WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological control program

  1. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stanley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management

  2. The inception and evolution of a unique masters program in cancer biology, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Carolyn; Blancato, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (LCCC), Georgetown University Medical Center established a Masters Degree Program in Cancer Biology, Prevention and Control at UDC that is jointly administered and taught by UDC and LCCC faculty. The goal of the Masters Degree Program is to educate students as master-level cancer professionals capable of conducting research and service in cancer biology, prevention, and control or to further advance the education of students to pursue doctoral studies. The Program's unique nature is reflected in its philosophy "the best cancer prevention and control researchers are those with a sound understanding of cancer biology". This program is a full-time, 2-year, 36-credit degree in which students take half of their coursework at UDC and half of their coursework at LCCC. During the second year, students are required to conduct research either at LCCC or UDC. Unlike most cancer biology programs, this unique Program emphasizes both cancer biology and cancer outreach training.

  3. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  4. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  5. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The effect of temperature on the biology of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Phytoseiidae in applied biological control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catiane Dameda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Phytoseiidae is a natural enemy of Tetranychus urticae Koch (TSSM, a common pest in several cultures, especially in greenhouses. This research aimed to know the biological parameters of a strain of P. macropilis from Vale do Taquari, State of Rio Grande do Sul, feeding on TSSM at different temperatures. The study was initiated with 30 eggs individualized in arenas under the temperature of 20, 25 and 30 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 10%. The average length (T of each generation decreased with the increase of temperature, ranging from 25.71 days at 20°C to 11.14 days at 30°C. The net reproductive rate (Ro ranged from 45.47 at 20°C to 18.25 at 30°C; the innate capacity for increase (rm was 0.15 at 20°C, reaching 0.26 at 30°C and the finite increase rate (λ ranged from 1.41 to 1.82 females day-1 at 20 and 30°C, respectively. In the present study, it was observed that the strain of the evaluated predatory mite from mild climate of South Brazil, might present a good performance to control TSSM when exposed to a temperature range between 20 and 30°C.

  7. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  8. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  9. Commercializing Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  10. The NASA Space Biology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the research conducted under the auspices of the NASA Space Biology Program. The objectives of this Program include the determination of how gravity affects and how it has shaped life on earth, the use of gravity as a tool to investigate relevant biological questions, and obtaining an understanding of how near-weightlessness affects both plants and animals in order to enhance the capability to use and explore space. Several areas of current developmental research are discussed and the future focus of the Program is considered.

  11. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  12. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  13. Tree fruit IPM programs in the western United States: the challenge of enhancing biological control through intensive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The work of Stern and colleagues on integrated control has had long-lasting effects on development of IPM programs in orchard systems. Management systems based solely on pesticides have proven to be unstable, and the success of IPM systems in orchards has been driven by the conservation of natural ...

  14. An Exercise in Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, John; Duke, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…

  15. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in Argentina: Historical Review, Current Status, and Future Trends for Developing a Parasitoid Mass-Release Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Ovruski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina there are two tephritid fruit fly species of major economic and quarantine importance: the exotic Ceratitis capitata that originated from Southeast Africa and the native Anastrepha fraterculus. In recent years, the use of fruit fly parasitoids as biocontrol agents has received renewed attention. This increasing interest has recently led to the establishment of a program for the mass rearing of five million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata parasitoids per week in the BioPlanta San Juan facility, San Juan, Argentina. The first augmentative releases of D. longicaudata in Argentina are currently occurring on commercial fig crops in rural areas of San Juan as part of an integrated fruit fly management program on an area-wide basis. In this context, research is ongoing to assess the suitability of indigenous parasitoid species for successful mass rearing on larvae of either C. capitata or A. fraterculus. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical overview of the biological control of the fruit fly in Argentina, report on the strategies currently used in Argentina, present information on native parasitoids as potential biocontrol agents, and discuss the establishment of a long-term fruit fly biological control program, including augmentative and conservation modalities, in Argentina’s various fruit growing regions.

  16. Ecological Compatibility of GM Crops and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) crops pervade many modern cropping systems, and present challenges and opportunities for developing biologically-based pest management programs. Interactions between biological control agents (insect predators, parasitoids, and pathog...

  17. Frameworks for programming biological function through RNA parts and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Maung Nyan; Liang, Joe C; Smolke, Christina D

    2009-03-27

    One of the long-term goals of synthetic biology is to reliably engineer biological systems that perform human-defined functions. Currently, researchers face several scientific and technical challenges in designing and building biological systems, one of which is associated with our limited ability to access, transmit, and control molecular information through the design of functional biomolecules exhibiting novel properties. The fields of RNA biology and nucleic acid engineering, along with the tremendous interdisciplinary growth of synthetic biology, are fueling advances in the emerging field of RNA programming in living systems. Researchers are designing functional RNA molecules that exhibit increasingly complex functions and integrating these molecules into cellular circuits to program higher-level biological functions. The continued integration and growth of RNA design and synthetic biology presents exciting potential to transform how we interact with and program biology.

  18. Integer Programming Models for Computational Biology Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Lancia

    2004-01-01

    The recent years have seen an impressive increase in the use of Integer Programming models for the solution of optimization problems originating in Molecular Biology. In this survey, some of the most successful Integer Programming approaches are described, while a broad overview of application areas being is given in modern Computational Molecular Biology.

  19. Herbivory, Predation, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terence M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Authors describe a set of controlled ecosystems that can be used to demonstrate the effects of herbivory on the health and growth of a plant population and of predation on the growth of a primary consumer population. The system also shows the effectiveness of biological pest control measures in a dramatic way. The construction of the ecosystems is…

  20. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Kamareddine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.

  1. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology.

  2. Biological Sciences Division 1991 Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    AWARD PERIOD: May 1, 1990 - April 30, 1992 OBJECTIVE: To train undergraduate/graduate level candi- dates in an intensive program designed to teach ...and Hopkins, P.B., " Thermochemistry of Metal Ion Stabilized Peptide Helices," in preparation for submission to J. Am. Chem. Soc. 291 ANNUAL PROGESS

  3. Programming and engineering biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W

    2006-08-01

    Synthetic biology aims to build new functions in living organisms. Recent work has addressed the creation of synthetic epigenetic switches in mammalian cells and synthetic intracellular communication. Fundamentally new, and potentially scaleable, modes of gene regulation have been created that enable expansion of the scope of synthetic circuits. Increasingly sophisticated models of gene regulation that include stochastic effects are beginning to predict the behaviour of small synthetic networks. Overall, these advances suggest that a combination of molecular engineering and systems engineering should allow the creation of living matter capable of performing many useful and novel functions.

  4. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter.

  5. A Manual of Mosquito Control Projects and Committee Assignments for 4-H and Scouts Biology Class Projects, Organized Community Service Programs, and Individuals Interested in Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Richard A.

    The mosquito control projects presented in this manual were prepared from an educational viewpoint and are intended for use by students in 4-H and Scouts and as a supplement to high school and college biology course work. The major emphasis of the projects is on integrated pest management, an approach utilizing cost-effective control methods which…

  6. Optimal control computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, F.

    1992-01-01

    The solution of the optimal control problem, even with low order dynamical systems, can usually strain the analytical ability of most engineers. The understanding of this subject matter, therefore, would be greatly enhanced if a software package existed that could simulate simple generic problems. Surprisingly, despite a great abundance of commercially available control software, few, if any, address the part of optimal control in its most generic form. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to present a simple computer program that will perform simulations of optimal control problems that arise from the first necessary condition and the Pontryagin's maximum principle.

  7. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management s

  8. Lex genetica: the law and ethics of programming biological code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dan L

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering now allow the design of programmable biological artifacts. Such programming may include usage constraints that will alter the balance of ownership and control for biotechnology products. Similar changes have been analyzed in the context of digital content management systems, and while this previous work is useful in analyzing issues related to biological programming, the latter technology presents new conceptual problems that require more comprehensive evaluation of the interplay between law and technologically embedded values. In particular, the ability to embed contractual terms in technological artifacts now requires a re-examination of disclosure and consent in transactions involving such artifacts.

  9. Biological control and sustainable food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, J.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Bigler, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentati

  10. NASA Space Biology Program. Eighth annual symposium's program and abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, T. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The activities included five half days of presentations by space biology principal investigators, an evening of poster session presentations by research associates, and an afternoon session devoted to the Flight Experiments Program. Areas of discussion included the following: gravity receptor mechanisms; physiological effects of gravity, structural mass; fluid dynamics and metabolism; mechanisms of plant response; and the role of gravity in development.

  11. Japan sets up program for biological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-05-16

    Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

  12. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  13. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  14. The biological control of disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  15. A computer program for monitoring the biological treatment of waste waters (CDBAR); Programa informatico para el control de la depuracion biologica de aguas residuales (CDBAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bove Porta, J.; Milan Cabre, D.

    2001-07-01

    The problems, such as bulking, foaming, etc., involved in managing a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) employing an activated sludge biological process have a biochemical origin. Correcting them requires identifying the micro-organisms responsible for the pathology in question, whether the problems are due to there being too many or too few of these organisms. It is therefore necessary to have a good microscope and staff trained in identifying such micro-organisms. Never the less, to attain speed and efficiency, it is necessary to have more means. That is why the CDBAR project was carried out. This is a simple computer application that includes numerous photographs of microscopic organisms from samples taken in Spain and Portugal. Once the anomaly has been identified, the computer application it-self includes a program of corrective actions that will allow the biological reactor, the most important part of a WWTP, to function normally. Finally, a glossary has been prepared so that the meaning of any term can be looked up quickly and easily. (Author) 16 refs.

  16. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    of, and perhaps will not be tolerated in, manmade critical systems. Although this paper does not directly address questions of ethics associated...political, ethical , and moral issues associated with the use of autonomous systems in warfare will be debated long after the technology hurdles to...accessible discussion on the interplay of biochemistry, genetics and embryology in animal evolution; Wagner, 2005 describes biological concepts of

  17. Biological Control of Mosquitoes with Mermithids

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Mermithid nematodes parasitizing mosquitoes have substantial potential for vector control. Studies on the physiological ecology of Romanomermis culicivorax have defined some of the general requirements of mermithid nematodes and produced general guidelines for the experimental release of mermithids in biological control. Experimental field studies have established the biological control potential of R. culicivorax, but further development and ulilization of this parasite will require a substa...

  18. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  19. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  20. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

    1998-09-09

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  1. Perspective on BVDV control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, M Daniel; Newcomer, Benjamin W

    2015-06-01

    Programs for control and eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are often considered prudent when the expense of a control program within a specified time frame effectively prevents loss due to disease and the expense of control does not exceed the costs associated with infection. In some geographic areas, concerns about animal welfare or desires to reduce antibiotic usage may motivate BVDV control even when control programs are associated with a lack of financial return on investment. In other geographic areas, concerns about financial return on investment may be the key motivating factor in considering implementation of BVDV control programs. Past experiences indicate that systematic, well-coordinated control programs have a clear potential for success, while voluntary control programs in cultures of distributed decision-making often result in notable initial progress that ultimately ends in dissolution of efforts. Segmentation of the cattle industry into cow-calf producers, stocker/backgrounders, and feedlot operators amplifies the distribution of decision-making regarding control programs and may result in control measures for one industry segment that are associated with significant costs and limited rewards. Though the host range of BVDV extends well beyond cattle, multiple eradication programs that focus only on testing and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle have proven to be effective in various countries. While some individuals consider education of producers to be sufficient to stimulate eradication of BVDV, research surrounding the adoption of innovative health care procedures suggests that the process of adopting BVDV control programs has a social element. Collegial interactions and discussions may be crucial in facilitating the systematic implementation necessary to optimize the long-term success of control programs. Compulsory control programs may be considered efficient and effective in some regions; however, in a nation where

  2. Results of a survey of biological drug and device industries inspected by FDA under the Team Biologics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Steve; Gangi, Victor J; Johnson, Anne; Little, Jacqueline; Mendivil, Steven; Trott, Carolyn; Webber, Keith; Weinstein, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Product Quality Research Institute, in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration, conducted an anonymous, electronic survey of the biological products manufacturing industry inspected by Team Biologics, with emphasis in obtaining industry input on inspection and compliance aspects of program operations. Representatives from all of the product-specific manufacturing industries inspected under the Team Biologics Program responded to this survey (vaccines; fractionated plasma proteins and recombinant analogs; allergenics; therapeutics and in-vivo diagnostics; and in-vitro diagnostics, including blood grouping reagents). Data and written feedback was obtained regarding each firm's interactions and experiences of Team Biologics inspections at its facilities over the past three years. The three areas most impacted by Team Biologic inspections were "Production and Process Controls", "Failure Investigations" and "Facility / Equipment Controls". Overall assessment of the program was generally positive with 68% identifying a positive impact on the sites operations and 88% assessed the inspections as being conducted fairly. The findings and conclusions of this report will be utilized by the FDA to evaluate and further assess the impact of the Team Biologics Program and to implement any necessary changes. This report provides useful information to companies currently manufacturing licensed biologic products subject to Team Biologics inspections and also to those companies anticipating these inspections for future product manufacturing.

  3. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  4. Controlled ecological life support system - biological problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III (Editor); Macelroy, R. D. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The general processes and controls associated with two distinct experimental paradigms are examined. Specific areas for research related to biotic production (food production) and biotic decomposition (waste management) are explored. The workshop discussions were directed toward Elemental cycles and the biological factors that affect the transformations of nutrients into food, of food material into waste, and of waste into nutrients were discussed. To focus on biological issues, the discussion assumed that (1) food production would be by biological means (thus excluding chemical synthesis), (2) energy would not be a limiting factor, and (3) engineering capacity for composition and leak rate would be adequate.

  5. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  6. Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soesanto, L.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of Verticillium dahliae , the causal agent of wilt disease in many crops including potato, cotton, and olive, were investigated. Its biological control with Talaromyces flavus with or without additional Pseudomonas fluorescens was attempted. Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as a bioass

  7. Biological Control of Nematodes with Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of nematodes is receiving increased attention as environmental considerations with the use of nematicides have increased in importance and their high cost prohibits use on many crops. In addition, nematode resistant cultivars are not available for many crops and resistance that i...

  8. Biological control of aflatoxin contamination of crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ni YIN; Lei-yan YAN; Jin-hua JIANG; Zhong-hua MA

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins produced primarily by two closely related fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals and humans. Of many approaches investigated to manage aflatoxin contamination, biological control method has shown great promise. Numerous organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and nontoxigenic fungal strains of A.flavus and A. parasiticus, have been tested for their ability in controlling aflatoxin contamination. Great successes in reducing aflatoxin contamination have been achieved by application of nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in fields of cotton, peanut, maize and pistachio. The nontoxigenic strains applied to soil occupy the same niches as the natural occurring toxigenic strains. They, therefore, are capable of competing and displacing toxigenic strains. In this paper, we review recent development in biological control of aflatoxin contamination.

  9. THE ENHANCED BIOLOGY EDUCATION (EBE) PROGRAM AT DREXEL UNIVERSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the Enhanced Biology Education (EBE) program which is a successful innovated program developed in the USA. The program incorporates hand s-on experience with theoretical knowledge, focuses on the ability to apply wha t is learned and trains the students to work independently from the instructor.

  10. Department of Defense Biological Defense Program Needs for Strategic Biotechnology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    Command and Control 4 Bacteria /Rickettsia Viruses Toxins Anthrax Smallpox Botulinum Brucellosis Rift Valley Fever Ricin Cholera Crimean-Congo SEB Plague...structural biology − Establish research programs in aerobiological research, forensic genomics and certified forensic biological threat agent capability

  11. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community.

  12. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Biological Program Evaluation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a written evaluation of the biological program at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge conducted in July, 1992 by a regional management team. It outlines...

  13. An Audiovisual Program in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Sergey; Opel, William

    1978-01-01

    A subtopic of cell biology, the structure and function of cell membranes, has been developed as a series of seven self-instructional slide-tape units and tested in five medical schools. Organization of advisers, analysis and definition of objectives and content, and development and evaluation of scripts and storyboards are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  14. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussinesq M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerca volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related postivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.

  15. Salmonella control programs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Henrik C; Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-07-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems.

  16. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  17. Dynamic programming algorithms for biological sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, W R; Miller, W

    1992-01-01

    Efficient dynamic programming algorithms are available for a broad class of protein and DNA sequence comparison problems. These algorithms require computer time proportional to the product of the lengths of the two sequences being compared [O(N2)] but require memory space proportional only to the sum of these lengths [O(N)]. Although the requirement for O(N2) time limits use of the algorithms to the largest computers when searching protein and DNA sequence databases, many other applications of these algorithms, such as calculation of distances for evolutionary trees and comparison of a new sequence to a library of sequence profiles, are well within the capabilities of desktop computers. In particular, the results of library searches with rapid searching programs, such as FASTA or BLAST, should be confirmed by performing a rigorous optimal alignment. Whereas rapid methods do not overlook significant sequence similarities, FASTA limits the number of gaps that can be inserted into an alignment, so that a rigorous alignment may extend the alignment substantially in some cases. BLAST does not allow gaps in the local regions that it reports; a calculation that allows gaps is very likely to extend the alignment substantially. Although a Monte Carlo evaluation of the statistical significance of a similarity score with a rigorous algorithm is much slower than the heuristic approach used by the RDF2 program, the dynamic programming approach should take less than 1 hr on a 386-based PC or desktop Unix workstation. For descriptive purposes, we have limited our discussion to methods for calculating similarity scores and distances that use gap penalties of the form g = rk. Nevertheless, programs for the more general case (g = q+rk) are readily available. Versions of these programs that run either on Unix workstations, IBM-PC class computers, or the Macintosh can be obtained from either of the authors.

