHS tests (accelerations, forces and deflections) to a standard or reference population, termed normalization. The transformation process should account for inter-specimen variations with some underlying assumptions used during normalization. Scaling is a process by which normalized responses are converted from one standard to another (example, mid-size adult male to large-male and small-size female adults, and to pediatric populations). These responses are used to derive corridors to assess the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (crash dummies) used to predict injury in impact environments and design injury mitigating devices. This survey examines the pros and cons of different approaches for obtaining normalized and scaled responses and corridors used in biomechanical studies for over four decades. Specifically, the equal-stress equal-velocity and impulse-momentum methods along with their variations are discussed in this review. Methods ranging from subjective to quasi-static loading to different approaches are discussed for deriving temporal mean and plus minus one standard deviation human corridors of time-varying fundamental responses and cross variables (e.g., force-deflection). The survey offers some insights into the potential efficacy of these approaches with examples from recent impact tests and concludes with recommendations for future studies. The importance of considering various parameters during the experimental design of human impact tests is stressed.

  19. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... integrated resource management plan for those lands and waters within the Corridor. The meeting will...

  20. Identifying transit corridors for elephant using a long time-series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittiglio, C.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, van H.A.M.J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    The role of corridors in mitigating the effects of landscape fragmentation on biodiversity is controversial. Recent studies have highlighted the need for new approaches in corridor design using long-term datasets. We present a method to identify transit corridors for elephant at a population scale o

  1. Impressions of Serbia: Tourists on cruises along Corridor 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragin Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with cruises along Corridor 7 and the tourist offer of Serbia. The purpose of the paper has been to establish how international tourists see our country during their travels across Serbia on cruises along Corridor 7. The research has been based on the interviews with international tourists who participated in land tours while cruising through Serbia. The interviews, together with the structured questionnaire, were conducted from March to November 2007 with the objectives to establish the following: the structure of the respondents according to the country of origin, gender and age structure, as well as the social and economic structure; what their motives are for cruising along Corridor 7; what is their perception of the value obtained through the tourist product and services during the Corridor 7 cruises and during their stay in Serbia (what they liked best in Serbia; if they were dissatisfied with anything in terms of the tourist offer of Serbia; to what extent their visit complemented or influenced their personal impressions of this country - what their impressions were before and after the visit. The importance of this paper, above all, is in broadening our knowledge about the adequacy of the tourist offer in Serbia in the tourism segment which is the subject of study of the paper.

  2. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  3. Corridors of barchan dunes: Stability and size selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersen, P.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Elbelrhiti, H.;

    2004-01-01

    Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two in...... for these instabilities to develop are derived and discussed. They turn out to be much smaller than the dune field length. As a conclusion, there should exist further, yet unknown, mechanisms regulating and selecting the size of dunes.......Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two...... instabilities take place. First, barchans receive a sand flux at their back proportional to their width while the sand escapes only from their horns. Large dunes proportionally capture more sand than they lose, while the situation is reversed for small ones: therefore, solitary dunes cannot remain in a steady...

  4. Improving Urban Corridor that Respect to Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrah, W.; Rahmadhani, N.; Nasution, A. D.; Pane, I. F.

    2017-03-01

    The urban corridor is more than just a linear space to circulation. It is a place for community activities. Since the urban area in Indonesia functionates without guidelines, it is necessary to analyze how this space being used by the community. The objective of the research is to explore the problems in utilization of public space in Dr. Mansur corridor in Medan and to propose some recommendation to improve it. The survey was started by mapping the physical situation that based on urban design aspects and the activities occur. Based on the data, the study identified the problems of the public space utilization. Next, study selected several buildings that significant in generating public life. The study interviewed the building’s owners and users/customers to get their opinion and perception about the using of urban public space utilization in the corridor in relation to their private function. The study analyzed the problems and opportunity to redesign the buildings that respect to public space. Then, the design ideas were presented to the buildings owners to get their response. The result of the observation shows that the fundamental problem in the corridor is the intervention of the private interest to the street as public space. The study indicates that the majority of the buildings owner was not aware that their buildings had distracted the urban public space. However, they gave a positive respond to the design recommendation. The design offered the solution that provided individual needs without intervention to the public realm. The study can contribute to improving urban corridor by educating the community with architecture and urban design.

  5. Louisiana Speaks Regional Vision Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the primary and secondary transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. This network accommodates a...

  6. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option C Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_c_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  7. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option B Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_b_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  8. Inventory of Invasive Plant Species along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in November 2013 to inventory invasive plant species present along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park exploratively. Result showed that there were 11 plant species found abundantly along the corridor. Typical native species were dominated by Cyathea contaminans, Casuarina junghuhniana and Vaccinium varingiaefolium. Three species were determined as invasive alien species i.e. Chromolaena odorata, Acacia decurrens and Blumea lacera whereas five species were determined as native species but potential invaders i.e. Rubus moluccanus, Melastoma malabatrichum, Polygonum barbatum, Debregeasia longifolia and Pteridium aquilinum. In term of tourism particularly on nature-based destinations enable moving in and out of invasive alien species due to opening the access of some natural protected areas. The environmental impact of an alien species whether it becomes invasive at its destination depends on its biological key point,  what ecological role the species may play, and on additional factors such as its tolerance of the gross features of the environment in the new range. Keyword: invasive plants, corridor, Kawah Ijen, Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi

  9. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  10. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  11. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  12. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  13. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  14. Sacroiliac secure corridor: analysis for safe insertion of iliosacral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alves Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posterior pelvic lesions, especially of the sacral-iliac joint, have high mortality and morbidity risks. Definitive fixation is necessary for the joint stabilization, and one option is the sacral percutaneous pinning with screws. Proximity to important structures to this region brings risks to the fixation procedure; therefore, it is important to know the tridimensional anatomy of the pelvis posterior region. Deviations of the surgeon's hand of four degrees may target the screws to those structures; dimorphisms of the upper sacrum and a poor lesion reduction may redound in a screw malpositioning. This study is aimed to evaluate the dimensions of a safe surgical corridor for safe sacroiliac screw insertion and relations with age and sex of the patients. METHOD: One hundred randomly selected pelvis CTs of patients with no pelvic diseases, seen at a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Measurements were made by computer and the safest area for screw insertion was calculated by two methods. The results were expressed in mm (not in degrees, in order to be a further surgical reference. RESULTS: There was a significant size difference in the analyzed sacral vertebra, differing on a wider size in men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between vertebral size and age. By both methods, a safe area for screw insertion could be defined. CONCLUSION: Age does not influence the width of the surgical corridor. The surgeon has a safe corridor considered narrower when inserting screws in a female pelvis than when in a male one. However, as the smallest vertebra found (feminine was considered for statics, it was concluded that this corridor is 20 mm wide in any direction, taking as a reference the centrum of the vertebra.

  15. Mobile Robot Navigation in a Corridor Using Visual Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Nils Axel; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of computer vision into mobile robot localization is studied in this work. It includes the generation of localization information from raw images and its fusion with the odometric pose estimation. The technique is then implemented on a small mobile robot operating at a corridor envi...... Kalman filter as a parameter estimator is also applied to estimate odometry parameters. Experimental results are included. The robustness and the precision of the entire system is illustrated by performing simple navigation tasks....

  16. Bison phylogeography constrains dispersal and viability of the Ice Free Corridor in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Froese, Duane; Ives, John W; Soares, André E R; Zazula, Grant D; Letts, Brandon; Andrews, Thomas D; Driver, Jonathan C; Hall, Elizabeth; Hare, P Gregory; Jass, Christopher N; MacKay, Glen; Southon, John R; Stiller, Mathias; Woywitka, Robin; Suchard, Marc A; Shapiro, Beth

    2016-07-19

    The Ice Free Corridor has been invoked as a route for Pleistocene human and animal dispersals between eastern Beringia and more southerly areas of North America. Despite the significance of the corridor, there are limited data for when and how this corridor was used. Hypothetical uses of the corridor include: the first expansion of humans from Beringia into the Americas, northward postglacial expansions of fluted point technologies into Beringia, and continued use of the corridor as a contact route between the north and south. Here, we use radiocarbon dates and ancient mitochondrial DNA from late Pleistocene bison fossils to determine the chronology for when the corridor was open and viable for biotic dispersals. The corridor was closed after ∼23,000 until 13,400 calendar years ago (cal y BP), after which we find the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bison used this route to disperse from the south, and by 13,000 y from the north. Our chronology supports a habitable and traversable corridor by at least 13,000 cal y BP, just before the first appearance of Clovis technology in interior North America, and indicates that the corridor would not have been available for significantly earlier southward human dispersal. Following the opening of the corridor, multiple dispersals of human groups between Beringia and interior North America may have continued throughout the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. Our results highlight the utility of phylogeographic analyses to test hypotheses about paleoecological history and the viability of dispersal routes over time.

  17. Modeling signalized intersection safety with corridor-level spatial correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    Intersections in close spatial proximity along a corridor should be considered as correlated due to interacted traffic flows as well as similar road design and environmental characteristics. It is critical to incorporate this spatial correlation for assessing the true safety impacts of risk factors. In this paper, several Bayesian models were developed to model the crash data from 170 signalized intersections in the state of Florida. The safety impacts of risk factors such as geometric design features, traffic control, and traffic flow characteristics were evaluated. The Poisson and Negative Binomial Bayesian models with non-informative priors were fitted but the focus is to incorporate spatial correlations among intersections. Two alternative models were proposed to capture this correlation: (1) a mixed effect model in which the corridor-level correlation is incorporated through a corridor-specific random effect and (2) a conditional autoregressive model in which the magnitude of correlations is determined by spatial distances among intersections. The models were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. The results indicate that the Poisson spatial model provides the best model fitting. Analysis of the posterior distributions of model parameters indicated that the size of intersection, the traffic conditions by turning movement, and the coordination of signal phase have significant impacts on intersection safety.

  18. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  19. Birds of the riparian corridors of Potchefstroom, South Africa / Rindert Wyma

    OpenAIRE

    Wyma, Rindert

    2012-01-01

    A riparian ecosystem is the area between the aquatic and terrestrial setting of a stream, and serves as a corridor and habitat for birds. Several riparian ecosystems are located in urban environments, and three main riparian corridors are located in Potchefstroom. They are the Mooi River, Wasgoed Spruit, and Spitskop Spruit, which encompass a wide range of different vegetation types and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, different habitat types for birds occur along the riparian corridors of P...

  20. The evaluation of the development of the Danube-Morava corridor traffic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic has the primary influence on the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor as a specific natural, geographically determined and stochastic-functional territorial system. The traffic network of roads railway lines and waterways along this corridor is at the very core of the Trans-European Transport Corridor 10, representing its most dynamic, most congested and highest-traffic section. The influence, namely the creative power of traffic, largely depends on the degree of development modernization and maintenance of the network. This work presents the assessment of the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor traffic network.

  1. River corridor science: Hydrologic exchange and ecological consequences from bedforms to basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jud; Gooseff, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Previously regarded as the passive drains of watersheds, over the past 50 years, rivers have progressively been recognized as being actively connected with off-channel environments. These connections prolong physical storage and enhance reactive processing to alter water chemistry and downstream transport of materials and energy. Here we propose river corridor science as a concept that integrates downstream transport with lateral and vertical exchange across interfaces. Thus, the river corridor, rather than the wetted river channel itself, is an increasingly common unit of study. Main channel exchange with recirculating marginal waters, hyporheic exchange, bank storage, and overbank flow onto floodplains are all included under a broad continuum of interactions known as "hydrologic exchange flows." Hydrologists, geomorphologists, geochemists, and aquatic and terrestrial ecologists are cooperating in studies that reveal the dynamic interactions among hydrologic exchange flows and consequences for water quality improvement, modulation of river metabolism, habitat provision for vegetation, fish, and wildlife, and other valued ecosystem services. The need for better integration of science and management is keenly felt, from testing effectiveness of stream restoration and riparian buffers all the way to reevaluating the definition of the waters of the United States to clarify the regulatory authority under the Clean Water Act. A major challenge for scientists is linking the small-scale physical drivers with their larger-scale fluvial and geomorphic context and ecological consequences. Although the fine scales of field and laboratory studies are best suited to identifying the fundamental physical and biological processes, that understanding must be successfully linked to cumulative effects at watershed to regional and continental scales.

  2. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  3. Trade-offs and efficiencies in optimal budget-constrained multispecies corridor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Bistra; Houtman, Rachel; Gomes, Carla P.; Montgomery, Claire A.; McKelvey, Kevin; Kendall, Katherine; Graves, Tabitha A.; Bernstein, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biologists recognize that a system of isolated protected areas will be necessary but insufficient to meet biodiversity objectives. Current approaches to connecting core conservation areas through corridors consider optimal corridor placement based on a single optimization goal: commonly, maximizing the movement for a target species across a network of protected areas. We show that designing corridors for single species based on purely ecological criteria leads to extremely expensive linkages that are suboptimal for multispecies connectivity objectives. Similarly, acquiring the least-expensive linkages leads to ecologically poor solutions. We developed algorithms for optimizing corridors for multispecies use given a specific budget. We applied our approach in western Montana to demonstrate how the solutions may be used to evaluate trade-offs in connectivity for 2 species with different habitat requirements, different core areas, and different conservation values under different budgets. We evaluated corridors that were optimal for each species individually and for both species jointly. Incorporating a budget constraint and jointly optimizing for both species resulted in corridors that were close to the individual species movement-potential optima but with substantial cost savings. Our approach produced corridors that were within 14% and 11% of the best possible corridor connectivity for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolverines (Gulo gulo), respectively, and saved 75% of the cost. Similarly, joint optimization under a combined budget resulted in improved connectivity for both species relative to splitting the budget in 2 to optimize for each species individually. Our results demonstrate economies of scale and complementarities conservation planners can achieve by optimizing corridor designs for financial costs and for multiple species connectivity jointly. We believe that our approach will facilitate corridor conservation by reducing acquisition costs

  4. Barchan dune corridors: Field characterization and investigation of control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelrhiti, H.; Andreotti, B.; Claudin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The structure of the barchan field located between Tarfaya and Laayoune (Atlantic Sahara, Morocco) is quantitatively investigated and compared to that in La Pampa de la Joya (Arequipa, Peru). On the basis of field measurements, we show how the volume, the velocity, and the output sand flux of a dune can be computed from the value of its body and horn widths. The dune size distribution is obtained from the analysis of aerial photographs. It shows that these fields are in a statistically homogeneous state along the wind direction and present a "corridor" structure in the transverse direction, in which the dunes have a rather well selected size. Investigating the possible external parameters controlling these corridors, we demonstrate that none among topography, granulometry, wind, and sand flux is relevant. We finally discuss the dynamical processes at work in these fields (collisions and wind fluctuations) and investigate the way they could regulate the size of the dunes. Furthermore, we show that the overall sand flux transported by a dune field is smaller than the maximum transport that could be reached in the absence of dunes, i.e., in saltation over the solid ground.

  5. 77 FR 17219 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... risk, or the calculation of payments and charges, or that are used for validation or audit of such data... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Final Rule #0;#0...; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and...

  6. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  7. 76 FR 63346 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Administration Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and Westchester... preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor project... Port Chester, Westchester County, New York including the Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River....

  8. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... National Park Service Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... the Moose-Wilson Corridor, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. DATES: The National Park Service will...://parkplanning.nps.gov/MooseWilson , at the Grand Teton National Park Headquarters Building, 1 Teton Park...

  9. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... corridors, and risk adjustment consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  10. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  11. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  12. Predicting which species will benefit from corridors in fragmented landscapes from population growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Brian R; Haddad, Nick M

    2003-05-01

    Connecting isolated patches of habitat in fragmented landscapes with corridors is a popular conservation strategy. This strategy is also controversial in large part because of uncertainty about what characteristics of a species and its environment promote corridor use. In this article we address the question, For what types of species will populations benefit from corridors? We asked this question using a model of two logistically growing populations connected by migration in which both emigration and migration success were determined by the presence or absence of a corridor. We found that in the short run (e.g., during recovery from disaster), corridors are most effective for species with fast-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through unsuitable (matrix) habitat. We also found that emigration rates and habitat-specific mortality rates are key determinants of the effects of corridors on population size. In the long term, corridors are most likely to benefit species with slow-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through matrix habitat. Our results confirm the major conclusions from previous empirical studies of corridor benefits. However, most studies fail to consider the most appropriate questions to determine the potential benefits of habitat corridors. First, what is the time scale of the conservation goal? Corridors have positive effects on different suites of species in the short and long term. Second, is the major threat of local extinction due to sustained population decline or boom-bust cycles? Third, what is the migration rate through the matrix? Fourth, what fraction of migrants dispersing through the matrix successfully immigrate to another patch?

  13. 78 FR 43226 - Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... National Park Service Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... Environmental Impact Statement for the Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan for Glacier National Park...-to-the Sun Road (GTSR) corridor. DATES: The National Park Service will accept comments from...

  14. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  15. The natural and social history of the indigenous lands and protected areas corridor of the Xingu River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Stephan; Boas, André Villas; Ono, Katia Yukari; Fonseca, Marisa Gesteira; Doblas, Juan; Zimmerman, Barbara; Junqueira, Paulo; Jerozolimski, Adriano; Salazar, Marcelo; Junqueira, Rodrigo Prates; Torres, Maurício

    2013-06-05

    The 280,000 km² Xingu indigenous lands and protected areas (ILPAs) corridor, inhabited by 24 indigenous peoples and about 215 riverine (ribeirinho) families, lies across active agriculture frontiers in some of the historically highest-deforestation regions of the Amazon. Much of the Xingu is anthropogenic landscape, densely inhabited and managed by indigenous populations over the past millennium. Indigenous and riverine peoples' historical management and use of these landscapes have enabled their long-term occupation and ultimately their protection. The corridor vividly demonstrates how ILPAs halt deforestation and why they may account for a large part of the 70 per cent reduction in Amazon deforestation below the 1996-2005 average since 2005. However, ongoing and planned dams, road paving, logging and mining, together with increasing demand for agricultural commodities, continued degradation of upper headwaters outside ILPA borders and climate change impacts may render these gains ephemeral. Local peoples will need new, bottom-up, forms of governance to gain recognition for the high social and biological diversity of these territories in development policy and planning, and finance commensurate with the value of their ecosystem services. Indigenous groups' reports of changing fire and rainfall regimes may themselves evidence climate change impacts, a new and serious threat.

  16. Ecological and Recreational Corridor Bogotá Mountain Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Wiesner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogotá the capital of the Republic of Colombia is a tropical highland city located at 2650 m above sea level, the 25th largest city of the world and among the large, one of the highest. A proposal for integration of components of ecological networks in the Oriental Hills of Bogotá, along a gradient from wild to built nature. Name as The Bogotá Ecological and Recreational Corridor (C.E.R. is based on three strategies: first a social being the largest border agreement with 53 km, along the entire eastern limit of the city. Second the biophysical which involves restoration of ecosystem, and third the socio-spatial which includes infrastructure for making an open air museum for integration and urban limit. The ultimate aim of the approach is to contribute as a pilot proposal in biodiversity managment and cultural transformation in ecological issues for the inhabitants.

  17. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive utility corridor (CUC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The strategy established the process for which the Campus Development Office will evaluate land management issues. It is a process that uses geographical information system geospatial technology to layer critical INL mission information in a way that thorough evaluations can be conducted and strategies developed. The objective of the CUC Project was to develop a process that could be implemented to identify potential utility corridor options for consideration. The process had to take into account all the missions occurring on the INL and other land-related issues. The process for developing a CUC strategy consists of the following four basic elements using geographical information system capabilities: 1. Development of an INL base layer map; this base layer map geospatially references all stationary geographical features on INL and sitewide information. 2. Development of current and future mission land-use need maps; this involved working with each directorate to identify current mission land use needs and future land use needs that project 30 years into the future. 3. Development of restricted and potential constraint maps; this included geospatially mapping areas such as wells, contaminated areas, firing ranges, cultural areas, ecological areas, hunting areas, easement, and grazing areas. 4. Development of state highway and power line rights of way map; this included geospatially mapping rights-of-way along existing state highways and power lines running through the INL that support INL operations. It was determined after completing and evaluating the geospatial information that the area with the least impact to INL missions was around the perimeter of the INL Site. Option 1, in this document, identifies this perimeter; however, it does not mean the entire perimeter is viable. Many places along the perimeter corridor cannot

  18. Design of integrated and co-ordinated multimodal transport systems – North Sea – Mediterranean corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil MORTIMER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the North Sea – Mediterranean corridor, part of the Trans-European transport network. A brief discussion on the aspects of multimodality and the possible modes of transport involved in transporting inland freight is presented followed by an introduction to main IT systems that can be implemented to increase the efficiency of freight transport. Presented also is a description on the envisaged investments in freight corridors in Europe. An assessment of information flows is also offered. The study concludes that the concept of a freight corridor should be extended to a network in order for more global benefits to be experienced.

  19. Melampyrum Cristatum L. – A Rare River Corridor Plant in Wielkopolska and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachnowicz Wojciech

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampyrum cristatum is an extremely rare, native, hemi-parasitic, vascular plant, recently considered to be extinct in Poland. The article presents data concerning new localities of the species recorded in 2007-2012 in the valley of the River Warta (Wielkopolska, Poland. Local distribution of M. cristatum in the Natura 2000 sites: PLH300012 - Rogalińska Dolina Warty (ca. 147.5 sq. km and PLH300053 - Lasy Żerkowsko-Czeszewskie (ca. 71.6 sq. km, as well as its updated regional (in Wielkopolska and national (Poland ranges are shown on maps and interpreted on the background of the geomorphic diversity of occupied habitats. The results suggest that in Poland the species is distributed mainly along valleys of large, lowland rivers, which corresponds with its ‘River Corridor Plant’ status in Central Europe. The species rarity is discussed considering its outline phytocoenological scale (comprising various plant communities within 6 syntaxonomical classes, the riverine distribution pattern and chosen biological features. Natural habitat heterogeneity along with changeable water regime in floodplains, as well as potential limitations of myrmecochoric seed dispersal, may constitute potential reasons for the species low frequency

  20. A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and...

  1. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  2. Time-averaged currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  3. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of along-shelf corridor, between Madison-Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of a long thin corridor at the shelf edge near he 74-m isobath spanning from...

  4. The importance and potentials of X corridor in the European traffic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of multimodular corridors, but also in the European traffic system on the whole, corridor X has a very important role more in respect of its position and potentials and less regarding the degree of it valuation. It is particularly so since it represents a section of the intercontinental (land link between Europe and Near and Middle East. At the same time, this corridor is also a dominant axis of development in the majority of SE European countries, as well as a major component of complex spatial-functional transformations that occur within them. That, inter alias, means that the pace of overall development of these parts will depend both on the pace of the overall valuation of potentials this corridors has (and represents, as well as the strengthening of its role as a major element of intra- and inter-regional linking of this part of European continent.

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  6. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  7. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  10. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 3 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  11. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  12. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  13. Sensitivity of Occupant Response Subject to Prescribed Corridors for Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Crandall

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology to study the sensitivity of impact responses to prescribed test conditions is presented. Motor vehicle impacts are used to illustrate the principles of this sensitivity technology. Impact conditions are regulated by specifying either a corridor for the acceleration time history or other test parameters such as velocity change, static crush distance, and pulse duration. By combining a time domain constrained optimization method and a multirigid body dynamics simulator, the upper and lower bounds of occupant responses subject to the regulated corridors were obtained. It was found that these prescribed corridors may be either so wide as to allow extreme variations in occupant response or so narrow that they are physically unrealizable in the laboratory test environment. A new corridor based on specifications for the test parameters of acceleration, velocity. crush distance, and duration for frontal vehicle impacts is given.

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  15. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  16. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, UtilityCorridor, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'UtilityCorridor'. Data by...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  18. Corridor connecting giant panda habitats from north to south in the Min Mountains, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaipu; Xie, Yan; Wu, Ning

    2006-12-01

    The giant panda faces severe threats from habitat fragmentation and isolation. Currently, giant panda populations have been fragmented into 30 habitat patches. The disappearance of isolated small populations and studies on the genetic diversity of various populations have shown that small isolated panda populations are at a high risk of dying out completely. Habitat fragmentation has seriously impaired the ability of the giant panda to resist climate changes and other natural disasters, such as large-scale, synchronous bamboo blooming. The Min Mountains have the largest population of pandas in China, numbering 581 individuals and accounting for 52% of the total (1114) in China. Geographic isolation means that giant pandas in the Min Mountains are divided into two populations (population A in the north and population B in the south). Population B, which had only 42 individuals in 1989, is severely threatened by high-density human populations and the loss of genetic diversity. However, we have identified an important corridor connecting the two populations. This paper explains the importance and the feasibility of reestablishing this corridor. Due to the special geographic locations of these two populations (two rivers block the migration of giant pandas between south and north), the corridor is the only passage for giant pandas in the region. Recent studies have also shown an increase of giant panda activity in the area of the corridor. However, vegetation in the corridor has been severely degraded. Bamboo forest must be restored in this area to provide food for the pandas during migration. The effects of human activities must be reduced in order to maintain panda habitat. We believe that a restored corridor will be of great benefit to the survival of giant pandas in the Min Mountains, especially for population B. Successful re-establishment of a corridor will be a valuable model for corridor construction in the future.

  19. Rise of Regional Logistics Hubs in Global Trade : Role of Arctic Corridor in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Buyle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of the Finnish transport network into national, regional, European and global supply chains. The author was interested in studying the role of new transport corridors in trade reactivity and changes in market trends. The main target of the thesis is to understand the role of the Arctic Corridor on the implementation of Finnish development strategies. The mineral industry in Finnish Lapland and the extraction of natural resources in the Barent...

  20. A Simultaneous Confidence Corridor for Varying Coefficient Regression with Sparse Functional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Lijie; Li WANG; Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Yang, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a varying coefficient regression model for sparse functional data, with time varying response variable depending linearly on some time independent covariates with coefficients as functions of time dependent covariates. Based on spline smoothing, we propose data driven simultaneous confidence corridors for the coefficient functions with asymptotically correct confidence level. Such confidence corridors are useful benchmarks for statistical inference on the global shapes of coeffici...

  1. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  2. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  3. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  4. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  5. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-03-13

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled.

  6. „Blue-green“ corridors as a tool for mitigation of natural hazards and restoration of urbanized areas: A case study of Belgrade city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized areas constantly need new surfaces for building of commercial, residental or infrastructure facilities. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and a big regional center, with 2,000,000 inhabitants, covers a territory of 3,500 km2. Decreasing of surfaces under forest vegetation, urbanization and inadequate agricultural measures have caused intensive erosion and more frequent torrential floods. Belgrade authorities have defined a new strategy for land use and urban planning in order to decrease the risk from destructive erosion processes and torrential floods and help the establishment of new recreational areas, preservation of biodiversity and mitigation of the „heat island“ effect. The strategy is based on the restoration of „blue-green“ corridors (residuals of open streams and fragments of forest vegetation. The restoration of „blue-green“ corridors is presented at the experimental watersheds of the Kaljavi and Jelezovac streams. The restoration works will be performed in the 2014-2020 period, on the basis of erosion and stream control demands, as well as environmental and social requests, including biological, soil-bioengineering activities and certain administrative measures. The forest surfaces will be increased by 1.38 km2 (18.11% of the total area. The restoration of “blue-green” corridors in the experimental watersheds will decrease the values of maximal discharges (p = 1% by about 50%, and the volumes of direct runoff by about 40%. Erosive material production and transport will be decreased by about 44% in the Kaljavi stream watershed, and 37% in the Jelezovac stream watershed. Ten kilometers of sealed walking and cycling paths, 1.7 km of unsealed forest paths, six open gyms and seven rest areas will strengthen the potential of this area for sports and recreation. The restoration will help the protection and controlled usage of the natural and cultural values in the area, and the connection of

  7. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A biomimetic vision-based hovercraft accounts for bees' complex behaviour in various corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubieu, Frédéric L; Serres, Julien R; Colonnier, Fabien; Franceschini, Nicolas; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck

    2014-09-01

    Here we present the first systematic comparison between the visual guidance behaviour of a biomimetic robot and those of honeybees flying in similar environments. We built a miniature hovercraft which can travel safely along corridors with various configurations. For the first time, we implemented on a real physical robot the 'lateral optic flow regulation autopilot', which we previously studied computer simulations. This autopilot inspired by the results of experiments on various species of hymenoptera consists of two intertwined feedback loops, the speed and lateral control loops, each of which has its own optic flow (OF) set-point. A heading-lock system makes the robot move straight ahead as fast as 69 cm s(-1) with a clearance from one wall as small as 31 cm, giving an unusually high translational OF value (125° s(-1)). Our biomimetic robot was found to navigate safely along straight, tapered and bent corridors, and to react appropriately to perturbations such as the lack of texture on one wall, the presence of a tapering or non-stationary section of the corridor and even a sloping terrain equivalent to a wind disturbance. The front end of the visual system consists of only two local motion sensors (LMS), one on each side. This minimalistic visual system measuring the lateral OF suffices to control both the robot's forward speed and its clearance from the walls without ever measuring any speeds or distances. We added two additional LMSs oriented at +/-45° to improve the robot's performances in stiffly tapered corridors. The simple control system accounts for worker bees' ability to navigate safely in six challenging environments: straight corridors, single walls, tapered corridors, straight corridors with part of one wall moving or missing, as well as in the presence of wind.