  18. BioBlocks: Programming Protocols in Biology Made Easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Irimia, Jesús; Pau, Iván; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2017-01-24

    The methods to execute biological experiments are evolving. Affordable fluid handling robots and on-demand biology enterprises are making automating entire experiments a reality. Automation offers the benefit of high-throughput experimentation, rapid prototyping, and improved reproducibility of results. However, learning to automate and codify experiments is a difficult task as it requires programming expertise. Here, we present a web-based visual development environment called BioBlocks for describing experimental protocols in biology. It is based on Google's Blockly and Scratch, and requires little or no experience in computer programming to automate the execution of experiments. The experiments can be specified, saved, modified, and shared between multiple users in an easy manner. BioBlocks is open-source and can be customized to execute protocols on local robotic platforms or remotely, that is, in the cloud. It aims to serve as a de facto open standard for programming protocols in Biology.

  19. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.

    2006-03-01

    This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began) and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production) and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in plant growth has

  20. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-D. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in

  1. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  2. Chemical Biology Strategies for Biofilm Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Givskov, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbes live as densely populated multicellular surface-attached biofilm communities embedded in self-generated, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs serve as a scaffold for cross-linking biofilm cells and support development of biofilm architecture and functions. Biofilms can have a clear negative impact on humans, where biofilms are a common denominator in many chronic diseases in which they prime development of destructive inflammatory conditions and the failure of our immune system to efficiently cope with them. Our current assortment of antimicrobial agents cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms. For industrial applications, the removal of biofilms within production machinery in the paper and hygienic food packaging industry, cooling water circuits, and drinking water manufacturing systems can be critical for the safety and efficacy of those processes. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process that involves microbial cell migration, cell-to-cell signaling and interactions, EPS synthesis, and cell-EPS interactions. Recent progress of fundamental biofilm research has shed light on novel chemical biology strategies for biofilm control. In this article, chemical biology strategies targeting the bacterial intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways will be discussed.

  3. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  4. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC's). Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This student manual provides the textual material for a unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's). Topic areas considered include: (1) flow patterns of water through RBC installations; (2) basic concepts (shaft and stage); (3) characteristics of biomass; (4) mechanical features (bearings, mechanical drive systems, and air drive systems); (5)…

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  6. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BY MEANS OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chemical herbicides are not allowed, if resistant weed species are present or in the integrated pest management against weeds with reduced herbicides doses and other non-chemical measures, but it has certain limitations and disadvantages.

  7. Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Sheng Zang

    Full Text Available Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

  8. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  9. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  10. Optically controlled collisions of biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin J.; Kishore, Rani; Mammen, Mathai; Helmerson, Kristian; Choi, Seok-Ki; Phillips, William D.; Whitesides, George M.

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a new assay in which two mesoscale particles are caused to collide using two independently controlled optical tweezers. This assay involves the measurement of the adhesion probability following a collision. Since the relative orientation, impact parameter (i.e., distance of closest approach), and collision velocity of the particles, as well as the components of the solution, are all under the user's control, this assay can mimic a wide range of biologically relevant collisions. We illustrate the utility of our assay by evaluating the adhesion probability of a single erythrocyte (red blood cell) to an influenza virus-coated microsphere, in the presence of sialic acid-bearing inhibitors of adhesion. This probability as a function of inhibitor concentration yields a measure of the effectiveness of the inhibitor for blocking viral adhesion. Most of the inhibition constants obtained using the tweezers agree well with those obtained from other techniques, although the inhibition constants for the best of the inhibitors were beyond the limited resolution of conventional assays. They were readily evaluated using our tweezers-based assay, however, and prove to be the most potent inhibitors of adhesion between influenza virus and erythrocytes ever measured. Further studies are underway to investigate the effect of collision velocity on the adhesion probability, with the eventual goal of understanding the various mechanisms of inhibition (direct competition for viral binding sites versus steric stabilization). Analysis of these data also provide evidence that the density of binding sites may be a crucial parameter in the application of this assay and polymeric inhibition in general.

  11. Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop C. van Lenteren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological control. Recent applications of access and benefit sharing principles have already made it difficult or impossible to collect and export natural enemies for biological control research in several countries. If such an approach is widely applied it would impede this very successful and environmentally safe pest management method based on the use of biological diversity. The International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants has, therefore, created the "Commission on Biological Control and Access and Benefit Sharing". This commission is carrying out national and international activities to make clear how a benefit sharing regime might seriously frustrate the future of biological control. In addition, the IOBC Commission members published information on current regulations and perceptions concerning exploration for natural enemies and drafted some 30 case studies selected to illustrate a variety of points relevant to access and benefit sharing. In this article, we summarize our concern about the effects of access and benefit sharing systems on the future of biological control.

  12. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  13. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  14. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  15. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  16. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  17. New Biologic Drug Tackles Hard-To-Control Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html New Biologic Drug Tackles Hard-to-Control Asthma Benralizumab significantly cuts respiratory attacks, two trials show ... drug reduces flare-ups in patients with severe asthma that is not controlled by steroid inhalers alone, ...

  18. Dynamical Systems and Control Theory Inspired by Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    in both bacterial and eukaryotic signaling pathways. A common theme in the systems biology literature is that certain systems whose output variables...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0282 DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND CONTROL THEORY INSPIRED BY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Eduardo Sontag RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY...Standard Form 298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND CONTROL THEORY INSPIRED BY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AFOSR FA9550-11-1-0247

  19. Parasitoids as biological control agents of thrips pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Hymenoptera, Ceranisus menes, Ceranisus americensis, biological controlThe thesis presented here is the result of a joint European Research project "Biological Control of Thrips Pests". Specific aims of the project were to collect, evaluate, mass p

  20. Biological control and nutrition: food for thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical pesticides are used frequently to combat arthropod pests that plague crops; however, these compounds come with potential risks to the environment and human health. Research efforts have focused on using natural agents as an alternative to these chemical insecticides. These biological contro...

  1. Biology and control of Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Peter; Aumeier, Pia; Ziegelmann, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    The ectoparasitic honey bee mite Varroa destructor was originally confined to the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana. After a shift to the new host Apis mellifera during the first half of the last century, the parasite dispersed world wide and is currently considered the major threat for apiculture. The damage caused by Varroosis is thought to be a crucial driver for the periodical colony losses in Europe and the USA and regular Varroa treatments are essential in these countries. Therefore, Varroa research not only deals with a fascinating host-parasite relationship but also has a responsibility to find sustainable solutions for the beekeeping. This review provides a survey of the current knowledge in the main fields of Varroa research including the biology of the mite, damage to the host, host tolerance, tolerance breeding and Varroa treatment. We first present a general view on the functional morphology and on the biology of the Varroa mite with special emphasis on host-parasite interactions during reproduction of the female mite. The pathology section describes host damage at the individual and colony level including the problem of transmission of secondary infections by the mite. Knowledge of both the biology and the pathology of Varroa mites is essential for understanding possible tolerance mechanisms in the honey bee host. We comment on the few examples of natural tolerance in A. mellifera and evaluate recent approaches to the selection of Varroa tolerant honey bees. Finally, an extensive listing and critical evaluation of chemical and biological methods of Varroa treatments is given. This compilation of present-day knowledge on Varroa honey bee interactions emphasizes that we are still far from a solution for Varroa infestation and that, therefore, further research on mite biology, tolerance breeding, and Varroa treatment is urgently needed.

  2. From biological to program efficacy: promoting dialogue among the research, policy, and program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most.

  3. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-08-13

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system.

  4. Programming biological models in Python using PySB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in which models are not only created using programs, they are programs. PySB draws on programmatic modeling concepts from little b and ProMot, the rule-based languages BioNetGen and Kappa and the growing library of Python numerical tools. Central to PySB is a library of macros encoding familiar biochemical actions such as binding, catalysis, and polymerization, making it possible to use a high-level, action-oriented vocabulary to construct detailed models. As Python programs, PySB models leverage tools and practices from the open-source software community, substantially advancing our ability to distribute and manage the work of testing biochemical hypotheses. We illustrate these ideas using new and previously published models of apoptosis.

  5. Controlling Cocaine. Supply Versus Demand Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    treatment or supply- control programs. For example, most drug prevention programs are administered to preteens , while cocaine use does not normally start...and Kandel, Murphy, and Karus (1985) for the typical ages of initiation for various drugs. Prevention programs attempt to convince preteens to abstain

  6. Encyrtid parasitoids of soft scale insects: biology, behavior, and their use in biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Tena, Alejandro

    2015-01-07

    Parasitoids of the hymenopterous family Encyrtidae are one of the most important groups of natural enemies of soft scale insects and have been used extensively in biological control. We summarize existing knowledge of the biology, ecology, and behavior of these parasitoids and how it relates to biological control. Soft scale stage/size and phenology are important determinants of host range and host utilization, which are key aspects in understanding how control by these parasitoids is exerted. Furthermore, the nutritional ecology of encyrtids and their physiological interactions with their hosts affect soft scale insect population dynamics. Lastly, the interactions among encyrtids, heteronomous parasitoids, and ants shape parasitoid species complexes and consequently have a direct impact on the biological control of soft scale insects.

  7. Project Summary: Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    relative high performance predictability currently associated with automated machines. Anyone who has walked a normally well behaved male dog in the...possibilities as well. Attitude control systems normally include proportional and integral control on sensed attitude, with damping and robustness provided...attacking predators. Some examples include red-wing black bird nest defense [1], meerkat predator mobbing [2], and predator identification in guppy schools

  8. Biological control of weeds release sites : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table of release sites of insects for biological control of invasive plants at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD). Insects were released on Kulm WMD to...

  9. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  10. Clinical laboratories, the select agent program, and biological surety (biosurety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Ross H; Demmin, Gretchen; Severson, Grant; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Trevino, Jorge; Kelly, John; Arrison, Jay; Christman, Joy

    2006-06-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has led to increased concerns over the availability of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT). Congress has implemented several public laws that have led to the development of federal regulations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture. The CDC regulation 42 CFR 73 has a direct impact on all clinical laboratories that may at some time identify BSAT in a clinical specimen. The Department of Defense has imposed a more stringent layer of regulation called biological surety (biosurety) on top of the requirements of 42 CFR 73 for military laboratories that possess BSAT. However,42 CFR 73 falls into the framework of biosurety. Both sets of regulations have four pillars (safety, physical security, agent account-ability, and personnel reliability) that are built on a foundation of training and covered by a roof of management (operations and plans).

  11. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen;

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising.......Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  12. Controls-structures-electromagnetics interaction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, William L.; Bailey, Marion C.; Belvin, Wendell K.; Williams, Jeffrey P.

    1987-01-01

    A technology development program is described involving Controls Structures Electromagnetics Interaction (CSEI) for large space structures. The CSEI program was developed as part of the continuing effort following the successful kinematic deployment and RF tests of the 15 meter Hoop/Column antenna. One lesson learned was the importance of making reflector surface adjustment after fabrication and deployment. Given are program objectives, ground based test configuration, Intelsat adaptive feed, reflector shape prediction model, control experiment concepts, master schedule, and Control Of Flexible Structures-II (COFS-II) baseline configuration.

  13. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  14. Diapause in Abrostola asclepiadis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) may make for an ineffective weed biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that are invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in develop...

  15. Fetal metabolic programming and epigenetic modifications: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookoian, Silvia; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Burgueño, Adriana L; Pirola, Carlos J

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the notion that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, both involving chromatin remodeling, contribute to fetal metabolic programming. We use a combination of gene-protein enrichment analysis resources along with functional annotations and protein interaction networks for an integrative approach to understanding the mechanisms underlying fetal metabolic programming. Systems biology approaches suggested that fetal adaptation to an impaired nutritional environment presumes profound changes in gene expression that involve regulation of tissue-specific patterns of methylated cytosine residues, modulation of the histone acetylation-deacetylation switch, cell differentiation, and stem cell pluripotency. The hypothalamus and the liver seem to be differently involved. In addition, new putative explanations have emerged about the question of whether in utero overnutrition modulates fetal metabolic programming in the same fashion as that of a maternal environment of undernutrition, suggesting that the mechanisms behind these two fetal nutritional imbalances are different. In conclusion, intrauterine growth restriction is most likely to be associated with the induction of persistent changes in tissue structure and functionality. Conversely, a maternal obesogenic environment is most probably associated with metabolic reprogramming of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as future risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), fatty liver, and insulin (INS) resistance.

  16. Optimal Control through Biologically-Inspired Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Transactions on Automatic Control 48, 988– 1001. Roumeliotis, S.I. and G.A. Bekey (2002). Distributed multi-robot localization. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...1999). Distributed covering by ant- robots using evaporating traces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 15(5), 918–933.

  17. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  18. Guided Synthesis of Control Programs Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, T.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    of abstraction required for synthesizing control programs from generated timed traces. Therefore it quickly becomes too detailed and complicated for automatic synthesis. To solve this problem we present a general way of adding guidance to a model by augmenting it with additional guidance variables and decorating......In this paper we address the problem of scheduling and synthesizing distributed control programs for a batch production plant. We use a timed automata model of the batch plant and the verification tool UPPAAL to solve the scheduling problem. The plant model aims at faithfully reflecting the level...... the transitions with extra guards. Applying this technique have made synthesis of control programs feasible for a plant producing as many as 60 batches. In comparison, we could only handle plants producing two batches without using guides. The synthesized control programs have been executed in a physical plant...

  19. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, Alan. S.; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  20. Biological control of invasive plant species: a reassessment for the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastedt, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    The science of finding, testing and releasing herbivores and pathogens to control invasive plant species has achieved a level of maturity and success that argues for continued and expanded use of this program. The practice, however, remains unpopular with some conservationists, invasion biologists, and stakeholders. The ecological and economic benefits of controlling densities of problematic plant species using biological control agents can be quantified, but the risks and net benefits of biological control programs are often derived from social or cultural rather than scientific criteria. Management of invasive plants is a 'wicked problem', and local outcomes to wicked problems have both positive and negative consequences differentially affecting various groups of stakeholders. The program has inherent uncertainties; inserting species into communities that are experiencing directional or even transformational changes can produce multiple outcomes due to context-specific factors that are further confounded by environmental change drivers. Despite these uncertainties, biological control could play a larger role in mitigation and adaptation strategies used to maintain biological diversity as well as contribute to human well-being by protecting food and fiber resources.

  1. Exogenous control of biological and ecological systems through evolutionary modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The controllability of network-like systems is a topical issue in ecology and biology. It relies on the ability to lead a system's behaviour towards the desired state through the appropriate handling of input variables. Up to now, controllability of networks is based on the permanent control of a set of driver nodes that can guide the system's dynamics. This assumption seems motivated by real-world networks observation, where a decentralized control is often applied only to part of the nodes. While in a previous paper I showed that ecological and biological networks can be efficaciously controlled from the inside, here I further introduce a new framework for network controllability based on the employment of exogenous controllers and evolutionary modelling, and provide an exemplification of its application.

  2. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  3. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  4. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  5. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  6. An interdepartmental Ph.D. program in computational biology and bioinformatics: the Yale perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Mark; Greenbaum, Dov; Cheung, Kei; Miller, Perry L

    2007-02-01

    Computational biology and bioinformatics (CBB), the terms often used interchangeably, represent a rapidly evolving biological discipline. With the clear potential for discovery and innovation, and the need to deal with the deluge of biological data, many academic institutions are committing significant resources to develop CBB research and training programs. Yale formally established an interdepartmental Ph.D. program in CBB in May 2003. This paper describes Yale's program, discussing the scope of the field, the program's goals and curriculum, as well as a number of issues that arose in implementing the program. (Further updated information is available from the program's website, www.cbb.yale.edu.)

  7. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  8. Implementation of integral feedback control in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somvanshi, Pramod R; Patel, Anilkumar K; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V

    2015-01-01

    Integral control design ensures that a key variable in a system is tightly maintained within acceptable levels. This approach has been widely used in engineering systems to ensure offset free operation in the presence of perturbations. Several biological systems employ such an integral control design to regulate cellular processes. An integral control design motif requires a negative feedback and an integrating process in the network loop. This review describes several biological systems, ranging from bacteria to higher organisms in which the presence of integral control principle has been hypothesized. The review highlights that in addition to the negative feedback, occurrence of zero-order kinetics in the process is a key element to realize the integral control strategy. Although the integral control motif is common to these systems, the mechanisms involved in achieving it are highly specific and can be incorporated at the level of signaling, metabolism, or at the phenotypic levels.

  9. Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-12-30

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  10. Citrus growers vary in their adoption of biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    In a spring 2010 survey, we investigated the characteristics that influenced whether California growers controlled major citrus pests with beneficial insects. We also performed statistical analysis of growers' reliance on Aphytus melinus, a predatory wasp, to control California red scale. The survey results suggest that growers with greater citrus acreage and more education are more likely to use biological control. Marketing outlets, ethnicity and primary information sources also influenced ...