  9. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  10. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  11. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Taylor, David; Hunt, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Consideration of a range of evidence from geomorphology, palynology, biogeography and vegetation/climate modelling suggests that a north-south 'savanna corridor' did exist through the continent of Sundaland (modern insular Indonesia and Malaysia) through the Last Glacial Period (LGP) at times of lowered sea-level, as originally proposed by Heaney [1991. Climatic Change 19, 53-61]. A minimal interpretation of the size of this corridor requires a narrow but continuous zone of open 'savanna' vegetation 50-150 km wide, running along the sand-covered divide between the modern South China and Java Seas. This area formed a land bridge between the Malaysian Peninsula and the major islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. The savanna corridor connected similar open vegetation types north and south of the equator, and served as a barrier to the dispersal of rainforest-dependent species between Sumatra and Borneo. A maximal interpretation of the available evidence is compatible with the existence of a broad savanna corridor, with forest restricted to refugia primarily in Sumatra, Borneo and the continental shelf beneath the modern South China Sea. This savanna corridor may have provided a convenient route for the rapid early dispersal of modern humans through the region and on into Australasia.

  12. Engineering monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical hazards along linear transportation corridors are challenging to identify and often require constant monitoring. Inspecting corridors using traditional, manual methods requires the engineer to be unnecessarily exposed to the hazard. It also requires closure of the corridor to ensure safety of the worker from passing vehicles. This paper identifies the use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data as a compliment to traditional field methods. Mobile terrestrial LiDAR is an emerging remote data collection technique capable of generating accurate fully three-dimensional virtual models while driving at speeds up to 100 km/h. Data is collected from a truck that causes no delays to active traffic nor does it impede corridor use. These resultant georeferenced data can be used for geomechanical structural feature identification and kinematic analysis, rockfall path identification and differential monitoring of rock movement or failure over time. Comparisons between mobile terrestrial and static LiDAR data collection and analysis are presented. As well, detailed discussions on workflow procedures for possible implementation are discussed. Future use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data for corridor analysis will focus on repeated surveys and developing dynamic four-dimensional models, higher resolution data collection. As well, computationally advanced, spatially accurate, geomechanically controlled three-dimensional rockfall simulations should be investigated.

  13. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  14. Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormann, Urs; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja; Klein, Nadja; Larbig, Manuel; Valente, Jonathon J; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2016-01-27

    Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in more than 94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world's leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated pollinator availability in fragments by 14.3 times compared with unconnected equivalents, increasing overall pollination success. Plants in patches without corridors showed pollination rates equal to bagged control flowers, indicating pollination failure in isolated fragments. This indicates, for the first time, that corridors benefit tropical forest ecosystems beyond boosting local species richness, by functionally connecting mutualistic network partners. We conclude that small-scale adjustments to landscape configuration safeguard native pollinators and associated pollination services in tropical forest landscapes.

  15. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  16. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  17. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  18. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  19. "FluvialCorridor": A new ArcGIS toolbox package for multiscale riverscape exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Clément; Alber, Adrien; Bertrand, Mélanie; Vaudor, Lise; Piégay, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Both for scientists and river basin managers, development of automated geographic information system (GIS) tools is essential today to characterize riverscapes and explore biogeomorphologic processes over large channel networks. Since the 1990s, GIS toolboxes and add-in programs have been used to characterize catchments. However, there is currently no equivalent to a planimetric and longitudinal characterization of fluvial corridor networks at multiple scales. This paper describes FluvialCorridor, a new GIS toolbox. This package allows the user: (i) to extract a large set of riverscape features such as the main components of fluvial corridors from DEM and vector layers (e.g. stream network or valley bottom), and (ii) to aggregate spatial features into homogeneous segments and metrics characterizing each of them. The methodological frameworks involved have been previously described by Alber and Piégay (2011), Leviandier et al. (2012) and Bertrand et al. (2013) and this contribution focuses on the GIS tools allowing the user to automatically operate them. A case study on the Drôme River (France) is provided to illustrate the potential of the package both for geomorphologic understanding and target management actions. FluvialCorridor has been developed for ArcGIS with the related native Python library named ArcPy and tested on ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1. Obviously, each component of the package can be used separately; however, it also provides a complete workflow for fluvial corridor characterization, even as the toolbox is continually under development and revision. Case study database, FluvialCorridor package and guidelines are available online at http://umrevs-isig.fr.

  20. Territoriality by conservation in the Selous-Niassa corridor in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades of consecut......In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades...

  1. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  2. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  3. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  4. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  5. Playing God? Synthetic biology as a theological and ethical challenge

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the ethical debate over synthetic biology the formula “playing god” is widely used in order to attack this new branch of biotechnology. The article analyses, contextualizes and criticises this usage with respect to the theological concepts of creation, sin and humans as created in the image of God. Against the background of these theological understandings an ethical corridor of how to responsibly cope with the societal challenges of synthetic biology is presented.

  6. Playing God? Synthetic biology as a theological and ethical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrock, Peter

    2009-12-01

    In the ethical debate over synthetic biology the formula "playing god" is widely used in order to attack this new branch of biotechnology. The article analyses, contextualizes and criticises this usage with respect to the theological concepts of creation, sin and humans as created in the image of God. Against the background of these theological understandings an ethical corridor of how to responsibly cope with the societal challenges of synthetic biology is presented.

  7. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  8. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...

  9. Working on rail freigt corridors : a trade union manual anticipate - take action - work together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Torre, W. van der; Verbiest, S.

    2013-01-01

    The European Transport Workers Federation (ETF) put in place in 2013 the project “WOC – Working On Rail Freight Corridors” with the objective to on the one hand raise awareness among ETF affiliates about the developments of the European freight corridors and on the other hand to give the tools to an

  10. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  11. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony.

  12. Lessons Learned during Creation of the I-65 Biofuels Corridor (White Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    A team of Clean Cities coalitions and state agencies worked together to create a biofuels corridor along I-65 between Indiana and Alabama. The team built relationships with stakeholders and learned the value of strong partnerships, good communication, marketing, and preparation.

  13. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wild

  14. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc., Questron Technology, Inc. (n/k/a Quti... securities of Corridor Communications Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period... current and accurate information concerning the securities of International Cosmetics Marketing...

  15. Strategic Mobility 21: Smart and Secure E Corridor Stakeholder Evaluation - Savannah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Global Business Center Mr. Bill Dobbs, GA Dept. of Economic Development Executable Smart Corridor ‘Use Cases’ Information Domain Physical Domain...Investment: Recent Research Trends and Emerging Issues Kent Hindes, Cushman Wakefield Presentation Georgia: A Global Business Center Mr. Bill

  16. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Method for Defining a Flight Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... method, a semi-automated method, or a fully-automated method to plot a flight corridor on maps. A source... Administration, National Ocean Service. (i) Projections for mechanical plotting method. An applicant shall use a... plotting method. An applicant shall use cylindrical, conic, or plane projections for...

  17. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  18. Buccal Corridors: A Fact or a Myth in the Eyes of Laymen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiny, Omnia A.; Harhash, Asmaa Y.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate laymen knowledge of the existence of the buccal corridor and whether it was an important factor for them in judging smile attractiveness and the effect of introducing the knowledge to them on their further judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine subjects were randomly selected with variable buccal corridor percentages. They were coached to smile in a posed fashion and full face smile photographs were taken from a standardised distance. The photographs were randomly arranged in a power point presentation and displayed to a panel of thirty-nine randomly selected laymen judges. The judges made their beauty judgment on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and filled a questionnaire. After their education about the buccal corridor, they were asked to make a second judgment on a second sheet with VAS and with a different random sequence of the photographs. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation agreement for all the judges between the first and second scores was 0.713. The Spearman’s rho Correlation coefficient indicated a positive correlation for all the photos. For the male judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.839, and the correlation was positive for all the photos. For the female judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.510, and the correlation was positive for all the photographs. Hundred percent of the judges were not familiar with the buccal corridor. Eighty percent of the female judges and 44.4% of the male judges mentioned that it would affect their further judgment. CONCLUSION: Laymen build their esthetic judgments on what we teach them, and modifying treatment plans to include corrections of buccal corridors for esthetic reasons only is a myth. PMID:28028418

  19. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    Full Text Available The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1 to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2 to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs, 3 to design corridors among priority areas, and 4 to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU. Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1 as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7 desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  20. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  1. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  2. Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boykin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

  3. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  4. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  5. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  6. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  7. 75 FR 59323 - Early Scoping for the Alternatives Analysis of the North Corridor Transit Project in Metropolitan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... defined transportation corridor, and for determining which particular investment strategy should be... maintenance costing, and environmental and land use analyses. Finally, costs, benefits, and impacts of each alternative are developed and evaluated, funding strategies are analyzed, and a locally preferred...

  8. Valuation of travel time savings for intercity travel: The Madrid-Barcelona corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Concepcion; Carlos Martin, Juan; Espino, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    We derive values of travel time savings (VOT) for the Madrid-Barcelona corridor, linking the two largest cities in Spain, based on the estimation of discrete choice models among the main public transport services in the corridor: air transport, high speed rail (HSR) and bus. The new HSR alternative...... (which started to operate in February 2008) competes directly with one of the densest airline domestic markets in the world, and its introduction produced substantial improvements in level of service, achieving reductions in travel time of more than 50% over the conventional train. A specifically...... to provide useful information to quantify users' benefits during the lifespan of a given project. We found, as expected, that HSR and air transport users exhibit substantially higher values for saving travel time than bus travellers. Also as expected, savings of waiting time are more valued than savings...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  10. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  11. A small mammal community in a forest fragment, vegetation corridor and coffee matrix system in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Rocha

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.

  12. Geometric Context and Orientation Map Combination for Indoor Corridor Modeling Using a Single Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligh Jahromi, Ali; Sohn, Gunho

    2016-06-01

    Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected and converted to a 3D

  13. Road-corridor planning in the EIA procedure in Spain. A review of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loro, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.loro@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arce, Rosa M., E-mail: rosa.arce.ruiz@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortega, Emilio, E-mail: e.ortega@upm.es [Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Construction and Rural Roads, Forestry Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-01-15

    The assessment of different alternatives in road-corridor planning must be based on a number of well-defined territorial variables that serve as decision making criteria, and this requires a high-quality preliminary environmental assessment study. In Spain the formal specifications for the technical requirements stipulate the constraints that must be considered in the early stages of defining road corridors, but not how they should be analyzed and ranked. As part of the feasibility study of a new road definition, the most common methodology is to establish different levels of Territorial Carrying Capacity (TCC) in the study area in order to summarize the territorial variables on thematic maps and to ease the tracing process of road-corridor layout alternatives. This paper explores the variables used in 22 road-construction projects conducted by the Ministry of Public Works that were subject to the Spanish EIA regulation and published between 2006 and 2008. The aim was to evaluate the quality of the methods applied and the homogeneity and suitability of the variables used for defining the TCC. The variables were clustered into physical, environmental, land-use and cultural constraints for the purpose of comparing the TCC values assigned in the studies reviewed. We found the average quality of the studies to be generally acceptable in terms of the justification of the methodology, the weighting and classification of the variables, and the creation of a synthesis map. Nevertheless, the methods for assessing the TCC are not sufficiently standardized; there is a lack of uniformity in the cartographic information sources and methodologies for the TCC valuation. -- Highlights: • We explore 22 road-corridor planning studies subjected to the Spanish EIA regulation. • We analyze the variables selected for defining territorial carrying capacity. • The quality of the studies is acceptable (methodology, variable weighting, mapping). • There is heterogeneity in the

  14. Walk the line: station context, corridor type and bus rapid transit walk access in Jinan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Mehndiratta, Shomik; Zegras, P. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines BRT station walk access patterns in rapidly urbanizing China and the relationship between bus rapid transit (BRT) station context and corridor type and the distance people will walk to access the system (i.e., catchment area). We hypothesize that certain contextual built environment features and station and right-of-way configurations will increase the walk-access catchment area; that is, that urban design influences users’ willingness to walk to BRT. We base our analysis ...

  15. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  16. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  17. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  18. ON THE FORMATION OF «ECONOMIC CORRIDOR SILK ROAD»: STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid K. Alimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the status and prospect of Tajik-Chinese relations in the context of the initiative of the President of the PRC on establishing of an economic corridor the Silk Road. A detailed characteristic of expected challenges and benefits for countries of Central Asia and China is given. Special attention is spent on the possibilities of developing of relations between Tajikistan and China, that have risen to the level of strategic partnership.

  19. Study on the oasis corridor landscape in the arid regions based on RS and GIS methods--application of Jinta Oasis, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study on the oasis corridor landscape is a new hotspot in the ecological environment research in the arid regions.In oasis, maincorridor landscape types include river, ditch, shelterbelt and road.This paper introduces the basic ecological effects of the corridor landscapeon the transporting mass and energy and obstructing desert landscape expansion and incursion.Using Geographic Information System(GIS), wehave researched the corridor distribution and its spatial relationship with other landscape types in the Jinta Oasis.Based on the dynamicallymonitoring on the landscape pattern change of the Jinta Oasis during the latter 10 years by using Remote Sensing(RS) and GIS, the drivingfunctions of the corridors on this change have been analyzed in detail.The analysis results showed that all kinds of corridors' characteristics canbe quantified by the indexes such as length and width, ratio of perimeter and area, density and non-heterogeneity.The total corridor length ofJinta Oasis is 1838.5 km and its density is 2.1 km/km2 .The corridor density of the irrigation land, forest and resident area is maximal, whichshows that affection degree of the oasis corridors on them is the most.The improvement of the corridors quality is one of the important drivingfactors on the irrigation land and so on.The organic combination of the RS and GIS technologies and landscape research methods would be aneffective means for the corridor landscape research on arid region oasis.

  20. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.

  1. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Handel, C.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  2. Integrated HS and ALS Remote Sensing Data Sources to Develop Green Corridors in Sopron Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The green corridors are part of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase in size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century. This effect radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. One ecological problem with the remaining forests is the partial missing of the network connecting the parts with ecological green corridors. Another economical problem is the verifiability for the payment system of agroforestry. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise monitoring the arable lands, plantations, natural reserve areas, as well as to help for the European Union payment system. Nowadays the airborne hyperspectral (HS and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging; ALS remote sensing technologies are becoming of more widespread use. They can be applied especially in spatial decision support system (SDSS, used in decisions about for nature, environment, forests, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring, as well as for monitoring of biomass production. Our site selection model was the first step towards planning an agroforestry plantation which uses these integrated technologies to connect the parts with green corridors.

  3. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Krink, T.; Vollrath, F.

    2005-04-01

    Understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. Using state-of-the-art global positioning system (GPS) technology we tracked 11 focal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. Our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. The actual ranges of the tracked elephants are smaller than usually represented. Moreover, the ranges in our sample were complex and not confined to officially designated protected areas, except where fenced. All the unfenced elephants in our sample had distinct `home sectors' linked by `travel' corridors. Within each home sector the elephants concentrated in favourite `core zones'. Such core zones tended to lie in protected areas whereas corridors typically crossed unprotected range. Elephants moved significantly faster along corridors than elsewhere in their range, which suggests awareness of danger outside the protected area. We conclude that understanding the complex use of an animal's range is crucial for conservation planning aiming to balance animal interests with those of human beings that co-habit in their range.

  4. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  5. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors.

  6. Role of the future creative universities in the triple helix of science and technology corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The science and technology corridor is a complex cluster containing universities, science parks, research centers, high-tech companies, venture capital, institutional and physical infrastructures, and human capital in a defined geography with its unique management and legal structure in association with the business space and knowledge-based products. In fact, the science and technology corridor reflects the concept of development based on the knowledge region (the especial region for science and technology. The knowledge region is clearly a triple helix phenomenon par excellence: universities, governments and businesses combine their efforts to construct a common advantage which they would not be able to offer on their own. The future creative universities in connection with the knowledge city-regions not only will deal with innovation and entrepreneurial training but also produce a competitive, vibrant environment with high indices for quality of life and full of green technologies. In this article, we will present functional interactions of the creative universities in the triple helix, particularly the missions for the Iranian universities of medical sciences. As a theoretical model, the complex interactions of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and Health Services with Bushehr Science and Technology Corridor will be discussed.

  7. An editorial approach: Mike Nelson’s corridors and The Deliverance and The Patience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay contrasts the contemporary British artist Mike Nelson’s approach to constructing his large, multi-room installations with his approach to editing the numerous artist books that he has produced since 2000. This comparison reveals several compositional symmetries between the two, namely pertaining to narrative non-linearity and meta-fictionality. The logic of montage is shown to similarly underscore both the books and the installations. This essay argues that the corridors connecting the different rooms of Nelson’s installations function in a similar way to the logic of montage: they play an integral role as the support that binds the structure of the installation (its multiple rooms together as a whole. This essay argues that the corridor is the primary viewing framework of the installation for the viewer, and that this vantage point is significant because the necessarily partial vision of the installation from the space of the corridor demonstrates the logic of installation art more broadly. I conclude by mapping the key compositional elements of Nelson’s artist books onto his installations, taking the 2001 work The Deliverance and The Patience as a case study, to show that the books do not exemplify the artwork as with traditional exhibition catalogues, but rather parallel it. That is, a structural continuity is established between these two facets of his work.

  8. Ray-Based Statistical Propagation Modeling for Indoor Corridor Scenarios at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands for fifth-generation (5G communication systems, high frequency bands (above 6 GHz need to be adopted to provide additional spectrum. This paper investigates the characteristics of indoor corridor channels at 15 GHz. Channel measurements with a vector network analyzer in two corridors were conducted. Based on a ray-optical approach, a deterministic channel model covering both antenna and propagation characteristic is presented. The channel model is evaluated by comparing simulated results of received power and root mean square delay spread with the corresponding measurements. By removing the impact of directional antennas from the transmitter and receiver, a path loss model as well as small-scale fading properties for typical corridors is presented based on the generated samples from the deterministic model. Results show that the standard deviation of path loss variation is related to the Tx height, and placing the Tx closer to the ceiling leads to a smaller fluctuation of path loss.

  9. A mid-Pleistocene rainforest corridor enabled synchronous invasions of the Atlantic Forest by Amazonian anole lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Rivera, Danielle; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Carnaval, Ana C

    2016-10-01

    Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America. Although these forests are presently separated by open and dry ecosystems, paleoclimatic and phylogenetic evidence suggest that they have been transiently connected in the past. However, little is known about the timing, magnitude and the distribution of former forest connections. We employ sequence data at multiple loci from three codistributed arboreal lizards (Anolis punctatus, Anolis ortonii and Polychrus marmoratus) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Amazonian and Atlantic Forest populations and to test alternative historical demographic scenarios of colonization and vicariance using coalescent simulations and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Data from the better-sampled Anolis species support colonization of the Atlantic Forest from eastern Amazonia. Hierarchical ABC indicates that the three species colonized the Atlantic Forest synchronously during the mid-Pleistocene. We find support of population bottlenecks associated with founder events in the two Anolis, but not in P. marmoratus, consistently with their distinct ecological tolerances. Our findings support that climatic fluctuations provided key opportunities for dispersal and forest colonization in eastern South America through the cessation of environmental barriers. Evidence of species-specific histories strengthens assertions that biological attributes play a role in responses to shared environmental change.

  10. Studi Hubungan Budaya dengan Aglomerasi Ekonomi (North-South Corridor Di Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Kresna Sakti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   There are two things that commonly identify economic activitivities spacially such as concentration and imbalance.  East Java has two concentration poles of Java economic activities spacially. One of the concentration areas in East Java is in Surabaya, and that concentration activity is called North-South Corridor which is close to temple/ archeological site in East Java. Based on the fact, this research answers some questions like (1 Is there any interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension? (2 How does culture dimension interacts with economic dimension? The aims of the research are (a To know the interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension partially and cumulatively, so there will be North-South Corridor in East Java; (b To know the flow of mechanism from the detail of culture dimension interacting with economic dimension. The research was done outside North-South Corridor  area in East Java. The result of the research shows (1 there is a relationship between culture and economic dimension. It can be showed from the difference of each economic subject both inside and outside North-South Corridor in facing Hofstede Culture; (2 the difference of culture is formed by the environment of area inside and outside North-South Corridor.   Keywords: North-South Corridor, culture, economic concentration   ABSTRAKS   Terdapat dua hal yang seringkali menjadi ciri menonjol dari kegiatan perekonomian secara spasial, yaitu adanya konsentrasi dan ketimpangan. Di Pulau Jawa Terdapat dua kutub konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Jawa secara spasial. Salah satunya wilayah konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Surabaya Jawa Timur. Konsentrasi kegiatan tersebut dikenal dengan koridor utara – selatan. Menariknya koridor Utara-Selatan berhimpit dengan letak situs purbakala/candi di Jawa Timur.  Berpijak pada kesenjangan realita tersebut, penelitan ini berusaha menjawab pertanyaan berikut, (1 apakah

  11. Bidirectional recovery patterns of Mojave Desert vegetation in an aqueduct pipeline corridor after 36 years: I. Perennial shrubs and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Weigand, James F.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Mack, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    We studied recovery of 21 perennial plant species along a severely disturbed aqueduct corridor in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa plant alliance in the Mojave Desert 36 years after construction. The 97-m wide corridor contained a central dirt road and buried aqueduct pipeline. We established transects at 0 m (road verge), 20 m and 40 m into the disturbance corridor, and at 100 m in undisturbed habitat (the control). Although total numbers of shrubs per transect did not vary significantly with distance from the verge, canopy cover of shrubs, species richness, and species diversity were higher in the control than at the verge and other distances. Canopy cover of common shrubs (Ericameria nauseosa, Ambrosia salsola, A. dumosa, L. tridentata, Grayia spinosa) and perennial grasses (Elymus elymoides, Poa secunda) also varied significantly by location. Discriminant analysis clearly separated the four distances based on plant composition. Patterns of recovery were bidirectional: secondary succession from the control into the disturbance corridor and inhibition from the verge in the direction of the control. Time estimated for species composition to resemble the control is dependent on location within the disturbance corridor and could be centuries at the road verge. Our findings have applications to other deserts.

  12. Simulation approach to define sustainable balance between automobile traffic and bus rapid transit (BRT) in urban corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, A.J.; Khan, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    One of the key challenges facing Central Business Districts (CBD) of medium size urban areas in North America is how to minimize the dependence on automobiles while providing efficient transit service. Underground facilities, exclusive bus/rail corridor or elevated roadways may not be practical due to high cost, aesthetics, noise and adverse land use effects. Because of its compatibility with land use and infrastructure, bus rapid transit (BRT) is receiving more attention. Existing roadway infrastructure, when used as a shared facility, may support rapid transit service besides providing a sustainable level of automobile traffic. A microscopic simulation approach is required in order to assess design changes and throughput levels of shared corridors. The purpose of this paper was to advance the concept of a sustainable balance between public transit and automobile traffic in the CBD, and demonstrate the role of microsimulation as a tool to analyze policies and designs. Limitations of the existing planning methodology were explained and a description of how microscopic simulation approach could be used to overcome methodological gaps was presented. In addition, selected results of a research study conducted using microscopic simulation approach for BRT corridors in Ottawa were shown. It was concluded that BRT operations under favourable conditions in downtown corridors can potentially serve over 28,000 passengers per hour and that removing on-street parking from bus transit corridor expedites bus movement. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Identifying Potential Conservation Corridors Along the Mongolia-Russia Border Using Resource Selection Functions: A Case Study on Argali Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyanaa Chimeddorj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The disruption of animal movements is known to affect wildlife populations, particularly large bodied, free-ranging mammals that require large geographic ranges to survive. Corridors commonly connect fragmented wildlife populations and their habitats, yet identifying corridors rarely uses data on habitat selection and movements of target species. New technologies and analytical tools make it possible to better integrate landscape patterns with spatial behavioral data. We show how resource selection functions can describe habitat suitability using continuous and multivariate metrics to determine potential wildlife movement corridors. During 2005–2010, we studied movements of argali sheep ( Ovis ammon near the Mongolia-Russia border using radio-telemetry and modeled their spatial distribution in relation to landscape features to create a spatially explicit habitat suitability surface to identify potential transboundary conservation corridors. Argali sheep habitat selection in western Mongolia positively correlated with elevation, ruggedness index, and distance to border. In other words, argali were tended use areas with higher elevation, rugged topography, and distances farther from the international border. We suggest that these spatial modeling approaches offer ways to design and identify wildlife corridors more objectively and holistically, and can be applied to many other target species.

  14. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  15. Plant community characteristics and their relationships with climate in the Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peixi SU; Hongbin CHEN; Qiaodi YAN

    2008-01-01

    Species, coverage, density, appearance, important values and above ground biomass of desert plant communities in the Hexi Corridor region in north-western China were investigated. Data on the meteoro-logical factors at the investigation sites were collected. Their relationships were statistically analyzed. The results show that the composition of plant species and total den-sity in the Hexi Corridor region are positively correlated with elevation and longitude, but negatively with latitude. The relation decreases from the southeast to the northwest in this region. In the desert regions with an accumulated temperature of >10℃ greater than 3200℃, the shrubs, including semi-shrubs, occupy dominant positions in the communities. Their importance values reach 100. When the accumulated temperature is about 3000℃, the com-munities are often in some type of transition, either with herbage being the dominant species, with some semi-shrubs or shrubs as companion species, or the dominant species being semi-shrubs with some perennial herbage as companion species. In desert communities with an annual precipitation of over 110 mm, the main life forms of plants are semi-shrubs or perennial herbs. When precip-itation is less than 110 mm, the main life forms of the vegetation are dwarf shrub or annual herbs. In the extreme arid regions with annual precipitation of around 50 mm in the northwestern part of the Hexi Corridor, barely some annual herbage come to life during the rainy season. Desert ecosystems consist of sparse vegetation with small biomass. They change with climate factors and are especially sensitive to precipitation, which is par-ticularly important for their conservation.

  16. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  17. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  18. Tectonic inversion of compressional structures in the Southern portion of the Paramirim Corridor, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cerqueira Pereira Cruz

    Full Text Available The Paramirim Corridor represents the maximum inversion zone of the Paramirim Aulacogen. Reverse-to-reverse dextral shear zones and various types of folds dominate such corridor. These structures reflect a stress field that is WSW-ENE oriented, developed in units of Aulacogen basement, as well as in the Lagoa Real Intrusive Suite, of Statherian age, in Espinhaço and São Francisco supergroups, of Statherian-Tonian and Cryogenian ages, respectively, and in the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre Group, of Tonian age at the most. A rich collection of extensional structures truncate compressional structures of the Paramirim Corridor, characterized by normal shear zones and foliation, which is sometimes mylonitic, down-dip stretching lineation, drag folds, traction fractures and S/C structures. In these shear zones, quartz occurs truncated by the foliation, while feldspars are fractured and altered to white mica. Distribution of the quartz c-axes is at a maximum of 14° from the Z-axis. Thus, it suggests that the deformation activated mainly the basal glide planes in the direction. The paleostress study using the Win-Tensor software demonstrated that the regimen ranged between radial and pure distention. The S1 direction oscillated around a vertical trend, while s3 was sub-horizontal, with a predominant N230-050° direction. Ar-Ar ages in biotite obtained from the extensional shear zones ranged from 480 and 490 Ma. Together, data obtained for the structures associated with the late extensional regimen described in the present study suggest that its nucleation is associated with distal and brittle-ductile sectors of the gravitational collapse zone of Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen.

  19. A preliminary study on designing ecological corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve with 3S techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the fieldwork in Xishuang-banna Natioanl Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province of China. GPS data of Asian elephants were collected and analyzed with the remote sensing satellite photos of the region to estimate the landform physiognomy of different colors. We also analyzed a series of ecological factors includ-ing altitude, landform, relief, villages and roads which affected the distribution and movement of Asian elephants. The results suggested the possibility of designing and estab-lishing corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve to protect the population of wild elephants in the region.

  20. GEOMETRIC CONTEXT AND ORIENTATION MAP COMBINATION FOR INDOOR CORRIDOR MODELING USING A SINGLE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Jahromi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected

  1. Robust analysis of an underwater navigational strategy in electrically heterogeneous corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimble, Kedar D; Ranganathan, Badri N; Keshavan, Jishnu; Humbert, J Sean

    2016-08-01

    Obstacles and other global stimuli provide relevant navigational cues to a weakly electric fish. In this work, robust analysis of a control strategy based on electrolocation for performing obstacle avoidance in electrically heterogeneous corridors is presented and validated. Static output feedback control is shown to achieve the desired goal of reflexive obstacle avoidance in such environments in simulation and experimentation. The proposed approach is computationally inexpensive and readily implementable on a small scale underwater vehicle, making underwater autonomous navigation feasible in real-time.

  2. Modeling of optimal control for urban freeway corridor under incident conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhu ZHENG; Decun DONG

    2006-01-01

    Traffic control and management are effective measures to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The optimal control model for freeway corridor is developed under incident conditions, which is in the form of minimization of the sum of the square of the difference between traffic demand and capacity at each intersection and on the freeway bottleneck section. The model optimizes control parameters of phase splits at arterial intersections, off-ramp diversion rates at upstream off-ramps and on-ramp diversion rates at downstream on ramps. Finally, the objective function is discussed and it is showed that the optimal control model is simple and practical.

  3. Comparative use of riparian corridors and oases by migrating birds in southeast Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Melcher, C.P.; Howe, W.H.; Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of cottonwood-willow riparian corridors and isolated oases to land birds migrating across southeastern Arizona was evaluated during four spring migrations, 1989 to 1994, based on patterns of species richness, relative abundance, density, and body condition of birds. We surveyed birds in 13 study sites ranging in size and connectivity from small isolated patches to extensive riparian forest, sampled vegetation and insects, and captured birds in mistnets. The continuous band of riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River does not appear to be functioning as a corridor for many migrating species, although it may for a few, namely Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), Summer Tanagers (Piranga rubra), and Northern Rough-winged Swallows (Steldigopteryx serripennis), which account for fewer than 10% of the individuals migrating through the area. Small, isolated oases hosted more avian species than the corridor sites, and the relative abundances of most migrating birds did not differ between sites relative to size-connectivity. There were few differences in between-year variability in the relative abundances of migrating birds between corridor and oasis sites. Between-year variability decreased with overall abundance of species and was greater for species with breeding ranges that centered north of 50??N latitude. Body condition of birds did not differ relative to the size-connectivity of the capture site, but individuals of species with more northerly breeding ranges had more body fat than species that breed nearby. Peak migration densities of several bird species far exceeded breeding densities reported for the San Pedro River, suggesting that large components of these species were en route migrants. Peak densities of Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) reached 48.0 birds/ha, of Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) 33.7 birds/ha, and of Yellow-rumped Warblers (D. coronata) 30.1 birds/ha. Riparian vegetation is limited in extent in the

  4. Comparison of serial and parallel simulations of a corridor fire using FDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, L.

    2015-09-01

    Current fire simulators allow to model the course of fire in large areas and its impact on structure and equipment. This paper deals with a comparison of serial and parallel calculations of simulation of a corridor fire by the FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) system. In parallel case, the whole computational domain is divided into several computational meshes, the computation on each mesh is considered as a single MPI (Message Passing Interface) process realised on one computational core and communication between MPI processes is provided by MPI. The aim of this paper is to determine the size of error caused by parallelization of computation, which occurs at touches of computational meshes.

  5. Corridor of existence of thermodynamically consistent solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, V S; Martynov, G A

    2007-07-14

    We obtain the exact equation for a correction to the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation based on the assumption of the uniqueness of thermodynamical functions. We show that this equation is reduced to a differential equation with one arbitrary parameter for the hard sphere model. The compressibility factor within narrow limits of this parameter variation can either coincide with one of the formulas obtained on the basis of analytical solutions of the OZ equation or assume all intermediate values lying in a corridor between these solutions. In particular, we find the value of this parameter when the thermodynamically consistent compressibility factor corresponds to the Carnahan-Stirling formula.

  6. Potential economic corridors between Vietnam and Lao PDR: Roles played by Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    The Third Thai-Lao Friendship over the Mekong officially opened on 11th November 2011 facilitates the cross-border trade along Asian Highway 15 and Asian Highway 131 between Northeast Thailand, Central Lao PDR and North Central Vietnam. Since the establishment of East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) which based on the Asian Highway 16, the cross-border trade among countries in Greater Mekong Sub-region has been much facilitated. The success of EWEC encourages local governments in the region to...

  7. The age of formation of the mirabilite and sand wedges in the Hexi Corridor and their paleoclimatic interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nai'ang; ZHANG Jianming; CHENG Hongyi; GUO Jianying; ZHAO Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Sand wedges in the Hexi Corridor mainly formed in an alluvial gravel stratum of the late Pleistocene and the radiocarbon ages of the eolian sand infilling wedge prove that they were a product of the last ice age. During their period of formation, the mean annual air temperature in the Hexi Corridor was about -5.3℃, i. e. about 13℃ lower than that of the present. This estimated value iscoincident with the decrease in air temperature predicated from mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) sedimentary layer in study area, and also agrees with research on theestimated amplitude of air temperature lowering in middle and high latitudes ofthe Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial period. The annual precipitation in the Western Hexi Corridor at that time was probably about 100-200 mm, i.e.about 100 mm more than at present.

  8. Typology of building shading elements on Jalan Sudirman corridor in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, G.; Aldy, P.

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, temperature in Pekanbaru was between 22.60°C and 34.6°C with humidity 79.14 percent. This condition has increase the concern of energy utilization to building comfort. Buildings have the biggest energy consuming due to the use of air conditioner in Pekanbaru. One effort to reduced energy is shading devices application. Application of air conditioner need huge energy, replaced natural circulation with architecture elements to reduced building thermal. This research study about system and building shading devices types that influence building thermal in Pekanbaru so that knowing characteristics and elements form. This study aims to determine and identify of systems and building elements types in Pekanbaru, which the element forms to conquer in climate condition. Qualitative method with rationalistic-paradigm has used to identify typology of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman corridor. The research orientation on typology theory, thermal theory, and building shading device to identification of building shading device types on Jalan Sudirman corridor. Based on the survey result, there are 2 type of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman Pekanbaru which is based on forms and quantity of shading. The types are building shading devices based on shading quantity and building shading devices based on shading forms.

  9. REDUCING SURFACE TEMPERATURES OF NORTH-SOUTH BUSINESS CORRIDORS IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasasto SATWIKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat island has made the warm-humid climate city of Yogyakarta thermally more uncomfortable, which induces its people to depend more on energy consuming air conditioners. Business corridors are constructed from building walls and roofs, pedestrian paths, the streets and the vegetation, which convert solar radiation into heat. Infrared mappings of the four north-south axis business corridors of Yogyakarta found that streets and vehicles have their temperatures higher than the air temperature. Exception is at Gejayan St., where the street’s temperature is close to the air temperature. This street has rows of trees on its median, which effectively shades the street. Further study on Gejayan St. using a computer simulation method confirms that columnar and spreading form trees can reduce incident solar radiation on the street surface by, respectively, 13.35% and 22.02%. Putting creeping plants on pergolas reduce incident solar radiation on the west and the east walls by, respectively, 37.05% and 37.45%.

  10. EIA BASED COMPARATIVE URBAN TRAFFIC NOISE ANALYSIS BETWEEN OPERATIONAL AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION PHASE PUBLIC TRANSPORT CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Mishra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Delhi has a population of 16.75 million and is increasing at a rapid rate. This increase in population has enhanced the need for public transport. In Delhi, this need for public transport is served mainly by buses, auto rickshaws, a rapid transit system, taxis and suburban railways. Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and the Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. By the application of various data and public response, the paper accentuates the qualitative discussion on impacts of mass rapid transit system (MRTS corridor on land use and social aspects of lives of residents and road users. It also proposes certain mitigating measures for that meticulous condition. The analysis and survey outcome explain about the exceeded level of noise level as compared to CPCB standards. The share of public transport in total noise pollution is smaller than private but still exceeds the standards. Such problem demands the design of noise barrier along the corridor to curb the noise pollution.

  11. Noise monitoring and modeling on four lanning of national highways corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, P Shiyamala; Rosaline, G Vimala

    2012-10-01

    Noise emitted from traffic contributes to about 55% of total noise pollution in India. This paper is an effort of a research conducted to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along the Salem-Namakkal NH 7 corridor with an ultimate objective of setting up a traffic noise model based on the traffic noise conditions of Indian cities. Noise levels and other variables have been measured in 15 locations to develop a statistical regression model based on A-weighted equivalent noise level for Indian road conditions. The ambient noise levels recorded represent the higher noise levels prevailing along the NH 7 corridor. The Receptor Oriented Technique adopted proves to be helpful in characterizing the ambient noise levels along the study area. The newly developed road traffic noise model can be effectively used as a decision support tool for predicting equivalent noise levels in the cities of India. The present analysis also reveals that the magnitude of noise levels has an increasing trend due to the increased traffic flow and presents the attention needed for minimization. The mitigation measures and the future evaluations are discussed.

  12. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  13. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  14. Characterizing corridor-level travel time distributions based on stochastic flows and segment capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trip travel time reliability is an important measure of transportation system performance and a key factor affecting travelers’ choices. This paper explores a method for estimating travel time distributions for corridors that contain multiple bottlenecks. A set of analytical equations are used to calculate the number of queued vehicles ahead of a probe vehicle and further capture many important factors affecting travel times: the prevailing congestion level, queue discharge rates at the bottlenecks, and flow rates associated with merges and diverges. Based on multiple random scenarios and a vector of arrival times, the lane-by-lane delay at each bottleneck along the corridor is recursively estimated to produce a route-level travel time distribution. The model incorporates stochastic variations of bottleneck capacity and demand and explains the travel time correlations between sequential links. Its data needs are the entering and exiting flow rates and a sense of the lane-by-lane distribution of traffic at each bottleneck. A detailed vehicle trajectory data-set from the Next Generation SIMulation (NGSIM project has been used to verify that the estimated distributions are valid, and the sources of estimation error are examined.

  15. Earthquake scenario and probabilistic ground-shaking hazard maps for the Albuquerque-Belen-Santa Fe, New Mexico, corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I.; Olig, S.; Dober, M.; Silva, W.; Wright, D.; Thomas, P.; Gregor, N.; Sanford, A.; Lin, K.-W.; Love, D.

    2004-01-01

    New Mexico's population is concentrated along the corridor that extends from Belen in the south to Española in the north and includes Albuquerque and Santa Fe. The Rio Grande rift, which encompasses the corridor, is a major tectonically, volcanically, and seismically active continental rift in the western U.S. Although only one large earthquake (moment magnitude (M) ≥ 6) has possibly occurred in the New Mexico portion of the rift since 1849, paleoseismic data indicate that prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes of M 6.5 and greater have occurred on aver- age every 400 yrs on many faults throughout the Rio Grande rift.

  16. Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the central da Mata Atlântica in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. D Rocha

    Full Text Available Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species, and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espírito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Trancoso, BA, and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi. The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espírito Santo and Bahia.

  17. Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bergès, Philip Roche and Catherine Avon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological corridors are a fundamental element in the National ecological network approved by the Grenelle environmental agreement in order to reduce ecosystem damage caused by fragmentation of the natural habitat zones of species. How can their effectiveness be evaluated? This article sums up current knowledge on their pros and cons.Fragmentation of natural habitats is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One of the proposed solutions to limit the effects of fragmentation is to restore ecological connectivity by creating ecological corridors between zones containing natural habitats. The concept remains controversial among scientists, but now serves as the basis for one of the operational projects of the Grenelle environmental agreements in the form of the National ecological network. After examining the ecological concepts justifying the political goal and presenting the various ecological roles of corridors, we briefly discuss their overall advantages and disadvantages. Then, we look closely at the methodological difficulties in detecting a corridor effect. Finally, we recommend a close partnership between research and policy to design biodiversity monitoring and evaluation systems in the different land-management plans.

  18. Molecular Corridor Based Approach for Description of Evolution of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y., Sr.; Poeschl, U.; Shiraiwa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and its major component is secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Formation and evolution of SOA is a complex process involving coupled chemical reactions and mass transport in the gas and particle phases (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Current air quality models do not embody the full spectrum of reaction and transport processes, nor do they identify the dominant rate-limiting steps in SOA formation, resulting in the significant underprediction of observed SOA concentrations, which precludes reliable quantitative predictions of aerosols and their environmental impacts. Recently, it has been suggested that the SOA chemical evolution can be represented well by "molecular corridor" with a tight inverse correlation between molar mass and volatility of SOA oxidation products (Shiraiwa et al., 2014). Here we further analyzed the structure, molar mass and volatility of 31,000 unique organic compounds. These compounds include oxygenated organic compounds as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics such as amines, organonitrates, and organosulfates. Results show that most of those compounds fall into this two-dimensional (2-D) space, which is constrained by two boundary lines corresponding to the volatility of n -alkanes CnH2n+2 and sugar alcohols CnH2n+2On. A method to predict the volatility of nitrogen- and sulfur- containing compounds is developed based on those 31,000 organic compounds. It is shown that the volatility can be well predicted as a function of chemical composition numbers, providing a way to apply this 2-D space to organic compounds observed in real atmosphere. A comprehensive set of observation data from laboratory experiments, field campaigns and indoor measurements is mapped to the molecular corridor. This 2-D space can successfully grasp the properties of organic compounds formed in different atmospheric conditions. The molecular corridor represents a new framework in which chemical and physical properties as

  19. Dynamique institutionnelle des transferts de gestion dans le corridor Fandriana-Vondrozo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Ganomanana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten years after their creation, the operation of the community-based natural resource management policy named ‘transfert de gestion’ – the 1996 GELOSE law (applied to any kind of natural resources, and the 2001 GCF decree (only applied to forests – remains little understood. The forest corridor linking Ranomafana and Andringitra National Parks has been extended south, and since 2006 the Fandriana-Vondrozo Corridor has been established as a new protected area within the Madagascar Protected Area System. Eighty-two sites of transfert de gestion have been created since 2001 in the Fandriana-Vondrozo Corridor and Randriamahaleo III are managed by local community associations named COBA. Management is determined by law but is locally adapted to each site. We analyze the dynamic of the community forest management system using six variables and 19 modes: year of creation (five modes, legal form of management (two modes, locality (two modes, principal NGO partners (five modes, management objective (two modes, and surface area of the transferred site (three modes. There are four institutions in charge of forest management: local community associations (COBA, which manage the forest in their territory; the Forest Service (Eaux et Forêt representing the State, which controls this management; the commune, the smallest decentralized unit of the State, which manages the whole communal territory including forests; and NGOs, which facilitate the process. In order to investigate institutional tendencies, the sites of transfert de gestion are analyzed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. The sites are distributed in the first two factorial plans with percentage variance of 18.5 % and 15.8 % according to their objectives: 1 pure conservation, and 2 economic development. Three types of NGO are distinguished by the form and duration of their support to COBA. The NGOs with greatest weight in the process are those which support the transfert de gestion

  20. Automatic construction of aerial corridor for navigation of unmanned aircraft systems in class G airspace using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dengchao; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    According to the airspace classification by the Federal Aviation Agency, Class G airspace is the airspace at 1,200 feet or less to the ground, which is beneath class E airspace and between classes B-D cylinders around towered airstrips. However, the lack of flight supervision mechanism in this airspace, unmanned aerial system (UAS) missions pose many safety issues. Collision avoidance and route planning for UASs in class G airspace is critical for broad deployment of UASs in commercial and security applications. Yet, unlike road network, there is no stationary marker in airspace to identify corridors that are available and safe for UASs to navigate. In this paper, we present an automatic LiDAR-based airspace corridor construction method for navigation in class G airspace and a method for route planning to minimize collision and intrusion. Our idea is to combine LiDAR to automatically identify ground objects that pose navigation restrictions such as airports and high-rises. Digital terrain model (DTM) is derived from LiDAR point cloud to provide an altitude-based class G airspace description. Following the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual, the ground objects that define the restricted airspaces are used together with digital surface model derived from LiDAR data to construct the aerial corridor for navigation of UASs. Preliminary results demonstrate competitive performance and the construction of aerial corridor can be automated with much great efficiency.

  1. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... in the future as continued growth in population, employment, and tourism activity is expected to... infrastructure that is significantly undersized for the volumes it currently accommodates, much less future... fully booked during peak travel periods. Aging Rail Infrastructure--Investment in corridor rail...

  2. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of...'s (Commission) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind...

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associations of vascular plants confined to river valleys: towards understanding the river corridor plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Zubek, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    The group of river corridor plants (RCP) includes vascular plant species which grow mainly or exclusively in the valleys of large rivers. Despite the long recognized fact that some plant species display a corridor-like distribution pattern in Central Europe, there is still no exhaustive explanation of the mechanisms generating this peculiar distribution. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fungal root endophytes influence the RCP distribution. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) were observed in 19 out of 33 studied RCP. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) and Olpidium spp. were recorded with low abundance in 15 and 10 plant species, respectively. The spores of AMF were found only in 32% of trap cultures established from the soils collected in the river corridor habitats. In total, six widespread AMF species were identified. Because the percentage of non-mycorrhizal species in the group of RCP is significant and the sites in river corridors are characterized by low AMF species diversity, RCP can be outcompeted outside river valleys by the widespread species that are able to benefit from AM associations in more stable plant-AMF communities in non-river habitats.

  4. Causes of Sandstorm Disaster and Strategies against Desertification——A Case Study of Hexi Corridor in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This case study outlines the problems faced by the peoples of the Hexi Corridor. These problems are serious and urgent, and are representative of those faced by other communities right across western China. The root causes are outlined and some remedies are suggested. The practical measures proposed under China's National Action Plan to Combat Desertification are described and discussed.

  5. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany - Workshop Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  6. Examining the effect of speed, roadside features, and roadway geometry on crash experience along a rural corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald C.Watson Jr.; Ahmed Al-Kaisy; Nathan D.Anderson

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a current investigation into crash experience along a 15.7-mile rural corridor in southwest Montana with the aim of better understanding crash causal factors along the corridor. The study utilized ten years of crash data, geometric data, and observed free-flow speed data along the corridor. A systematic approach was used where every tenth of a mile was described in term of the crash experience, speed, alignment, and roadside features. Using bivariate and multivariate statistical anal-yses, the study investigated the crash experience along the corridor as well as some of the underlying relationships which could explain some of the crash causal factors. Results show a strong association between crash rates and horizontal curvatures even for flat curves that can be negotiated at speeds above the posted speed limit, per the highway design equations. Higher crash rates were also found to be associated with the difference between the observed free-flow speeds and the speed dictated by the curve radius or sight distance as per the design equations. Further, results strongly support the safety benefits of guardrails as evidenced by the lower crash rates and severities. The presence of fixed objects and the steepness of side slopes were also found to have an effect on crash rates and severities.

  7. From Migration Corridors to Clusters: The Value of Google+ Data for Migration Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Messias, Johnnatan; Weber, Ingmar; Zagheni, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there have been considerable efforts to use online data to investigate international migration. These efforts show that Web data are valuable for estimating migration rates and are relatively easy to obtain. However, existing studies have only investigated flows of people along migration corridors, i.e. between pairs of countries. In our work, we use data about "places lived" from millions of Google+ users in order to study migration "clusters", i.e. groups of countries in which individuals have lived. For the first time, we consider information about more than two countries people have lived in. We argue that these data are very valuable because this type of information is not available in traditional demographic sources which record country-to-country migration flows independent of each other. We show that migration clusters of country triads cannot be identified using information about bilateral flows alone. To demonstrate the additional insights that can be gained by using data about migration c...

  8. From the CERN web: The Art of Science, Theory corridor, DAMPE and more

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This section highlights articles, blog posts and press releases published in the CERN web environment over the past weeks. This way, you won’t miss a thing...     "Move over Mr Einstein!" A scientific experiment ignites creativity and dialogue 26 February – CMS Collaboration The inspiration for the latest art exhibition at the Cité du Temps came from a scientific experiment the height of a six-floor building, built to the precision of the thickness of a human hair. “CMS – The Art of Science”, by Michael Hoch, running from 27 February to 10 April 2016, delivers a dynamic dialogue between art and science. A combination of photography, collage and installations, it pays tribute to the thousands of people who constructed the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva. Continue to read…   One of CERN’s Theory corridors &ndas...

  9. Telemedicine and medical informatics in the multimedia super corridor: the Malaysian vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, S S; Goh, A; Yusoff, Z

    1998-01-01

    The practice of medicine, with its wide range of environmental conditions and complex dependencies, has long been used as a test bed for various advanced technologies. Telemedicine, as conceptualised within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) context, is seen as the application of several relatively mature technologiesartificial intelligence (AI), multimedia communication and information systems (IS) amongst othersso as to benefit a large cross-section of the Malaysian population. We will discuss in general terms the Malaysian vision on the comprehensive MSC telemedicine solution, its functionality and associated operational conditions. In particular, this paper focuses on the conceptualisation of one key telemedical component i.e. the Lifetime Health Plan (LHP) system, which is eventually intended to be a distributed multi-module application for the periodic monitoring and generation of health-care advisories for upwards of 20 million Malaysians.

  10. Controlling inclination in rotary mode in tight TVD corridors using a 2-dimensional steerable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasheed, W. [Andergauge Ltd., Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2000-11-01

    The use of a 2D rotary steerable system to control the inclination of true vertical depth (TVD) and horizontal wells was discussed. The system was introduced in 1986 and has since been used successfully in more than 4,500 sections and 500 horizontal wells worldwide. Directional corrections are unlikely with the use of this system. The system can often drill to total depth in a single bit run. As well bore inclination increases, bit walk becomes less significant. It was concluded that the 2D rotary steerable system is capable of drilling horizontal sections effectively and efficiently. It can meet tight TVD corridor objectives with an accuracy of {+-}2 feet. It also has other benefits regarding hole quality. 11 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Green corridors and their possible impact on the European supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Holte, Even Ambros

    2015-01-01

    employed in Europe, and describes the performance monitoring methodology developed by SuperGreen. The deep sea service linking China to Europe is compared to the trans-Siberian rail link between Beijing and Duisburg as an example. Finally, the new transport infrastructure policy of the European Union...... objective of the SuperGreen project has been to support the development of sustainable transport networks by fulfilling requirements covering environmental, technical, economic, social and spatial planning aspects. The chapter deals only with surface freight transport, including maritime transport, noting...... however that the quality of transport and logistics services is also affected by passenger transport competing for route capacity. Aviation is outside the scope of our analysis, as is the use of pipelines for liquid cargoes. In addition, the chapter provides examples of the corridor development approaches...

  12. The woody vegetation communities of the Hluhluwe-Corridor- Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Whateley

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Land units for the 900 km- Hluhluwe-Corridor-Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex in north eastern Natal were identified on aerial photographs. The physiognomy, dominants and description of the woody vegetation for each unit were identified during ground inspections and. where necessary, the point-centred quarter method was applied. Two forest, two riverine forest, ten woodland and two thicket communities were recognized. These communities are described according to their distribution, height and percentage frequency of the components in the different canopy strata. A map at a scale of 1:25 000 was also compiled. Some of these communities are compared with other similar woodlands previously described for Natal. In some communities the frequency of certain dominant canopy species in the under tree strata was extremely low and autecological research has been suggested.

  13. A water balance model to estimate flow through the Old and Middle River corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Stephen W.; Gross, Edward S.; Hutton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a water balance model to predict tidally averaged (subtidal) flows through the Old River and Middle River corridor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We reviewed the dynamics that govern subtidal flows and water levels and adopted a simplified representation. In this water balance approach, we estimated ungaged flows as linear functions of known (or specified) flows. We assumed that subtidal storage within the control volume varies because of fortnightly variation in subtidal water level, Delta inflow, and barometric pressure. The water balance model effectively predicts subtidal flows and approaches the accuracy of a 1–D Delta hydrodynamic model. We explore the potential to improve the approach by representing more complex dynamics and identify possible future improvements.

  14. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael B.; Harrison, Lee R.; Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  15. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  16. Aggregate supply and demand modeling using GIS methods for the front range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ahmet; Turner, Keith

    2004-07-01

    The combined use of allocation modeling and geographical information system (GIS) technologies for providing quantitative assessments of aggregate supply and demand is evaluated using representative data for the Front Range Urban Corridor (FRUC) in Colorado. The FRUC extends from the Colorado-Wyoming border to south of Colorado Springs, and includes Denver and the major urban growth regions of Colorado. In this area, aggregate demand is high and is increasing in response to population growth. Neighborhood opposition to the establishment of new pits and quarries and the depletion of many deposits are limiting aggregate supplies. Many sources are already covered by urban development or eliminated from production by zoning. Transport of aggregate by rail from distant resources may be required in the future. Two allocation-modeling procedures are tested in this study. Network analysis procedures provided within the ARC/INFO software, are unsatisfactory. Further aggregate allocation modeling used a model specifically designed for this task; a modified version of an existing Colorado School of Mines allocation model allows for more realistic market analyses. This study evaluated four scenarios. The entire region was evaluated with a scenario reflecting the current market and by a second scenario in which some existing suppliers were closed down and new potential suppliers were activated. The conditions within the Denver metropolitan area were studied before and after the introduction of three possible rail-to-truck aggregate distribution centers. GIS techniques are helpful in developing the required database to describe the Front Range Urban Corridor aggregate market conditions. GIS methods allow the digital representation of the regional road network, and the development of a distance matrix relating all suppliers and purchasers.

  17. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael; Harrison, Lee; Donovan, Patrick; Blum, Joel; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity is often affected by dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, flow history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this process within a Northern California river system that has a legacy of industrial-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. In the first known application of this methodology, we combine hydraulic modeling, measurements of Hg species in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations to assess the role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), which accumulates in local and migratory biota. We identify areas that represent 'hot spots' (frequently inundated areas of floodplains) and 'hot moments' (floodplain areas inundated for consecutive long periods). We show that the probability of MMHg production in each sector of the river system is dependent on the spatial patterns of overbank flow and drainage, which affect its long-term redox history. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn, and there appears to be no end to MMHg production under a regime of increasingly common large floods with extended duration. These findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the historical hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is the primary driver of MMHg production in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed in terms of magnitude and frequency of inundation in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation based on corrected TRMM data around the Hexi Corridor, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; YuanQing He; Jian Ma; Juan Pang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate rainfall distribution is difficult to acquire based on limited meteorological stations, especially in remote areas like high mountains and deserts. The Hexi Corridor and its adjacent regions (including the Qilian Mountains and the Alxa Plateau) are typical districts where there are only 30 available rain gauges. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data provide a possible solution. After precision analysis of monthly 0.25 degree resolution TRMM 3B43 data from 1998 to 2012, we find that the correlations between TRMM 3B43 estimates and rain gauge precipitation are significant overall and in each station around the Hexi Corridor;however, the biases of annual precipitation differ in different stations and are seriously overestimated in most of the sites. Thus, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation method was used to rectify TRMM data based on the difference between TRMM 3B43 estimates and rain gauge observations. The results show that rectified TRMM data present more details than rain gauges in remote areas where there are few stations, alt-hough they show high coherence of distribution. Precipitation decreases from southeast to northwest on an annual and seasonal scale. There are three rainfall centers (>500 mm) including Menyuan, Qilian and Toson Lake, and two low rain-fall centers (5 mm/a), Badain Jaran Desert (>2 mm/a), Toson Lake (>20 mm/a) and Qingtu Lake (>20 mm/a) which shows a significant increasing trend, while precipitation in Hala Lake (<-2 mm/a) and Tengger Desert (<-3 mm/a) demonstrates a decreasing trend.

  19. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  20. Methodological Issues and Values Arising from the Construction of a Heritage Corridor Along Chinese Eastern Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Fei; Shao; Long

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Eastern Railway(CER),which was designed by Russia in 1898 and constructed later by China,is a typical industrial cultural landscape of the 20 th century that enjoys a high uniqueness and representativeness due to its integrality and systematicness.It sits on a historic site with various kinds of resources,including architecture,railways,and other facilities.As there has been few changes with CER’s route,its resources are,in fact,still serviceable to the current railway system and people living along the route.However,considering the problems,such as lack of maintenance,ignorance of the society,inappropriate renovations,etc.,attention should be paid to CER’s value assessment before any reconstruction decisions are made.Although value assessment plays a very important role in the decision-making and investment-planning process,there is almost no related research on the construction of a heritage corridor along CER.Seeing that value assessment is part of the CER Heritage Corridor construction project and the values act as a reference in understanding CER as a heritage site,this paper aims to put forward a methodological guidance to identify CER’s values,so that its resources will be assessed by using what we call "value typology." In addition,it also tries to promote the tools that can help to evaluate CER’s values.On the basis of a methodological analysis,it finally puts forward some advices to integrating the value assessment into the decision-making process.

  1. All biology is computational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  2. Gully annealing by aeolian sediment: field and remote-sensing investigation of aeolian-hillslope-fluvial interactions, Colorado River corridor, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Draut, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Processes contributing to development of ephemeral gully channels are of great importance to landscapes worldwide, and particularly in dryland regions where soil loss and land degradation from gully erosion pose long-term land-management problems. Whereas gully formation has been relatively well studied, much less is known of the processes that anneal gullies and impede their growth. This study of gully annealing by aeolian sediment, spanning 95 km along the Colorado River corridor in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, employed field and remote sensing observations, including digital topographic modelling. Results indicate that aeolian sediment activity can be locally effective at counteracting gully erosion. Gullies are less prevalent in areas where surficial sediment undergoes active aeolian transport, and have a greater tendency to terminate in active aeolian sand. Although not common, examples exist in the record of historical imagery of gullies that underwent infilling by aeolian sediment in past decades and evidently were effectively annealed. We thus provide new evidence for a potentially important interaction of aeolian–hillslope–fluvial processes, which could affect dryland regions substantially in ways not widely recognized. Moreover, because the biologic soil crust plays an important role in determining aeolian sand activity, and so in turn the extent of gully development, this study highlights a critical role of geomorphic–ecologic interactions in determining arid-landscape evolution.

  3. Corridor effect of the spatial changes of landscape patterns in arid areas: A case study of the river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huarong; XIAO Duning; ZHOU Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are dominated by the traditional green corridors along the river section from the Qara Reservoir in Yuli County to the Taitema Lake in Ruoqiang County, which plays an important role in the social and economic development in the Tarim River Watershed with a extremely significant ecological functions. The buffer zones perpendicular to the watercourse were defined along both riversides at a 5-km interval beginning from the watercourse (10 km wider) using the method of the buffer zone analysis. The landscape pattern indexes of each buffer zone were calculated, and the indexes of the main landscape patterns were analyzed so as to reveal the radiative effect and the characteristics of the river corridors on landscape and patch levels.The results show that the radiative width is generally 30 km in the study area, and can be up to 50-70 km in sub- region FG1 because the study area is located in two drainage basins, with an ecological interstitial zone between them. The landscapes of woodlands and wetlands are generally distributed within the 10km buffer zone (it means that the buffer zone is 5 km away from the watercourse; the same hereafter)along both riversides. Moreover, the closer the buffer zone is to the watercourse, the higher the patch density and the largest patch index are. In the ecological and environmental regeneration for the study area,the extent of ecological effect of the river corridors 82must be fully considered, and the projects must be scientifically and rationally planned and designed.