  11. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    entomopathogenic taxa in the Phylum Ascomycota. Although these fungi have been traditionally regarded exclusively as pathogens of arthropods, recent studies have demonstrated that they occupy a great diversity of ecological niches. Entomopathogenic fungi are now known to be plant endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers, and plant growth promoters. These newly understood attributes provide possibilities to use fungi in multiple roles. In addition to arthropod pest control, some fungal species could simultaneously suppress plant pathogens and plant parasitic nematodes as well as promote plant growth. A greater understanding of fungal ecology is needed to define their roles in nature and evaluate their limitations in biological control. More efficient mass production, formulation and delivery systems must be devised to supply an ever increasing market. More testing under field conditions is required to identify effects of biotic and abiotic factors on efficacy and persistence. Lastly, greater attention must be paid to their use within integrated pest management programs; in particular, strategies that incorporate fungi in combination with arthropod predators and parasitoids need to be defined to ensure compatibility and maximize efficacy. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are potent MCAs. Substantial progress in research and application of EPNs has been made in the past decade. The number of target pests shown to be susceptible to EPNs has continued to increase. Advancements in this regard primarily have been made in soil habitats where EPNs are shielded from environmental extremes, but progress has also been made in use of nematodes in above-ground habitats owing to the development of improved protective formulations. Progress has also resulted from advancements in nematode production technology using both in vivo and in vitro systems; novel application methods such as distribution of infected host cadavers; and

  12. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  13. Assessment of programs in space biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past 30 or more years, the National Research Council Space Studies Board and its various committees have published hundreds of recommendations concerning life sciences research. Several particularly noteworthy themes appear consistently: (1) Balance - the need for a well-balanced research program in terms of ground versus flight, basic versus clinical, and internal versus extramural; (2) Excellence - because of the extremely limited number of flight opportunities (as well as their associated relative costs), the need for absolute excellence in the research that is conducted, in terms of topic, protocol, and investigator, and (3) Facilities - the single most important facility for life sciences research in space, an on-board, variable force centrifuge. In this first assessment report, the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine emphasizes that these long-standing themes remain as essential today as when first articulated. On the brink of the twenty-first century, the nation is contemplating the goal of human space exploration; consequently, the themes bear repeating. Each is a critical component of what will be necessary to successfully achieve such a goal.

  14. Chemical and Biological Defense Program Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    state public health systems, to expand existing biosurveillance efforts, and to fund research on medical countermeasures against potential bioterror...Detection System (JBSDS) • Joint Portal Shield • Biological Identification System (BIDS) • Dry Filter Units (DFUs) Table 2-3 Biological Defense...Detection System (BIDS) • Joint Portal Shield Network Sensor System • Automated biological remote detection and early warning capabilities

  15. Methylene Diphosphonate Chemical and Biological control of MDP complex

    CERN Document Server

    Aungurarat, A

    2000-01-01

    Technetium-9 sup 9 sup m MDP easy prepared from MDP kits which different sources such as OAP (In house), SIGMA. The resulting Tc 9 sup 9 sup m -MDP preparations were controlled in chemical and biological tests to compare the different results in these cases: radiochemical purity, the quantity of starting material and biodistribution result.

  16. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  17. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  18. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effectiv

  19. Integrating Biological Systems in the Process Dynamics and Control Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert S.; Doyle, Francis J.; Henson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the chemical engineering discipline motivates a re-evaluation of the process dynamics and control curriculum. A key requirement of future courses will be the introduction of theoretical concepts and application examples relevant to emerging areas, notably complex biological systems. We outline the critical concepts required to…

  20. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    for a control task, exemplified by a steam boiler.The same formalism is used to refine requirements to a functional design.Through a suitable transformation this is taken to an event andaction based formalism. Finally components in this design for a distributedarchitecture are transformed to occam-like programs....

  1. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts.

  2. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  3. On Feeling in Control: A Biological Theory for Individual Differences in Control Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn H.; Boone, Christophe; De Brabander, Bert

    2006-01-01

    This review aims to create a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the perception of control. Although, the personality trait locus of control, the most common measure of control perception, has traditionally been regarded as a product of social learning, it may have biological antecedents as well. It is suggested that control perception…

  4. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor.

  5. Epigenetics and Why Biological Networks are More Controllable than Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Adilson

    2013-03-01

    A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. In this talk, I will show that it is possible to exploit this same principle to control network behavior. This approach takes advantage of the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real networks, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible or the linear counterpart is not controllable. Applications show that this framework permits both reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure, which I will illustrate through various biological problems. I will also briefly review the progress our group has made over the past 5 years on related control of complex networks in non-biological domains.

  6. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  7. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  8. Biologically Inspired Self-Stabilizing Control for Bipedal Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosung Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent major advances in computational power and control algorithms, the stable and robust control of a bipedal robot is still a challenging issue due to the complexity and high nonlinearity of robot dynamics. To address the issue an efficient and powerful alternative based on a biologically inspired control framework employing neural oscillators is proposed and tested. In a numerical test the virtual force controller combined with the neural oscillator of a humanoid robot generated rhythmic control signals and stable bipedal locomotion when coupled with proper impedance components. The entrainment nature inherent to neural oscillators also achieved stable and robust walking even in the presence of unexpected disturbances, in that the centre of mass (COM was successfully kept in phase with the zero moment point (ZMP input trajectory. The efficiency of the proposed control scheme is discussed alongside simulation results.

  9. Ecological Complexity and the Success of Fungal Biological Control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy R. Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biological control agents against plant pathogens, especially those in soil, operate within physically, biologically, and spatially complex systems by means of a variety of trophic and nontrophic interspecific interactions. However, the biocontrol agents themselves are also subject to the same types of interactions, which may reduce or in some cases enhance their efficacy against target plant pathogens. Characterization of these ecologically complex systems is challenging, but a number of tools are available to help unravel this complexity. Several of these tools are described here, including the use of molecular biology to generate biocontrol agents with useful marker genes and then to quantify these agents in natural systems, epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy to observe their presence and activity in situ, and spatial statistics and computer simulation modeling to evaluate and predict these activities in heterogeneous soil habitats.

  10. Controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Maki K

    2007-08-30

    Humanitarian demining requires to accurately detect, locate and deactivate every single landmine and other buried mine-like objects as safely and as quickly as possible, and in the most non-invasive manner. The quality of landmine detection affects directly the efficiency and safety of this process. Most of the available methods to detect explosives and landmines are limited by their sensitivity and/or operational complexities. All landmines leak with time small amounts of their explosives that can be found on surrounding ground and plant life. Hence, explosive signatures represent the robust primary indicator of landmines. Accordingly, developing innovative technologies and efficient techniques to identify in real-time explosives residue in mined areas represents an attractive and promising approach. Biological and biologically inspired detection technology has the potential to compete with or be used in conjunction with other artificial technology to complement performance strengths. Biological systems are sensitive to many different scents concurrently, a property that has proven difficult to replicate artificially. Understanding biological systems presents unique opportunities for developing new capabilities through direct use of trained bio-systems, integration of living and non-living components, or inspiring new design by mimicking biological capabilities. It is expected that controlled bio-systems, biotechnology and microbial techniques will contribute to the advancement of mine detection and other application domains. This paper provides directions, evaluation and analysis on the progress of controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection. It introduces and discusses different approaches developed, underlining their relative advantages and limitations, and highlighting trends, safety and ecology concern, and possible future directions.

  11. Robust Control Design via Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.

  12. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  13. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautorus, T E; Townsley, P M

    1983-02-01

    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not only provided a significant degree of protection from C. olivaceum, but also increased yields of Agaricus bisporus.

  14. Decentralized control of ecological and biological networks through Evolutionary Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Network Control (ENC has been recently introduced to allow the control of any kind of ecological and biological networks, with an arbitrary number of nodes and links, acting from inside and/or outside. To date, ENC has been applied using a centralized approach where an arbitrary number of network nodes and links could be tamed. This approach has shown to be effective in the control of ecological and biological networks. However a decentralized control, where only one node and the correspondent input/output links are controlled, could be more economic from a computational viewpoint, in particular when the network is very large (i.e. big data. In this view, ENC is upgraded here to realize the decentralized control of ecological and biological nets.

  15. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses.

  16. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  17. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the controller are designed using a computing-with-words approach called Fuzzy-Lyapunov synthesis to improve the stability and robustness of an adaptive fuzzy controller. Computing-with-words provides a powerful tool to manipulate numbers and symbols, like words in a natural language.

  18. Specifying Logic Programs in Controlled Natural Language

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, N; Fuchs, Norbert E.; Schwitter, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    Writing specifications for computer programs is not easy since one has to take into account the disparate conceptual worlds of the application domain and of software development. To bridge this conceptual gap we propose controlled natural language as a declarative and application-specific specification language. Controlled natural language is a subset of natural language that can be accurately and efficiently processed by a computer, but is expressive enough to allow natural usage by non-specialists. Specifications in controlled natural language are automatically translated into Prolog clauses, hence become formal and executable. The translation uses a definite clause grammar (DCG) enhanced by feature structures. Inter-text references of the specification, e.g. anaphora, are resolved with the help of discourse representation theory (DRT). The generated Prolog clauses are added to a knowledge base. We have implemented a prototypical specification system that successfully processes the specification of a simple...

  19. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  1. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  2. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  3. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  4. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  5. Synthetic biology and regulatory networks: where metabolic systems biology meets control engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Murabito, Ettore; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic pathways can be engineered to maximize the synthesis of various products of interest. With the advent of computational systems biology, this endeavour is usually carried out through in silico theoretical studies with the aim to guide and complement further in vitro and in vivo experimental efforts. Clearly, what counts is the result in vivo, not only in terms of maximal productivity but also robustness against environmental perturbations. Engineering an organism towards an increased production flux, however, often compromises that robustness. In this contribution, we review and investigate how various analytical approaches used in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are related to concepts developed by systems and control engineering. While trade-offs between production optimality and cellular robustness have already been studied diagnostically and statically, the dynamics also matter. Integration of the dynamic design aspects of control engineering with the more diagnostic aspects of metabolic, hierarchical control and regulation analysis is leading to the new, conceptual and operational framework required for the design of robust and productive dynamic pathways.

  6. Study on Biological Control Of Rhizoctonia solani via Trichoderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Strain T02-25 was selected from approximately 30 rhizosphere isolates of Trichoderma species isolated from roots of crops. Its biological activity against Rhizoctonia solani was determined for the control efficacy to pepper seedling blight caused by R. solani in the field. The assay methods were treating R. solani sclerotia by Trichoderma conidial suspension (106cfu ml-1) and scattering Thichoderma rice bran over the pepper root medium. The results showed that T02-25 was active against R. solani in both ways, and its control efficacy was 82.7% and 78.0%, respectively. In addition to comparison of the efficacy of the two application methods, the relationship of different factors in the control efficacy of Trichoderma against R. solani was discussed.

  7. NASA Space Biology Program: 9th Annual Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered include plant and animal gravity receptors and transduction; the role of gravity in growth and development of plants and animals; biological support structures and the role of calcium; mechanisms and responses of gravity sensitive systems; and mechanisms of plant responses to gravity.

  8. The Russian biological weapons program: vanished or disappeared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Dany; Wolfson, Ze'ev

    2004-01-01

    The legacy and arsenal of biological weapons Russia inherited from USSR in 1991 became a lingering unsolved issue, in terms of a prime strategic arm that ought to be eliminated, advisably, in accordance with the Biological Weapons Convention Russia is committed to, and considering further undertakings and declarations made by the Russian regime. Indeed, that inheritance was created by USSR as a powerful, highly sophisticated component of utmost importance within the Soviet military paradigm, based on a wide spectrum of virulent, stabilized pathogens and toxins plus delivery systems. Moreover, remarkably advanced biotechnologies were thus applied to procure stockpiles of military-grade pathogens and toxins. Yet, an intriguing debate aroused with regard to the extent of the weaponized biological inventory accumulated by USSR, as well as the in effect attitude of Russia towards perpetuating or wiping out that inheritance. It turned out to form a far reaching and challenging complexity, both strategically and scientifically. The present study concentrates on the strategic as well as scientific spheres shaping that overall issue at large, attempting to thoroughly analyze it through an innovative methodology. One main conclusion thereby reached at is that the Russian military still poses a potential menance, in terms of both stockpiled, probably deployable biological weapons, and prevailing production capacities.

  9. Using counterfactuals to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of controlling biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnachie, Matthew M; van Wilgen, Brian W; Ferraro, Paul J; Forsyth, Aurelia T; Richardson, David M; Gaertner, Mirijam; Cowling, Richard M

    2016-03-01

    Prioritizing limited conservation funds for controlling biological invasions requires accurate estimates of the effectiveness of interventions to remove invasive species and their cost-effectiveness (cost per unit area or individual). Despite billions of dollars spent controlling biological invasions worldwide, it is unclear whether those efforts are effective, and cost-effective. The paucity of evidence results from the difficulty in measuring the effect of invasive species removal: a researcher must estimate the difference in outcomes (e.g. invasive species cover) between where the removal program intervened and what might have been observed if the program had not intervened. In the program evaluation literature, this is called a counterfactual analysis, which formally compares what actually happened and what would have happened in the absence of an intervention. When program implementation is not randomized, estimating counterfactual outcomes is especially difficult. We show how a thorough understanding of program implementation, combined with a matching empirical design can improve the way counterfactual outcomes are estimated in nonexperimental contexts. As a practical demonstration, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of South Africa's Working for Water program, arguably the world's most ambitious invasive species control program, in removing invasive alien trees from different land use types, across a large area in the Cape Floristic Region. We estimated that the proportion of the treatment area covered by invasive trees would have been 49% higher (5.5% instead of 2.7% of the grid cells occupied) had the program not intervened. Our estimates of cost per hectare to remove invasive species, however, are three to five times higher than the predictions made when the program was initiated. Had there been no control (counter-factual), invasive trees would have spread on untransformed land, but not on land parcels containing plantations or land transformed by

  10. Oral biology in middle age: a history of the University at Buffalo Oral Biology PhD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, F A

    2014-05-01

    In 1960, the first Department of Oral Biology in the United States dedicated to the conduct of research, graduate biomedical research education, and the provision of basic oral science education for the DDS curriculum was established at the University at Buffalo. In 1963, the Department organized the first PhD Program in Oral Biology in the United States. This PhD program has produced a large cadre of oral health researchers, many of whom have gone on to make major contributions to dental research and education. This article provides a brief history of the program, the context within which the program was organized and developed, and a description of some of the many faculty, students, and fellows associated with the program. Additionally, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of this program, a symposium, entitled "The Oral Microbiome, Immunity and Chronic Disease", was held on June 12-14, 2013, in Buffalo, New York. The proceedings are published online in Advances in Dental Research (2014, Vol. 26).

  11. On the implementation of the Biological Threat Reduction Program in the Republic of Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Tuychiev, Laziz; Madaminov, Marifjon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the implementation of the Biological Threat Reduction Program (BTRP) of the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency in the Republic of Uzbekistan since 2004. Introduction The Biological Threat Reduction Program (BTRP) has been being implemented in the Republic of Uzbekistan since 2004 within the framework of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Government of the United States of America Concerning Cooperation in the Area of the Promotion ...

  12. Deciphering endophyte behaviour: the link between endophyte biology and efficacious biological control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Stuart; Johnson, Linda; Teasdale, Suliana; Caradus, John

    2016-08-01

    Endophytes associate with the majority of plant species found in natural and managed ecosystems. They are regarded as extremely important plant partners that provide improved stress tolerance to the host compared with plants that lack this symbiosis. Fossil records of endophytes date back more than 400 million years, implicating these microorganisms in host plant adaptation to habitat transitions. However, it is only recently that endophytes, and their bioactive products, have received meaningful attention from the scientific community. The benefits some endophytes can confer on their hosts include plant growth promotion and survival through the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms and invertebrate pests, the removal of soil contaminants, improved tolerance of low fertility soils, and increased tolerance of extreme temperatures and low water availability. Endophytes are extremely diverse and can exhibit many different biological behaviours. Not all endophyte technologies have been successfully commercialised. Of interest in the development of the next generation of plant protection products is how much of this is due to the biology of the particular endophytic microorganism. In this review, we highlight selected case studies of endophytes and discuss their lifestyles and behavioural traits, and discuss how these factors contribute towards their effectiveness as biological control agents.

  13. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  14. Metropolitan Programs in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations; A Need and Attitude Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    To establish the feasibility of implementing applied biological and agricultural occupations programs in the metropolitan area of Chicago, four populations were surveyed by means of mailed questionnaires or interest inventories to determine: (1) the employment opportunities in the applied biological and agricultural industries, (2) the interests…

  15. Environmental Biology Programs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Lowell L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of the Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign). Focuses on the graduate degrees offered in environmental biology. Lists research interests and courses in plant biology, entomology, forestry, civil engineering, and landscape architecture. (TW)

  16. Indoor biology pollution control based on system-based humidity priority control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昱; 谢慧; 石博强

    2009-01-01

    Indoor biological contamination and HVAC system secondary contamination problems caused wide public concerns. Biological contamination control will be the next step to achieve better IAQ. The most efficient and safe way to control biological contamination was to limit relative humidity in HVAC system and conditioned environment in the range that is more unsuitable for microorganism to survive. In this paper,by referring to bio-clean project experiences,a system-based humidity priority control manner came into being by lowering outdoor air humidity ratio to eliminate all indoor latent load and using self recirculation units to bear indoor sensible load. Based on the whole-course residue humidity contaminant control concept,dynamic step models for coil and conditioned zone were developed to describe mass and energy conservation and transformation processes. Then,HVAC system and conditioned zone dynamic models were established on LabVIEW+Matlab platform to investigate optimized regulation types,input signatures and control logics. Decoupling between cooling and dehumidification processes can be achieved and a more simplified and stable control system can be acquired by the system-based humidity priority control strategy. Therefore,it was a promising way for controlling biological pollution in buildings in order to achieve better IAQ.