  4. Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado; urbanization, aggregate mining and reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda; Knepper, Daniel H.; Melick, Roger A.; Hickman, John

    2002-01-01

    Prime agricultural land along the Clear Creek floodplain, Colorado, attracted settlement in the 1850's but the demand for sand and gravel for 1900's construction initiated a sequence of events that exceeded previous interests and created the modified landscape and urban ecosystem that exists today. The Clear Creek valley corridor offers a landscape filled with a persistent visible and hidden reminder of it's past use. The map sheets illustrate the Clear Creek landscape as a series of compositions, both at the macro view (in the spatial context of urban structure and highways from aerial photographs) and micro view (from the civic scale where landscape features like trees, buildings, and sidewalks are included). The large-scale topographic features, such as mountains and terraces, appear 'changeless' (they do change over geologic time), while Clear Creek has changed from a wide braided stream to a narrow confined stream. Transportation networks (streets and highways) and spiraling population growth in adjacent cities (from approximately 38,000 people in 1880 to over a million in 1999) form two dominant landscape patterns. Mining and wetland/riparian occupy the smallest amount of land use acres compared to urban, transportation, or water reservoir activities in the Clear Creek aggregate reserve study area. Four types of reclaimed pits along Clear Creek were determined: water storage facilities, wildlife/greenbelt space, multiple-purpose reservoirs, and 'hidden scenery.' The latter involves infilling gravel pits (with earth backfill, concrete rubble, or sanitary landfill) and covering the site with light industry or residential housing making the landform hard to detect as a past mine site. Easier to recognize are the strong-edged, rectilinear water reservoirs, reclaimed from off-channel sand and gravel pits that reflect the land survey grid and property boundaries. The general public may not realize softly contoured linear wildlife corridors connecting urban

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  6. Tick communities at the expanding wildlife / cattle interface in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for Corridor disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Smith

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corridor disease, transmitted by the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is one of Africa's most pathogenic tick-borne diseases for cattle. With a focus on this species, we investigated the community parameters (richness, diversity and abundance of ticks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and how this may be linked to the increasing wildlife / cattle interface in the region. There were significantly more ticks of a greater diversity and richness at sites positioned at the wildlife / cattle interface ('treatment sites' compared to sites where wildlife was absent (controls. Significantly, R. appendiculatus was only found at the treatment sites. Therefore, it is believed that the wildlife / cattle interface may be playing a crucial role in increasing the occurrence, abundance and distribution of R. appendiculatus in the Eastern Cape. The implications of a Corridor disease outbreak in the region are discussed.

  7. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    transport flows through specific transport networks of own interest. Most transport firms are mobile in their activities by nature, but are in reality confined in their day-to-day operations to different forms of relative fixed network structure - e.g. railway lines, ferry routes and ports, cost......This paper presents empirical findings and results from a study conducted as a part of an INTERREG IIIB project on intermodal transport solutions and corridors in the North Sea Region (SUTRANET - Sustainable Transport Research & Development Network in the North Sea Region (Hansen et.al., 2007......; Kristiansen et.al., 2005 and http://www.sutranet.org/ ). The aim of the study has been to explore possibilities and barriers for the development of intermodal transport solutions in selected corridors in the North Sea Region. The North Sea Region is one among several regions appointed by the EU...

  8. [Identification of ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope and assessment of their human disturbances in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Lin, Dan-qi; Li, Xiao-wen

    2015-08-01

    The alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides the largest habitats for those endangered ungulates (e.g., Tibetan antelope, Tibetan Kiang and wild yak) on the earth. However, human disturbance especially infrastructure constructions (e.g., railway & highway) has increasingly fragmented the habitats of those endangered ungulates by disturbing and interrupting their ecological corridors for their seasonal migration. Aiming at identifying the potential ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope, a GIS-based model-Linkage Mapper was used to model and detect the potential ecological corridors of Tibetan antelope based on the principle of least cost path. Three categories of ecological corridors, i. e., closed (inside reserves), linking (linking the reserves) and open (starting from reserve but ending outside) corridors were distinguished by their spatial interactions with existing major national nature reserves (i.e., Altun, Kekexili and Qiangtang NNRs) in the alpine desert of QTP, and their spatial patterns, conservation status associated with human disturbance were also examined. Although our research indicated a general ecological integration of both habitats and ecological corridors in the alpine desert ecosystem, increasing human disturbance should not be ignored, which particularly partially undermined the functioning of those ecological corridors linking the nature reserves. Considering disadvantages of prevailing separate administrative structure of nature reserve on the effective conservation of ecological corridors for those endangered ungulates, a coordinative conservation network among these major national nature reserves should be established to ensure the unified trans-boundary conservation efforts and to enhance its overall conservation efficacy by sharing information, knowledge and optimizing conservation resources.

  9. Regional Studies:External Cognition and Emphasizing Subjectiveness:Taking the Tibetan-Qiang-Yi Corridor as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xi

    2015-01-01

    The“Tibetan -Yi corridor”is a concept constructed by FeiXiaotong and empha-sized by him during the late 1970s and 1980s. In 2011 ,it was replaced with“Tibetan-Qiang-Yi corridor”,a concept which is regarded to conform more to the historical reality. Actually,the earliest research on ethnic corridors largely relied on the earlier research of foreign missionaries who preached their religion in the western part of Si-chuan. It could be said that the missionaries’ re-search on the Qiang opened up the research of the ethnic corridor ,and gradually expanded it to the entire area of western China. Due to the efforts of the missionaries,who received the western formal academic training,there was research that went beyond the study of the feudal dynasties of China to the ethnic minority areas. Since the 1930s,follow-ing the research trends of“the frontier science”( bianjiangxue)and“the frontier political studies”( bianzhengxue),and with China’s local intellectu-al elites’ following up,and especially with the in-vestigations and research findings of the scholars from West China Union University and the Frontier Research Society,the external contours and the knowledge on the internal society,history,cul-ture,and language of the“Tibetan -Qiang -Yi corridor”deepened. These concepts and research results all came from outside the corridor while the society and culture from inside the corridor only provided research data.

  10. Planning Landscape Corridors in Ecological Infrastructure Using Least-Cost Path Methods Based on the Value of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung A Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service values have rarely been incorporated in the process of planning ecological infrastructure for urban areas. Urban ecological infrastructure is a network system of natural lands and waters that provides ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to design landscape corridors that maximize the value of ecosystem services in ecological infrastructure planning. We explored the optimal corridors to enhance the connectivity among landscape elements to design an ecological infrastructure for the city of Gwacheon, South Korea, as an example of a small urban area. We calculated the value of ecosystem services using standardized estimation indices based on an intensive review of the relevant literature and employed the least-cost path method to optimize the connectivity of landscape structural elements. The land use type in the city with the highest estimated value of ecosystem services was the riparian zone (i.e., 2011 US$7,312.16/ha. Given areal coverage of all land use types, the estimated value of developed area open spaces was 2011 US$899,803.25, corresponding to the highest contribution to the total value of ecosystem services. Therefore, the optimal configured dispersal corridors for wildlife were found from the riparian zones (source area to the developed area open spaces (destination area in the city. Several challenges remain for improving the estimation of the value of ecosystem services and incorporating these ecosystems in ecological infrastructure planning. Nonetheless, the approaches taken to estimate the value of ecosystem services and design landscape corridors in this study may be of value to future efforts in urban ecological infrastructure planning.

  11. Pollution from aircraft emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Overview on the results of the POLINAT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U.; Duerbeck, T.; Feigl, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany); Arnold, F.; Droste-Franke, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Flatoy, F. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Geophysics; Ford, I.J. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom); Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Lab. for Cloud and Aerosol Sciences; Hayman, G.D. [National Environmental Technology Centre, AEA Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); and others

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT project (phase 1) was performed 1994 to 1996 within the Environment Research Programme of the European Commission. POLINAT-2 is being performed now since April 1996. The objectives of POLINAT-1 and -2, the methods used, the measurements, and some selected results are described. Details are given on the measured background concentrations, the emission indices of several aircraft, comparisons between modelled and measured data, and the impact of the emissions within the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 21 refs.

  12. Evaluation of Spatial Development Initiatives: Case studies of the Maputo Development Corridor and the West Coast Investment Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    David Bek; Ian Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Spatial Development Initiatives (SDIs) form an integral part of the South African government strategy to attract investment. SDIs are claimed to be short-term and targeted undertakings to foster economic growth. This working paper reviews two SDI projects, namely the Maputo Development Corridor (MDC) and the West Coast Investment Initiative (WCII). The paper outlines many strengths within the MDC and WCII and draws out lessons to be learned that could improve the delivery of ongoing and futur...

  13. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Paramesha Mallegowda; Ganesan Rengaian; Jayalakshmi Krishnan; Madhura Niphadkar

    2015-01-01

    Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT) is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat ...

  14. Diet composition of common leopards in Bardia National Park and the adjacent buffer zones and habitat corridor in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Deo, Rima

    2014-01-01

    The common Leopard (Panthera pardus) is the most widely distributed species among the large felids. It is a great challenge to manage their depredation on livestock at global level. In this study, I examined spatiotemporal patterns of leopard diet composition in Bardia National Park, Nepal, the buffer zones surrounding the park and a recently established habitat corridor that extends towards a protected area in India. Based on analyses of leopard scat contents, I investigated how the proporti...

  15. Acidic Deposition along the Appalachian Trail Corridor and its Effects on Acid-Sensitive Terrestrial and Aquatic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Sullivan, T. J.; Burns, D. A.; Bailey, S. W.; Cosby, B. J., Jr.; Dovciak, M.; Ewing, H. A.; McDonnell, T. C.; Riemann, R.; Quant, J.; Rice, K. C.; Siemion, J.; Weathers, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) spans 3,500 km from Georgia to Maine. Over its length, the trail passes through a corridor with wide variations in climate, bedrock type, soils, and stream water quality. These factors create a diverse range of ecosystems. The health of these ecosystems is a cause for concern because the AT passes through the heavily populated eastern U.S. with its many sources of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions that produce acidic deposition. To address concerns about the health of the AT, a study was designed to evaluate the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition. Collections of stream water (265 sites), soil (60 sites), tree cores (15 sites) and atmospheric deposition samples (4 sites) were made along with understory and overstory vegetation measurements (30 sites) over the full trail length within a 40 km-wide corridor. Existing data on atmospheric deposition, geology, vegetation, stream chemistry, and soil chemistry were also used in the analysis. Mean acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was lowest in the streams in the North section, intermediate in the Central section and highest the South section, despite the South having the highest acid rain levels. At least 40% of the study streams exhibited pH and/or Ali measurements that indicated potential harm to biota. Approximately 70% of the soil sites had values of base saturation under 20%, the threshold below which acidic deposition can mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali), the form harmful to terrestrial and aquatic life. Compositional similarity of understory and canopy species was positively correlated with acidic deposition, suggesting that during past decades, species poorly adapted to acidic deposition were replaced with tolerant species. Target loads modeling indicated that exceedance of sulfur target loads to achieve stream ANC = 50 μeq/L by the year 2100occurred throughout the trail corridor.

  16. [Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of typical organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Yuan; Mao, Xiao-Xuan; Ma, Zi-Long; Tian, Hui; Guo, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Gao, Hong; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-04-01

    Air samples were seasonally collected in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou, Gansu province, using polyurethane foam (PUF) based passive air samplers for a year and determined hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Atmospheric concentrations of sigma HCHs (alpha-HCH +beta-HCH +gamma-HCH +delta-HCH) and sigma DDTs (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD) were 86.22 pg x m(-3) and 34.06 pg x m(-3) in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou with background concentrations of 54.41 pg x m(-3) and 21.56 pg x m(-3), respectively, which were lower than previously reported values elsewhere. In general, the seasonal pollution characteristics of sigma HCHs and sigma DDTs exhibited higher levels with the average concentrations of 127.4 pg x m(-3) and 47.06 pg x m(-3) in autumn, respectively. Furthermore, relatively higher residual concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were found in Jiuquan, Anxi and Zhangye, relating to their more arable lands and more intensively historical usage. Source apportionment indicated HCHs were mainly originated from historical technical-HCHs residues and recent Lindane usage. Recently introduced technical-DDTs was highly responsible for DDTs contamination, whereas the higher concentrations of o,p'-DDT observed in Jiuquan and Anxi may be attributed to dicofol usage. In addition, human exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou via inhalation could be relatively low.

  17. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  18. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramesha Mallegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat and their migration. Aim of this work is to create detailed NDVI based land change maps and to use them to identify time-series trends in greening and browning in forest corridors in the study area and to identify the drivers that are influencing the observed changes. Over the four decades in BRT, NDVI increased in the core area of the forest and reduced in the fringe areas. The change analysis between 1973 and 2014 shows significant changes; browning due to anthropogenic activities as well as natural processes and greening due to Lantana spread. This indicates that the change processes are complex, involving multiple driving factors, such as socio-economic changes, high population growth, historical forest management practices and policies. Our study suggests that the use of updated and accurate change detection maps will be useful in taking appropriate site specific action-oriented conservation decisions to restore and manage the degraded critical wildlife corridors in human-dominated landscape.

  19. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  20. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  1. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  2. Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: a rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Olivieri, Anna; Angerhofer, Norman; Gandini, Francesca; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Semino, Ornella; Woodward, Scott R; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recent analyses of mitochondrial genomes from Native Americans have brought the overall number of recognized maternal founding lineages from just four to a current count of 15. However, because of their relative low frequency, almost nothing is known for some of these lineages. This leaves a considerable void in understanding the events that led to the colonization of the Americas following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this study, we identified and completely sequenced 14 mitochondrial DNAs belonging to one extremely rare Native American lineage known as haplogroup C4c. Its age and geographical distribution raise the possibility that C4c marked the Paleo-Indian group(s) that entered North America from Beringia through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The similarities in ages andgeographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians. Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America.

  3. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  4. [Root architecture of two desert plants in central Hexi Corridor of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Li-Shan; Li, Yi; Ren, Wei; Su, Shi-Ping; Dong, Qiu-Lian; Geng, Dong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the root systems of desert plant species Reaumuria soongorica and Nitraria tangutorum in the central Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were excavated by shovel, and the characteristics of the plant root architecture were analyzed by using topology and fractal theory. The root topological indices of the two desert plants were small, and the root branching patterns were herringbone-like. The roots of the two desert plants had obvious fractal characteristics, with the fractal dimension of R. soongorica and N. tangutorum being (1.18 +/- 0.04) and (1.36 +/- 0.06), respectively. The root fractal dimension and fractal abundance were significantly positively correlated with the root average link length. The root average link lengths of the two plants were long, which enlarged the plants' effective nutrition space, and thus, made the plants adapt to the dry and infertile soil environment. The sums of the root cross-sectional areas before and after the root bifurcation of the two desert plants were equal, which verified the principle of Leonardo da Vinci. A total of 17 parameters of root architecture were analyzed by the principal component analysis. The parameters of root topological structure, numbers of root links, stepwise branching ratio, and root diameter could well present the root architecture characteristics of the two desert plants.

  5. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  6. Quantifying forest vertical structure to determine bird habitat quality in the Greenbelt Corridor, Denton, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Shiho

    This study presents the integration of light detection and range (LiDAR) and hyperspectral remote sensing to create a three-dimensional bird habitat map in the Greenbelt Corridor of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River. This map permits to examine the relationship between forest stand structure, landscape heterogeneity, and bird community composition. A biannual bird census was conducted at this site during the breeding seasons of 2009 and 2010. Census data combined with the three-dimensional map suggest that local breeding bird abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution patterns are highly influenced by vertical heterogeneity of vegetation surface. For local breeding birds, vertical heterogeneity of canopy surface within stands, connectivity to adjacent forest patches, largest forest patch index, and habitat (vegetation) types proved to be the most influential factors to determine bird community assemblages. Results also highlight the critical role of secondary forests to increase functional connectivity of forest patches. Overall, three-dimensional habitat descriptions derived from integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral data serve as a powerful bird conservation tool that shows how the distribution of bird species relates to forest composition and structure at various scales.

  7. Telecouplings in the East–West Economic Corridor within Borders and Across

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Leisz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the concepts of teleconnections and telecoupling have been introduced into land-use and land-cover change literature as frameworks that seek to explain connections between areas that are not in close physical proximity to each other. The conceptual frameworks of teleconnections and telecoupling seek to explicitly link land changes in one place, or in a number of places, to distant, usually non-physically connected locations. These conceptual frameworks are offered as new ways of understanding land changes; rather than viewing land-use and land-cover change through discrete land classifications that have been based on the idea of land-use as seen through rural–urban dichotomies, path dependencies and sequential land transitions, and place-based relationships. Focusing on the land-use and land-cover changes taking place along the East–West Economic Corridor that runs from Dong Ha City in Quang Tri, Vietnam, through Sepon District, Savannakhet, Lao PDR, into Thailand this paper makes use of data gathered from fieldwork and remote sensing analysis to examine telecouplings between sending, receiving and spill-over systems on both sides of the Vietnam-Lao PDR border. Findings are that the telecouplings are driving changes in rural village and urban systems on both sides of the border, and are enabled by a policy environment that has sought to facilitate the cross-border transportation of goods within the region.

  8. Fogwater Chemistry and Air Quality in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, R. R.; Raja, S.; Ravikrishna, R.; Murugesan, K.; Collett, J. L.; Valsaraj, K.

    2007-05-01

    The presence of fog water in polluted atmosphere can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The study of interactions between fog water and atmospheric gases and aerosols are very important in understanding the atmospheric fate of the pollutants. In this Study several air samples and fogwater samples were collected in the heavily industrialized area of Gulf Coast corridor( Houston, TX and Baton Rouge, LA). A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected, comprising of nine fog events in Baton Rouge (Nov 2004 to Feb 2005) and two fog events in Houston (Feb, 2006), during the fog sampling campaigns. These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved carbon, major inorganic ions, organic acids, and aromatics, aldehydes, VOCs, and linear alkanes organic compounds. Fogwater samples collected in Houston show clear influence of marine and anthropogenic environment, while Baton Rouge samples reveal a relatively less polluted environment. Also, a time series observation of air samples indicated that fog event at the monitoring site impacted the air concentrations of the pollutants. This is attributed to presence of surface active organic matter in fog water.

  9. Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Erzurum-Rize expressway corridor using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, Murat; Karahan, Faris [Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kopar, Ibrahim [Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Literature, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, topographical and climatical conditions are prescinded all along Erzurum-Rize expressway corridors to appoint the areas which have bioclimatic comfort in summer season (June, July, August). For this purpose, the climate data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) from nine different stations was entered in the digital data base. By dint of ArcGIS 9.1 software, climatic data were analysed and numerological maps were produced by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. As a method, bioclimatically comfortable areas consists of: relative humidity between 30 and 65%, temperature between 15 and 20 C, and wind speed up to 5 m/s. The maps were scored as 0 for uncomfortable and 1 for comfortable and superposed, and bioclimatic comfort area (temperature: 1-relative humidity: 1-wind speed: 1) were determined. Besides, topographic factors were appreciated. As a result of this study, it is concerned that the area (452749 ha. % 63); beginning from south of the Mountains Mescit which is started by Black Sea coastline to Mountain Mescit (3230 m) is out of bioclimatic comfort region; the Erzurum depression (1758 m) beginning from the Mountains Mescit has been determined that area has bioclimatic comfort conditions. As a consequence, it is confirmed that one of the ideal area which has bioclimatic comfort is the Erzurum depression area in Turkey. (author)

  10. The effect of perception anisotropy on particle systems describing pedestrian flows in corridors

    CERN Document Server

    Gulikers, Lennart; Muntean, Adrian; Lyulin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We consider a microscopic model (a system of self-propelled particles) to study the behaviour of a large group of pedestrians walking in a corridor. Our point of interest is the effect of anisotropic interactions on the global behaviour of the crowd. The anisotropy we have in mind reflects the fact that people do not perceive (i.e. see, hear, feel or smell) their environment equally well in all directions. The dynamics of the individuals in our model follow from a system of Newton-like equations in the overdamped limit. The instantaneous velocity is modelled in such a way that it accounts for the angle under which an individual perceives another individual. We investigate the effects of this perception anisotropy by means of extensive simulations, very much in the spirit of molecular dynamics. We define a number of characteristic quantifiers (including the polarization index and Morisita index) that serve as measures for e.g. organization and clustering, and we use these to investigate the influence of anisot...

  11. Three Different Approaches for Localization in a Corridor Environment by Means of an Ultrasonic Wide Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Spedicato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present three methods to detect the position and orientation of an observer, such as a mobile robot, with respect to a corridor wall. They use an inexpensive sensor to spread a wide ultrasonic beam. The sensor is rotated by means of an accurate servomotor in order to propagate ultrasonic waves towards a regular wall. Whatever the wall material may be the scanning surface appears to be an acoustic reflector as a consequence of low air impedance. The realized device is able to give distance information in each motor position and thus permits the derivation of a set of points as a ray trace‐scanner. The dataset contains points lying on a circular arc and relating to strong returns. Three different approaches are herein considered to estimate both the slope of the wall and its minimum distance from the sensor. Slope and perpendicular distance are the parameters of a target plane, which may be calculated in each observer’s position to predict its new location. Experimental tests and simulations are shown and discussed by scanning from different stationary locations. They allow the appreciation of the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  12. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  13. Acoustic Telemetry, Cape Hatteras, and ocean Migratory Corridors: Defining Critical Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Rulifson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available North Carolina continental shelf waters are being targeted for development for wind farms and for oil and gas exploration. The main site for the latter is only 38 miles from Cape Hatteras, a major topographic feature that changes the dynamics of near-shore large ocean currents including the Labrador Current and Gulf Stream. The Cape constricts shelf habitat and restricts the migratory corridors of highly migratory species. The Hatteras Acoustic Array just south of the Cape indicates that this area is heavily used by species of concern year-around. Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhynchus migrate southward through Hatteras Bight in the fall and northward in the spring; some remain in the area throughout the winter months. Sandbar Sharks, Sand Tiger Sharks, and some Atlantic Sturgeon seem to migrate to Hatteras Bight and remain in the area throughout the winter, while other Atlantic sturgeon and White Sharks tend to migrate through Hatteras Bight on the way to other overwintering grounds. The period November through April seems to be the most critical period for these four species. Agencies need to expand the area of focus for these studies, as well as gather new information about resident species and marine mammals, before science-based environmental assessment can be made.

  14. Travel modal choice analysis for traffic corridors based on decision-theoretic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 张毅; 尤佳轩; 胡坚明; 裴欣

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of multimodal transportation system prompts travellers to choose multiple transportation modes, such as private vehicles or taxi, transit (subways or buses), or park-and-ride combinations for urban trips. Traffic corridor is a major scenario that supports travellers to commute from suburban residential areas to central working areas. Studying their modal choice behaviour is receiving more and more interests. On one hand, it will guide the travellers to rationally choose their most economic and beneficial mode for urban trips. On the other hand, it will help traffic operators to make more appropriate policies to enhance the share of public transit in order to alleviate the traffic congestion and produce more economic and social benefits. To analyze the travel modal choice, a generalized cost model for three typical modes is first established to evaluate each different travel alternative. Then, random utility theory (RUT) and decision field theory (DFT) are introduced to describe the decision-making process how travellers make their mode choices. Further, some important factors that may influence the modal choice behaviour are discussed as well. To test the feasibility of the proposed model, a field test in Beijing was conducted to collect the real-time data and estimate the model parameters. The improvements in the test results and analysis show new advances in the development of travel mode choice on multimodal transportation networks.

  15. Extension of an iterative closest point algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping in corridor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Haosong; Chen, Weihai; Wu, Xingming; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a crucial technique for intelligent robots to navigate autonomously and execute complex tasks. It can also be applied to shape measurement, reverse engineering, and many other scientific or engineering fields. A widespread SLAM algorithm, named KinectFusion, performs well in environments with complex shapes. However, it cannot handle translation uncertainties well in highly structured scenes. This paper improves the KinectFusion algorithm and makes it competent in both structured and unstructured environments. 3-D line features are first extracted according to both color and depth data captured by Kinect sensor. Then the lines in the current data frame are matched with the lines extracted from the entire constructed world model. Finally, we fuse the distance errors of these line-pairs into the standard KinectFusion framework and estimate sensor poses using an iterative closest point-based algorithm. Comparative experiments with the KinectFusion algorithm and one state-of-the-art method in a corridor scene have been done. The experimental results demonstrate that after our improvement, the KinectFusion algorithm can also be applied to structured environments and has higher accuracy. Experiments on two open access datasets further validated our improvements.

  16. An ecological basis for future fish habitat restoration efforts in the Huron-Erie Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective describes the major natural and anthropogenic forces driving change in the abundance and quality of fish habitats in the Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), the Great Lakes connecting channel comprised of the St. Clair River, the Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. Channels connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes discharge large volumes of water equal to or greater than most other large rivers in the world that is of consistent high quality and volume, all year. Owing to creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway through the Great Lakes, the connecting channels have been modified by dredging over 200 km of deep-draft shipping lanes with a maintained depth of no less than 8.2 m. Combined with modification of their shorelines for housing and industries, use of the connecting channels for discharges of industrial and municipal wastes and shipping has resulted in numerous beneficial use impairments, such as restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, and losses of fish and wildlife habitat. Various options for remediation of native fish populations and their habitats in the Great Lakes connecting channels, including construction of spawning habitat for threatened and high-value food fishes, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), have been implemented successfully in two of the channels, and form the basis for further recommended research described in this article.

  17. Riparian vegetation dynamics and evapotranspiration in the riparian corridor in the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L; Glenn, Edward P; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Zamora, Francisco; Howard, Keith

    2008-09-01

    Like other great desert rivers, the Colorado River in the United States and Mexico is highly regulated to provide water for human use. No water is officially allotted to support the natural ecosystems in the delta of the river in Mexico. However, precipitation is inherently variable in this watershed, and from 1981-2004, 15% of the mean annual flow of the Lower Colorado River has entered the riparian corridor below the last diversion point for water in Mexico. These flows include flood releases from US dams and much smaller administrative spills released back to the river from irrigators in the US and Mexico. These flows have germinated new cohorts of native cottonwood and willow trees and have established an active aquatic ecosystem in the riparian corridor in Mexico. We used ground and remote-sensing methods to determine the composition and fractional cover of the vegetation in the riparian corridor, its annual water consumption, and the sources of water that support the ecosystem. The study covered the period 2000-2004, a flood year followed by 4 dry years. The riparian corridor occupies 30,000 ha between flood control levees in Mexico. Annual evapotranspiration (ET), estimated by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite imagery calibrated against moisture flux tower data, was about 1.1 m yr(-1) and was fairly constant throughout the study period despite a paucity of surface flows 2001-2004. Total ET averaged 3.4 x 10(8)m(3)yr(-1), about 15% of Colorado River water entering Mexico from the US Surface flows could have played only a small part in supporting these high ET losses. We conclude that the riparian ET is supported mainly by the shallow regional aquifer, derived from agricultural return flows, that approaches the surface in the riparian zone. Nevertheless, surface flows are important in germinating cohorts of native trees, in washing salts from the soil and aquifer, and in providing aquatic habitat, thereby enriching the habitat value of

  18. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  19. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  20. Airborne digital-image data for monitoring the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 2009 - Image-mosaic production and comparison with 2002 and 2005 image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne digital-image data were collected for the Arizona part of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam in 2009. These four-band image data are similar in wavelength band (blue, green, red, and near infrared) and spatial resolution (20 centimeters) to image collections of the river corridor in 2002 and 2005. These periodic image collections are used by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the downstream ecosystem. The 2009 collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits, unlike the image sensors that GCMRC used in 2002 and 2005. This study examined the performance of the SH52 sensor, on the basis of the collected image data, and determined that the SH52 sensor provided superior data relative to the previously employed sensors (that is, an early ADS40 model and Zeiss Imaging's Digital Mapping Camera) in terms of band-image registration, dynamic range, saturation, linearity to ground reflectance, and noise level. The 2009 image data were provided as orthorectified segments of each flightline to constrain the size of the image files; each river segment was covered by 5 to 6 overlapping, linear flightlines. Most flightline images for each river segment had some surface-smear defects and some river segments had cloud shadows, but these two conditions did not generally coincide in the majority of the overlapping flightlines for a particular river segment. Therefore, the final image mosaic for the 450-kilometer (km)-long river corridor required careful selection and editing of numerous flightline segments (a total of 513 segments, each 3.2 km long) to minimize surface defects and cloud shadows. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects. The final image mosaic for the western end of the corridor has

  1. First steps toward automatic patterns recognition from sequences of a restored river corridor photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouta, S.; Perona, P.; Schneider, P.; Wombacher, A.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Obtaining information about river morphology and riparian vegetation patterns by means of photographic techniques is a challenging task with promising applications in the field of river hydraulic engineering and restoration. For instance, such a tool would speed up the post- processing phase of aerial images that is needed to calibrate both hydraulics and ecosystem models. Recognizing patterns automatically is relatively easy in the presence of well-defined objects and contrasting background colors, but this operation becomes rather difficult for open air or environmental photographs (e.g. of river corridors) where a multitude of colors, shadows, reflections and changing light conditions typically characterize the images. In this work an attempt is made in this direction and we begin with the already challenging task of recognizing water and non-water classes from digital photographs under changing light and surface albedo. Such conditions are typically due to either diurnal variability or bad weather conditions (e.g., like fog or snow). We use aerial photographs of the restored corridor of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Switzerland), which is currently monitored with high-resolution digital cameras as a task of the research project RECORD. Images of the river reach are taken from the top of two observation towers installed on the river levee and shots are frequency-dependent on current flow conditions. The approach we present here consists of masking the images by ignoring the irrelevant parts like mountains and sky, for instance. Next, features are defined which describe properties of the image or the image content, like e.g. color values, gradients of neighboring pixels, or application specific information like a probability distribution of a pixel being water derived from the digital elevation model. The investigated features can be classified according to two orthogonal dimensions: i) Pixel based features and features derived from a group of pixels and ii) Time

  2. Water Scarcity in the Northeast Corridor During the Nineteenth Century and its Correlation to Infrastructure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Arrigo, J. S.; Adams, L. E.; Bain, D. J.; Bray, E. N.; Green, M. B.; Huang, M.; Wilson, J.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water is an essential component in the successful development and economic growth within a region. Throughout recorded history, civilizations have been modifying and controlling local environments in the pursuit of maximizing water benefits. These efforts include the creation of large waterworks to reduce the uncertainties caused by adverse climatic circumstances such as droughts or floodings as well as supporting local economies. In this study, we contend that the development of water infrastructure in the Northeastern Corridor of the United States was a direct result of the degree of water scarcity within that particular region. In order to test this hypothesis, we have applied various water scarcity metrics to local historical data for cities including Boston, Philadelphia, and New York in order to characterize interactions between water scarcity and water infrastructure development. These metrics are based upon the ratio of consumer water demand to water supply. Our preliminary results show that a correlation does exist. Additionally, we explore how the water footprint of these cities evolved through time and how they impacted the demand for water. We expect that technological advancement allowed the ‘water footprint’ to expand into the Midwest U.S. and eventually the entire globe, allowing the Eastern Seaboard megalopolis to thrive. The history and development of water related infrastructure in this region could serve as an example allowing us to understand the relationship between humans and hydrologic systems. We contend that sustainability lessons from the past can be applied to developing countries or developing urban areas with the expectation of minimizing or avoiding the variety of mistakes that occurred in already developed regions, thus reducing the negative effects on populations and the environment.