  17. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  18. Responses of an idiobiont ectoparasitoid, Spathius galinae, to host larvae parasitized by the koinobiont endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi: implications for biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding interspecific competition among insect parasitoids is important in designing classical biological control programs that involve multiple species introductions. Spathius galinae, a new idiobiont ectoparasitoid from the Russian Far East, is currently being considered for introduction to ...

  19. Microstructure synthesis control of biological polyhydroxyalkanoates with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Erik Norman

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA's) are a class of biologically produced polymers, or plastic, that is synthesized by various microorganisms. PHA's are made from biorenewable resources and are fully biodegradable and biocompatible, making them an environmentally friendly green polymer. A method of incorporating polymer microstructure into the PHA synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha was developed. These microstructures were synthesized with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as the polymer domains. To synthesize the PHB V copolymer, the additional presence of valerate was required. To control valerate substrate additions to the bioreactor, an off-gas mass spectrometry (MS) feedback control system was developed. Important process information including the cell physiology, growth kinetics, and product formation kinetics in the bioreactor was obtained with MS and used to control microstructure synthesis. The two polymer microstructures synthesized were core-shell granules and block copolymers. Block copolymers control the structure of the individual polymer chains while core-shell granules control the organization of many polymer chains. Both these microstructures result in properties unattainable by blending the two polymers together. The core-shell structures were synthesized with controlled domain thickness based on a developed model. Different block copolymers compositions were synthesized by varying the switching time of the substrate pulses responsible for block copolymer synthesis. The block copolymers were tested to determine their chemical properties and cast into films to determine the materials properties. These block copolymer films possessed new properties not achieved by copolymers or blends of the two polymers.

  20. Collaborative Core Research Program for Chemical-Biological Warfare Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-04

    Research Center (UC-DDRC, part of UC-MDI). Using an EvoTec robot , single point (10 μM final solution test chemical concentration) 2 measurements...assay on neuroblastoma cell lines. We performed this method, as well as incorporated a novel method developed at US Army Medical Research Institute of...formulations chemists to determine the optimal dose methods. These new CWA countermeasures will be transitioned to the Chemical Biological Medical Systems for

  1. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  2. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Restuccia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L., pea (Pisum sativum L., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control of this species. The information obtained especially concerns seed production, seed viability, seed longevity and dormancy, seed conditioning and germination, parasitism phases, the effects of parasite attacks on host plants and the means of control.

  3. Compact and controlled microfluidic mixing and biological particle capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matthew; Owen, Drew; Mills, Zachary Grant; Hesketh, Peter J.; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations and experiments to develop a multifunctional microfluidic device that performs rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing and specific particle capture. Our device uses a compact microfluidic channel decorated with magnetic features. A rotating magnetic field precisely controls individual magnetic microbeads orbiting around the features, enabling effective continuous-flow mixing of fluid streams over a compact mixing region. We use computer simulations to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms that lead to effective mixing and compare them with experimental mixing results. We study the effect of various system parameters on microfluidic mixing to design an efficient micromixer. We also experimentally and numerically demonstrate that orbiting microbeads can effectively capture particles transported by the fluid, which has major implications in pre-concentration and detection of biological particles including various cells and bacteria, with applications in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics, biohazard detection, and food safety. Support from NSF and USDA is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control.

  5. Control of Lymantria dispar L. by biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGuo-cai; WANGYue-jie; YANGXiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    The experiment on control of Lymantria dispar L by using different kinds of biological measures, including nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of Lymantria dispar L., BtMP-342, sex-attractant as well as botanical insecticide, was carried out in the forest regions of Inner Mongolia in 2003. Two concentrations (2.632×106 PIB·ml-1 and 2.632×107 PIB·ml-1) of Lymantria dispar L. NPV were sprayed on the 2rd-instar-larvae of L. dispar and 70% and 77.8% control effect were obtained respectively. BtMP0-342 was applied to the 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae and the control effect was around 80%. The sex-attractant provided by Canada Pacific Forestry Research Center also showed a good result in trapping L. dispar adults. The self-produced botanical insecticide, which was extracted from a kind of poisonous plant distributed in Daxing'an Mountains, China, exhibited a good control result in controlling the larvae of L. dispar, and 82% mortality was observed when spraying primary liquid of the botanical insecticide on the 3rd-5th-instar-larvae in lab.

  6. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  7. Controlling a Mobile Robot with a Biological Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Warwick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent controlling mechanism of a typical mobile robot is usually a computer system. Some recent research is ongoing in which biological neurons are being cultured and trained to act as the brain of an interactive real world robot–thereby either completely replacing, or operating in a cooperative fashion with, a computer system. Studying such hybrid systems can provide distinct insights into the operation of biological neural structures, and therefore, such research has immediate medical implications as well as enormous potential in robotics. The main aim of the research is to assess the computational and learning capacity of dissociated cultured neuronal networks. A hybrid system incorporating closed-loop control of a mobile robot by a dissociated culture of neurons has been created. The system is flexible and allows for closed-loop operation, either with hardware robot or its software simulation. The paper provides an overview of the problem area, gives an idea of the breadth of present ongoing research, establises a new system architecture and, as an example, reports on the results of conducted experiments with real-life robots.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.5-14, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.11

  8. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA EMPHASIZING THE CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata, Siam weed, a very important weed of Java Island (Indonesia is native to Central and South America. In the laboratory it showed rapid growth (1.15 g/g/week in the first 8 weeks of its growth. The biomass was mainly as leaves (LAR : 317.50 cm'/g total weight. It slowed down in the following month as the biomass was utilized for stem and branch formation. This behavior supported the growth of C. odorata into a very dense stand. It flowered, fruited during the dry season, and senesced following maturation of seeds from inflorescence branches. These branches dried out, but soon the stem resumed aggressive growth following the wet season. Leaf biomass was affected by the size of the stem in its early phase of regrowth, but later on it was more affected by the number of branches. The introduction of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata to Indonesia, was successful only in North Sumatera. In Java it has not been reported to establish succesfully. The introduction of another biological control agent, Procecidochares conneca to Indonesia was shown to be sp ecific and upon release in West Java it established immediately. It spread exponentia lly in the first 6 months of its release. Field monitoring continues to eval uate the impact of the agents. Other biocontrol agents (Actmole anteas and Conotrachelus wilt be introduced to Indonesia in 1997 through ACIAR Project on the Biological Control of Chromolaena odorata in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

  9. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  10. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  11. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  12. Program Applied Biology and Biotechnology. Annual report 1987. Programm Angewandte Biologie und Biotechnologie. Jahresbericht 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    By order of the Federal Government, the Biology, Ecology, Energy Department (PBE) is responsible for the 3 sub-programs 'energy research and technologies', 'applied biology and biotechnology' and 'environmental research and technology'. This volume deals with the second-mentioned sub-program and briefly describes the projects supported by the Federal Government, specifically the objectives, working program, state of the studies, costs and share in the costs paid by the Federal Government. The following subdivision was made: 1. biological process engineering and enzyme technology, 2. cell culture and cell fusion technology, 3. genetic engineering and microbial technologies, 4. equivalent methods which can replace animal experiments, biological security, 5. plant genetics and protection, 6. promotion of focal points of activity, 7. indirect specific promotion, 8. new fields and overlapping activities in biotechnology, 9. regrowing raw materials. (RB).

  13. Implementation and evaluation of a training program as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eJohnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A training program for animal and human health professionals has been implemented in Azerbaijan through a joint agreement between the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Government of Azerbaijan. The training program is administered as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, and targets key employees in Azerbaijan’s disease surveillance system including physicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists, and laboratory personnel. Training is aimed at improving detection, diagnosis, and response to especially dangerous pathogens, although the techniques and methodologies can be applied to other pathogens and diseases of concern. Biosafety and biosecurity training is provided to all trainees within the program. Prior to 2014, a variety of international agencies and organizations provided training, which resulted in gaps related to lack of coordination of training materials and content. In 2014 a new training program was implemented in order to address those gaps. This paper provides an overview of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program training program in Azerbaijan, a description of how the program fits into existing national training infrastructure, and an evaluation of the new program’s effectiveness to date. Long-term sustainability of the program is also discussed.

  14. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  15. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. We are... continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly... releasing an insect, L. osakensis, into the continental United States for use as a biological control...

  16. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds. We are making... subterminalis, into the continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium...

  17. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ..., Lilioceris cheni, into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the..., Lilioceris cheni, into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the.... cheni, into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the...

  18. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. We are making the... United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax...

  19. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  20. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  1. Biology and host range of Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis; a potential biological control agent for Chinese tallow Triadica sebifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera, is an invasive weed that infests natural and agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. A candidate for biological control of Chinese tallow has been studied under quarantine conditions. The biology and host range of a primitive leaf feeding beetle, Heterapoderops...

  2. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles to enhance biological control in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaflor, M F G V; Bento, J M S

    2013-08-01

    Plants under herbivore attack synthetize defensive organic compounds that directly or indirectly affect herbivore performance and mediate other interactions with the community. The so-called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) consist of odors released by attacked plants that serve as important cues for parasitoids and predators to locate their host/prey. The understanding that has been gained on the ecological role and mechanisms of HIPV emission opens up paths for developing novel strategies integrated with biological control programs with the aim of enhancing the efficacy of natural enemies in suppressing pest populations in crops. Tactics using synthetic HIPVs or chemically/genetically manipulating plant defenses have been suggested in order to recruit natural enemies to plantations or help guiding them to their host more quickly, working as a "synergistic" agent of biological control. This review discusses strategies using HIPVs to enhance biological control that have been proposed in the literature and were categorized here as: (a) exogenous application of elicitors on plants, (b) use of plant varieties that emit attractive HIPVs to natural enemies, (c) release of synthetic HIPVs, and (d) genetic manipulation targeting genes that optimize HIPV emission. We discuss the feasibility, benefits, and downsides of each strategy by considering not only field studies but also comprehensive laboratory assays that present an applied approach for HIPVs or show the potential of employing them in the field.

  3. Parasites and biological invasions: parallels, interactions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alison M; Hatcher, Melanie J

    2015-05-01

    Species distributions are changing at an unprecedented rate owing to human activity. We examine how two key processes of redistribution - biological invasion and disease emergence - are interlinked. There are many parallels between invasion and emergence processes, and invasions can drive the spread of new diseases to wildlife. We examine the potential impacts of invasion and disease emergence, and discuss how these threats can be countered, focusing on biosecurity. In contrast with international policy on emerging diseases of humans and managed species, policy on invasive species and parasites of wildlife is fragmented, and the lack of international cooperation encourages individual parties to minimize their input into control. We call for international policy that acknowledges the strong links between emerging diseases and invasion risk.

  4. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  5. Biological control of biofilms on membranes by metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Theresa; Zihlmann, David; Derlon, Nicolas; Isaacson, Carl; Szivak, Ilona; Weissbrodt, David G; Pronk, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, chemical and physical methods have been used to control biofouling on membranes by inactivating and removing the biofouling layer. Alternatively, the permeability can be increased using biological methods while accepting the presence of the biofouling layer. We have investigated two different types of metazoans for this purpose, the oligochaete Aelosoma hemprichi and the nematode Plectus aquatilis. The addition of these grazing metazoans in biofilm-controlled membrane systems resulted in a flux increase of 50% in presence of the oligochaetes (Aelosoma hemprichi), and a flux increase of 119-164% in presence of the nematodes (Plectus aquatilis) in comparison to the control system operated without metazoans. The change in flux resulted from (1) a change in the biofilm structure, from a homogeneous, cake-like biofilm to a more heterogeneous, porous structure and (2) a significant reduction in the thickness of the basal layer. Pyrosequencing data showed that due to the addition of the predators, also the community composition of the biofilm in terms of protists and bacteria was strongly affected. The results have implications for a range of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration for potable water production, membrane bioreactors and reverse osmosis.

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  7. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  8. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  9. Chimeric alignment by dynamic programming: Algorithm and biological uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsoulis, G.A.; Waterman, M.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A new nearest-neighbor method for detecting chimeric 16S rRNA artifacts generated during PCR amplification from mixed populations has been developed. The method uses dynamic programming to generate an optimal chimeric alignment, defined as the highest scoring alignment between a query and a concatenation of a 5{prime} and a 3{prime} segment from two separate entries from a database of related sequences. Chimeras are detected by studying the scores and form of the chimeric and global sequence alignments. The chimeric alignment method was found to be marginally more effective than k-tuple based nearest-neighbor methods in simulation studies, but its most effective use is in concert with k-tuple methods. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by...

  11. Use of rhizobacteria and endophytes for biological control of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trognitz, Friederike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause severe yield losses in agriculture, with a maximum estimate of 34% of yield loss worldwide due to competition between the crops and the weeds for nutrition, light and humidity (OERKE, 2006. Invasive plants contribute partially to other problems. The pollen of common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., for example, is five times more allergenic than grass pollen; already ten pollen grains per m3 air can trigger allergy in sensitized patients, including rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma. This neophyte from America has extended the season of allergy in European patients to October. Common ragweed is currently most frequent in Hungary, France and Italy. In Austria, ragweed populations along roads have increased dramatically since 2000. The effective means to control this weed of the Asteraceae family are limited; a single plant can produce up to 6000 seeds which stay in the soil for 40 years. Control using selective herbicides is not possible within stands of the Asteraceae member sunflower. Efforts to use herbivore insects as biological control agents also failed due to the unavailability of insects specializing on this ragweed. The use of plant-associated rhizobacteria and endophytes as bio-herbicides offers a novel alternative to conventional methods. By analogy to experiences from other plant-microbe systems, the chances to find microbes of the desired characteristics are highest when isolating and testing specimens directly from ragweed plants. These organisms often have an extremely narrow host range that permits their use for the control of among several even closely related plant species growing together in a field.

  12. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  13. 78 FR 38349 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Expedited Programs for... guidance for industry entitled ``Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions--Drugs and Biologics.'' The... for industry entitled ``Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions--Drugs and Biologics.'' This...

  14. Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology at Yale University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Diego; Noble, Dorottya; Pollard, Thomas; Mochrie, Simon; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative, integrated approaches are necessary to solve biology's grand challenges. Yale's Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology (IGPPEB) prepares students to excel at applying physics and engineering approaches, whilst also ensuring that they are sufficiently biologically sophisticated that they can readily identify and tackle cutting-edge problems. Students enter the program through a ``home'' department but also take a set of IGPPEB core courses with students from other departments. The IGPPEB curriculum is co-taught by faculty from a wide array of departments and motivates students to work together and learn from each other. The curriculum complements those of the home departments and includes primer courses to rapidly bring all students to a level where they ``speak each others language.'' The program is a member of the NSF's Physics of Living Systems: Student Research Network, which connects graduate students from different institutions that are engaged in research at the interface of physics and biology. Convergent research thrusts at Yale include Cellular Shape and Motion; Mechanical Force Generation and Sensing; Biomaterials and Bioinspired Design; Systems and Synthetic Biology; Modeling Biological Processes and Methods Development.

  15. Management Information Control Systems for Educational Facility Construction Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Walter S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a computerized management information control system for an educational facility construction program that allows access to more than 50 major system applications, using over 5,000 programs. (MLF)

  16. [The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toru

    2006-07-01

    The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens

  17. Approximate Dynamic Programming for Self-Learning Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong Liu

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a self-learning control approach based on approximate dynamic programming. Dynamic programming was introduced by Bellman in the 1950's for solving optimal control problems of nonlinear dynamical systems. Due to its high computational complexity, the applications of dynamic programming have been limited to simple and small problems. The key step in finding approximate solutions to dynamic programming is to estimate the performance index in dynamic programming. The optimal control signal can then be determined by minimizing (or maximizing) the performance index. Artificial neural networks are very efficient tools in representing the performance index in dynamic programming. This paper assumes the use of neural networks for estimating the performance index in dynamic programming and for generating optimal control signals, thus to achieve optimal control through self-learning.

  18. Inductive Logic Programming for Industrial Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiya Bouarroudj

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Monitoring Systems of the processes consti tute a higher level to the systems of control and use specific techniques and methods. An importa nt part of the task of supervision focuses on the detection and the diagnosis of various situatio ns of faults which can affect the process. Methods of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD are different from the type of knowledge about the process that they require. They can be classifi ed as data-driven, analytical, or knowledge- based approach. A collaborative FDD approach that c ombines the strengths of various heterogeneous FDD methods is able to maximize diagn ostic performance. The new generation of knowledge-based systems or decision support syst ems needs to tap into knowledge that is both very broad, but specific to a domain, combinin g learning, structured representations of domain knowledge such as ontologies and reasoning t ools. In this paper, we present a decision- aid tool in case of malfunction of high power indus trial steam boiler. For this purpose an ontology was developed and considered as a prior co nceptual knowledge in Inductive Logic Programming (ILP for inducing diagnosis rules. The next step of the process concerns the inclusion of rules acquired by induction in the kno wledge base as well as their exploitation for reasoning.

  19. Perspectives on the potential of entomopathogenic fungi in biological control of ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2012-03-01

    Ticks are serious health threats for humans, and both domestic and wild animals. Ticks are controlled mostly by application of chemical products; but these acaricides have several negative side effects, including toxicity to animals, environmental contamination, and induction of chemical resistance in some tick populations. Entomopathogenic fungi infect arthropods in nature and can occur at enzootic or epizootic levels in their host populations. Laboratory studies clearly demonstrate that these fungi can cause high mortality in all developmental stages of several tick species, and also reduce oviposition of infected engorged females. Tick mortality following application of fungi in the field, however, often is less than that suggested by laboratory tests. This is due to many negative biotic and climatic factors. To increase efficacy of fungal agents for biological control of ticks under natural conditions, several points need consideration: (1) select effective isolates (viz., high virulence; and tolerance to high temperature, ultraviolet radiation and desiccation); (2) understand the main factors that affect virulence of fungal isolates to their target arthropods including the role of toxic metabolites of the fungal isolates; and (3) define with more precision the immune response of ticks to infection by entomopathogenic fungi. The current study reviews recent literature on biological control of ticks, and comments on the relevance of these results to advancing the development of fungal biocontrol agents, including improving formulation of fungal spores for use in tick control, and using entomopathogenic fungi in integrated pest (tick) management programs.

  20. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  1. 18 CFR 12.40 - Quality control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control... PROJECT WORKS Other Responsibilities of Applicant or Licensee § 12.40 Quality control programs. (a... meeting any requirements or standards set by the Regional Engineer. If a quality control program...

  2. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  3. Transcriptional programs controlling perinatal lung maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0 using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6 and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6controlling lung maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5-E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5-20.5, STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation than in A/J (long gestation mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators

  4. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  5. Biological agents for whitefly control in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Manca, L; Pisci, R; Sanna, F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of alternative options for biocontrol of whiteflies in greenhouse tomatoes, an experiment was carried out during the cropping season 2005-2006 in one of Sardinia's major horticultural districts (S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy). Twelve long-cycle and 17 short-cycle tomato crops (8 autumn and 9 spring crops) were surveyed. All of them were treated for insect pest control at the beginning of the growing season, but in 19 out of 29 cases whitefly natural enemies were also released (BCA greenhouses), at least four weeks after the last treatment. The following release programmes were tested: on autumn crops, 1 Macrolophus caliginosus and 12 Eretmocerus mundus/m2; on long-cycle crops, 1 M. caliginosus (released in autumn or spring) and 24 Encarsia formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2; on spring crops, 1 M. caliginosus and 24 E. formosa/m2 or 48 E. formosa/m2. The cost of each option was fixed at approximately 0.25 Euros/m2. The remaining greenhouses were maintained as controls (no BCA greenhouses). While whitefly and mirid populations were monitored monthly, whitefly species composition and mortality of immature stages were estimated at least twice during the growing season. On short-cycle autumn crops, the release of M. caliginosus and E. mundus produced negligible results in terms of Bemisia tabaci control. On long-cycle and spring crops, even though in June mortality rates in BCA greenhouses were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher than in no-BCA greenhouses, Trialeurodes vaporariorum population growth was not significantly affected by natural enemies. Among the beneficials tested, E. formosa proved to be the most effective; E. mundus and M. caliginosus did not establish well, probably owing to the persistence of insecticide residues, scarce prey availability and intense plant de-leafing. The presence of indigenous natural enemies of whiteflies was observed in most sites, but in general they contributed little to biological control. The

  6. Changes of trabecular bone under control of biologically mechanical mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Zhang, C. Q.; Dong, X.; Wu, H.

    2008-10-01

    In this study, a biological process of bone remodeling was considered as a closed loop feedback control system, which enables bone to optimize and renew itself over a lifetime. A novel idea of combining strain-adaptive and damage-induced remodeling algorithms at Basic Multicellular Unit (BMU) level was introduced. In order to make the outcomes get closer to clinical observation, the stochastic occurrence of microdamage was involved and a hypothesis that remodeling activation probability is related to the value of damage rate was assumed. Integrated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the changes of trabecular bone in morphology and material properties were simulated in the course of five years. The results suggest that deterioration and anisotropy of trabecluar bone are inevitable with natural aging, and that compression rather than tension can be applied to strengthen the ability of resistance to fracture. This investigation helps to gain more insight the mechanism of bone loss and identify improved treatment and prevention for osteoporosis or stress fracture.

  7. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Barnwell, John W.; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. PMID:27799636

  8. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ran

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS, respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05. A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  9. Organization of control programs of business

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Riabichenko

    2011-01-01

    Article is devoted to the need to develop an institutional mechanism of program management of the enterprise. Briefly it is considered the optimal organizational structure in developing and managing innovative programs for the company. The article discusses the advantages of the strong matrix structure (strong matrix) relatively weak matrix structure (weak matrix).

  10. Organization of control programs of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Riabichenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the need to develop an institutional mechanism of program management of the enterprise. Briefly it is considered the optimal organizational structure in developing and managing innovative programs for the company. The article discusses the advantages of the strong matrix structure (strong matrix relatively weak matrix structure (weak matrix.

  11. Controlling Cocaine: Supplying Versus Demand Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    programs are administered to preteens , while cocaine use does not normally start until the late teens and early twenties. 7 A primary activity of...initiation for various drugs. Prevention programs attempt to convince preteens to abstain from marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol. Therefore, to argue that

  12. User's Guide to Biome Information from the United States International Biological Program (IBP). First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, A. Dexter; Haug, Peter T.

    This publication is a guide to the biome research conducted under the International Biological Program. The guide lists biome researchers by interest and by biome as well as a central list. A site list, map, information sources section reporting abstracts, bibliographies, journals, books, evaluations, and data books are also included. Three…

  13. Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…

  14. Publications of the NASA space biology program for 1980 - 1984. [bibliographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasant, L. G. (Compiler); Solberg, J. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A listing of 562 publications supported by the NASA Space Biology Program for the years 1980 to 1984 is presented. References are arranged under the headings which are plant gravitational research, animal gravitational research, and general. Keyword title indexes and a principal investigator listing are also included.

  15. Evaluation of a New Biological Control Pathogen for Management of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    perceived threats to human health and the environment. Biological control has been studied as an option for milfoil management for over 40 years...2008). Combined with glyphosate in an integrated weed management approach, M. verrucaria could control weeds in fields planted to glyphosate ...radicans) controlled under field conditions by a synergistic interaction of the bioherbicide Myrothecium verrucaria, with glyphosate . Weed Biology

  16. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  17. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  18. PC-Based Applications Programming on the SRS Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martlew, Brian; Owen, Hywel; Pugh, Martin; Rawlinson, Bill; Smith, Susan

    1997-05-01

    The CERN PC-based ISOLDE control system has been installed at the SRS electron storage ring at Daresbury Laboratory. The use of Windows NT for the control consoles together with PC and VME front-end computers running under several operating systems has resulted in a flexible and reliable system for accelerator control. The implementation and philosophy of control application programs, based around a suite of Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel programs, is described. In particular, the use of Excel to provide adaptable programs online allows rapid generation of new control functions; orbit correction and servoing at the application level are described as examples of this.

  19. A Method to Identify and Analyze Biological Programs through Automated Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Hillel; Smith, Austin; Martello, Graziano; Emmott, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Predictive biology is elusive because rigorous, data-constrained, mechanistic models of complex biological systems are difficult to derive and validate. Current approaches tend to construct and examine static interaction network models, which are descriptively rich but often lack explanatory and predictive power, or dynamic models that can be simulated to reproduce known behavior. However, in such approaches implicit assumptions are introduced as typically only one mechanism is considered, and exhaustively investigating all scenarios is impractical using simulation. To address these limitations, we present a methodology based on automated formal reasoning, which permits the synthesis and analysis of the complete set of logical models consistent with experimental observations. We test hypotheses against all candidate models, and remove the need for simulation by characterizing and simultaneously analyzing all mechanistic explanations of observed behavior. Our methodology transforms knowledge of complex biological processes from sets of possible interactions and experimental observations to precise, predictive biological programs governing cell function. PMID:27668090

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  1. Survey of locomotion control of legged robots inspired by biological concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiDi; LIU ChengJu; ZHANG JiaQi; CHEN QiJun

    2009-01-01

    Compared with wheeled mobile robots, legged robots can easily step over obstacles and walk through rugged ground. They have more flexible bodies and therefore, can deal with complex environment. Nev-ertheless, some other issues make the locomotion control of legged robots a much complicated task, such as the redundant degree of freedoms and balance keeping. From literatures, locomotion control has been solved mainly based on programming mechanism. To use this method, walking trajectories for each leg and the gaits have to be designed, and the adaptability to an unknown environment cannot be guaranteed. From another aspect, studying and simulating animals' walking mechanism for engi-neering application is an efficient way to break the bottleneck of locomotion control for legged robots. This has attracted more and more attentions. Inspired by central pattern generator (CPG), a control method has been proved to be a successful attempt within this scope. In this paper, we will review the biological mechanism, the existence evidences, and the network properties of CPG. From the en-gineering perspective, we will introduce the engineering simulation of CPG, the property analysis, and the research progress of CPG inspired control method in locomotion control of legged robots. Then, in our research, we will further discuss on existing problems, hot issues, and future research directions in this field.

  2. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  3. Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Each day, between 12 to 13 U.S. workers die as a result of a traumatic injury on the job. Investigations conducted through the FACE program allow the identification...

  4. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed.

  5. PROTECTING ECOSYSTEMS BY WAY OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: CURSORY REFLECTIONS ON THE MAIN REGULATORY INSTRUMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alberts

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there are numerous threats to ecosystems and the resultant ecosystem services, alien and invasive plants (AIP have been identified as being one of the major causes of ecosystem destruction. In addressing the threat of alien and invasive plants through the use of various mechanisms, the regulatory framework imposed by legislation is key in ensuring that that controlling AIPs does in fact not do more harm than good. One such control mechanism, which has the potential to do wonders or wreak havoc if not adroitly implemented, is that of using biological control agents. This contribution provides a brief overview on the three main regulatory instruments used to control biological control agents in South Africa, namely the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 43 of 1983, the Agricultural Pests Act 36 of 1983 and the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act 10 of 2004. It also considers possible future developments on the regulation of biological control agents.

  6. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model...

  7. Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Kevin

    This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…

  8. Patterns and controls on nitrogen cycling of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Nichole N.; Zaady, Eli; Weber, Bettina; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Biocrusts play a significant role in the nitrogen [N ] cycle within arid and semi-arid ecosystems, as they contribute major N inputs via biological fixation and dust capture, harbor internal N transformation processes, and direct N losses via N dissolved, gaseous and erosional loss processes (Fig. 1). Because soil N availability in arid and semi-arid ecosystems is generally low and may limit net primary production (NPP), especially during periods when adequate water is available, understanding the mechanisms and controls of N input and loss pathways in biocrusts is critically important to our broader understanding of N cycling in dryland environments. In particular, N cycling by biocrusts likely regulates short-term soil N availability to support vascular plant growth, as well as long-term N accumulation and maintenance of soil fertility. In this chapter, we review the influence of biocrust nutrient input, internal cycling, and loss pathways across a range of biomes. We examine linkages between N fixation capabilities of biocrust organisms and spatio-temporal patterns of soil N availability that may influence the longer-term productivity of dryland ecosystems. Lastly, biocrust influence on N loss pathways such as N gas loss, leakage of N compounds from biocrusts, and transfer in wind and water erosion are important to understand the maintenance of dryland soil fertility over longer time scales. Although great strides have been made in understanding the influence of biocrusts on ecosystem N cycling, there are important knowledge gaps in our understanding of the influence of biocrusts on ecosystem N cycling that should be the focus of future studies. Because work on the interaction of N cycling and biocrusts was reviewed in Belnap and Lange (2003), this chapter will focus primarily on research findings that have emerged over the last 15 years (2000-2015).

  9. Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1990-01-01

    A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

  10. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  11. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  12. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  13. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the

  14. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  15. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...; Options for a User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications for... this document to request comments relating to the development of a user fee program for biosimilar and... similar (biosimilar) to, or interchangeable with, an FDA-licensed reference biological product....

  16. 75 FR 76472 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Meetings on User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...; Meetings on User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications; Request... participate in consultation meetings relating to the development of a user fee program for biosimilar and... review of biosimilar and interchangeable biological product applications for fiscal years (FYs)...

  17. 75 FR 54343 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research eSubmitter Pilot Evaluation Program for Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is announcing an invitation to participate in a pilot evaluation program for CBER's eSubmitter Program (eSubmitter). CBER's eSubmitter has been customized as an automated biologics license application (BLA) and BLA supplement (BLS) submission system for blood and blood components. Participation in the......

  18. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  19. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the

  20. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake.

  1. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  2. Bit by bit control of nonlinear ecological and biological networks using Evolutionary Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Network Control (ENC has been first introduced in 2013 to effectively subdue network-like systems. ENC opposes the idea, very common in the scientific literature, that controllability of networks should be based on the identification of the set of driver nodes that can guide the system's dynamics, in other words on the choice of a subset of nodes that should be selected to be permanently controlled. ENC has proven to be effective in the global control (i.e. the focus is on mastery of the final state of network dynamics of linear and nonlinear networks, and in the local (i.e. the focus is on the step-by-step ascendancy of network dynamics control of linear networks. In this work, ENC is applied to the local control of nonlinear networks. Using the Lotka-Volterra model as a case study, I show here that ENC is capable of locally driving nonlinear networks as well, so that also intermediate steps (not only the final state are under our strict control. ENC can be readily applied to any kind of ecological, biological, economic and network-like system.

  3. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  4. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Warner, Keith; Steggall, John; Jetter, Karen M

    2014-12-23

    Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided "new tools" that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting "legacy pests", even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of "new tools" include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using "new tools" for developing biological control programs for "legacy pests" could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  5. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferati...

  6. Double-tick realization of binary control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylecki, Michał; Kania, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the implementation of control algorithms for hardware-bit compatible with the standard IEC61131-3. The described transformation based on the sets of calculus and graphs, allows translation of the original form of the control program to the form in full compliance with the original, giving the architecture represented by two tick. The proposed method enables the efficient implementation of the control bits in the FPGA with the use of a standardized programming language LD.

  7. An abundant biological control agent does not provide a significant predator subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical weed biological control agents, regardless of their effectiveness, may provide subsidies to predators and parasites. The chemically defended weevil Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe is a successful agent that was introduced to control the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia. Two consecutive small ...

  8. Current levels of suppression of waterhyacinth in Florida by classical biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, has been a global target for classical biological control efforts for decades. In Florida, herbicides are the primary tactic employed, usually without regard for the activities of the three biological control agents introduced intentionally during the 1970's, na...

  9. Indirect ecological effects in invaded landscapes: Spillover and spillback from biological control agents to native analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control remains an effective option for managing large-scale weed problems in natural areas. The predation or parasitism of biological control agents by other species present in the introduced range (biotic resistance) is well studied and is often cited as the cause for a lack of establis...

  10. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 2: Prototype utilization in the development of space biology hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Wood, H. J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to define the factors which space flight hardware developers and planners should consider when determining: (1) the number of hardware units required to support program; (2) design level of the units; and (3) most efficient means of utilization of the units. The analysis considered technology risk, maintainability, reliability, and safety design requirements for achieving the delivery of highest quality flight hardware. Relative cost impacts of the utilization of prototyping were identified. The development of Space Biology Initiative research hardware will involve intertwined hardware/software activities. Experience has shown that software development can be an expensive portion of a system design program. While software prototyping could imply the development of a significantly different end item, an operational system prototype must be considered to be a combination of software and hardware. Hundreds of factors were identified that could be considered in determining the quantity and types of prototypes that should be constructed. In developing the decision models, these factors were combined and reduced by approximately ten-to-one in order to develop a manageable structure based on the major determining factors. The Baseline SBI hardware list of Appendix D was examined and reviewed in detail; however, from the facts available it was impossible to identify the exact types and quantities of prototypes required for each of these items. Although the factors that must be considered could be enumerated for each of these pieces of equipment, the exact status and state of development of the equipment is variable and uncertain at this time.

  11. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency.