  3. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  4. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems, leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Up to now a lot of effort has therefore been dedicated worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming our deficiencies. At the same time very few attentions focused on illustrating the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by discussing the experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we study the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reaches of River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe and motivate the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations ranging from surface water to groundwater, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  5. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  6. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Linde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-potentials (SP are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  7. Health Risk Assessment for Transport Corridors in Delhi through Vehicular Air Polluting Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are recognized as one of the major sources of air pollution. Delhi having  a very large number of vehicles produces a lot of air pollution. There is an utter need to ascertain the concentration of the pollutants and their impact on the health of the people of the concerned region. This paper makes an attempt towards such an examination. The method employed here is based on Epidemiology. The assessment of health risks due to increased levels of various pollutants on people represented in this paper is based on the spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri–MAP. This paper presents the findings of the study that evaluates the Impact of increasing air pollution on human health, especially vehicular pollution, in the monitored region, i.e., National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT Delhi during the year 2015 by choosing fifteen study sites from different parts of the capital city. The findings are in terms of  excess number of cases of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity for all fifteen transport corridors. Among others, Noida link road recorded highest excess number of cases of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and respiratory Morbidity. In case of respiratory mortality, Wazirabad road recorded maximum excess number of cases. With respect to least excess number of cases, it was Connaught Place (Outer circle. The excess number of cases are directly proportional to the population density of the respective region. Also, the regions showing smaller excess number of cases are the planned, less crowded and posh regions of the national capital territory of Delhi.

  8. Hierarchical spatial genetic structure of Common Eiders (Somateria Mollissima) breeding along a migratory corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Scribner, K.T.; McCracken, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Documentation of spatial genetic discordance among breeding populations of Arctic-nesting avian species is important, because anthropogenic change is altering environmental linkages at micro- and macrogeographic scales. We estimated levels of population subdivision within Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) breeding on 12 barrier islands in the western Beaufort Sea, Alaska, using molecular markers and capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data. Common Eider populations were genetically structured on a microgeographic scale. Regional comparisons between populations breeding on island groups separated by 90 km (Mikkelsen Bay and Simpson Lagoon) revealed structuring at 14 microsatellite loci (FST = 0.004, P < 0.01), a nuclear intron (FST = 0.022, P = 0.02), and mitochondrial DNA (??ST = 0.082, P < 0.05). The CMR data (n = 34) did not indicate female dispersal between island groups. Concordance between genetic and CMR data indicates that females breeding in the western Beaufort Sea are strongly philopatric to island groups rather than to a particular island. Despite the apparent high site fidelity of females, coalescence-based models of gene flow suggest that asymmetrical western dispersal occurs between island groups and is likely mediated by Mikkelsen Bay females stopping early on spring migration at Simpson Lagoon to breed. Alternatively, late-arriving females may be predisposed to nest in Simpson Lagoon because of the greater availability and wider distribution of nesting habitat. Our results indicate that genetic discontinuities, mediated by female philopatry, can exist at microgeographic scales along established migratory corridors. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2009.

  9. Integrated modelling for Sustainability Appraisal of urban river corridors: going beyond compartmentalised thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Rouquette, J R; Lerner, David N

    2013-12-15

    Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is a complex task that involves integration of social, environmental and economic considerations and often requires trade-offs between multiple stakeholders that may not easily be brought to consensus. Classical SA, often compartmentalised in the rigid boundary of disciplines, can facilitate discussion, but can only partially inform decision makers as many important aspects of sustainability remain abstract and not interlinked. A fully integrated model can overcome compartmentality in the assessment process and provides opportunity for a better integrative exploratory planning process. The objective of this paper is to explore the benefit of an integrated modelling approach to SA and how a structured integrated model can be used to provide a coherent, consistent and deliberative platform to assess policy or planning proposals. The paper discusses a participative and integrative modelling approach to urban river corridor development, incorporating the principal of sustainability. The paper uses a case study site in Sheffield, UK, with three alternative development scenarios, incorporating a number of possible riverside design features. An integrated SA model is used to develop better design by optimising different design elements and delivering a more sustainable (re)-development plan. We conclude that participatory integrated modelling has strong potential for supporting the SA processes. A high degree of integration provides the opportunity for more inclusive and informed decision-making regarding issues of urban development. It also provides the opportunity to reflect on their long-term dynamics, and to gain insights on the interrelationships underlying persistent sustainability problems. Thus the ability to address economic, social and environmental interdependencies within policies, plans, and legislations is enhanced.

  10. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  11. Crevasse-squeeze ridge corridors: Diagnostic features of late-stage palaeo-ice stream activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David J. A.; Storrar, Robert D.; Rea, Brice R.

    2016-04-01

    A 200-km-long and 10-km-wide linear assemblage of till-filled geometrical ridges on the bed of the Maskwa palaeo-ice stream of the late Wisconsinan southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet are interpreted as crevasse-squeeze ridges (CSR) developed during internal flow unit reorganization, immediately prior to ice stream shutdown. Ridge orientations are predominantly orientated WNW-ESE, with a subordinate WSW-ENE alignment, both indicative of ice fracture development transverse to former ice stream flow, as indicated by NNE-SSW aligned MSGL. Subglacial till injection into basal and/or full depth, mode I and II crevasses occurred at the approximate centreline of the ice stream, in response to extension and fracturing. Landform preservation indicates that this took place during the final stages of ice streaming, immediately prior to ice stream shutdown. This linear zone of ice fracturing therefore likely represents the narrowing of the fast-flowing trunk, similar to the plug flow identified in some surging valley glaciers. Lateral drag between the final active flow unit and the slower moving ice on either side is likely recorded by the up-ice bending of the CSR limbs. The resulting CSR corridor, here related to an individual ice stream flow unit, constitutes a previously unreported style of crevasse infilling and contrasts with two existing CSR patterns: (1) wide arcuate zones of CSRs related to widespread fracturing within glacier surge lobes; and (2) narrow concentric arcs of CSRs and recessional push moraines related to submarginal till deformation at active temperate glacier lobes.

  12. EDGE BASED 3D INDOOR CORRIDOR MODELING USING A SINGLE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baligh Jahromi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of spatial layout of indoor scenes from a single image is inherently an ambiguous problem. However, indoor scenes are usually comprised of orthogonal planes. The regularity of planar configuration (scene layout is often recognizable, which provides valuable information for understanding the indoor scenes. Most of the current methods define the scene layout as a single cubic primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is often not valid in many indoors where multiple corridors are linked each other. In this paper, we aim to address this problem by hypothesizing-verifying multiple cubic primitives representing the indoor scene layout. This method utilizes middle-level perceptual organization, and relies on finding the ground-wall and ceiling-wall boundaries using detected line segments and the orthogonal vanishing points. A comprehensive interpretation of these edge relations is often hindered due to shadows and occlusions. To handle this problem, the proposed method introduces virtual rays which aid in the creation of a physically valid cubic structure by using orthogonal vanishing points. The straight line segments are extracted from the single image and the orthogonal vanishing points are estimated by employing the RANSAC approach. Many scene layout hypotheses are created through intersecting random line segments and virtual rays of vanishing points. The created hypotheses are evaluated by a geometric reasoning-based objective function to find the best fitting hypothesis to the image. The best model hypothesis offered with the highest score is then converted to a 3D model. The proposed method is fully automatic and no human intervention is necessary to obtain an approximate 3D reconstruction.

  13. From mountains to the ocean: quantifying connectivity along the river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers are the landscape's arteries; they convey water, solutes, energy, and living organisms from the hillslopes, floodplains, aquifers, and atmosphere to the oceans. As water moves along this complex circulatory system, it is continuously exchanged with the surrounding alluvial aquifer, termed hyporheic exchange, which strongly conditions and constrains the biogeochemical evolution of water at the local scale with basin-scale consequences. Over the last two decades, considerable efforts have focused on the use of detailed mathematical models to explore the hydrodynamics and biogeochemical effect of hyporheic exchange at the scale of individual channel morphologies. While these efforts are essential to gain mechanistic understanding, their computational demand makes them impractical for basin applications. In this talk, a parsimonious but physically based model of hyporheic flow for application in large river basins is presented: Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS). At the core of NEXSS are the up-scaling of detailed mathematical models and a characterization of the channel geometry, geomorphic features, and related hydraulic drivers based on scaling equations from the literature and readily accessible information such as river discharge, width, grain size, sinuosity, channel slope, and regional groundwater gradients. As a proof-of-concept, we use NEXSS to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of hyporheic exchange and denitrification potential along the Mississippi River basin. This modeling approach allows us to map the location of critical hot spots for biogeochemical transformation, their geomorphic drivers, and cumulative effect. Finally, we discuss new avenues to incorporate exchange with floodplains and ponded waters, which also play a key role in water quality along the river corridor. This new modeling approach is critical to transition from purely empirical continental models of water quality to hybrid approaches that

  14. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  15. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K.; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M.; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  16. CORRIDORS AT CROSSROADS: LINEAR DEVELOPMENT-INDUCED ECOLOGICAL TRIAGE AS A CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Habib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transportation infrastructure of a nation forms the backbone of its economic growth and social development, and, as a developing country, India is no exception. However, with imperatives to improve connectivity for economic and social growth, ecological costs are often at stake. Roads, old and new, cut through protected forests and connecting habitats, resulting in a plethora of ecological effects. These may include the severing of natural corridors thereby compromising the role of landscapes as conservation units especially for landscape-dependent wild animal species. Consequent loss of biodiversity and ecosystems and decline in innumerable ecosystem services emanating from these natural reserves are other serious impacts. As India aspires for better, modern roads, the ecological concerns regarding many road upgradation projects have recently been the cause of disputes between the transportation sector and the conservation community. Delayed consideration of ecological concerns into linear development project planning leads to inadequate appropriation of funds needed for mitigating impacts of such developments. It is in these circumstances that the question of prioritizing areas and strategies for mitigation given limited mitigation funds arises. We examine the different facets to the debate of triage vis-à-vis conservation, development and mitigation planning in the transportation sector in a developing country context. We suggest that it is important and possible to secure investment towards conservation in areas outside the purview of legal protection through project mitigation costs and other mechanisms. We also make suggestions to avoid the ‘laissez-faire’ approach to linear development projects that is prevalent in India.

  17. Magnetotelluric investigations for imaging electrical structure of Garhwal Himalayan corridor, Uttarakhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Israil; D K Tyagi; P K Gupta; Sri Niwas

    2008-06-01

    Magnetotelluric investigations have been carried out in the Garhwal Himalayan corridor to delineate the electrical structure of the crust along a profile extending from Indo-Gangetic Plain to Higher Himalayan region in Uttarakhand,India.The profile passing through major Himalayan thrusts:Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFF),Main Boundary Thrust (MBT)and Main Central Thrust (MCT),is nearly perpendicular to the regional geological strike.Data processing and impedance analysis indicate that out of 44 stations MT data recorded,only 27 stations data show in general,the validity of 2D assumption.The average geoelectric strike, N70°W, was estimated for the profile using tensor decomposition.2D smooth geoelectrical model has been presented,which provides the electrical image of the shallow and deeper crustal structure.The major features of the model are (i)a low resistivity (> 50 m),shallow feature interpreted as sediments of Siwalik and Indo-Gangetic Plain,(ii)highly resistive (< 1000 m)zone below the sediments at a depth of 6 km,interpreted as the top surface of the Indian plate,(iii)a low resistivity (> 10 m) below the depth of 6 km near MCT zone coincides with the intense micro-seismic activity in the region. The zone is interpreted as the partial melting or fluid phase at mid crustal depth.Sensitivity test indicates that the major features of the geoelectrical model are relevant and desired by the MT data.

  18. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  19. The influence of sacral morphology on the existence of secure S1 and S2 transverse bone corridors for iliosacroiliac screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, T; Noser, H; Kuervers, J; Goehre, F; Hofmann, G O; Radetzki, F

    2013-12-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) screw fixation for unstable pelvic fractures stands out as the only minimally invasive method among all other ORIF procedures. A strictly transverse screw trajectory is needed for central or bilateral fracture patterns up to a complete iliosacroiliac fixation. However, secure screw insertion is aggravated by a narrow sacroiliac bone stock. This study investigates the influence of a highly variable sacral morphology to the existence of S1 and S2 transverse corridors. The analysis contained in this study is based on 125 CT datasets of intact human pelvises. First, sacral dysplasia was identified using the "lateral sacral triangle" method in a lateral 3-D semi-transparent pelvic view. Second, 3-D corridors for a 7.3mm screw in the upper two sacral levels were visualised using a proprietary IT workflow of custom-made programme scripts based on the Amira(®)-software. Shape-describing measurement variables were calculated as output variables. The results show a significant linear correlation between ratioT and the screw-limiting S1 isthmus height (Pearson coefficient of 0.84). A boundary ratio of 1.5 represented a positive predictive value of 96% for the existence of a transverse S1-corridor for at least one 7.3mm screw. In 100 out of 125 pelvises (80%), a sufficient S1 corridor existed, whereas in 124 specimens (99%), an S2 corridor was found. Statistics revealed significantly larger S1 and S2 corridors in males compared to females (pS1 and 1 screw in S2. The expanse of the S1 corridor is highly influenced by the dimensions of the dysplastic elevated upper sacrum, whereas the S2 corridor is not affected. Hence, in dysplastic pelvises, sacroiliac screw insertion should be recommended into the 2nd sacral segment. Our IT workflow for the automatic computation of 3-D corridors may assist in surgical pre-operative planning. Furthermore, the workflow could be implemented in computer-assisted surgery applications involving pelvic trauma.

  20. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  1. Variation of palaeostress patterns along the Oriente transform wrench corridor, Cuba: significance for Neogene Quaternary tectonics of the Caribbean realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Handler, R.; Garcia-Delgado, D. E.; Friedl, G.; Delgado-Damas, R.

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we address the late Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Wrench Corridor in the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many features of brittle deformation in late Miocene to Pleistocene reef and other shallow water deposits as well as in pre-Neogene, late Cretaceous to Eocene basement rocks. These late Miocene to Quaternary rocks are faulted, fractured, and contain calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal palaeostress vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the south-eastern Cuban margin. Initial N-S extension is correlated with a transtensional regime associated with the fault, later reactivated by sinistral and/or dextral shear, mainly along E-W-oriented strike-slip faults. Sinistral shear predominated and recorded similar kinematics as historical earthquakes in the Santiago region. We correlate palaeostress changes with the kinematic evolution along the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Three different tectonic regimes were distinguished for the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC): compression from late Eocene-Oligocene, transtension from late Oligocene to Miocene (?) (D 1), and transpression from Pliocene to Present (D 2-D 4), when this fault became a transform system. Furthermore, present-day structures vary along strike of the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC) on the south-eastern Cuban coast, with dominantly transpressional/compressional and strike-slip structures in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with the dominant ENE-WSW transpressional structures found on land.

  2. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-10-08

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = -0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = -0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  3. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE RAIL ROAD CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.

  5. A First Preliminary Look: Are Corridor Charging Stations Used to Extend the Range of Electric Vehicles in The EV Project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of data from The EV Project was performed to begin answering the question: are corridor charging stations used to extend the range of electric vehicles? Data analyzed were collected from Blink brand electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units based in California, Washington, and Oregon. Analysis was performed on data logged between October 1, 2012 and January 1, 2013. It should be noted that as additional AC Level 2 EVSE and DC fast chargers are deployed, and as drivers become more familiar with the use of public charging infrastructure, future analysis may have dissimilar conclusions.

  6. An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India

    OpenAIRE

    Biba Jasmine; Dipankar Ghose; Sanjay Keshari Das

    2015-01-01

    This study entails an attitude assessment of the local people living at Mankanthpur Village, one of the bottlenecks in the Bailparao-Kotabagh corridor, Terai West Forest Division, on the issue of elephant conservation, human-(wildlife) elephant conflict, and the measures to mitigate it.  Data was collected through a questionnaire survey and several group discussions among the villagers.  The frequency of crop raids and group size of elephants were calculated.  Sixty-two crop raids took place ...

  7. The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a

  8. Africa's Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torin Schaafsma

    Full Text Available The aetiology of Africa's easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies.Across Africa we assessed associations between a country's oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean national dietary supplies of 7 nutrients: calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, iodine (I, magnesium (Mg, selenium (Se and zinc (Zn. We included 32 countries which had estimates of dietary nutrient supplies and of better-quality GLOBCAN 2012 cancer incidence rates. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson lognormal models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with each nutrient, adjusted for age, gender, energy intake, phytate, smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as their 95% posterior credible intervals (CI. Adult dietary deficiencies were quantified using an estimated average requirements (EAR cut-point approach.Adjusted incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with a doubling of mean nutrient supply were: for Fe 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29-0.82; Mg 0.58 (0.31-1.08; Se 0.40 (0.18-0.90; and Zn 0.29 (0.11-0.74. There were no associations with Ca, Cu and I. Mean national nutrient supplies exceeded adult EARs for Mg and Fe in most countries. For Se, mean supplies were less than EARs (both sexes in 7 of the 10 highest oesophageal cancer ranking countries, compared to 23% of remaining countries. For Zn, mean supplies were less than the male EARs in 8 of these 10 highest ranking countries compared to in 36% of other countries.Ecological associations are consistent with the potential role of Se and/or Zn deficiencies in squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Africa. Individual-level analytical studies are needed to elucidate their causal role in this

  9. Africa’s Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Torin; Wakefield, Jon; Hanisch, Rachel; Bray, Freddie; Schüz, Joachim; Joy, Edward J. M.; Watts, Michael J.; McCormack, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Background The aetiology of Africa’s easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies. Methods Across Africa we assessed associations between a country’s oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean national dietary supplies of 7 nutrients: calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). We included 32 countries which had estimates of dietary nutrient supplies and of better-quality GLOBCAN 2012 cancer incidence rates. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson lognormal models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with each nutrient, adjusted for age, gender, energy intake, phytate, smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as their 95% posterior credible intervals (CI). Adult dietary deficiencies were quantified using an estimated average requirements (EAR) cut-point approach. Results Adjusted incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with a doubling of mean nutrient supply were: for Fe 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29–0.82); Mg 0.58 (0.31–1.08); Se 0.40 (0.18–0.90); and Zn 0.29 (0.11–0.74). There were no associations with Ca, Cu and I. Mean national nutrient supplies exceeded adult EARs for Mg and Fe in most countries. For Se, mean supplies were less than EARs (both sexes) in 7 of the 10 highest oesophageal cancer ranking countries, compared to 23% of remaining countries. For Zn, mean supplies were less than the male EARs in 8 of these 10 highest ranking countries compared to in 36% of other countries. Conclusions Ecological associations are consistent with the potential role of Se and/or Zn deficiencies in squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Africa. Individual-level analytical studies are

  10. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  11. Esthetic effect of the buccal corridor size and amount of tooth-gingival display on smile attractiveness in two student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3- Dentist   Background and Aims: An attractive, well-balanced smile is a paramount treatment objective of the modern orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the buccal corridor size and tooth-gingival display on the smile esthetics as perceived by two groups of the students.   Materials and Methods: A colored image of a woman frontal posed smile was selected. The image was altered digitally to produce different buccal corridor sizes (6%, 12.5% and 20% and different tooth-gingival displays (maxillary central incisors and 2 mm of gingival, maxillary central incisors and dental papilla and 80% of the maxillary central incisors. The different buccal corridor sizes and tooth-gingival displays were combined to produce 9 images. These altered images were rated by 120 medical and dental students using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, Pairwise comparison LSD test, Repeated measure MANOVA and ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient.   Results: The smile which had the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and complete incisor display without gingival display received the highest rates among the nine smile images in the dental students group. But in the medical students group the smile with the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and 2 mm gingival display, received the highest rates among the nine smile images. There was no significant difference in judging between the male and female raters for the both groups (P>0.05. The dental students were more critical about the increasing of the gingival display.   Conclusion: In the treatment procedure that may lead to the combination of wide buccal corridor and more tooth-gingival show, more caution should be considered.

  12. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  13. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  14. Who wants to conserve remaining forest fragments in the Manompana Corridor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans R. Felber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contiguous forests in Madagascar are continuously converted into forest fragments due to deforestation, and dispersed into landscape mosaics dominated by agriculture. These fragments are of increasing importance for biodiversity conservation as well as for the well being of rural inhabitants, providing a high diversity of timber and non- timber forest products. An increasing number of international projects are therefore trying to preserve remaining forests and to transfer the management of these forests to local communities. However, it is not known how important the preservation of forest fragments is to local people. We therefore explore the importance of forest fragments as a source of cash income to different groups separated by wealth level and access to forest resources. A multi-method research approach was taken, based on score application exercises as well as interviews with individual households and focus groups. Our study site was located at the east coast of Madagascar in the Manompana corridor. Results show that some groups are significantly more interested in the preservation of forest fragments than others. Interest is significantly related to the wealth of local inhabitants as well as to the walking distance between villages and forest resources. Nevertheless, interest in resource preservation does not depend on how important fragments are to local people, but rather on the awareness about resource scarcity. RésuméEn raison d’une forte déforestation sur la côte est de Madagascar, de nombreux massifs forestiers d’un seul tenant et de vastes écosystèmes interconnectés ont été détruits, laissant des fragments de forêts qui s’intègrent dans une mosaïque paysagère dominée par l’agriculture. Ces fragments gagnent en importance. Ils jouent un rôle de premier plan dans les réseaux de biodiversité en assurant un certain niveau de connectivité. Mais les fragments sont essentiels au bien - être de la population

  15. Habitat Suitability Modeling of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus in Betung Kerihun National Park, Danau Sentarum and Corridor, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prayogo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas such as national parks became the last safe area for biodiversity in Indonesia, especially for orangutan, because they have permanent status, and other forest areas may change at any time. Currently, there have been tremendous numbers of land use changes in orangutan habitats such as the development of roads, large scale plantations, settlements, farming as well as logging.  However, the available national parks still offer secure places for orangutans. This research was conducted to study the impact of spatial land use policy on the habitat distribution of orangutans. A remote sensing technology was used to study the habitat distribution and suitability of orangutan in Betung Kerihun National Park (BKNP, Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP and a corridor which connects these 2 parks. Seven parameters have been observed to characterize the habitat of orangutans. Habitat suitability levels of three research sites i.e. BKNP, corridor, and DSNP were 53.72%, 42.94%, and 3.34% which is considered as high, moderate, and low level of habitat suitability, respectively. These results were obtained with 93.63% of validation.Keywords: orangutan, habitat suitability, remote sensing technology, validation

  16. A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche K.F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France.

  17. Airborne observations of large scale accumulations of air traffic emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor within a stagnant anticyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Ziereis, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Arnold, F. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ovarlez, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie; Velthoven, P. van [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Inst., De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Vertical and horizontal trace gas distributions were measured west of Ireland during a 7-day period in June 1995 within an extended stagnant anticyclone located in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Four subsequent flights (21, 24, 26, 28 June) with the DLR Falcon research aircraft were performed including observations of NO, O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, and meteorological parameters. NO volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere from vertical profile measurements averaged over the corridor height range increased by 74 pptv (60%) during the observation period. Averaged NO concentrations measured along constant level flight legs at 10.7 km from 50 to 54 deg N increased by 87 pptv. Corresponding simulations with a 3-d chemistry transport model of KNMI reveal similar increases of NO{sub x} for the measuring area over the 7-day period for a model run with air traffic emissions which is not obtained for a run with no air traffic NO{sub x}. (author) 15 refs.

  18. THE SAND WEDGE AND MIRABILITE OF THE LAST ICE AGE AND THEIR PALEOCLIMATIC SIGNIFICANCE IN HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The sand wedges in Hexi Corridor occur in the alluvial gravel stratum of bajada and high terraces. The 14C ages of eolian sand in sand wedges prove that they formed during the Last Ice Age, with the mean annual air temperature about 5.6℃. The common 14C and AMS 14C dating ages of terrestrial branch relicts in Huahai clay-mirabilite interlayer are ( 11 600 ±280) a B. P. and (1118 ±54) a B.P. respectively, proving that the mirabilite formed at the cold episode of the Last Glacial Maximum(LGM) and Younger Dryers(YD) in Huahai Lake. It is pointed out that the mean annual air temperature in Hexi Corridor during LGM was about - 3℃ - - 7℃ ,11℃ - 15℃ lower than that of present, and that during YD was about 0℃ - 2℃,6℃ - 8℃ lower than at present. This decreasing temperature values are generally coincident with those inferred by pollen, sand wedge and ice core in the northern China, and also with the research on temperature-falling amplitude of middle and high latitude on the Northern Hemisphere recently.

  19. Exploring the Connectivity of Ecological Corridors Between Low Elevation Mountains and Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park of Taiwan by Least-Cost Path Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. L.; Liu, H. F.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was explored the variation of landscape process and its impact on the possibility of ecological corridors on Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park. Developing the landscape change process in year 2002, 2005, 2012 and 2014 via the land-use definition of IPCC (forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land). In the landscape structure analysis, the cropland was gradually changed to forest land in this area. Moreover, the variation of gravity model showed that the interaction between Linhousilin Forest Park and low elevation mountains were gradually increased which means the function of ecological corridors has increased.

  20. FY-09 Summary Report to the Office of Petroleum Reserves on the Western Energy Corridor Initiative Activities and Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2010-01-01

    To meet its programmatic obligations under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Office of Naval Petroleum and Shale Oil Reserves (NPSOR) has initiated the Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI). The WECI will implement the Unconventional Strategic Fuels Task Force recommendations for accelerating and promoting the development of domestic unconventional fuels to help meet the nations’ energy needs. The mission of the WECI is to bolster America’s future fuel security by facilitating socially and environmentally responsible development of unconventional fuels resources in the Western Energy Corridor, using sound engineering principles and science-based methods to define and assess benefits, impacts, uncertainties, and mitigation options and to resolve impediments. The Task Force proposed a three-year program in its commercialization plan. The work described herein represents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of the DOE’s WECI. This effort represents an interim phase of work, designed to initiate only select portions of the initiative, limited by available funding resources within NPOSR. Specifically, the work presented here addresses what was accomplished in FY-09 with the remaining carryover (~$420K) from NPOSR FY-08 funds. It was the intent of the NPOSR program to seek additional funding for full implementation of the full scope of work; however, the original tasks were reduced in scope, terminated, or eliminated (as noted below). An effort is ongoing to obtain funding to continue the tasks initiated under this project. This study will focus on the integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon-neutral and environmentally acceptable manner. Emphasis will be placed on analyses of the interrelationships of various energy-resource development plans and the infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal, and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development scenarios. The interactions at build

  1. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  2. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  3. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  4. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    -density, finer grain-size characteristics, and possibly higher total phosphorous (TP) content, when compared against soils from nearby uncontaminated areas. Approximately 250 pairs of (contaminated and uncontaminated) soil samples were obtained from nine different sub-catchments located in four different European countries; namely, France, Germany, Switzerland and the UK. Sample pairs were sub-divided into contaminated & uncontaminated soils and each variable was subjected to a pair-wise statistical test; firstly for all catchments combined, and then on a catchment-by-catchment basis, to determine whether differences were significant. In addition to the above analyses, further evidence of spatial and topographic colonisation tendencies was sought from digital imagery captured using a remotely-controlled drone (quadcopter) flown along a ca. 1.0 km section of contaminated river corridor. Images were georeferenced, displayed together in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to construct a 3-dimensional digital elevation model (DEM). The DEM was interrogated to determine the presence / absence of colonisation trends (i.e. a tendency to colonise low-lying areas). This communication reports preliminary findings from this ongoing work and discusses key implications and possible future directions.