  12. Social sustainability of Mesocyclops biological control for dengue in South Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tam; Olsen, Anna; Viennet, Elvina; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Copepod Mesocyclops as biological control agents for dengue was previously proven to be effective and sustainable in the Northern and Central provinces of Vietnam. We aim to study social sustainability of Mesocyclops intervention in south Vietnam. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. An entomological survey was carried out in 100 random households of Chanh An commune, Vinh Long Province. Aedes larval indices and Mesocyclops prevalence were compared with historical pre- and post-intervention values. In the same commune, using purposeful sampling, sixteen semi-structured interviews (1 villager leader, 1 local doctor, 10 villagers, 2 teachers, 2 entomology officials), and a focus group discussion (6 Mesocyclops program collaborators) explored water storage habits, beliefs about dengue prevention and behaviour related to Mesocyclops. Thematic analysis was conducted to interpret the qualitative findings. Aedes abundance increased after responsibility for Mesocyclops intervention moved from government to community in 2010, with post-transfer surges in Breteau Index, Container Index, and Larval Density Index. Larval increments coincided with decrease in Mesocyclops prevalence. Villagers had some knowledge of dengue but it was conflated with other mosquito borne diseases and understanding of Mesocyclops was incomplete. Program adoption among the villagers was limited. With reduced government support program collaborators reported limited capacity to conduct population monitoring, and instead targeted 'problem' households. Although the Mesocyclops program was highly sustainable in northern and central provinces of Vietnam, the intervention has not been consistently adopted by southern households in Chanh An commune. Limited education, household monitoring and government support are affecting sustainability. Findings were based on a small household sample visited over a short time period, so other evaluations are needed. However, our results suggest that

  13. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  14. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  15. The iSBTc/SITC primer on tumor immunology and biological therapy of cancer: a summary of the 2010 program

    OpenAIRE

    Urba Walter J; Hwu Patrick; Balwit James M; Marincola Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC (formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc), aims to improve cancer patient outcomes by advancing the science, development and application of biological therapy and immunotherapy. The society and its educational programs have become premier destinations for interaction and innovation in the cancer biologics community. For over a decade, the society has offered the Primer on Tumor Immunology and Biological ...

  16. Evolutionary game based control for biological systems with applications in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Lenaghan, Scott C; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-06-01

    Control engineering and analysis of biological systems have become increasingly important for systems and synthetic biology. Unfortunately, no widely accepted control framework is currently available for these systems, especially at the cell and molecular levels. This is partially due to the lack of appropriate mathematical models to describe the unique dynamics of biological systems, and the lack of implementation techniques, such as ultra-fast and ultra-small devices and corresponding control algorithms. This paper proposes a control framework for biological systems subject to dynamics that exhibit adaptive behavior under evolutionary pressures. The control framework was formulated based on evolutionary game based modeling, which integrates both the internal dynamics and the population dynamics. In the proposed control framework, the adaptive behavior was characterized as an internal dynamic, and the external environment was regarded as an external control input. The proposed open-interface control framework can be integrated with additional control algorithms for control of biological systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, an optimal control strategy was developed and validated for drug delivery using the pathogen Giardia lamblia as a test case. In principle, the proposed control framework can be applied to any biological system exhibiting adaptive behavior under evolutionary pressures.

  17. Factors affecting the flight capacity of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a classical biological control agent of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, Samuel J; Lelito, Jonathan P; Blaedow, Karen; Heimpel, George E; Aukema, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    The dispersal characteristics of a biological control agent can have direct implications on the ability of that agent to control populations of a target host. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a parasitic wasp native to eastern Asia that has been introduced into the United States as part of a classical biological control program against the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). We used computer-monitored flight mills to investigate the role of age, feeding status, mating status, and size on the flight capacity of female T. planipennisi over a 24-h period. We also compared flight capacity between sexes. Flight distance of female T. planipennisi representative of populations released in the biological control program averaged 1.26 km in 24 h with a maximum flight of just over 7 km. Median flight distance, however, was 422 m. The flight capacity of females fed a honey-water solution was 41× that of females provided only water, who flew very little. Larger females were capable of flying farther distances, but age did not affect the flight capacity of females up to 70 d posteclosion. Females dispersed 6× farther than did their smaller, male counterparts. The implications of our findings to host-parasitoid interactions and release protocols for distributing T. planipennisi are discussed.

  18. Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense Program, Annual Report to Congress, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Strain Rsa493 Bacillus cereus Completed (4/2003) Strain Atcc 14579 Franciscella tularensis Completed (10/2003) Unpublished Burkholderia mallei...was demonstrated to protect CBRN Defense Requirements and Programs 63 higher animal models from fever and bacteremia following a conjunctival dose... Bacillus anthracis), description of the vaccine, explanation of U.S. DoD policies regarding biological defense vaccines, U.S. DoD policies regarding

  19. Optimal impulse control problems and linear programming.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauso, D.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal impulse control problems are, in general, difficult to solve. A current research goal is to isolate those problems that lead to tractable solutions. In this paper, we identify a special class of optimal impulse control problems which are easy to solve. Easy to solve means that solution algorithms are polynomial in time and therefore suitable to the on-line implementation in real-time problems. We do this by using a paradigm borrowed from the Operations Research field. As main result, ...

  20. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  1. Controlling the biological effects of spermine using a synthetic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernandez, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-08-09

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to compete with biological polyamine receptors remains a huge challenge. Binding affinities of synthetic hosts are typically separated by a gap of several orders of magnitude from those of biomolecules. We now report that a dynamic combinatorial selection approach can deliver a synthetic receptor that bridges this gap. The selected receptor binds spermine with a dissociation constant of 22 nM, sufficient to remove it from its natural host DNA and reverse some of the biological effects of spermine on the nucleic acid. In low concentrations, spermine induces the formation of left-handed DNA, but upon addition of our receptor, the DNA reverts back to its right-handed form. NMR studies and computer simulations suggest that the spermine complex has the form of a pseudo-rotaxane. The spermine receptor is a promising lead for the development of therapeutics or molecular probes for elucidating spermine's role in cell biology.

  2. Controlling the Biological Effects of Spermine Using a Synthetic Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R. Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-01-01

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to

  3. Biological stability of drinking water: Controlling factors, methods, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and ca

  4. [We control our bodies: the biological and social dialectic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, K M

    1991-01-01

    This article aims at reviewing the discussion of biological and social factors in the analysis of women's social condition. With the appearance of a feminist perspective, the dominance of earlier biologically-based explanations was substituted by an emphasis on the social construction of female identity. Even when women's identification with the body and with nature, and their secondary status, were considered universal, biological determinism was rejected. In this process of re-definition of the object of study, the ideological role of science was pointed out, since male dominance in science and society accompanied the historical tendency which relegated "the woman question" to the sphere of natural fact. Although growing awareness of the socially-constructed nature of scientific activity itself is producing a tendency to abandon the biological/social dichotomy at the conceptual level, differences between men and women in the reproductive sphere continue to exist. It is argued that analysis of reproduction requires characterization of the sexes as biosocial entities in relationship, situated in specific historical contexts, and that in modern society women are subject to a double reproductive contradiction.

  5. Control of rugose spiraling whitefly using biological insecticides, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected biological insecticides against a new invasive whitefly pest, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, in white bird of paradise under field condition. The trial was conducted at United States Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort P...

  6. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  7. Physical constraints on biological integral control design for homeostasis and sensory adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Jordan; McMillen, David R

    2013-01-22

    Synthetic biology includes an effort to use design-based approaches to create novel controllers, biological systems aimed at regulating the output of other biological processes. The design of such controllers can be guided by results from control theory, including the strategy of integral feedback control, which is central to regulation, sensory adaptation, and long-term robustness. Realization of integral control in a synthetic network is an attractive prospect, but the nature of biochemical networks can make the implementation of even basic control structures challenging. Here we present a study of the general challenges and important constraints that will arise in efforts to engineer biological integral feedback controllers or to analyze existing natural systems. Constraints arise from the need to identify target output values that the combined process-plus-controller system can reach, and to ensure that the controller implements a good approximation of integral feedback control. These constraints depend on mild assumptions about the shape of input-output relationships in the biological components, and thus will apply to a variety of biochemical systems. We summarize our results as a set of variable constraints intended to provide guidance for the design or analysis of a working biological integral feedback controller.

  8. Quality control analytical methods: strategies to ensure a robust quality-control microbiology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tricia; Connors, Anne

    2013-01-01

    As the regulatory environment for compounding pharmacies continues to evolve, facilities can take immediate steps to strengthen their quality-control microbiology and environmental monitoring programs. Robust programs that are timely, comprehensive, and effective will minimize risk and help support positive patient outcomes. This article provides a roadmap for putting in place a robust quality-control microbiology program in the face of United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 797 standards, and highlights several technologies for environmental monitoring that support a successful program.

  9. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  10. Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program at AFRPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A.; Slimak, L. K. S.; Schloegel, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    A number of future DOD and NASA spacecraft such as the space based radar will be not only an order of magnitude larger in dimension than the current spacecraft, but will exhibit extreme structural flexibility with very low structural vibration frequencies. Another class of spacecraft (such as the space defense platforms) will combine large physical size with extremely precise pointing requirement. Such problems require a total departure from the traditional methods of modeling and control system design of spacecraft where structural flexibility is treated as a secondary effect. With these problems in mind, the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) initiated research to develop dynamics and control technology so as to enable the future large space structures (LSS). AFRPL's effort in this area can be subdivided into the following three overlapping areas: (1) ground experiments, (2) spacecraft modeling and control, and (3) sensors and actuators. Both the in-house and contractual efforts of the AFRPL in LSS are summarized.

  11. Program Applied Biology and Biotechnology. Annual report 1986. Programm Angewandte Biologie und Biotechnologie. Jahresbericht 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    BMFT-funded research projects in 1986 on the sector 'Applied Biology and Biotechnology' are reviewed. The main fields of research were: Microbiological screening methods, waste water, refuse and soil microbiology, genetic engineering, cell cultures, development of new bioreactor systems, measurement and control, biocatalysts, plant cultivation, safety research, biosensory research, biomass utilisation.

  12. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  13. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Phragmites Control Program Results - 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Phragmites control effort of 1993 was initiated as part of a cooperative program with the state of Virginia's Division of Natural Heritage, called the "Southern...

  14. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process.

  15. Dynamical Systems and Control Theory Inspired by Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-20

    is odd) steady states, there never are more than 2n − 1 steady states, that for parameters near the standard Michaelis - Menten quasi-steady state...conditions, there are at most n + 1 steady states and that for parameters far from the standard Michaelis - Menten quasi-steady state conditions, there is at...moments for certain stochastic kinetics : We have recently started research into stochastic aspects in systems biology. Deterministic mod- els

  16. Satellite Relative Motion Control for MIT’s SPHERES Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    firing combinations of its twelve cold gas thrusters [2]. These thrusters either fire at a specific value or they do not fire at all. This on-off...Satellite Relative Motion Control for MIT’s SPHERES Program THESIS Samuel P. Barbaro, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/ GA /ENY/12-M02 DEPARTMENT OF THE...United States. AFIT/ GA /ENY/12-M02 Satellite Relative Motion Control for MIT’s SPHERES Program THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of

  17. Safety control program for complex system based on behavior science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Mei-jian; YANG Guang; CHEN Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    To control complex system's safety effectively,safety control program was supported based on the principles of behavioral science that shapes organizational behavior,and organizational behavior produced individual behavior.The program can be structured into a model that consists of three modules including individual behavior rectification,organization behavior diagnosis and model of safety culture.The research result not only reveals the deep cause of complex system accidents but also provides structural descriptions with the accidents cause.

  18. Safety control program for complex system based on behavior science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Mei-jian; YANG Guang; CHEN Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    To control complex system's safety effectively, safety control program was supported based on the principles of behavioral science that shapes organizational be-havior, and organizational behavior produced individual behavior. The program can be structured into a model that consists of three modules including individual behavior rectifi-cation, organization behavior diagnosis and model of safety culture. The research result not only reveals the deep cause of complex system accidents but also provides structural descriptions with the accidents cause.

  19. Commercial biological control agents targeted against plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Stéphane Tranier; Johan Pognant-Gros; Reynaldo De la Cruz Quiroz; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar González; Thierry Mateille; Sevastianos Roussos

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Root-knot nematodes are microscopic round worms, which cause severe agricultural losses. Their attacks affect the productivity by reducing the amount and the caliber of the fruits. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using microorganisms to reduce the quantity of pests infecting crops. Biological control is developing gradually, and with time, more products are being marketed worldwide. They can be formulated ...

  20. A distributed implementation of a mode switching control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Michael; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Ravn, Anders P.

    1995-01-01

    according to the schedule, and a final one monitors the system for exceptions that shall lead to a halt. The implementation uses four transputers with a distribution of phases of the automatons over the individual processors. The main technical result of the paper is calculations that illustrate how......A distributed implementation of a mode switched control program for a robot is described. The design of the control program is given by a set of real-time automatons. One of them plans a schedule for switching between a fixed set of control functions, another dispatches the control functions...

  1. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  2. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  3. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid infestations. We... continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid... include chemical control and the release of an alternative biological control agent, an encyrtid...

  4. A Platform-independent Programming Environment for Robot Control

    CERN Document Server

    Reckhaus, Michael; Ploeger, Paul G; Kraetzschmar, Gerhard K

    2010-01-01

    The development of robot control programs is a complex task. Many robots are different in their electrical and mechanical structure which is also reflected in the software. Specific robot software environments support the program development, but are mainly text-based and usually applied by experts in the field with profound knowledge of the target robot. This paper presents a graphical programming environment which aims to ease the development of robot control programs. In contrast to existing graphical robot programming environments, our approach focuses on the composition of parallel action sequences. The developed environment allows to schedule independent robot actions on parallel execution lines and provides mechanism to avoid side-effects of parallel actions. The developed environment is platform-independent and based on the model-driven paradigm. The feasibility of our approach is shown by the application of the sequencer to a simulated service robot and a robot for educational purpose.

  5. Biological control through intraguild predation: case studies in pest control, invasive species and range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampfylde, C J; Lewis, M A

    2007-04-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP), the interaction between species that eat each other and compete for shared resources, is ubiquitous in nature. We document its occurrence across a wide range of taxonomic groups and ecosystems with particular reference to non-indigenous species and agricultural pests. The consequences of IGP are complex and difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to provide a modelling framework for the analysis of IGP in a spatial context. We start by considering a spatially homogeneous system and find the conditions for predator and prey to exclude each other, to coexist and for alternative stable states. Management alternatives for the control of invasive or pest species through IGP are presented for the spatially homogeneous system. We extend the model to include movement of predator and prey. In this spatial context, it is possible to switch between alternative stable steady states through local perturbations that give rise to travelling waves of extinction or control. The direction of the travelling wave depends on the details of the nonlinear intraguild interactions, but can be calculated explicitly. This spatial phenomenon suggests means by which invasions succeed or fail, and yields new methods for spatial biological control. Freshwater case studies are used to illustrate the outcomes.

  6. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  7. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Kahende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.

  8. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  9. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  10. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  11. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  12. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  14. Biological control of wood decay against fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Petri; Aktuganov, Gleb; Himanen, Juha; Korpela, Timo

    2011-07-01

    Wood (timber) is an important raw material for various purposes, and having biological composition it is susceptible to deterioration by various agents. The history of wood protection by impregnation with synthetic chemicals is almost two hundred years old. However, the ever-increasing public concern and the new environmental regulations on the use of chemicals have created the need for the development and the use of alternative methods for wood protection. Biological wood protection by antagonistic microbes alone or in combination with (bio)chemicals, is one of the most promising ways for the environmentally sound wood protection. The most effective biocontrol antagonists belong to genera Trichoderma, Gliocladium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. They compete for an ecological niche by consuming available nutrients as well as by secreting a spectrum of biochemicals effective against various fungal pathogens. The biochemicals include cell wall-degrading enzymes, siderophores, chelating iron and a wide variety of volatile and non-volatile antibiotics. In this review, the nature and the function of the antagonistic microbes in wood protection are discussed.

  15. Biological control of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) with fungal insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siongers, C; Coosemans, J

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the biological insecticide Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana) on different developmental stages of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) has been tested and compared with the influence of Preferal (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), also a biological product. Six experiments were set up to test the two products on eggs, which were four and seven days old, on larvae of the first, second/third and fourth stage and to test the effect on egg-deposition. These experiments were all conducted on cucumber. Egg-deposition was limited to a small area on the leaf by using leaf cages. To evaluate these tests the number of eggs or larvae developed to the next stage has been counted and compared to the total amount of eggs or larvae on the leaves. The results revealed that Botanigard has an effect on the larval stages. The first larval stage is most sensitive; the next stages have a decreasing sensitivity. There was no influence on the hatching of the eggs, but a treatment short before the hatching could have a residual effect on the new nymphs. When the treatment with Botanigard is performed shortly before a moult or a fungicide treatment, the efficacy of the product decreases significantly. The influence of Preferal on the greenhouse whitefly is, under the same circumstances, less obvious.

  16. ABT-controllable laser hyperthermia of biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, Eugene V.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Zhadobov, Maxim; Reyman, Alexander M.

    2002-05-01

    The results of experimentally investigated laser heating of optically absorbing inhomogeneities inside the biological objects accompanied with monitoring of internal temperature by acoustical brightness thermometry (ABT) have been presented. One of the urgent problems of modern medicine is to provide organism safety during photodynamic therapy of various neoplasms including malignant ones. In the case when neoplasm differs from normal tissue mainly in optical absorption it seems to be effective to use laser heating for this purpose. In our experiments we used the NIR emission of CW and pulse-periodic Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) as well as CW semiconductor laser (800 nm) for heating of tissue- simulating phantom. Optically transparent gelatine with absorbing inhomogeneity inside was used as a phantom. Internal temperature was measured non-invasively by means of multi-channel ABT after long heating of an object by laser radiation. Temperature was also measured independently by contact electronic thermometer. The results of experiments demonstrated high efficiency of ABT application for internal temperature monitoring during PDT and other hyperthermia procedures. Besides that laser radiation can be used for backlighting followed by ABT investigation of internal structure of temperature distribution inside biological tissues. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects # 00-02-16600; 01-02-06417; 01-02- 17645) and 6th competition-expertise of young scientists of Russian Academy of Sciences (Project #399).