  5. Environmental Survey Report for the ETTP: Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Haul Road Corridor, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-12-20

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveys conducted within the corridor of a temporary haul road (''Haul Road'') to be constructed from East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located just west of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). ORNL assistance to the Haul Road Project included environmental assessments necessary to determine the best route for minimizing impacts to sensitive resources such as wetlands or rare plants. Once the final route was chosen, environmental surveys were conducted within the corridor to evaluate the impacts to sensitive resources that could not be avoided. The final Haul Road route follows established roads and a power-line corridor to the extent possible (Fig. 1). Detailed explanation regarding the purpose of the Haul Road and the regulatory context associated with its construction is provided in at least two major documents and consequently is not presented here: (1) Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January 2005, DOE/OR/01-2194&D2), and (2) Environmental Monitoring Plan for The ETTP to EMWMF Haul Road for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (April 2005, BJC/OR-2152). The focus of this report is a description of the sensitive resources to be impacted by Haul Road construction. Following a short description of the methods used for the environmental surveys, results and observations are presented in the following subsections: (1) General description

  6. Restored river corridors: first results on the effects of flow variability on vegetation cuttings survival rate and related root architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Jiang, Z.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding and predicting the evolution of river alluvial bed forms toward a vegetated or a non-vegetated morphology have important implications for restored river corridors and the related ecosystem functioning (see also Schäppi et al, this session). Vegetation recruitment and growth on non-cohesive material of river corridors, such as gravel bars and islands of braided river, depend on the ability of roots to develop and anchor efficiently such to resist against flow erosion. In this work, we study the interannual morphological evolution of a gravel bar island, the survival rate and the growth of a number of plots with different density and orientation of transplanted cuttings (Salix Alba), the space and time dynamics of which depend on erosion and deposition processes due to floods. Our purpose is to identify island locations where the hydrodynamic conditions are more suitable for plants germination, growth and survival in relation to the river hydrograph statistics. This information is a first step to build a stochastic model able to predict the future evolution and progress of the restoration action of the investigated river reach. We focus at the main island of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Canton Thurgau, Switzerland), the restoration success of which is investigated from a mechanistic viewpoint in the research project "REstored CORridor Dynamics" (www.record.ethz.ch). Accordingly, we analyze two recent Digital Elevation Models (1 year difference), which were first corrected to account for the river bathymetry, and then we compare them in order to extract relevant interannual morphological changes. Using a two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model we simulate several flow conditions ranging from the minimum recorded flow up to the one that completely inundates the island. Hence, we build inundation maps of the island that we associate to the frequency and the submergence duration of every area. We then correlate such results to the observed survival

  7. Rol Gruzinskoi zheleznoi dorogi v razvitii transportnogo koridora TRACECA = The role of the Georgian railways in the development of the TRACECA transport corridor / Teimuraz Gorshkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorshkov, Teimuraz

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" tutvustab Euroopat ja Kesk-Aasiat ühendava transpordikoridori TRACECA (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia) programmi ja Gruusia raudtee kui programmi olulisima komponendi, arendamise ülesandeid

  8. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Policy for the Signing and Numbering of Future Interstate Corridors Designated by Section 332 of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....C. 139(b) C Appendix C to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT..., App. C Appendix C to Subpart A of Part 470—Policy for the Signing and Numbering of Future Interstate Corridors Designated by Section 332 of the NHS Designation Act of 1995 or Designated Under 23 U.S.C....

  9. An Analysis on the Regional Investment Cooperation in the "Two Corridors and One Ring"%"两廊一圈"区域投资合作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝小林

    2005-01-01

    The "Two Corridors and One Ring" is so characterized by its good market prospect for investment, obvious industrial development gradient within the ring, and strong mutual supplementary feature that the paper ponders into the key itemswithin the region so as to promote the start and enhancement of the regional economic cooperation.

  10. Evidence of miocene crustal shortening in the North Qilian Shan from cenozoic stratigraphy of the Western Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovet, P.M.; Ritts, B.D.; Gehrels, G.; Abbink, A.O.; Darby, B.; Hourigan, J.

    2009-01-01

    New sedimentologic, stratigraphie, and compositional data from the Paleogene-Neogene stratigraphie succession exposed in the northwest Hexi Corridor and within the North Qilian Shan, provide evidence to suggest that crustal shortening in the North Qilian Shan fold-thrust belt initiated during die Mi

  11. Spatio-temporal Analysis of Urban Spatial Interaction in Globalizing China——A Case Study of Beijing-Shanghai Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wenjie; ZHANG Wenzhong; JIN Fengjun; DENG Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to explore urban geography with a new perspective. Endowed with the urban geography connotations, an improved data field model is employed to integrate temporal dimension into spatial process of cities in a typical region in this article. Taking the Beijing-Shanghai Corridor including 18 cities as an example, the authors chose the city centricity index (CCI) and the spatial data field model to analyze the evolution process and features of sub-region and urban spatial interaction in this corridor based on the data of 1991, 1996 and 2002. Through the analysis, we found that: 1) with the improvement of the urbanization level and the development of urban economy, the cities' CCI grew, the urban spatial radiative potential enhanced and the radiative range expanded gradually, which reflects the urban spatial interaction's intensity has been increasing greatly; 2) although the spatial interaction intensity among the cities and sub-regions in the Beijing-Shanghai Corridor was growing constantly, the gap of the spatial interaction strength among different cities and sub-regions was widening, and the spatial division between the developed areas and the less developed areas was obvious; and 3) the intensity of the spatial interaction of Beijing, Shanghai and their urban agglomerations was far greater than that in small cities of other parts of the corridor, and it may have a strong drive force on the choice of spatial location of the economic activities.

  12. Neither Here nor There : An Overview of South-South Migration from both ends of the Bangladesh-India Migration Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Joseph (Jolin); V. Narendran (Vishnu)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis review essay draws on a survey of available literature to explore key themes, dimensions and opportunities for future research on South-South Migration flows. Through an analysis of the Bangladesh-India migration corridor, the paper attempts to explore nuances in South-South migrati

  13. Smallholder Farms as Stepping Stone Corridors for Crop-Raiding Elephant in Northern Tanzania: Integration of Bayesian Expert System and Network Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittiglio, C.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, van H.A.M.; McCall, M.K.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Crop-raiding elephants affect local livelihoods, undermining conservation efforts. Yet, crop-raiding patterns are poorly understood, making prediction and protection difficult. We hypothesized that raiding elephants use corridors between daytime refuges and farmland. Elephant counts, crop-raiding re

  14. Workshop Protocol 5.1 “Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  15. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao Yang,; Francina Dominguez,; Hoshin Gupta,; Xubin Zeng,; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  16. An estimation model of time-varying origin-destination flows in expressway corridors based on unscented Kalman filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunWei; LIN BoLiang; SUN ZhiHui; GENG XueFei

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of measurable time series of mainline and ramp flows from traffic counts and the assumption of travel time distributions, this research presents a dynamic system model and its on-line estimation algorithm for recursive estimation of Ume-varying origin-destination (OD) matrices in expressway corridors. The proposed model employs a macro-traffic flow model to estimate travel times of OD flows and uses parameters of the traffic model as state variables, which are added to the constrained function of the system. To improve the model efficiency, we revise the travel time distribution based on the feature of normal distribution. The research employs a newly developed filtering technique, called unscented Kalman filter. The proposed model is evaluated with simulation experiments.Numerical analyses with respect to the sensitivity of the selection of initial parameters on the estimation results indicate that the proposed model is sufficiently reasonable and stable for real-world applications.

  17. An estimation model of time-varying origin-destination flows in expressway corridors based on unscented Kalman filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of measurable time series of mainline and ramp flows from traffic counts and the assumption of travel time distributions, this research presents a dynamic system model and its on-line estimation algorithm for recursive estimation of time-varying origin-destination (OD) matrices in expressway corridors. The proposed model employs a macro-traffic flow model to estimate travel times of OD flows and uses parameters of the traffic model as state variables, which are added to the constrained function of the system. To improve the model efficiency, we revise the travel time distribution based on the feature of normal distribution. The research employs a newly developed filtering technique, called unscented Kalman filter. The proposed model is evaluated with simulation experiments. Numerical analyses with respect to the sensitivity of the selection of initial parameters on the estimation results indicate that the proposed model is sufficiently reasonable and stable for real-world appli-cations.

  18. Evaluating the effect of corridors and landscape heterogeneity on dispersal probability: a comparison of three spatially explicit modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, J. U.; Baveco, J. M.; Topping, C. J.;

    2004-01-01

    Spatially explicit simulation models of varying degree of complexity are increasingly used in landscape and species management and conservation. The choice as to which type of model to employ in a particular situation, is however, far too often governed by logistic constraints and the personal...... preferences of the modeller, rather than by a critical evaluation of model performance. We present a comparison of three common spatial simulation approaches (patch-based incidence-function model (IFM), individual-based movement model (IBMM), individual-based population model including detailed behaviour...... or populations in space given a specific configuration of habitat patches. We evaluated how the choice of model influenced predictions regarding the effect of patch- and corridor configuration on dispersal probabilities and the number of successful immigrants of a simulated small mammal. Model results were...

  19. Evaluation of the tourism climate in the Hexi Corridor of northwest China's Gansu Province during 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuxian; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Qiang, Fang; Che, Yanjun; Wang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    As a pivotal section of the Silk Road in northwest China, the Hexi Corridor is a popular tourist destination. In this study, the tourism climate conditions in this region were discussed using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-information-Scheme (CTIS) from 1980 to 2012. Overall, cold or cool stress was prevalent in the area, and the optimal travel period was from May to September. With global warming, the annual numbers of cumulative days with relatively cold conditions decreased, and the annual numbers of cumulative days with comfortable and relatively hot conditions increased. Two typical stations, Wushaoling and Dunhuang, were compared and analysed for their tourism climate information according to the frequency of PET and CTIS conditions, respectively. In addition, regional variations in the tourism climate conditions based on geographic information systems (GIS) were investigated during the optimal travel period.

  20. Proposed Method for Development of Small Female and Midsize Male Thorax Dynamic Response Corridors in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrit, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. Several methods are available in the literature to refine the biofidelity corridors or to extrapolate them to other populations (eg: children, small females, large males). Because of the lack of concrete cases, the relevance of the assumptions is rarely investigated. In 2014, Baudrit et al. published data on thorax dynamic responses of small female and midsize male Post Mortem Human Subjects in side and forward oblique impact tests. The impactor mass was 23.4 kg for all the tests and the nominal impact speed was 4.3 m/s. The diameter of the rigid disk was 130 and 152 mm respectively for the small female specimens and for the midsize male specimens. The authors found that the maximum impact force was a function of the total body mass for each loading. They also reported that the ratio of dissipated energy on total deformation energy was almost constant and equal to 0.88. From these observations, a method was developed to aggregate data of the whole PMHS sample and to construct force time history and deflection time history corridors, for the 50th male and the 5th female, in pure lateral and in forward oblique tests. These corridors are provided in the paper and compared to the literature. Scaling factors derived from the corridors are also provided and used to evaluate the assumptions associated with the corridors provided in the literature.

  1. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER-SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China. According to re-cent statistics, there are 65.94 × 108m3 of water resources available in the Hexi Corridor. At present, net consumption indevelopment and utilization is 43.33 x 108m3. Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of produc-tion, but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69 × 108m3. So net use efficiency of water resourcesis 59%. Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present, there existsthe serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded. There is a comparative bal-ance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heihe River system; and the Sule River system has some sur-plus water to extend irrigation land. Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for6. 9%. The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production. Water-saving efficiency ofirrigation is about 10% by using such traditional technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irriga-tion, and water-saving with plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation etc. cansave more than 60% of irrigated water. Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor hasbeen estimated as 56% - 197% to original irrigation area. So the second water sources can be developed from water sav-ing agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale. This potential can berealized step by step through developing the water-saving measures, improving the ecological condition of oasis agricul-ture, and optimizing allocation of water resources in three river systems.

  2. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  3. Lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach for microsurgical resection of large midline pineal region tumors: techniques to expand the operative corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwin, Charles; Matsushima, Ken; Malekpour, Mahdi; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-01-01

    Pineal region tumors pose certain challenges in regard to their resection: a deep surgical field, associated critical surrounding neurovascular structures, and narrow operative working corridor due to obstruction by the apex of the culmen. The authors describe a lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach that was successfully used in the treatment of 10 large (> 3 cm) midline pineal region tumors. The patients were placed in a modified lateral decubitus position. A small lateral suboccipital craniotomy exposed the transverse sinus. Tentorial retraction sutures were used to gently rotate and elevate the transverse sinus to expand the lateral supracerebellar operative corridor. This approach placed only unilateral normal structures at risk and minimized vermian venous sacrifice. The surgeon achieved generous exposure of the caudal midline mesencephalon through a "cross-court" oblique trajectory, while avoiding excessive retraction on the culmen. All patients underwent the lateral approach with no approach-related complication. The final pathological diagnoses were consistent with meningioma in 3 cases, pilocytic astrocytoma in 3 cases, intermediate grade pineal region tumor in 2 cases, and pineoblastoma in 2 cases. The entire extent of these tumors was readily reachable through the lateral supracerebellar route. Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 (80%) of the 10 cases; in 2 cases (20%) near-total resection was performed due to adherence of these tumors to deep diencephalic veins. Large midline pineal region tumors can be removed through a unilateral paramedian suboccipital craniotomy. This approach is simple, may spare some of the midline vermian bridging veins, and may be potentially less invasive and more efficient.

  4. An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biba Jasmine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study entails an attitude assessment of the local people living at Mankanthpur Village, one of the bottlenecks in the Bailparao-Kotabagh corridor, Terai West Forest Division, on the issue of elephant conservation, human-(wildlife elephant conflict, and the measures to mitigate it.  Data was collected through a questionnaire survey and several group discussions among the villagers.  The frequency of crop raids and group size of elephants were calculated.  Sixty-two crop raids took place during the study period (February–April 2010, and a mean sighting of 1.08 elephants per day was recorded.  Data from the survey reflects that about 3.53ha of crop land was damaged by the elephants during the survey period.  The people residing on the fringes of the park and in the villages along the Bailparao-Kotabagh Corridor were surveyed about the conflict impact.  Survey results indicate that the most effective management measures used were a combination of loud noise and scaring away elephants using fire.  Local peoples’ views regarding the current status of elephant raids and conservation were also documented.  Peoples’ reaction to compensation schemes was studied; 89% of the respondents feel an effective approach to compensation is a way to reduce sufferings due to conflict with wildlife.  Attempts to reduce the conflict by forming local elephant control teams and enclosing the affected village with a tall cemented wall are under trial.  The underlying assumption in this study is that if damage severely affects the livelihood of local communities, getting their active support, which is essential for conservation, will be difficult. 

  5. Comportment of heavy goods vehicle drivers in HIV spread along settlements around Kaduna: Kano road transport corridor in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road transport remains the cheapest way to move goods and services across limitless boundaries in Nigeria. The collapse of the rail and water transport system, and the high cost of air transport have given rise to increasing road transport usage. This increases vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV drivers due to long absence from home and constant interaction with the commercial sex workers (CSWs. Objectives: The study was performed to determine the sexual behaviour of HGV drivers while on transit within the inter-state transport corridor of Kaduna State in northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Marraba-Jos along the Kaduna-Kano transport corridor. A structured questionnaire was used to study age, educational status, knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS, and the sexual behavior of HGV drivers. Results: Three hundred and fifty HGV drivers participated in the study, of whom 273 drivers (78.0% had excellent knowledge on HIV/AIDS preventive measures and 218 drivers (62.0% had good attitude toward prevention. Frequency of having sex while on transit varied with 84 respondents (24% having sex at any available opportunity and 49 (14% having sex on a daily basis. Three hundred and twenty-two drivers (92.0% agreed in taking some preventive measure, of which 36.8% made use of condoms. One hundred and sixty-one drivers in the study (46.0% considered themselves a high-risk group to getting infected and 140 (40.0% agreed that public discussion on HIV/AIDS will help create the necessary awareness. Conclusion: The knowledge of HIV/AIDS among HGV drivers was found to be high, attitude toward prevention was good, and there was fair appreciation of public health intervention toward combating HIV/AIDS when compared to previous studies done on road transport workers in the country.

  6. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

  7. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyan Dong

    Full Text Available Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

  8. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  9. Permafrost Changes along the Alaska Highway Corridor, Southern Yukon, from Ground Temperature Measurements and DC Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, M. A.; Lewkowicz, A. G.; Smith, S.

    2011-12-01

    A natural gas pipeline running across permafrost terrain from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, through Canada to US markets was first proposed more than 30 years ago. In the intervening period, mean annual air temperatures in the region have risen by 0.5-1.0°C and it is probable that the ground has also warmed. Renewed interest in the pipeline has meant that information on permafrost and geotechnical conditions within the Alaska Highway Corridor of the southern Yukon must be updated for engineering design and the assessment of environmental impacts. To accomplish this goal, results from 1977-1981 drilling and ground temperature monitoring programs within the proposed pipeline corridor were used in combination with air photo analysis to select sites potentially sensitive to climate change. The sites are distributed across the extensive and sporadic discontinuous permafrost zones over a distance of 475 km between Beaver Creek and Whitehorse. To date, 11 targeted boreholes with permafrost have been found and cased to permit renewed ground temperature monitoring. By the end of summer 2011, it is expected that another 7 will have been instrumented. Measurable temperature increases relative to the 1970s are expected, except where values were previously just below 0°C. In the latter case, if the sites are still in permafrost, latent heat effects may have substantially moderated the temperature increase. Electrical resistivity tomography surveys are also being conducted to characterize the local permafrost distribution and geotechnical conditions. These 2D resistivity profiles will be used with the ground temperatures to examine current conditions and response to climate change and vegetation disturbance.

  10. Using sensor habituation in mobile robots to reduce oscillatory movements in narrow corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Carolina

    2005-11-01

    Habituation is a form of nonassociative learning observed in a variety of species of animals. Arguably, it is the simplest form of learning. Nonetheless, the ability to habituate to certain stimuli implies plastic neural systems and adaptive behaviors. This paper describes how computational models of habituation can be applied to real robots. In particular, we discuss the problem of the oscillatory movements observed when a Khepera robot navigates through narrow hallways using a biologically inspired neurocontroller. Results show that habituation to the proximity of the walls can lead to smoother navigation. Habituation to sensory stimulation to the sides of the robot does not interfere with the robot's ability to turn at dead ends and to avoid obstacles outside the hallway. This paper shows that simple biological mechanisms of learning can be adapted to achieve better performance in real mobile robots.

  11. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  12. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  13. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  15. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  16. A Conception on Building the Economic Corridor from Nanning of China to Lang Son, Hanoi, Haiphong and Quang Ninh of Vietnam%建设南宁-谅山-河内-海防-广宁经济走廊构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农立夫

    2005-01-01

    Leaders from both China and Vietnam have reached agreements on building“Two Corridors and One Ring”, in which “the Economic Corridor from Nanning of China to Lang Son, Hanoi, Haiphong and Quang Ninh of Vietnam”is one of them.The paper mainly analyzes its favorable conditions, content and significance, suggesting that China and Vietnam cooperate in building projects of top priority and then extend their scope. The paper also suggests ways on how governments, research and e-ducational institutions guarantee the successful construction of the corridor.

  17. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  18. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  19. 脉冲循环式渠槽厌氧反应器处理太湖腐熟蓝藻性能%Capability of pulse cycle corridor anaerobic reactor treating composted algae water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余亚琴; 吕锡武; 吴义锋; 许丽娟

    2013-01-01

      为实现太湖腐熟蓝藻的资源化处理,研究新型厌氧反应器——脉冲循环式渠槽厌氧反应器处理太湖腐熟蓝藻的效能及其运行特点.以城市污水处理厂剩余污泥为种泥,污泥接种量混合液挥发性悬浮固体浓度(MLVSS)为20 g/L,进水化学需氧量(COD)质量浓度2000 mg/L,水力停留时间(HRT)为5 d,中温(30~35)℃厌氧条件下,反应器可在30 d内成功启动并达到初步稳定运行,COD去除率达到60%左右,产气率为0.08 L/(L·d);当进水 COD 容积负荷3.5 kg/(m3·d)时,仍能实现安全稳定运行,COD 去除率可以稳定在80%左右,产气率在1.2 L/(L·d),表明反应器抗冲击负荷能力较强,同时沼液中藻毒素(TMC-LR、EMC-LR)去除率为90%以上.稳定运行期间反应器厌氧颗粒污泥对腐熟蓝藻甲烷化的最大比基质降解速率为1.253 mg/(mg·d),半饱和常数为11770 mg/L,甲烷产率系数为0.256 mL/mg;电镜观测发现稳定运行期颗粒污泥以产甲烷的八叠球菌为主,伴有丝状菌和杆菌等,同时发现其蛋白酶、TTC-脱氢酶和辅酶F420活性相对较高.研究发现脉冲循环式渠槽厌氧反应器能够有效地处理太湖蓝藻,这对其资源化利用具有一定的指导意义.%As a typical high organic concentration wastewater, composted algae water from the Taihu Lake could be treated with anaerobic biological treatment technology for clean energy biogas. During this process, Cyanobacteria are easy to float and crust in the reactor, thus affecting the efficiency of the gas production and reducing the processing effect of the reactor. Therefore, the design of an efficient anaerobic reactor suitable to the characteristics of cyanobacteria was the main task of the study. We designed a new type of anaerobic reactor, the pulse cycle corridor anaerobic reactor, and considered the performance of processing composted algae water from the Taihu Lake. Simultaneously, sequencing batch experiments on the methanation

  20. Lifelines and Earthquake Hazards Along the Interstate 5 Urban Corridor: Cottage Grove, Oregon, to Vancouver, B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E. A.; Weaver, C. S.; Haugerud, R. A.; Ballantyne, D. B.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Madin, I. P.; Wells, R. E.; Darienzo, M.; Meagher, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    A new map series provides basic graphical representations of lifeline systems in relation to earthquake hazards along the economic and residential artery of the Pacific Northwest: the I-5 corridor from Cottage Grove, Oregon, to Vancouver, B.C. The lifeline systems that support the communities as well as local and regional commerce form a complex web of highways, railroads, pipelines, electrical power facilities, and ports, that cross areas of varying levels of earthquake hazards. This web depends on many components working together to make a functional system. Failure of one critical system component due to a large earthquake or other natural disaster can disable the system. Earthquakes tend to affect many systems at once, and the failure of one system, such as a highway, can impede the recovery of another system, such as an electrical power line. Therefore, understanding the geographical relationships between the lifeline systems, local communities, and earthquake hazards is an important element in the process of not only determining recovery priorities and strategies after an earthquake, but also for future planning purposes. The lifeline maps have a shaded-relief topographic background with integrated regional geology categorized as ground relatively susceptible or not susceptible to ground amplification, liquefaction and/or landslides in the event of an earthquake. The maps also show recent and historically important earthquakes estimated to be greater than magnitude 5. Lifeline systems superimposed on the geologic base are: major electrical transmission lines, water supply pipelines, major sewer pipelines and treatment plants, liquid fuel pipelines, natural gas pipelines, and major ports and airports. Map data are generalized in order to suit the needs of map users, ranging from the specialist to non-specialist. Accordingly, the maps do not provide site-specific information. The map presentation stresses the system nature of lifelines, as opposed to

  1. Water, land, climate change and agrarian livelihood in an arid region riparian corridor: Rayón, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.; Curl, K.; House-Peters, L.; Buechler, S.

    2012-12-01

    Results of recent fieldwork in Rayón, Sonora, Mexico (funded by NSF's "Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors") indicate that the coupled natural and human (CNH) system that has persisted since the town's founding in 1626 is being degraded and destabilised by a confluence of social and ecological pressures. System change or loss of key system services and products has important implications for ecological services and human economic activity in the riparian corridor. Less water quantity is the primary factor responsible for driving system degradation and change. Drought caused by climate change is widely perceived by agriculturists as responsible for reduced water quantity in the riparian area. Reductions in water quantity are so severe that the once perennial Rio San Miguel did not run during 2012's summer months for the first time in residents' memory. Ninety-percent of wells are dry. Fields irrigated by surface-water acequias were not planted. Starvation or dehydration has thinned herd sizes. Residents fear they will lose the ability to practice their traditional livelihoods: ranching, farming and cheese production. Drought conditions and resource management in response to climatic change have had a net negative impact on ecological services. Agriculturists have responded to less forage and pasture for cattle by clearing mesquite forests, putting land into production, and increasing water demand. From interviews it appears this process is cyclical: agriculturists widely believe access to more water or an end to the drought are the only ways to improve conditions. Interviews also reveal (a) agriculturists view technology, especially that which is able to improve water-use efficiency, as means to reduce stress in the CNH system and (b) a holistic view that couples natural well-being to human well-being is absent from the majority of respondents' worldviews. Technological and adoption of holistic perceptions are adaptations that may potentially

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-120 Hanford-Ostrander Corridor Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Ken [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-10

    Vegetation Management for the Hanford-Ostrander Transmission Line Corridor from Tower 10/4 to Tower 17/2 + 770. The line is a 500kV Single Circuit Transmission Line having an easement width of 300 feet. The proposed work will be accomplished in the indicated sections of the transmission line corridor as referenced on the attached checklist. The work will include the performance of road maintenance and tower pad maintenance along the Hanford-Ostrander transmission line. Maintenance will be performed from Tower 10/1, close to Army Loop road near the northeast corner of 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation to the western edge of the Arid Lands Ecological Reserve (ALE) at Tower 17/2 + 700. Total distance of the work is approximately 7.5 miles. The planned work includes spraying with herbicides to minimize vegetation regrowth along the access roads and removing shrubs from within 50 feet of each transmission tower.

  3. North-South Corridor Demonstration Project: Ethical and Logistical Challenges in the Design of a Demonstration Study of Early Antiretroviral Treatment for Long Distance Truck Drivers along a Transport Corridor through South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long-distance truck drivers are at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and have suboptimal access to care. New HIV prevention strategies using antiretroviral drugs to reduce transmission risk (early antiretroviral therapy (ART at CD4 count >350 cells/μL have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Demonstration projects are needed to evaluate “real world” programme effectiveness. We present the protocol for a demonstration study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of an early ART intervention for HIV-positive truck drivers along a transport corridor across South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, as part of an enhanced strategy to improve treatment adherence and retention in care. Methods and Analysis. This demonstration study would follow an observational cohort of truck drivers receiving early treatment. Our mixed methods approach includes quantitative, qualitative, and economic analyses. Key ethical and logistical issues are discussed (i.e., choice of drug regimen, recruitment of participants, and monitoring of adherence, behavioural changes, and adverse events. Conclusion. Questions specific to the design of tailored early ART programmes are amenable to operational research approaches but present substantial ethical and logistical challenges. Addressing these in demonstration projects can inform policy decisions regarding strategies to reduce health inequalities in access to HIV prevention and treatment programmes.

  4. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  5. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Martinez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez, C.; Longoria, L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho-Constantino, C.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun, Km. 20., Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico); Beltran-Hernandez, R.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.

  6. The Round Coal Bunker Underground Corridor Design of Thermal Power Plants%浅谈火电厂圆煤仓地下廊道的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红漫

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a power plant as an example, overview the design methods and main points of the round coal bunker underground corridor structure of the large thermal power plant.%  本文以某电厂为例,概述大型火力发电厂圆煤仓地下廊道结构设计方法及要点。

  7. Study on Protection and Development of Corridor Heritage Tourism Resources%廊道遗产旅游资源保护与开发理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 宋金平; 张宁

    2009-01-01

    Corridor heritage like the Silk Road,the Great Canal from Beijing to Hangzhou and the Tea-Horse Ancient Road has been paid more and more attention by the society since the beginning of the 21st century.Taking and developing the basic theories of the heritage corridor and the cultural routes,the authors of this paper put forward the concept of corridor heritage with Chinese characteristics.It's not only a new concept in accordance with China's cultural heritage history and modern protection and development of China's heritage,but also a new method for protecting and developing the heritage.This paper puts an emphasis on the rational protection and development of corridor heritage tourism resources under Placeality Theory,ASES Model,CBD Theory and Nested-Triangle Model.%目前跨区域型廊道遗产尤其受到旅游者青睐,如丝绸之路、京杭大运河、茶马古道.但在旅游开发利用的同时,也对这些大型遗产的科学保护提出了更高的要求.笔者在美国遗产廊道和欧洲文化线路的理论基础上,通过对两者进行中国化的理论解读,提出廊道遗产的概念,作为大型遗产保护与开发的新理念与方法.该文重点研究廊道遗产旅游资源如何在地格理论、ASES模型、CBD理论和嵌套式三角模型等的指导下进行科学保护与合理开发.

  8. 基于IP网络的景观绿道公共广播设计%Design for IP Network Based Public Broadcasting System for Landscape Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕

    2014-01-01

    结合某景观长廊工程实例,分析景观绿道公共广播的特点,比选广播系统方案:模拟广播、数字广播、 IP广播系统,最终选择了IP广播系统。并介绍IP广播方案下该景观长廊广播系统的具体设计方案,总结基于IP网络的景观绿道公共广播具有的优势。%A landscape corridor project is taken as an example to analyze the features of public broadcasting system for landscape corridor and to compare the options for the public broadcasting system. After the comparison among analogue broadcasting system, digital broadcasting system, and IP network based broadcasting system, the last one is selected. And then, the detailed design for the public broadcasting system based on IP network for the landscape corridor is introduced and the advantages of IP network based public broadcasting system are summarized.