  17. BIO-PROGRAMMING PROSPECTS OF JAVA: A COMPUTATIONAL MOVE TOWARDS THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GENES AND PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPANA RAJA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Java is a powerful object oriented programming language that dominates many other programming languages for more than a decade. It is well designed and available as many executable technologies for software development such as Java Swing, Java Beans, Java Applets, Java Web Start, Java Database Connectivity (JDBC, Java Server Pages (JSP and Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE. Beyond its usage in the IT sector, the language is prominent even in the new emerging fields including bioinformatics and computational biology.The biological data (genes and proteins from the biological and medical research is immense and require software professionals to mine them for new knowledge discovery. The knowledge to merge the programming concepts of Java to understand a wide range of biological concepts opens a new career challenge for many IT professionals. This paper introduces the implementation of the coding knowledge of Java in the field ofmolecular biology.

  18. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director`s Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  20. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director's Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  1. Biologically-Plausible Reactive Control of Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Rene, Zapata; Pascal, Lepinay

    2006-01-01

    This chapter addressed the problem of controlling the reactive behaviours of a mobile robot evolving in unstructured and dynamic environments. We have carried out successful experiments for determining the distance field of a mobile robot using two

  2. IQGAP1 and its binding proteins control diverse biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin D; Erdemir, Huseyin H; Sacks, David B

    2012-04-01

    IQGAP proteins have been identified in a wide spectrum of organisms, ranging from yeast to humans. The most extensively studied family member is the ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein IQGAP1, which participates in multiple essential aspects of mammalian biology. IQGAP1 mediates these effects by binding to and regulating the function of numerous interacting proteins. Over ninety proteins have been reported to associate with IQGAP1, either directly or as part of a larger complex. In this review, we summarise those IQGAP1 binding partners that have been identified in the last five years. The molecular mechanisms by which these interactions contribute to the functions of receptors and their signalling cascades, small GTPase function, cytoskeletal dynamics, neuronal regulation and intracellular trafficking are evaluated. The evidence that has accumulated recently validates the role of IQGAP1 as a scaffold protein and expands the repertoire of cellular activities in which it participates.

  3. Marine biological controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the ocean is losing N gas faster than N is being returned to the ocean, and that replenishment of the N supply in the ocean usually occurs during ice ages. Available N from river and estruarine transport and from rainfall after formation by lightning are shown to be at a rate too low to compensate for the 10,000 yr oceanic lifetime of N. Ice sheets advance and transfer moraine N to the ocean, lower the sea levels, erode the ocean beds, promote greater biological productivity, and reduce CO2. Ice core samples have indicated a variability in the atmospheric N content that could be attributed to the ice age scenario.

  4. Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital controls research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, J. F.; Baez, A. N.

    1981-01-01

    The emphasis of a program to conduct digital controls research for small turboshaft engines is on engine test evaluation of advanced control logic using a flexible microprocessor based digital control system designed specifically for research on advanced control logic. Control software is stored in programmable memory. New control algorithms may be stored in a floppy disk and loaded directly into memory. This feature facilitates comparative evaluation of different advanced control modes. The central processor in the digital control is an Intel 8086 16 bit microprocessor. Control software is programmed in assembly language. Software checkout is accomplished prior to engine test by connecting the digital control to a real time hybrid computer simulation of the engine. The engine currently installed in the facility has a hydromechanical control modified to allow electrohydraulic fuel metering and VG actuation by the digital control. Simulation results are presented which show that the modern control reduces the transient rotor speed droop caused by unanticipated load changes such as cyclic pitch or wind gust transients.

  5. Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control Algorithms and Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Ding

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods of stable controller design for nonlinear systems. In seeking to go beyond the minimum requirement of stability, Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control approaches the challenging topic of optimal control for nonlinear systems using the tools of  adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The range of systems treated is extensive; affine, switched, singularly perturbed and time-delay nonlinear systems are discussed as are the uses of neural networks and techniques of value and policy iteration. The text features three main aspects of ADP in which the methods proposed for stabilization and for tracking and games benefit from the incorporation of optimal control methods: • infinite-horizon control for which the difficulty of solving partial differential Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations directly is overcome, and  proof provided that the iterative value function updating sequence converges to the infimum of all the value functions obtained by admissible control law sequences; • finite-...

  6. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Ja...

  7. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  8. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  9. Early-season flood enhances native biological control agents in Wisconsin cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is predicated on the concept that crop plants are protected when predators suppress herbivore populations. However, many factors, including concurrent crop protection strategies, may modify the effectiveness of a predator in a given agroecosystem. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry...

  10. Utilization of an introduced weed biological control agent by a native parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A native parasitoid, Kalopolynema ema (Schauff and Grissell) (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), that usually parasitizes the eggs of Megamelus davisi VanDuzee (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), has begun utilizing a new host, Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), the introduced biological control age...

  11. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  12. THE DAMAGE, BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF PINE MISTLETOES (Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman)

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Beşir; Akbulut, Süleyman; KETEN, Akif

    2009-01-01

    Although mistletoes are known as parasitic plants on coniferous forest of Turkey, their control is still an important problem for Forest Service. In this paper, the information on the characteristics of pine mistletoe (biology, damage, and control methods) were gathered from different sources and observations. Possible control methods and damage ratings of mistletoe were discussed. Keywords: Mistletoes, Parasite plant, Pine

  13. Propulsion control experience used in the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will integrate the propulsion and flight control systems on an F-15 airplane at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Ames-Dryden has conducted several propulsion control programs that have contributed to the HIDEC program. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) flight evaluation investigated the performance and operability of the F100 engine equipped with a full-authority digital electronic control system. Investigations of nozzle instability, fault detection and accommodation, and augmentor transient capability provided important information for the HIDEC program. The F100 engine model derivative (EMD) was also flown in the F-15 airplane, and airplane performance was significantly improved. A throttle response problem was found and solved with a software fix to the control logic. For the HIDEC program, the F100 EMD engines equipped with DEEC controls will be integrated with the digital flight control system. The control modes to be implemented are an integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine control system mode. The engine control experience that will be used in the HIDEC program is discussed.

  14. Piquing Student Interest with Pharmacology: An Interdisciplinary Program Helps High School Students Learn Biology and Chemistry Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Myra J.; Hoeffler, Leanne; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2005-01-01

    To help students learn science concepts, Pharmacology Education Partnership (PEP)--a science education program that incorporates relevant topics related to drugs and drug abuse into standard biology and chemistry curricula was developed. The interdisciplinary PEP curriculum provides six modules to teach biology and chemistry principles within the…

  15. Gravitational biology within the German Space Program: goals, achievements, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, G; Friedrich, U

    2006-12-01

    Gravity plays an important role for the evolution, orientation and development of organisms. Most of us, however, tend to overlook its importance because--due to its constant presence from the beginning of evolution some 4 billion years ago--this environmental parameter is almost hardwired into our interpretation of reality. This negligence of gravity is the more surprising as we all have our strong fights with this factor, especially during the very early and again during the late phases of our lives. On the other hand, scientists have been fascinated to observe the effects of gravity especially on plants and microorganisms for more than a hundred years, since Darwin and Sachs demonstrated the role of the root cap for downward growing plants. Different experimental approaches are nowadays available in order to change the influence of gravity and to study the corresponding influences on the physiology of biological systems. With the advent of spaceflight, a long-term nearly nullification of gravity is possible. Utilisation of this so-called "microgravity" condition for research in life sciences thus became an important asset in the space programs of various space agencies around the world. The German Space Life Sciences Program is managed--like all other space programs and activities in Germany--by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in its role as space agency for Germany. Within the current space program, approved by the German government in May 2001, the overall goal for its life sciences part was defined as to gain scientific knowledge and to disclose new application potential by research under space conditions, especially by utilising the microgravity environment of the International Space Station. Three main scientific fields have been identified in collaboration with the scientific community: integrative human physiology, biotechnological applications of the microgravity environment, and fundamental biology of gravity and radiation responses (i

  16. Design and control strategies for CELSS - Integrating mechanistic paradigms and biological complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III; Kaufmann, R.; Reinhold, C.

    1981-01-01

    Systems analysis and control theory consideration are given to simulations of both individual components and total systems, in order to develop a reliable control strategy for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which includes complex biological components. Because of the numerous nonlinearities and tight coupling within the biological component, classical control theory may be inadequate and the statistical analysis of factorial experiments more useful. The range in control characteristics of particular species may simplify the overall task by providing an appropriate balance of stability and controllability to match species function in the overall design. The ultimate goal of this research is the coordination of biological and mechanical subsystems in order to achieve a self-supporting environment.

  17. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  18. Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Jeffries, Claire L.; Walker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases and vector control is still the main form of prevention. The limitations of traditional insecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In this review, we outline non-insecticide based strategies that have been implemented or are currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies. PMID:27706105

  19. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  20. Establishment, population increase, spread, and ecological host range of Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales:Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida, USA. A biological control program targeting M. quinquenervia has culminated in the release of the gall forming midge Lophodiplosis trifida Gagné (Cecidomyiidae). Populations of the introduced ...

  1. Novel ESCRT functions in cell biology: spiraling out of control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campsteijn, Coen; Vietri, Marina; Stenmark, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), originally identified for its role in endosomal protein sorting and biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs), has proven to be a versatile machinery for involution and scission of narrow membrane invaginations filled with cytosol. Budding of enveloped viruses and cytokinetic abscission were early described functions for the ESCRT machinery, and recently a number of new ESCRT functions have emerged. These include cytokinetic abscission checkpoint control, plasma membrane repair, exovesicle release, quality control of nuclear pore complexes, neuron pruning, and sealing of the newly formed nuclear envelope. Here we review these novel ESCRT mechanisms and discuss similarities and differences between the various ESCRT-dependent activities.

  2. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  3. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard

    2007-01-01

    Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biological......, beetles and moths; (2) Preventative treatment of bulk commodities against weevils (Sitophilus spp.) and storage mites; (3) Preventative application of egg-parasitoids against moths in packaged products. Development of methods for biological control and of mass production of natural enemies...

  4. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  5. Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndl, Gerhard J; Reinthaler, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A fraction of the carbon captured by phytoplankton in the sunlit surface ocean sinks to depth as dead organic matter and faecal material. The microbial breakdown of this material in the subsurface ocean generates carbon dioxide. Collectively, this microbially mediated flux of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior is termed the biological pump. In recent decades it has become clear that the composition of the phytoplankton community in the surface ocean largely determines the quantity and quality of organic matter that sinks to depth. This settling organic matter, however, is not sufficient to meet the energy demands of microbes in the dark ocean. Two additional sources of organic matter have been identified: non-sinking organic particles of debated origin that escape capture by sediment traps and exhibit stable concentrations throughout the dark ocean, and microbes that convert inorganic carbon into organic matter. Whether these two sources can together account for the significant mismatch between organic matter consumption and supply in the dark ocean remains to be seen. It is clear, however, that the microbial community of the deep ocean works in a fundamentally different way from surface water communities.

  6. Biological control of harmful algal blooms: A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Jordi; Estrada, Marta; Garcia-Ladona, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    A multispecies dynamic simulation model (ERSEM) was used to examine the influence of allelopathic and trophic interactions causing feeding avoidance by predators, on the formation of harmful algal blooms, under environmental scenarios typical of a Mediterranean harbour (Barcelona). The biological state variables of the model included four functional groups of phytoplankton (diatoms, toxic and non-toxic flagellates and picophytoplankton), heterotrophic flagellates, micro- and mesozooplankton and bacteria. The physical-chemical forcing (irradiance, temperature and major nutrient concentrations) was based on an actual series of measurements taken along a year cycle in the Barcelona harbour. In order to evaluate potential effects of advection, some runs were repeated after introducing a biomass loss term. Numerical simulations showed that allelopathic effects of a toxic alga on a non-toxic but otherwise similar competitor did not have appreciable influence on the dynamics of the system. However, induction of avoidance of the toxic alga by predators, which resulted on increased predation pressure on other algal groups had a significant effect on the development of algal and predator populations. The presence of advection overrided the effect of these interactions and only allowed organisms with sufficiently high potential growth rates to thrive.

  7. Allee effects in tritrophic food chains: some insights in pest biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel Iskin da S; Dos Anjos, Lucas

    2016-12-01

    Release of natural enemies to control pest populations is a common strategy in biological control. However, its effectiveness is supposed to be impaired, among other factors, by Allee effects in the biological control agent and by the fact that introduced pest natural enemies interact with some native species of the ecosystem. In this work, we devise a tritrophic food chain model where the assumptions previously raised are proved correct when a hyperpredator attacks the introduced pest natural enemy by a functional response type 2 or 3. Moreover, success of pest control is shown to be related to the release of large amounts (i.e., inundative releases) of natural enemies.

  8. Control of Apoptosis in Treatment and Biology of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Shrey; Kir, Devika; Banerjee, Sulagna; Saluja, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is estimated to be the 12th most common cancer in the United States in 2014 and yet this malignancy is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Late detection and resistance to therapy are the major causes for its dismal prognosis. Apoptosis is an actively orchestrated cell death mechanism that serves to maintain tissue homoeostasis. Cancer develops from normal cells by accruing significant changes through one or more mechanisms, leading to DNA damage and mutations, which in a normal cell would induce this programmed cell death pathway. As a result, evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. PDAC is notoriously resistant to apoptosis, thereby explaining its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment modalities. The current review is focus on understanding different intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in pancreatic cancer that may affect apoptosis in this disease.

  9. A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

    2015-12-10

    Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations.

  10. Detection and reconstruction of error control codes for engineered and biological regulatory systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Elebeoba Eni; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Johnston, Anna Marie; Pryor, Richard J.; Hart, William Eugene; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2003-10-01

    A fundamental challenge for all communication systems, engineered or living, is the problem of achieving efficient, secure, and error-free communication over noisy channels. Information theoretic principals have been used to develop effective coding theory algorithms to successfully transmit information in engineering systems. Living systems also successfully transmit biological information through genetic processes such as replication, transcription, and translation, where the genome of an organism is the contents of the transmission. Decoding of received bit streams is fairly straightforward when the channel encoding algorithms are efficient and known. If the encoding scheme is unknown or part of the data is missing or intercepted, how would one design a viable decoder for the received transmission? For such systems blind reconstruction of the encoding/decoding system would be a vital step in recovering the original message. Communication engineers may not frequently encounter this situation, but for computational biologists and biotechnologist this is an immediate challenge. The goal of this work is to develop methods for detecting and reconstructing the encoder/decoder system for engineered and biological data. Building on Sandia's strengths in discrete mathematics, algorithms, and communication theory, we use linear programming and will use evolutionary computing techniques to construct efficient algorithms for modeling the coding system for minimally errored engineered data stream and genomic regulatory DNA and RNA sequences. The objective for the initial phase of this project is to construct solid parallels between biological literature and fundamental elements of communication theory. In this light, the milestones for FY2003 were focused on defining genetic channel characteristics and providing an initial approximation for key parameters, including coding rate, memory length, and minimum distance values. A secondary objective addressed the question of

  11. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts – external and political-organizational dimensions – simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  12. The programmed death phenomena, aging, and the Samurai law of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-07-01

    Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span.

  13. Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs is available for most of these diseases andvectorcontrolisstillthemainformofprevention. Thelimitationsoftraditionalinsecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In thisreview, weoutline non-insecticide basedstrategiesthat havebeenimplemented orare currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies.

  14. Mechanization and Control Concepts for Biologically Inspired Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Slominski, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that MAV designs of the future will exploit flapping flight in order to perform missions that require extreme agility, such as rapid flight beneath a forest canopy or within the confines of a building. Many of nature's most agile flyers generate flapping motions through resonant excitation of an aeroelastically tailored structure: muscle tissue is used to excite a vibratory mode of their flexible wing structure that creates propulsion and lift. A number of MAV concepts have been proposed that would operate in a similar fashion. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts with application to resonant flapping MAVs are being explored. Structural approaches, mechanical design, sensing and wingbeat control concepts inspired by hummingbirds, bats and insects are examined. Experimental results from a testbed capable of generating vibratory wingbeat patterns that approximately match those exhibited by hummingbirds in hover, cruise, and reverse flight are presented.

  15. Exploration for the Biological Control of Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    aggressive invader of freshwater systems especially in the midwestern and western states of the USA and western Canada. Since no effective control...ovipositing females had been transferred. We are currently trying different methods in order to further improve rearing success. Nevertheless we were able...ten test plant species offered, none was accepted for egg laying by female weevils, confirming the narrow host range of B. nodulosus. We will continue

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Programming and Quadratic Programming Algorithms for Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc; Acosta, Diana M.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation (NextGen) transport aircraft configurations being investigated as part of the NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project have more control surfaces, or control effectors, than existing transport aircraft configurations. Conventional flight control is achieved through two symmetric elevators, two antisymmetric ailerons, and a rudder. The five effectors, reduced to three command variables, produce moments along the three main axes of the aircraft and enable the pilot to control the attitude and flight path of the aircraft. The NextGen aircraft will have additional redundant control effectors to control the three moments, creating a situation where the aircraft is over-actuated and where a simple relationship does not exist anymore between the required effector deflections and the desired moments. NextGen flight controllers will incorporate control allocation algorithms to determine the optimal effector commands and attain the desired moments, taking into account the effector limits. Approaches to solving the problem using linear programming and quadratic programming algorithms have been proposed and tested. It is of great interest to understand their relative advantages and disadvantages and how design parameters may affect their properties. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the effector commands with respect to the desired moments and show on some examples that the solutions provided using the l2 norm of quadratic programming are less sensitive than those using the l1 norm of linear programming.