  9. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Anne H; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

    2008-10-28

    It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa approximately 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant approximately 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of-now buried-fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa.

  10. 河西走廊生态体育发展现状研究%Research on Current Development Situation of Ecological Sports in Hexi Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建民; 香成福; 毛建民; 谢芳; 徐宏毅; 高永平

    2015-01-01

    According to the character of natural ecological sports resources, and garden landscape resources and humanity resources in Hexi corridor, from forest, and mountains, and prairie, and Gobi, and desert,and water, and glacier, and snow, and geological landforms, and artificial landscape, and humanity monuments, and venues, and folk culture resources and other aspects, the paper researches that the project was carried out and the movement race was held at present in Hexi corridor, and combines status, analyzes the development way of ecological sports in order to provide theory reference for sustainable development of ecological sports in Hexi corridor.%根据河西走廊自然生态体育资源、园林景观资源和人文资源的特点,从森林、山脉、草原、戈壁、沙漠、水利、冰川、雪地、地质地貌、人工景观、人文古迹、场馆、民俗文化资源等方面,研究了河西走廊目前生态体育开展的项目及举办的运动竞赛,并结合开展现状,分析了河西走廊生态体育发展的途径,为进一步促进生态体育的可持续发展提供理论参考。

  11. Climatic characteristics of spring soaking rain date in Hexi Corridor%河西走廊春季透雨日期的变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玲; 刘明春; 郭小芹; 许蔚生; 蒋菊芳

    2011-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is most main commodity grain base and the cash crop centralized production area in the northwest area. Although the area of majority belongs to the irrigated agricultural region, but it still has the very direct relations among the agricultural harvest and famine and the atmospheric precipitation. The occurrence frequency of spring drought in the Hexi Corridor achieves above 70% , which is very big influential in the agricultural production. Although there are many research achievements in the regularities of northwest arid area's changing and its influence on the agricultural production, but the study on spring soaking rain as well as drought's inhibitory actions have not been seen widely up to now in view of the Hexi Corridor. This article is presented to analyze the following issues of the Hexi Corridor : the spatial distribution characteristics on the spring first soaking rain dates, their temporal variation regularities and periodicities, on the basis of precipitation materials during 1971~2007 from 25 metrological stations, EOF, REOF and spectrum analysis methods. The results indicate that; the spring soaking rain dates have a good uniformity dealing with their spatial distribution,its first host component variance contribution occupies 36% of the overall variance, the first three items account for above 66% , three characteristic vectors may reflect main characteristics of the Hexi Corridor involving with the spring soaking rain dates. Under the overall consistent background, the Hexi Corridor has the partial differences in spatial distribution of the spring soaking rain, and may divide approximately into 3 areas: the first area is the extreme arid climatic region in the central and western Hexi Corridor, including 8 counties (city) of Dunhuang,Cuazhou, Yumen,Jinta,Subei,Jiuquan,Gaotai, Linze,Jiuquan station being a representative one. The second area is the partial arid climatic region in the eastern Hexi Corridor, including 7 counties

  12. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, HI (United States). Pacific Islands Office

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  13. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  14. Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

    2011-01-01

    Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa.

  15. Pipeline Corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1992 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to identify representative impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of the survey July 1992, at the Mills Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. Data were collected from three wetland communities along the 1991 pipeline and compared with predisturbance data obtained in a June 1991 survey. Within one year after pipeline installation, 50% of the soil surface of the ROW in the scrub-shrub community was covered by emergent vegetation. Average wetland values for the ROW in 1992 were lower than in 1991, indicating that the removal of woody plants resulted in a community composed of species with greater fidelity to wetlands. In the emergent marsh community after one year, the average percentage of surface covered by standing water was greater in the ROW than in the adjacent natural areas. The ROW in the forested wetland community also contained standing water, although none was found in the natural forest areas. The entire study site remains a wetland, with the majority of plant species in all sites being either obligate or facultative wetland species. Weighted and unweighted average wetland indices for each community, using all species, indicated wetland vegetation within the newly established ROW.

  16. Sailing From the Seas of Chaos Into the Corridor of Stability: Practical Recommendations to Increase the Informational Value of Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakens, Daniël; Evers, Ellen R K

    2014-05-01

    Recent events have led psychologists to acknowledge that the inherent uncertainty encapsulated in an inductive science is amplified by problematic research practices. In this article, we provide a practical introduction to recently developed statistical tools that can be used to deal with these uncertainties when performing and evaluating research. In Part 1, we discuss the importance of accurate and stable effect size estimates as well as how to design studies to reach a corridor of stability around effect size estimates. In Part 2, we explain how, given uncertain effect size estimates, well-powered studies can be designed with sequential analyses. In Part 3, we (a) explain what p values convey about the likelihood that an effect is true, (b) illustrate how the v statistic can be used to evaluate the accuracy of individual studies, and (c) show how the evidential value of multiple studies can be examined with a p-curve analysis. We end by discussing the consequences of incorporating our recommendations in terms of a reduced quantity, but increased quality, of the research output. We hope that the practical recommendations discussed in this article will provide researchers with the tools to make important steps toward a psychological science that allows researchers to differentiate among all possible truths on the basis of their likelihood.

  17. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Petrocelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS, geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  18. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Deep Creek and Brandy Branch crossings, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.

  19. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are ‑0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  20. FLOOD HAZARDS PERCEPTION. THE RESULT OF AN OPINION SURVEY MADE IN THE LITTLE TOWNS FROM LOWER ARIEŞ CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA URCAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazards perception. The result of an opinion survey made in the little towns from lower Arieş corridor. This paper has been prepared based on information obtained from a survey conducted on a sample of 560 residents from the towns of Turda and Câmpia Turzii, residing in areas with different degrees of exposure to the risk of flooding. The residents were questioned about the floods they had suffered and gave varied responses to the degree of flood damage on the population, to the amount of information and the degree of insurance against floods. The questionnaire was structured on different aspects that emphasized: identification, level of experience, knowledge and information; the perception of the causes that generated and amplified floods; the perception involving authorities in prevention and mitigation of flood damage; availability for implementation of voluntary actions, the degree of insurance and aid to flood. In this study it was taken into account the location of households, the previous flood experience, the age and the education level of the respondents.

  1. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Martinez, Néstor; Córdova, Karenia; Ramos, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS), geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  2. River Floodplains as Habitat and Bio-Corridors for Distribution of Land Snails: Their Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horáčková Jitka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available River floodplains of Czech rivers serve as refugia to woodland or hydrophilous gastropods, in current intensively agriculturally utilised, urbanised and largely fragmented landscape. This habitat often form one of the last refuge and replace the natural habitat of these species. River floodplains also represent linear bio-corridors in landscape and allow gastropods to spread through the landscape in both directions, up and down the stream. We showed based on available fossil mollusc successions that development of the floodplain mollusc fauna took place quite different way in various river floodplains, depending on their specifics and geographical location, because especially the ones situated in the chernozem area of the Czech Republic had very different history in comparison with those in higher altitudes. The species richness and composition of recent floodplain malacofauna arises from historical development of particular area/site and depends also on environmental factors such as an elevation, humidity gradient, vegetation type and its biomass, light conditions of the site and soil reaction. Recently, the invasive plants represent a serious problem for current floodplain ecosystems; species richness and abundances of terrestrial mollusc floodplain assemblages are changing due to their effect. The impact on gastropods is species-specific and was described for the following species: Impatiens glandulifera, Fallopia japonica subsp. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. ×bohemica.

  3. Introduction of structural health and safety monitoring warning systems for Shenzhen-Hong Kong Western Corridor Shenzhen Bay Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhou, X. T.; Leng, J.; Liang, Z.; Zheng, C.; Sun, X. F.

    2008-03-01

    Though the brief introduction of the completed structural health and safety monitoring warning systems for Shenzhen-Hongkong western corridor Shenzhen bay highway bridge (SZBHMS), the self-developed system frame, hardware and software scheme of this practical research project are systematically discussed in this paper. The data acquisition and transmission hardware and the basic software based on the NI (National Instruments) Company virtual instruments technology were selected in this system, which adopted GPS time service receiver technology and so on. The objectives are to establish the structural safety monitoring and status evaluation system to monitor the structural responses and working conditions in real time and to analyze the structural working statue using information obtained from the measured data. It will be also provided the scientific decision-making bases for the bridge management and maintenance. Potential technical approaches to the structural safety warning systems, status identification and evaluation method are presented. The result indicated that the performance of the system has achieved the desired objectives, ensure the longterm high reliability, real time concurrence and advanced technology of SZBHMS. The innovate achievement which is the first time to implement in domestic, provide the reference for long-span bridge structural health and safety monitoring warning systems design.

  4. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  5. Acidic deposition along the Appalachian Trail corridor and its effects on acid-sensitive terrestrial and aquatic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Bailey, Scott W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Dovciak, Martin; Ewing, Holly A.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Minocha, Rakesh; Riemann, Rachel; Quant, Juliana; Rice, Karen C.; Siemion, Jason; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT), a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), spans nearly 2,200 miles from Georgia to Maine, encompassing a diverse range of ecosystems. Acidic deposition (acid rain) threatens the AT’s natural resources. Acid rain is a result of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds produced from fossil fuel combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural practices. The AT is particularly vulnerable to S and N because it passes along ridgetops that receive higher levels of acid rain than lower valley terrain, and these ridges are often underlain by bedrock with minimal ability to buffer acidic inputs. Further, there are numerous S and N emission sources across the region. In the environment, acidic deposition can lower the pH of streams and soils which can ultimately affect fish, invertebrates, and vegetation that inhabit these areas. To address this concern, the MegaTransect Deposition Effects Study evaluated the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition, and defined air pollution thresholds (critical and target loads) and recovery rates. Findings indicate that additional S emission

  6. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER—SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOQian-zhao; DUHu-lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China.According to recent statistics,there are 65.94×108 m3 of water resource available in the Hexi Corridor.At present,net consumption in development and utilization is 43.33×108m3.Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of production ,but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69×108m3.So net use efficiency of water resources is 59%.Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded.These is a comparative balance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heibe River system.and the Sule River system has some surplus water to extend irrigation land.Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for 6.9%.The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production.Water-saving efficiency of irrigation is about 10% by using such traditiona technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irrigation,and water-saving wigh plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation ete.can save more than 60% of irrigated water.Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor has been estimated as 56%-197% to original irrigation area.So the second water sources can be developed from water saving agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale .This potential can be realized step by step through developing the water-saving measures,improving the ecological condition of oasis agriculture,and optimizing allocation of water resources in there river systems.

  7. Floodplain rehabilitation as a hedge against hydroclimatic uncertainty in a migration corridor of threatened steelhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, David A; Pike, Andrew S

    2013-12-01

    A strategy for recovering endangered species during climate change is to restore ecosystem processes that moderate effects of climate shifts. In mid-latitudes, storm patterns may shift their intensity, duration, and frequency. These shifts threaten flooding in human communities and reduce migration windows (conditions suitable for migration after a storm) for fish. Rehabilitation of historic floodplains can in principle reduce these threats via transient storage of storm water, but no one has quantified the benefit of floodplain rehabilitation for migrating fish, a widespread biota with conservation and economic value. We used simple models to quantify migration opportunity for a threatened migratory fish, steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), in an episodic rain-fed river system, the Pajaro River in central California. We combined flow models, bioenergetic models, and existing climate projections to estimate the sensitivity of migration windows to altered storm patterns under alternate scenarios of floodplain rehabilitation. Generally, migration opportunities were insensitive to warming, weakly sensitive to duration or intensity of storms, and proportionately sensitive to frequency of storms. The rehabilitation strategy expanded migration windows by 16-28% regardless of climate outcomes. Warmer conditions raised the energy cost of migrating, but not enough to matter biologically. Novel findings were that fewer storms appeared to pose a bigger threat to migrating steelhead than warmer or smaller storms and that floodplain rehabilitation lessened the risk from fewer or smaller storms across all plausible hydroclimatic outcomes. It follows that statistical downscaling methods may mischaracterize risk, depending on how they resolve overall precipitation shifts into changes of storm frequency as opposed to storm size. Moreover, anticipating effects of climate shifts that are irreducibly uncertain (here, rainfall) may be more important than anticipating effects of relatively

  8. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  9. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  10. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  11. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  12. Research/Evaluate Restoration of NE Oregon Streams: Effects of Livestock Exclosures (Corridor Fencing) on Riparian Vegetation, Stream Geomorphic Features and Fish Populations; Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, J. Boone

    2002-09-17

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 indicated ''The council shall properly develop and adopt a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat on the Columbia River and its tributaries.'' As a result, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has spent millions of dollars on various instream projects throughout the Columbia Basin with the goal of increasing system-wide production of anadromous fisheries through a combination of habitat restoration and enhancement measures. For two decades, numerous BPA-funded projects have been initiated in the upper Columbia River Basin for the express intent of improving the aquatic habitats of anadromous salmonids. Largely missing from most of these projects has been any rigorous evaluation of project success or failure. Some field reviews of some habitat projects have been undertaken (e.g., Beschta et al. 1991, Kauffman et al. 1993) and provide an overview of major problems and opportunities associated with selected projects. However, there continues to be a lack of quantifiable information, collected in a systematic manner that could be used as the basis for scientifically assessing the effects of individual projects on riparian/aquatic habitats, functions, or processes. Recent publications (e.g., NRC 1992, ISG 1996, NRC 1996, Beschta 1997, and Kauffman et al. 1997) have identified and summarized important concepts associated with the restoration and improvement of aquatic ecosystems. While such conceptual approaches provide an important structure for those undertaking restoration efforts, there remains a paucity of basic information throughout the upper Columbia Basin on the hydrologic, geomorphic, and biologic responses that occur from various enhancement approaches. Basic data on the spatial and temporal responses of restoration approaches would provide: (1) a better understanding of project effects upon

  13. Drainage evolution of the Heihe River in western Hexi Corridor, China, derived from sedimentary and magnetostratigraphic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baotian; Chen, Dianbao; Hu, Xiaofei; Cao, Xilin; Chen, Jinjun; Mao, Junwei

    2016-10-01

    The uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau has significantly changed the environment in surrounding areas by delivering abundant water and sediment. The Heihe River draining the Qilian Shan in the NE Tibetan Plateau acts as a dominant sediment routing system from the uplifted NE Tibetan Plateau to the Hexi Corridor as well as the Badain Jaran Desert. Reconstructing the evolution of the Heihe River could provide evidence for the birth of the Badain Jaran Desert and enhance the understanding of sedimentary basin fill and the relationship between tectonism, drainage evolution and environmental changes. With this aim, two parallel cores (DWJ and XKJD with depths of 140 and 68.2 m, respectively) were drilled in the floodplain of the Heihe River. The facies analysis of the sedimentary sequences from the drilling cores showed that the sedimentary environment changed from the lake system to a delta system and finally to a fluvial system at the depths of ∼133.3 and ∼68 m, respectively. The magnetostratigraphic results revealed ages of approximately 1.75 and 1.12 Ma for the DWJ and XKJD cores, respectively, and an age of approximately 1.1 Ma for the transition from delta to fluvial environment in both the cores. The change of the sedimentary environment at approximately 1.1 Ma was caused by the formation of the integrated Heihe River. The integrated Heihe River may have developed via mechanisms such as river capture and river diversion due to the uplifting of the North Qilian Shan and the Longshou Shan. The present study suggested that the formation of large inland rivers, such as the Heihe River and the Shiyang River in NW China, played an important role in the evolution of the deserts and the Loess Plateau.

  14. Debris flow susceptibility mapping using a qualitative heuristic method and Flow-R along the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Behnia, P.

    2016-02-01

    This research activity aimed at reducing risk to infrastructure, such as a proposed pipeline route roughly parallel to the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor (YAHC), by filling geoscience knowledge gaps in geohazards. Hence, the Geological Survey of Canada compiled an inventory of landslides including debris flow deposits, which were subsequently used to validate two different debris flow susceptibility models. A qualitative heuristic debris flow susceptibility model was produced for the northern region of the YAHC, from Kluane Lake to the Alaska border, by integrating data layers with assigned weights and class ratings. These were slope angle, slope aspect, surficial geology, plan curvature, and proximity to drainage system. Validation of the model was carried out by calculating a success rate curve which revealed a good correlation with the susceptibility model and the debris flow deposit inventory compiled from air photos, high-resolution satellite imagery, and field verification. In addition, the quantitative Flow-R method was tested in order to define the potential source and debris flow susceptibility for the southern region of Kluane Lake, an area where documented debris flow events have blocked the highway in the past (e.g. 1988). Trial and error calculations were required for this method because there was not detailed information on the debris flows for the YAHC to allow us to define threshold values for some parameters when calculating source areas, spreading, and runout distance. Nevertheless, correlation with known documented events helped define these parameters and produce a map that captures most of the known events and displays debris flow susceptibility in other, usually smaller, steep channels that had not been previously documented.

  15. Applying circuit theory for corridor expansion and management at regional scales: tiling, pinch points, and omnidirectional connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pelletier

    Full Text Available Connectivity models are useful tools that improve the ability of researchers and managers to plan land use for conservation and preservation. Most connectivity models function in a point-to-point or patch-to-patch fashion, limiting their use for assessing connectivity over very large areas. In large or highly fragmented systems, there may be so many habitat patches of interest that assessing connectivity among all possible combinations is prohibitive. To overcome these conceptual and practical limitations, we hypothesized that minor adaptation of the Circuitscape model can allow the creation of omnidirectional connectivity maps illustrating flow paths and variations in the ease of travel across a large study area. We tested this hypothesis in a 24,300 km(2 study area centered on the Montérégie region near Montréal, Québec. We executed the circuit model in overlapping tiles covering the study region. Current was passed across the surface of each tile in orthogonal directions, and then the tiles were reassembled to create directional and omnidirectional maps of connectivity. The resulting mosaics provide a continuous view of connectivity in the entire study area at the full original resolution. We quantified differences between mosaics created using different tile and buffer sizes and developed a measure of the prominence of seams in mosaics formed with this approach. The mosaics clearly show variations in current flow driven by subtle aspects of landscape composition and configuration. Shown prominently in mosaics are pinch points, narrow corridors where organisms appear to be required to traverse when moving through the landscape. Using modest computational resources, these continuous, fine-scale maps of nearly unlimited size allow the identification of movement paths and barriers that affect connectivity. This effort develops a powerful new application of circuit models by pinpointing areas of importance for conservation, broadening the

  16. Mortality in active adults age 70-79 years in relation to performance in a long-distance corridor walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted the source study to determine if a brisk corridor walk of 400 meters could be used to classify the performance of active older adults and relate this performance to mortality and other outcomes over a 6-year follow-up. The cohort consisted of 3075 adults resident in designated ZIP codes in Pittsburgh, Pa, and Memphis, Tenn, participating in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. Out of this cohort, 395 subjects were excluded after evaluation revealed abnormal vital signs or ECG findings, recent cardiac symptoms, recent surgery, recent chest pain, shortness of breath or fainting. Another 356 subjects were unable to complete the 400-meter walk. The 2324 subjects who completed the walk were divided into quartiles according to the time in seconds required for completion (the overall time required ranged widely from 201 to 942 seconds). These 3 groups were designated as "excluded," "stopped," and "completed." Outcomes reported for the 3075 subjects in the total cohort included mortality, new cardiovascular disease events, mobility limitation, and mobility disability. Cardiovascular events were reported for the 2234 subjects (73% of the total) who were free of cardiovascular disease at entry. Results in the article were given in tables and figures and included numbers of entrants, exposures, and events, annual event rates and hazard ratios with SDs. Out of the 3075 entrant subjects, 430 died in the 6 years of follow-up (FU). Excess mortality measured as excess death rate (EDR) was much higher in the excluded and stopped groups (about 22 per 1000 per year) compared with an EDR of 6.4 per 1000 in the completed group. The corresponding mortality ratios (MR), designated as a hazard ratio in the article were about 220% and 135%. Results for comparative morbidity are also given in this abstract.

  17. Carbon monoxide levels measured in major commuting corridors covering different landuse and roadway microenvironments in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L. Y.; Liu, Y. M.; Lee, S. C.; Chan, C. Y.

    Vehicle exhaust is the major source of pollutant in modern cities. About half of Hong Kong residents are living in suburban or rural areas. They need to traverse through tunnels, highways, urban street canyons and other road conditions in different landuse areas when they traverse to work in urban centres or new towns. Also, there is increasing traffic, especially trucks across the border between Hong Kong and mainland China via several border highways. This study helps us in assessing the exposure level of suburban and cross border commuters. Carbon monoxide (CO) is used as a tracer for traffic emission. An experimental vehicle traversing major commuting corridors were used to measure CO levels in different landuse and roadway microenvironments including tunnels and highways. The air samples were taken simultaneously at the outside and inside of a travelling vehicle. Result indicates that the pattern of fluctuation of the out-vehicle and in-vehicle CO level vary with different landuse areas. The variation pattern of in-vehicle CO level is closely related to that of out-vehicle level. The effects of the out-vehicle CO concentration on the in-vehicle CO concentration under different roadway conditions in various landuse categories are examined. There is an indication that external air pollutants penetrated into the in-vehicle compartment through car body cracks, ventilation system. From our observation, the exhaust of a nearby petrol vehicle contributed significantly to the in-vehicle CO level. The use of low standard of diesel fuel from Shenzhen in mainland China leads to higher CO level near border area.

  18. Safe Shores and Resilient Transit Corridors: Using Science, Design, and Stakeholder Partnerships to Address Connecticut's Coastal Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Felson, A. J.; Kirmmse, E.; Hagemann, K.

    2015-12-01

    Connecticut's densely developed coastline is highly vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal storms. 95% of the state's entire population lives within 50 miles of the shore. Connecticut has more than $542 billion in insured assets in harms way, only Florida has a greater exposure. As part of the state of Connecticut Phase 1 application for the HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition, the Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) at the University of Connecticut undertook an assessment of coastal vulnerabilities, including the impacts of sea level rise on the frequency of flooding, socioeconomic factors, critical infrastructure, and housing using data collected from federal, state, and municipal sources. Connecticut's unique geology, characterized by a glaciated coastline with highly erodible former deltas and elevated ridgelines extending out to rocky headlands, became the basis of the climate adaptation approach. Together with a nine state agency workgroup, municipal and regional government, and non-profit and industry representatives, CIRCA and the Yale UED lab developed a long-term urban redevelopment solution of resilient access and egress corridors layered over ridgelines and resilient zones of transit oriented economic development linked to shoreline communities. This concept can be applied in both Connecticut's coastal cities like New Haven and its smaller towns. The process demonstrated the effective partnership between the universities and state agencies in bringing the science of flood modeling and mapping together with innovative design to create solutions for climate adaptation. However, it also revealed significant gaps in data availability to analyze the economic and social drivers for adopting different adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the accuracy of current flood mapping tools needs to be improved to predict future flooding at the municipal project scale. As Connecticut and other states move forward with resilience

  19. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  20. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  1. 基于激光测距仪的温室机器人道路边缘检测与路径导航%New corridor edge detection and navigation for greenhouse mobile robots based on laser scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾士伟; 李军民; 邱权; 唐慧娟

    2015-01-01

    针对温室内移动机器人的应用需求,该文提出了一种应用于温室内移动机器人自主行走的温室道路边缘检测与导航算法。此方法利用激光测距仪获取当前视场内路面、作物及障碍物信息,根据温室路面平整度高于作物冠层外表面的特点,检测道路边缘并生成移动机器人下一采样控制周期的期望航向,然后根据机器人几何与物理模型推算左右驱动轮速度调整指令,使移动机器人保持沿道路行走而不进入作物区中。该算法的有效性在温室移动机器人 Walle 平台上得到了验证,机器人偏离道路中心线的平均值为−1.2707 cm,均方误差为2.6772。%This paper proposes a new corridor edge detection and navigation algorithm based on laser scanner data for greenhouse mobile robots. The type of laser scanner is SICK LMS-30206, and the data in each group include 361 distance values in a single scan. All the values will queue in an angle-ascending order, with 0 degree as the start and 180 degree as the stop. For the corridor edge detection task, the algorithm will intensify the fluctuating features of the range values in the same scan by background removing. Then the modified scan will be divided into 24 equal subsectors. The mean square error of range value of each subsector will be computed and compared. The subsector with the minimum mean square error of range value will be taken as the corridor candidate. And bi-direction expending search will be launched for the corridor candidate. The expending search will stop at the point whose adjacent range value difference is larger than a predefined threshold. When the search stops, the corresponding laser beam serial numbers of the corridor edges will be found. As other objects may be mistaken as corridor when they are located in the neighborhood area of corridor and share similar range values with corridor scan points, a pseudo-corridor removing strategy is also presented

  2. 散粮皮带通廊结构静态性能分析%Static Performance Analysis on Bulk Grain Belt Corridor Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景起

    2016-01-01

    Belt corridor is a major bulk terminal equipment.Due to its long design life,bulky structure,maintenance complexity,especially harsh seaside working conditions,the corridor’s steel structure is susceptible to corrosion damage, which severely reduces the safety and reliability of the gallery structure.Taking bulk grain belt corridor device in Tianjin Harbour Second Stevedoring Co.,Ltd as the research subject,a finite element analysis model was established according to characteristics of the structure and condition of such equipment and in accordance with design drawings and actual corrosion damages.An in-depth study of the static performance of belt corridor structure was carried out,whichprovides a theoretical basis for the maintenance management scheme.%皮带通廊是散货码头的主要设备之一,由于该类设备的设计寿命较长,结构体积较大,维护节点多,特别是长期处在海边恶劣的工况条件下,其钢结构容易发生锈蚀损伤,严重降低了通廊结构及整套设施的安全可靠性。以天津港第二港埠有限公司散粮皮带通廊设备作为研究对象,根据该类设备的结构及工况特点,并依据设计图纸及实际锈蚀损伤情况,建立有限元分析模型,深入研究了皮带通廊结构的静态性能,为皮带通廊的维护方案提供了理论依据。

  3. The Kaliningrad dilemma: a 'development corridor' or a 'double periphery'? The geopolitical factor of the development of the Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kaliningrad region, being an exclave, needs an updated regional development strategy based on the national strategy of modernisation and innovation-based development and, at the same time, taking into account the geopolitical aspect. It is necessary to proceed with the implementation of large-scale projects that stimulate the development of both the regional economy and form cross-industry clusters including large, medium, and small enterprises. The region should become an increasingly important "development corridor" between Russian regions and the EU states situated on the Baltic Sea.

  4. Numerical simulation of the fire smoke flow in a building corridor%建筑物条形走廊烟气运动特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培培; 石必明; 穆朝民; 陆占金

    2012-01-01

    Building corridor is the necessary way in fire evacuation. Knowing the distributions of fire smoke flow in a building corridor under different conditions was helpful to evacuate and rescue. A numerical simulation of the fire smoke flow in a building corridor were presented. The distributions of gas mass fractions and gas temperature is obtained. The results showed that smoke-proof pendant wall can effectively prevent the spread of the gas in the early fire. Because of the effect of its smoke storage, it should be set in the central of the corridor. With the fire continues to expand, the effect of the smoke-proof pendant gradually abate, then mechanical smoke exhaust must be added to discharge smoke promptly. Comparing the different modes, it was concluded that the effect of the mechanical smoke exhaust at the back is better than in the front. Finally a numerical simulation combining with the real experimental was used to verify the correctness of the conclusion.%建筑物走廊是火灾时人员疏散的必经之路,了解走廊烟气的运动规律,对人员疏散与救援具有重大意义.本文对走廊内的火灾烟气进行了数值模拟,得出了不同排烟场景下走廊烟气质量分数及烟气温度的分布情况.研究表明:挡烟垂壁在火灾初期能有效地阻止烟气蔓延;由于其蓄烟作用,应该将其设置在走廊中部.但随着火势的不断扩大,挡烟垂壁效果逐渐减弱,此时必须增设机械排烟机才能及时排出烟气.对比不同机械排烟场景可知,为达到更好的排烟效果,机械排烟口应该设置在挡烟垂壁上游.最后将模拟结果与实验结果对比,验证了本文结论的正确性.

  5. Susceptibilidad al deslizamiento en el corredor Siquirres-Turrialba Landslide susceptibility in the Siquirres-Turrialba corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Segura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una zonificación de la susceptibilidad al deslizamiento en el sector entre las localidades de Siquirres y Turrialba, específicamente para un corredor de 10 km de ancho sobre la ruta del poliducto de RECOPE, que cubre una extensión aproximada de 330 km². El estudio se realizó a partir de la interpretación de fotografías aéreas, información bibliográfica y la aplicación del método Mora & Vahrson (Mora et al., 1992, sustituyendo el relieve relativo por un mapa de pendientes e incorporando un mapa inventario de deslizamientos en la evaluación del parámetro de susceptibilidad litológica. Como resultado de la zonificación, se obtuvo que las áreas correspondientes a susceptibilidad baja abarcan la mayor parte del mapa (33,9% y se presentan mayormente en sectores donde afloran las unidades litoestratigráficas Tuis, al sureste del área, Suretka y en algunos sectores de la formación Andesitas Poás. Las áreas correspondientes a susceptibilidad media (25,3% se presentan principalmente en rocas de las formaciones Andesitas Poás, Uscari y Guayacán; mientras que las áreas correspondientes a susceptibilidad alta (13,4% se presentan principalmente en sectores donde afloran las rocas de las formaciones Andesitas Poás, Uscari, Brechas La Unión y Río Banano.A landslide suceptibility zonation was performed in a 10 km wide corridor along the RECOPE pipeline between the cites of Siquirres and Turrialba. The total study area is 330 km². Analysis was based on aerial photointerpretation, bibliographic research and the application of the Mora-Vahrson method (Mora et al., 1992, in which slope was used instead of the internal relief parameter. A landslide inventory map was included in the evaluation of the lithological suceptibility parameter. Zonation resulted in a predominance of areas with low landslide susceptibility (33,9%, mostly located where Tuis Formation is present, south east of the study area, followed by Suretka

  6. Canonical Correlation Factors Causing the Formation of Accumulated Sand-belts along the Oasis Fringe in Hexi Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang; Zhaofeng; Wang; Qiangqiang; Zhang; Jianhui; Tang; Jinnian; Zhu; Shujuan; Fan; Baoli; Zhang; Dabiao; Liu; Shizeng; Zhang; Guozhong; Li; Aide

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated sand-belts refer to those formed along the oasis fringe,especially at the upwind location,due to the accumulation of sand blocked by farmland windbreak. In the 60 years since the foundation of new China,a lot of trees have been planted for desertification combating in northwest and north China,thus,accumulated sand-belts were formed at the upwind location. The formation and the ecological effects of the accumulated sand-belts along the oasis fringe is a new scientific concern. To study the formation causes of these belts in Hexi corridor,21 samples were selected,and the height / width of the belts,as well as the vegetation,soil,soil moisture and climatic factors were investigated. This paper analyzed the correlation between the height / width of the belts and the vegetation,soil,soil moisture and climatic factors using the methods of variance analysis,correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis. The results indicate that: the accumulated sand-belts take a trend of being high and wide in the east whereas low and narrow in the west,and most of the parts tend to be stable; the species on the belts are dominated by Tamarix austromongolica,the vegetation cover and the pure vegetation cover of different dominant species on the leeward slope of the accumulated sand-belts vary significantly. The canonical correlation analysis shows that: the height and width of accumulated sand-belt is the interaction of precipitation,distance to the sand source,leeward vegetation cover and annual average wind speed. Moreover,the height of accumulated sand-belts are negatively correlated to the soil moisture at the depth of 30- 50 cm,air humidity and leeward vegetation cover,and the width of the belts is also negatively correlated with the distance to the sand source. The ecological effects of the accumulated sand-belts are both positive( stopping sands from moving into farmland,protective role as an obstacle)and negative( when the belts decay and activate one day

  7. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  8. A life in corridors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Claus

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores international work related travel in knowledge organisations and present the result of a case study carried out in two Danish knowledge organisations. It argues that work in international knowledge organisations can not be understood separate from aeromobility organised though...

  9. Corridor of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Covering Beijing’s downtown area west of the Forbidden City,Xicheng District,the capital’s political and financial center,literally means western city. The 600 meter-wide and 1.7 km-long Financial Street of Beijing has gained promi-

  10. Corridors of time II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, A.

    2000-07-01

    An eclectic series of essays which, taken together, provide an historical account of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is presented. The story begins with the first realization of the commercial potential of the deposit in the 1880s, and carried forward to the present. The essays describe various aspects of the oil sands saga: the political developments leading to Alberta gaining jurisdiction over the deposit, other events, such as the Canadian Pacific Railway' land grants, and anecdotes about individuals who played a part in the historical evolution of the oil sands industry. Many of the stories come from the author's own experiences which go back some 35 years, when as a neophyte oilman he was involved with what turned out to be the Taber Oil Sands play in southern Alberta. Some of the essays recount experiences of Canadian oilmen abroad; they also describe how these experiences led to accelerated progress in the development of the industry in Canada. The concluding section consists of a series of vignettes about some twenty pioneers of the industry, many of them personally known to the author, whose contributions, small or large, have formed an indispensable part of the fascinating story of the Canadian oil industry in general, and the development of the Alberta oil sands into a world-class source of energy, in particular. tabs., figs. photos.

  11. The Speedy Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan's newly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif began his maiden trip to China on July 3.He met with Chinese President Xi Jinping, Premier LiKeqiang as well as financial and corporate leaders in a six-day trip that included visits to major industrial centers.How would the two neighbors seek to renew their friendship following

  12. On Communication of Myths in the Region of Tibetan, Qiang and Yi Corridor%“藏羌彝走廊”的神话交流初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢飞

    2015-01-01

    “藏羌彝走廊”是中国一个多民族聚居地带,这里有丰富的神话资源。既有“大洪水”“、兄妹成亲”等世界性母题,也有在走廊中被广泛采用的“磨盘”等象征体。走廊这个空间结构,促进了民族间的文化交流,这在采用相同象征体这一点上就可以看出。%Tibetan, Qiang and Yi Corridor is a habitat for multiple ethnic groups, with abundant mytholog⁃ical resources. A large variety of topics are present in their mythology, including the universally preva⁃lent flooding, marriage between brothers and sisters, as well as the symbol“millstones, well-known in this re⁃gion. The corridor promotes communication between these ethnic groups, which can be exempli⁃fied by the fact that the same symbol is shared by them.

  13. Comparison of in situ observations of air traffic emission signatures in the North Atlantic flight corridor with simulations using a Gaussian plume model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, P.; Schlager, H.; Schulte, P.; Schumann, U.; Ziereis, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Hagen, D.; Whitefield, P. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Lab. for Cloud and Aerosol Science

    1997-12-31

    Focussed aircraft measurements including NO, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and aerosols (CN) have been carried out over the Eastern North Atlantic as part of the POLINAT (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) project to search for small and large scale signals of air traffic emissions in the corridor region. Here, the experimental data measured at cruising altitudes on November, 6, 1994 close to peak traffic hours are considered. Observed peak concentrations in small scale NO{sub x} spikes exceed background level of about 50 pptv by up to two orders of magnitude. The measured NO{sub x} concentration field is compared with simulations obtained with a plume dispersion model using collected air traffic data and wind measurements. Additionally, the measured and calculated NO/NO{sub x} ratios are considered. The comparison with the model shows that the observed (multiple-)peaks can be understood as a superposition of several aircraft plumes with ages up to 3 hours. (author) 12 refs.

  14. Evaluación de la capacidad ferroviaria del corredor Bogotá – Belencito/An Assessment of Railway Capacity of Corridor Bogotá – Belencito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Márquez Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplican modelos analíticos para evaluar cuatro tipos de capacidad ferroviaria en siete tramos del corredor Bogotá - Belencito. Se identifica el cantón crítico de la red ferroviaria, lo mismo que el tramo de mayor capacidad. Se analiza la capacidad disponible para el tren de cercanías de Bogotá y para un tren de pasajeros entre Tunja y Sogamoso, dadas las condiciones actuales de operación. Se hace un análisis de sensibilidad de la capacidad con respecto a la velocidad de operación y la distancia entre estaciones. Por último, se presentan recomendaciones para aumentar la capacidad ferroviaria del corredorAnalytical models are applied to evaluate four types of railway capacity in seven sections of the corridor Bogotá – Belencito. The critical canton of the railway network is identified, and the higher capacity segment. Given the current operating conditions, we analyzed the available capacity of Bogota’s commuter train and a passenger train between Tunja and Sogamoso. A sensitivity analysis of capacity is done about the operating speed and distance between stations and we then present recommendations to increase railway capacity in the corridor.

  15. Significance and Countermeasures of CIMB Economic Corridor Construction%浅析中印缅孟经济走廊建设的意义及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿磊

    2013-01-01

    During the period 2013 May Li Keqiang prime minister’s visit to India,China and India initiative construction of CIMB economic corridor,the two big markets of China and India closer connection.In the framework of the existing CIMB Regional Economic Cooperation Forum,put forward and construction of CIMB economic corridor,will undoubtedly further promote the development of the western region and the southwest border area economic development,and make positive contributions to the formation and development of economic cooperation between China,South Asia,Southeast Asia a greater range of.%2013年5月李克强总理访问印度期间,中印共同倡议建设中印缅孟经济走廊,推动中印两个大市场更紧密连接。在已有的中印缅孟区域经济合作论坛的框架下,中印缅孟经济走廊的提出和建设,无疑将更好地推动西部大开发和西南边境地区的经济发展,为中国、南亚、东南亚更大范围经济合作的形成和发展做出积极贡献。

  16. A landscape perspective of the stream corridor invasion and habitat characteristics of an exotic (Dioscorea oppositifolia) in a pristine watershed in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.R.; Middleton, B.; Gibson, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of exotics across riparian landscapes is not uniform, and research elaborating the environmental constraints and dispersal behavior that underlie these patterns of distribution is warranted. This study examined the spatial distribution, growth patterns, and habitat constraints of populations of the invasive Dioscorea oppositifolia in a forested stream corridor of a tributary of Drury Creek in Giant City State Park, IL. The distribution of D. oppositifolia was determined at the watershed scale mainly by floodplain structure and connectivity. Populations of D. oppositifolia were confined to the floodplain, with overbank flooding from the stream. Dioscorea oppositifolia probably originates in disturbed areas upstream of natural corridors, and subsequently, the species disperses downstream into pristine canyons or ravines via bulbils dispersing in the water. In Giant City State Park, populations of D. oppositifolia were distributed on the floodplain across broad gradients of soil texture, light, slope, and potential radiation. The study also examined the longevity of bulbils in various micro-environments to illuminate strategies for the management of the species in invaded watersheds. After 1 year, the highest percentages of bulbils were viable under leaves, and much lower percentages were viable over leaves, in soil, and in the creek (76.0??6.8, 21.2??9.6, 21.6??3.6, and 5.2??5.2%), respectively. This study suggests that management procedures that reduce leaf litter on the forest floor (e.g., prescribed burning) could reduce the number of bulbils of D. oppositifolia stored in the watershed. ?? Springer 2006.

  17. 3-D simulation of transient flow patterns in a corridor-shaped air-cushion surge chamber based on computational fluid dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Lin-sheng; CHENG Yong-guang; ZHOU Da-qing

    2013-01-01

    The 3-D characteristics of the water-air flow patterns in a corridor-shaped air-cushion surge chamber during hydraulic transients need to be considered in the shape optimization.To verify the reliability of the water-air two-phase model,namely,the volume of fluid model,the process of charging water into a closed air chamber is successfully simulated.Using the model,the 3-D flow characteristics under the load rejection and acceptance conditions within the air-cushion surge chamber of a specific hydropower station are studied.The flee surface waves,the flow patterns,and the pressure changes during the surge wave process are analyzed in detail.The longitudinal flow of water in the long corridor-shaped surge chamber is similar to the open channel flow with respect to the wave propagation,reflection and superposition characteristics.The lumped parameters of the 3-D numerical simulation agree with the results of a 1-D calculation of hydraulic transients in the whole water conveying system,which validates the 3-D method.The 3-D flow structures obtained can be applied to the shape optimization of the chamber.

  18. 新技术环境下图书馆信息廊道构建的思考%Considerations about the Construction of Library Information Corridor in the New Technology Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娅娟

    2015-01-01

    阐述了图书馆信息廊道的概念、价值及功能,探讨了大数据时代利用新技术构建图书馆信息廊道,保障图书馆信息资源顺畅流通和高效利用的重要性.%This paper expounds the concept, value and function of library information corridor, probes into the importance of constructing the library information corridor by using the new technology to secure the smooth circulation and efficient use of library's information resources in the big data era.

  19. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  20. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  1. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  2. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  3. Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having < 5 species and species occurring at < 5 sites; and another that eliminated sites having < 10 species and species occurring at < 10 sites. Cluster analysis was performed on sites based on species assemblage similarity, and a separate analysis was performed on species based on CCA loadings. Results: The CCA results for the two versions of the data set were qualitatively the same. The dominant environmental axis contrasted assemblages and sites associated with blackwater vs. clearwater conditions. Longitudinal position on the Casiquiare River was correlated (r2 = 0.33) with CCA axis-1 scores, reflecting clearwater conditions nearer to its origin

  4. 新疆车尔臣河绿色走廊河湖湿地变化及原因分析%Change and Causes of the River-lake Marshes along the Green Corridor at the Lower Reaches of the Qarqan River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 曾庆伟; 周会珍; 汪爱华; 刘畅; 迟耀斌; 王智勇

    2012-01-01

    River green corridor is a narrow barrier region along an inland river in arid region,it has two remarkable characteristics,one is that the soil moisture content in the corridor is higher than that in surrounding desert,and the other is that the landscape types are quite different from those in around environment.As an important landscape type in river green corridor in arid region in northwest China,marsh plays an important role in climatic regulation,water conservation and purification,maintenance of biological diversity,etc.The Qarqan River has the highest annual runoff volume in the southeast Tarim Basin and maintains the entironment of the green corridors in the east Taklimakan Desert and along the Tarim River.Because of its dramatic change,the river-lake marsh change in the green corridor along the Qarqan River attracts more and more attentions in recent years.So we monitored the dynamic change of the river-lake marshes using multispectral RS images from different satellites,such as Beijing-1,HJ,CBERS-2 and Landsat TM during the period from 2000 to 2010.The results show that the area of the river-lake marshes was enlarged at first,then it was reduced and followed by enlargement again since the year of 2000,and the monthly variation was also distinct in 2010.The monitoring area was 141 km2 in the year of 2005,and it was enlarged to 393 km2 in the year of 2010.Moreover,the meteorological,social and economic data,such as annual temperature,annual precipitation,annual cultivated land area and annual GDP in Ruoqiang County and Qiemo County in recent 50 years,were analyzed,and the correlations among the annual runoff volume of the Qarqan River and these factors were computed using quantitative analysis.The quantitative analysis was combined with the statistic data of glacier change in the Muztag Mountain during the period from 2000 to 2010 after analyzing the RS data and the water conservancy policy of Xinjiang government at all levels.The main causes resulting in

  5. An analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in counties located along road and railway corridors in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Silva Goncalves Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is increasing in Latin America, especially in Brazil, where 256,587 cases were confirmed in the last decade. Methods This study used a Bayesian model to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of ACL cases between 2000 and 2009 in 61 counties of State of Maranhão located along the three main road and railway corridors. Results During the study period, 13,818 cases of ACL were recorded. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of ACL in the ten study years. The recorded incidence rate ranged from 7.36 to 241.45 per 100,000 inhabitants. The relative risk increased in 77% of the counties, decreased in 18% and was maintained in only five counties. Conclusions Although there was a decreased incidence of the disease, ACL was present in all of the examined municipalities, thus maintaining the risk of contracting this illness.

  6. Ecological function regionalization of fluvial corridor landscapes and measures for ecological regeneration in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,Xinjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are currently one of the main regions of ecological restoration in the arid areas of western China.Using the principles and method of landscape ecology,this study has chosen the fluvial corridor landscape in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,and discusses the region’s ecologically functional regionalization system and issues related to its practical classification.On this basis the corresponding regionalizing principles and standards were developed which were used to qualitatively divide the three main landscapes as the ecologically functional areas in the drainage basin.The paper has also analyzed the characteristic of the study areas,and has put forward the measures for its ecological restoration.

  7. Numerical Simulation of the Fire Smoke Movement in the College Dormitory Corridor%高校宿舍走廊火灾烟气运动的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇金; 许秦坤; 李仕雄

    2013-01-01

    建立了一个简化的高校宿舍走廊模型,采用美国国家标准和技术研究院(NIST)开发的FDS模拟软件对宿舍进行火灾模拟,得出了烟气温度、一氧化碳浓度以及能见度等在走廊的变化规律:当火源热释放速率为1 500 kW时,走廊内高度越高,烟气温度和CO浓度(体积分数)越高,可见度越低;着火房间近端和靠近走廊尽头的隔墙处的危险性要大于走廊的中段处.研究结果可为高校宿舍火灾烟气的有效控制、人员疏散、火灾扑救提供理论依据.%This paper built a simplified model of college dormitory corridor. The FDS software developed by the U. S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was used to fire simulation of dormitory , and obtained the variation of the gas temperature, carbon monoxide concentration, visibility and so on in the corridor, that is when the fire source heat release rate is 1500 KW, The higher the corridor height is, the highter the gas temperature and CO concentration is, the lower the visibility is; the proximal of fire room and close to the end of the corridor are more risk than the middle of the corridor. These laws provide some theoretical basis for the effective control of the college dormitory fire smoke, evacuation, and fire fighting.

  8. Immobility time during the forced swimming test predicts sensitivity to amitriptyline, whereas traveled distance in the circular corridor indicates resistance to treatment in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Serrano, Ana G; Zaldívar-Rae, Jaime; Salgado, Humberto; Pineda, Juan C

    2015-03-25

    Among the main issues in the pharmacological treatment of depression are the wide variation in response to antidepressants among individual patients and the lack of indexes that allow prediction of which drug will be effective in a particular case. We evaluated whether differential sensitivity to amitriptyline is related to dichotomous categorization of individuals on the basis of their behavioral responses to two common paradigms used to evaluate the potential of tricyclic drugs as antidepressants. Hence, we categorized a cohort of 38 female rats on the basis of their immobility time in the conditioning phase of the forced swimming test [FST; high immobility (HI) vs. low immobility (LI) rats] and their locomotor behavior in the circular corridor test [high locomotor response (HR) vs. low locomotor response (LR) rats]. We subjected the rodents to the FST while under the influence of vehicle (n=20) or amitriptyline (15 mg/kg; n=18). We found no statistical evidence of dependence between categorizations of rats on the basis of their behavior in the FST and circular corridor test. Rats categorized as HI/LI and HR/LR significantly differed in their sensitivity/resistance to amitriptyline, as evidenced by changes (or lack thereof) in their immobility time, climbing time, and swimming time during the FST. These results confirm that different behavioral styles among rats are linked to differential sensitivity/resistance to antidepressants. However, we specifically found that categorizing rats as HI/LI better reflected sensitivity to amitriptyline, whereas categorizing them as HR/LR better revealed resistance to the drug. These differential responses should be considered in experimental approaches.

  9. Resetting Biological Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  10. Biology is simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  11. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  12. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  13. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  14. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  15. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  16. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  17. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  18. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  19. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  20. Researches on Designing Technology of Animal Corridor in Urban Nature Reserve%城市自然保护区动物廊道构建技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶有华; 孙红斌; 林石狮; 夏熳璐; 王伟; 陈冰

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of cities, the natural eco-system has been badly hit, the urban nature reserves are being squeezed and interference, and the urban landscape is severely fragmented and patchy, resulting in the ecological risk increased, so to build an animal corridor is a key point to protect the integrity and continuity of the city nature reserve. Shenzhen is the strength of our highly urbanized areas, nature reserves in the city are being squeezed and the strong impact of urban construction. Urban nature reserves are disturbance and fragmentation, habitat also suffered varying degrees of damage, and the situation of biodiversity conservation is extremely serious. In this study, the Dapeng Peninsula nature reserve was taken as a case to explore the construction techniques of animal corridor in urban nature reserve, hoping to give an experience for the construction of animal corridor in urban nature reserves and the biodiversity conservation. The construction technology for animal corridor in Dapeng Peninsula Nature Reserve was carried out through field investigation, data analysis, expert advice and GIS analysis and other means. Results showed that, wildlife resources are more abundant in Dapeng Peninsula, with an approximately of 61 rare, endangered and protection animals. Combined with the actual situation of animal recovery in Dapeng Peninsula Nature Reserve, the principles of animal corridor restoration was determined, including the characteristics of the ecosystem, whether animals need a new physical channel, the extent of the protected animals, nature and ornamental characteristics, and consequently to determine the recovery object of amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Combined with domestic and international theoretical framework of corridor, three restoration types of animal corridor (landscape type, linear type and a stepping stone to type), corresponding to species, and its habitat were proposed for Dapeng Peninsula nature reserve. The restore

  1. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  2. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  3. Chemical Biology is.....

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  4. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  5. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  6. Biological Individuality of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  7. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  8. Chemical space and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M

    2004-12-16

    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  9. Polythiophenes in biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Prakash; Ghosh, Koushik; Martinez, Jennifer S; Rocha, Reginaldo C

    2014-01-01

    Polythiophene and its derivatives have shown tremendous potential for interfacing electrically conducting polymers with biological applications. These semiconducting organic polymers are relatively soft, conduct electrons and ions, have low cytotoxicity, and can undergo facile chemical modifications. In addition, the reduction in electrical impedance of electrodes coated with polythiophenes may prove to be invaluable for a stable and permanent connection between devices and biological tissues. This review article focuses on the synthesis and some key applications of polythiophenes in multidisciplinary areas at the interface with biology. These polymers have shown tremendous potential in biological applications such as diagnostics, therapy, drug delivery, imaging, implant devices and artificial organs.

  10. Temporal and spatial variations of patches, corridors and matrix in humid soil (mallín in the mid-west of the province of Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gandullo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural processes, like human activities, change the landscape. This reality is somehow related to humid soils (mallines in Patagonia. The mallines are important natural ecosystems that provide forage to extensive animal husbandry. They represent 4 of the Patagonic surface. The wet and dry periods modify the hydrologic dynamics of the mallín, producing an effect on the evolution of patches, corridors and matrix, which worsens with the anthropic activity. In a temporal sequence, the habitat fragmentation can be observed, i.e. in the variation and size of the number of patches, their shape, connectivity and isolation, which together with other factors affect the numerous ecological processes. Knowledge of the temporal and spatial dynamics of the patches, corridors and matrix between wet and dry periods in humid soils allows for the planning of the use of the vegetation resources, since the spatial standards strongly control their movements, flows and changes.

  11. A Comparative Study on Religions in Tibetan-Yi Corridor in the View of Sociology%藏彝走廊宗教社会学比较研究刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪东

    2012-01-01

    西南地区藏彝走廊是中国三大民族走廊之一。着眼藏彝走廊的大区域,针对其社会文化和生态环境特征以及多民族、多宗教状况,可以运用宗教社会学的相关理论,从宗教的起因、宗教性与意义系统、宗教与社会秩序等方面展开对多元宗教现象的比较研究。%There’re three main corridors of nationality in China,the Tibetan-Yi Corridor is one of them.Many minority groups are living in the Tibetan-Yi Corridor,and each of them has its own religion and culture.Based on the features of society and environment and the situation of diverse ethnics and religions,we can make a comparative study on diverse religions,from the origin of religion,the natures of religion,the meaning of religions and the relations between religions and social order,and other related aspects.

  12. Biology Library Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  13. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumann, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  14. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  15. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  16. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  17. Introduction to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, F.J.; Hornberg, J.J.; Boogerd, F.C.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    The developments in the molecular biosciences have made possible a shift to combined molecular and system-level approaches to biological research under the name of Systems Biology. It integrates many types of molecular knowledge, which can best be achieved by the synergistic use of models and experi

  18. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  19. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  20. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  1. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  2. Diversity of foam producing nocardioform actinomycetes isolated from biological foam from activated sludge plants in Comunidad Valenciana; Diversidad de actinomicetos nocardioformes productores de espumas biologicas aislados de plantas depuradoras de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, A.; Alonso, J.L.; Cuesta, G.

    2009-07-01

    The formation of biological foams in activated sludge systems is one of the most important problems of solid separation in wastewater treatment plants. Nocardioform actinomycetes are the most important filamentous bacteria responsible of foam formation. This group of microorganisms has hydrophobic cellular surfaces due to the mycolic acids. These foams interfere in wastewater treatment process because retain many suspended solids, block conductions and produce overflowing in the digesters and corridors. To identify correctly the nocardioform actinomycetes we have to do poli phasic taxonomy that includes 16S rDNA sequences analysis, determinate several chemo taxonomic markers and some phenotypic tests. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Ecological corridors as an instrument for the desfragmentation of tropical forests Corredores ecológicos como ferramenta para a desfragmentação de florestas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sícoli Seoane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The expansion of the human land use leads to a severe fragmentation of the natural habitats. Biological corridors may facilitate the movement of organisms among habitat patches and have been frequently adopted as a tool to conserve and restore biodiversity. Metapopulation theory gives the theoretical starting point for the actual biological corridors studies, which are still in their infancy. There are not yet a solid scientific knowledge to recommend the use of biological corridors as a tool in conservation biology. Nevertheless, the effects of forest fragmentation are so severe that the planning and executing of strategies to attenuate it are justifiable, even though research results demonstrating its effectiveness and benefits are not  available.

  1. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  2. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  3. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  4. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  5. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  6. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment......The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  7. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    example of biological design. We investigated the architecture of A. simplex and found that an advanced hierarchical biomineralized structure acts as the interface between soft musculature and a stiff substrate, thus securing underwater attachment. In bone, the mechanical properties of the material......, and the nanoscale response of bone in compression. Lastly, a framework for the investigation of biological design principles has been developed. The framework combines parametric modeling, multi-material 3D-printing, and direct mechanical testing to efficiently screen large parameter spaces of biological design. We......Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...

  8. [Systems biology of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  9. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  10. Nestedness across biological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  11. Biological Parameters of Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-09-01

    zone between no effect and gross injury or death . For example, the pilot who survives an aircraft crash, but who is injured or unconscious so that he...Biological effects were limited to one incidence of bradycardia (116 t36 t and three instances of premature ventricular contractions. However. subjeCtiY" I...R.F.Chandler INTRODUCTION -Investigation of the biological effects of abrupt acceleration (impact) was stimulated by the advent of technical advances

  12. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  13. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... field. back to top What biological products does FDA regulate? The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research ( ...

  14. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  15. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  16. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impact on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1991 survey. Topical report, June 1991--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted in June 1991 at the Mill Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. One pipeline had been installed through the wetland in 1966, and another was scheduled to be installed later in 1991. Data were collected along the existing pipeline ROW and also along the planned ROW for use as baseline data in future studies. Four separate communities were surveyed. A scrub-shrub wetland and a forested wetland were sampled along the existing ROW where the planned pipeline was to be installed. A mixed vegetation community was sampled along the existing ROW, west of where the planned pipeline would joint the ROW. A marsh community was sampled along the route of the planned pipeline. All plant species found on the ROW of the scrub-shrub community were also present in the adjacent natural areas. The vegetation on the ROW of the forested wetland community also consisted mostly of species found in the adjacent natural areas. In the mixed vegetation community, a small drainage channel present on the ROW, possibly resulting from the pipeline construction, provided habitat for a number of obligate species not found in other areas of this community. Differences noted among different areas of this community were also attributed to slight variations in elevation.

  17. Brand Image-building History of the Corridor in Western Liaoning%辽西历史走廊品牌形象塑造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲玉镜; 邹本涛

    2011-01-01

    辽西历史走廊品牌形象塑造是借鉴管理学、营销学的商品品牌和企业品牌形象原理。用于地域文化挖掘、创造的理论研究和实践过程。塑造辽西历史走廊品牌形象可以提升文化软实力,实现与周边区域的竞合,保护文化遗产,为区域发展提供不竭动力。辽西历史走廊品牌形象塑造应坚持系统性、全员化、统一性、特色性和情感化原则。应采取的策略包括:组建团队、准确定位和系统操作等。%It's a sludy and practice processes which to mould a kind of brandname image for Liaoxi historic corridor by digging district culture through refer the braudname image principle of management and promote sales.It can promote cultural strength, realize competition-cooperation, protect cultural legacy bequest, so thai to offer strength for district's development.In the course of mould we sholdd hold the principles of system, whole total, united, characteristic and emotion.The strategy consist of building team,definiting direction and operation systematically,etc.

  18. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  19. 甘肃省河西走廊地区2011年蚊虫种类及虫媒病毒调查研究%Investigation of mosquitoes and arboviruses in Hexi Corridor of Gansu province, China in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查冰; 赵海; 梁国栋; 于德山; 付士红; 李国太; 吕志; 蒋建祥; 唐承军; 贾玉新; 董茂星

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查甘肃省河西走廊地区蚊虫种类及所携带虫媒病毒分布状况.方法 使用诱蚊灯于18:00至次日06:00进行蚊虫标本采集,分类鉴定后液氮保存并运送至实验室备检;通过组织培养法分离病毒,并对病毒分离物进行血清学和分子生物学鉴定;利用生物信息学技术对新分离病毒的序列进行分析,完成同源性和系统发生分析.结果 2011年8月在甘肃省河西走廊地区7个县(市)共采集到蚊虫标本3属6种24 028只,其中刺扰伊蚊最多,占采集总数的32.80%(7880/24 028),淡色库蚊占30.26% (7272/24 028);通过细胞培养分离到1株可以引起两种细胞(BHK-21和C6/36细胞)病变的病毒分离株(GS11-155);此外在32批蚊虫标本中检测到病毒(库蚊黄病毒、盖塔病毒、辽宁病毒)基因阳性,对其中11批核苷酸序列测定和分析发现,1批为蚊传黄病毒,3批为盖塔病毒,7批为辽宁病毒.结论 甘肃省河西走廊地区优势蚊种为刺扰伊蚊,且蚊虫携带多种虫媒病毒,包括蚊传黄病毒、盖塔病毒和辽宁病毒.%Objective To investigate the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of arboviruses carried by the mosquitoes in Hexi Corridor of Gansu province, China in 2011. Methods Mosquito samples were collected from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in the next day with UV lamps. After being identified, the samples were preserved in liquid nitrogen and then transported to a laboratory for examination. Viruses were isolated from the samples by tissue culture, and the virus isolates were identified by serological and molecular biological methods. Homology and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the nucleotide sequences of isolated viruses by bioinformatics. Results A total of 24 028 mosquitoes, belonging to 6 species and 3 genera, were collected in seven counties or cities along Hexi Corridor in August 2011. Among the collected mosquitoes, Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, accounting for 32

  20. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...