  17. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  18. Toward a world of theranostic medication: Programming biological sentinel systems for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Aubel, Dominique; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Theranostic systems support diagnostic and therapeutic functions in a single integrated entity and enable precise spatiotemporal control of the generation of therapeutic molecules according to the individual patient's disease state, thereby maximizing the therapeutic outcome and minimizing side effects. These systems can also incorporate reporter systems equipped with a disease-sensing module that can be used to estimate the efficacy of treatment in vivo. Among these reporter systems, biological sentinel systems, such as viruses, bacteria, and mammalian cells, have great potential for use in the development of novel theranostic systems because of their ability to sense a variety of disease markers and secrete various therapeutic molecules. Furthermore, recent advances in biotechnology and synthetic biology have made it possible to treat these biological systems as true programmable entities capable of conducting complex operations, to accurately identify each individual patient's disease state. In this review, we introduce the basic design principles of these rapidly expanding classes of biological sentinel system-based theranostic agents, with a focus on recent advances, and we also discuss potential enabling technologies that can further improve these systems and provide more sophisticated therapeutic interventions in the near future. In addition, we consider the possibility of synergistic use of theranostic agents that use different modalities and discuss the prospects for next-generation theranostic agents.

  19. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  20. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization of biological pest control with impulsive dynamics in soybean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rodrigo T N; da Cruz, André R; Wanner, Elizabeth F; Takahashi, Ricardo H C

    2009-08-01

    The biological pest control in agriculture, an environment-friendly practice, maintains the density of pests below an economic injury level by releasing a suitable quantity of their natural enemies. This work proposes a multi-objective numerical solution to biological pest control for soybean crops, considering both the cost of application of the control action and the cost of economic damages. The system model is nonlinear with impulsive control dynamics, in order to cope more effectively with the actual control action to be applied, which should be performed in a finite number of discrete time instants. The dynamic optimization problem is solved using the NSGA-II, a fast and trustworthy multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results suggest a dual pest control policy, in which the relative price of control action versus the associated additional harvest yield determines the usage of either a low control action strategy or a higher one.

  1. Controversies in modern evolutionary biology: the imperative for error detection and quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosdocimi Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The data from high throughput genomics technologies provide unique opportunities for studies of complex biological systems, but also pose many new challenges. The shift to the genome scale in evolutionary biology, for example, has led to many interesting, but often controversial studies. It has been suggested that part of the conflict may be due to errors in the initial sequences. Most gene sequences are predicted by bioinformatics programs and a number of quality issues have been raised, concerning DNA sequencing errors or badly predicted coding regions, particularly in eukaryotes. Results We investigated the impact of these errors on evolutionary studies and specifically on the identification of important genetic events. We focused on the detection of asymmetric evolution after duplication, which has been the subject of controversy recently. Using the human genome as a reference, we established a reliable set of 688 duplicated genes in 13 complete vertebrate genomes, where significantly different evolutionary rates are observed. We estimated the rates at which protein sequence errors occur and are accumulated in the higher-level analyses. We showed that the majority of the detected events (57% are in fact artifacts due to the putative erroneous sequences and that these artifacts are sufficient to mask the true functional significance of the events. Conclusions Initial errors are accumulated throughout the evolutionary analysis, generating artificially high rates of event predictions and leading to substantial uncertainty in the conclusions. This study emphasizes the urgent need for error detection and quality control strategies in order to efficiently extract knowledge from the new genome data.

  2. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2008-01-01

    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them.

  3. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana)

    OpenAIRE

    M Abdigoudarzi; Esmaeilnia, K; Shariat, N

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin) were selected and grown on specific me­dia. The pathogenic effects of the...

  4. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  5. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Malausa

    Full Text Available Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  6. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  7. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (Pbiological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  8. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  9. Approximate Dynamic Programming in Tracking Control of a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation of an approximate dynamic programming algorithm in the discrete tracking control system of the three-degrees of freedom Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator. The controlled system is included in an articulated robots group which uses rotary joints to access their work space. The main part of the control system is a dual heuristic dynamic programming algorithm that consists of two structures designed in the form of neural networks: an actor and a critic. The actor generates the suboptimal control law while the critic approximates the difference of the value function from Bellman’s equation with respect to the state. The residual elements of the control system are the PD controller, the supervisory term and an additional control signal. The structure of the supervisory term derives from the stability analysis performed using the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control system works online, the neural networks’ weights-adaptation procedure is performed in every iteration step, and the neural networks’ preliminary learning process is not required. The performance of the control system was verified by a series of computer simulations and experiments performed using the Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator.

  10. Application Oriented Programming and Control of Industrial Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Klas

    1992-01-01

    Efficient use of industrial robots requires a strong interplay between user level commands, the motion control system, and external equipment. It should also be possible for an experienced application engineer to tailor the motion control to a specific application in a convenient way, instead of deficient utilization of the device or tricky user programming which is often the case today. A layered software architecture has been designed based on an application oriented view, considering typic...

  11. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  12. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  13. Control biológico del entrenamiento de resistencia. Biological control of endurance training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Gross, Marcela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa alta exigencia en los deportistas de elite hace cada vez más necesario controlar el proceso de adaptación al entrenamiento. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar la información biológica de un análisis de sangre, al objeto de obtener información de la carga de entrenamiento en atletas de resistencia. La mayor parte de los parámetros sanguíneos han sido empleados, más que para determinar el proceso del entrenamiento, precisamente, para lo opuesto: el sobreentrenamiento. La concentración en plasma de sustratos metabólicos (glucosa y ácidos grasos no son parámetros que pueda utilizarse para controlar el entrenamiento, debido a las bajas especificidad y sensibilidad. No obstante, la concentración de determinados enzimas que intervienen en la utilización de los sustratos puede ser importante. Valores de creatín kinasa superiores a 200 U/l en una persona sana sugiere claramente que la carga de entrenamiento total de una determinada sesión ha sido elevada. La concentración en plasma de algún producto de degradación del catabolismo también puede señalar la adaptación del organismo al entrenamiento. La concentración de ácido láctico en plasma es la herramienta más común en la valoración de la carga de entrenamiento. La concentración de urea es un buen marcador biológico de la carga de entrenamiento. Valores superiores a 8 mmol/l en varones y de 6,5 mmol/l en mujeres, indican que el entrenamiento ha sido muy intenso. La determinación de otros productos (amonio o sustratos (glutamina se han utilizado para detectar el sobreentrenamiento.AbstractThe high exigency in the elite sportsmen does more necessary to control the process of training adaptation. The purpose of this review is to analyze the biological information of a blood analysis to obtain data of load training in endurance athletes. Most blood parameters has been used to evaluate the overtraining state instead of determining the training process. The

  14. Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Luttikholt, A.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals, alo

  15. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2009-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify poten

  16. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  17. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  18. Dedicated Programming Language for Small Distributed Control Divices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Borch, Ole

    2007-01-01

    . This paper describes a new, flexible and simple language for programming distributed control tasks. The compiler for this language generates a target code that is very easy to interpret. A interpreter, that can be easy ported to different hardwares, is described. The new language is simple and easy to learn...

  19. Controlled light field concentration through turbid biological membrane for phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fujuan; He, Hexiang; Zhuang, Huichang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Yang, Zhenchong; Cai, Zhigang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-06-01

    Laser propagation through a turbid rat dura mater membrane is shown to be controllable with a wavefront modulation technique. The scattered light field can be refocused into a target area behind the rat dura mater membrane with a 110 times intensity enhancement using a spatial light modulator. The efficient laser intensity concentration system is demonstrated to imitate the phototherapy for human brain tumors. The power density in the target area is enhanced more than 200 times compared with the input power density on the dura mater membrane, thus allowing continued irradiation concentration to the deep lesion without damage to the dura mater. Multibeam inputs along different directions, or at different positions, can be guided to focus to the same spot behind the membrane, hence providing a similar gamma knife function in optical spectral range. Moreover, both the polarization and the phase of the input field can be recovered in the target area, allowing coherent field superposition in comparison with the linear intensity superposition for the gamma knife.

  20. Zika virus: History, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott C; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Ko, Albert I; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

  1. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  2. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  3. Feedback Control of Turbulent Shear Flows by Genetic Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Duriez, Thomas; von Krbek, Kai; Bonnet, Jean-Paul; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd R; Segond, Marc; Abel, Markus; Gautier, Nicolas; Aider, Jean-Luc; Raibaudo, Cedric; Cuvier, Christophe; Stanislas, Michel; Debien, Antoine; Mazellier, Nicolas; Kourta, Azeddine; Brunton, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent shear flows have triggered fundamental research in nonlinear dynamics, like transition scenarios, pattern formation and dynamical modeling. In particular, the control of nonlinear dynamics is subject of research since decades. In this publication, actuated turbulent shear flows serve as test-bed for a nonlinear feedback control strategy which can optimize an arbitrary cost function in an automatic self-learning manner. This is facilitated by genetic programming providing an analytically treatable control law. Unlike control based on PID laws or neural networks, no structure of the control law needs to be specified in advance. The strategy is first applied to low-dimensional dynamical systems featuring aspects of turbulence and for which linear control methods fail. This includes stabilizing an unstable fixed point of a nonlinearly coupled oscillator model and maximizing mixing, i.e.\\ the Lyapunov exponent, for forced Lorenz equations. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of genetic p...

  4. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth A. McColl; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationshi...

  5. Advanced high school biology in an era of rapid change: a summary of the biology panel report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study, discipline-specific panels were formed to evaluate advanced programs in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Among the conclusions of the Content Panel for Biology were that AP courses in particular suffer from inadequate quality control as well as excessive pressure to fulfill their advanced placement function, which encourages teachers to attempt coverage of all areas of biology and emphasize memorization of facts rather than in-depth understanding. In this essay, the Panel's principal findings are discussed, with an emphasis on its recommendation that colleges and universities should be strongly discouraged from using performance on either the AP examination or the IB examination as the sole basis for automatic placement out of required introductory courses for biology majors and distribution requirements for nonmajors.

  6. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  7. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume 1: Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Program Annual Report E-46 • Cloned and sequenced regions of the polymerase gene (E9L) from 35 variola isolates, as well as cidofovir -resistant...IC50) of cidofovir and 3-hexadecyloxy-1- propanol (HDP)- cidofovir against 40 strains of variola, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia. All viruses... cidofovir in vitro against a panel of orthopoxviruses at USAMRIID and variola at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Determined that

  8. Virtual collaborative environments: programming and controlling robotic devices remotely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Brady R.; McDonald, Michael J., Jr.; Harrigan, Raymond W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes a technology for remote sharing of intelligent electro-mechanical devices. An architecture and actual system have been developed and tested, based on the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway, to facilitate programming and control of intelligent programmable machines (like robots, machine tools, etc.). Using appropriate geometric models, integrated sensors, video systems, and computing hardware; computer controlled resources owned and operated by different (in a geographic sense as well as legal sense) entities can be individually or simultaneously programmed and controlled from one or more remote locations. Remote programming and control of intelligent machines will create significant opportunities for sharing of expensive capital equipment. Using the technology described in this paper, university researchers, manufacturing entities, automation consultants, design entities, and others can directly access robotic and machining facilities located across the country. Disparate electro-mechanical resources will be shared in a manner similar to the way supercomputers are accessed by multiple users. Using this technology, it will be possible for researchers developing new robot control algorithms to validate models and algorithms right from their university labs without ever owning a robot. Manufacturers will be able to model, simulate, and measure the performance of prospective robots before selecting robot hardware optimally suited for their intended application. Designers will be able to access CNC machining centers across the country to fabricate prototypic parts during product design validation. An existing prototype architecture and system has been developed and proven. Programming and control of a large gantry robot located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was demonstrated from such remote locations as Washington D.C., Washington State, and Southern California.

  9. Biological control of invasive Dryocosmus kuriphilus with introduced parasitoid Torymus sinensis in Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dryocosmus kuriphilus is considered as one of the major pests of sweet chestnut and the effective method of controlling its populations and damage is the biological control with its introduced parasitoid Torymus sinensis. T. sinensis is a univoltine, host specific parasitoid, phenologically synchronized and morphologically adapted to D. kuriphilus. It has a good dispersal ability, it builds up populations quickly and it effectively controls the pest already few years a...

  10. Programming with models: modularity and abstraction provide powerful capabilities for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, Aneil; Thomson, Matthew; Ullian, Benjamin; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2009-03-06

    Mathematical models are increasingly used to understand how phenotypes emerge from systems of molecular interactions. However, their current construction as monolithic sets of equations presents a fundamental barrier to progress. Overcoming this requires modularity, enabling sub-systems to be specified independently and combined incrementally, and abstraction, enabling generic properties of biological processes to be specified independently of specific instances. These, in turn, require models to be represented as programs rather than as datatypes. Programmable modularity and abstraction enables libraries of modules to be created, which can be instantiated and reused repeatedly in different contexts with different components. We have developed a computational infrastructure that accomplishes this. We show here why such capabilities are needed, what is required to implement them and what can be accomplished with them that could not be done previously.

  11. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  12. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  13. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  14. Global stability and optimisation of a general impulsive biological control model

    CERN Document Server

    Mailleret, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    An impulsive model of augmentative biological control consisting of a general continuous predator-prey model in ordinary differential equations augmented by a discrete part describing periodic introductions of predators is considered. It is shown that there exists an invariant periodic solution that corresponds to prey eradication and a condition ensuring its global asymptotic stability is given. An optimisation problem related to the preemptive use of augmentative biological control is then considered. It is assumed that the per time unit budget of biological control (i.e. the number of predators to be released) is fixed and the best deployment of this budget is sought after in terms of release frequency. The cost function to be minimised is the time taken to reduce an unforeseen prey (pest) invasion under some harmless level. The analysis shows that the optimisation problem admits a countable infinite number of solutions. An argumentation considering the required robustness of the optimisation result is the...

  15. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes The Use Of Informatics Tools, GIS And SAS Software Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Kashmar, Richard J; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E; Deol, Jasbir K; Wilson, Alora

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning courses using instrumentation, data-collection, data-storage, statistical-modeling analysis, visualization, and computational techniques. In this revised curriculum, students begin with a traditional set of biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics major core-requirements, a geographic information systems (GIS) course, a choice of an instrumental analysis course or a statistical analysis systems (SAS) programming course, and then, students can add major-electives that further add depth and value to their future post-graduate specialty areas. Open-sourced georeferenced census, health and health disparity data were coupled with GIS and SAS tools, in a public health surveillance system project, based on US county zip-codes, to develop use-cases for chronic adult obesity where income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, education, and age were categorical variables. Across the 48 contiguous states, obesity rates are found to be directly proportional to high poverty and inversely proportional to median income and educational achievement. For the State of Delaware, age and educational attainment were found to be limiting obesity risk-factors in its adult population. Furthermore, the 2004-2010 obesity trends showed that for two of the less densely populated Delaware counties; Sussex and Kent, the rates of adult obesity were found to be progressing at much higher proportions when compared to the national average.

  16. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  17. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  18. Publications of the space biology program for 1975-1977: A special bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, J. C. (Compiler); Halstead, T. W. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Documents cited represent research encompassing several disciplines of space biology: botany and plant pathology, physiology and biophysics, agricultural and environmental sciences, anatomy and embryology, cellular and comparative biology, horticulture and aerospace biology.

  19. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  20. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  1. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  2. Maize benefits the predatory beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg, to provide potential to enhance biological control for aphids in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ouyang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. METHODOLOGY: The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008-2010. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ(13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C(3- to a C(4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C(4 resources within one week. Approximately 80-100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C(3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C(4-based resource in September. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

  3. [THE FUNCTIONAL CONSTITUENT OF A BIOLOGICAL COMPONENT IN PROGRAMS FOR TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN THE AREA OF PARASITOLOGY FOR ACCREDITATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Andreeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the functional aspects of a biological component in programs for training specialists in the area of Parasitology for accreditation within the current enactments, including those on modernization of public health and additional professional education. The working program of the module "Fundamental Disciplines" has been used as an example to outline approaches to molding a medical parasitologist's capacity and readiness to solve professional tasks on the basis of knowledge of fundamental disciplines: biology, immunology, and medical geography. Education fundamentalization is shown to suggest more unsupervised work of a learner in the teaching process. The fundamental constituent of a biological component of the 'programs for training learners in the specialty of Parasitology for accreditation is shown in the interaction of all sections of this area with special and allied subjects.

  4. USABILITY EVALUATION OF A CONTROL AND PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR PROGRAMMING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa S. dos S. Lopes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of usability of Control and Programming Environment (CPE of a remote mobile robot. The CPE is an educational environment focused on computer programming education that integrates a program development online tool with a remote lab. To evaluate system usability, empirical test was conducted with computer science students in order to identify the views of users on the system and get directions on how to improve the quality of interface use. The study used questionnaire and observation of the evaluator. The degree of users’ satisfaction was measured by using a quantitative approach that establishes the average ranking for each question of the questionnaire. The results indicate that the system is simple, easy to use and suited to programming practices, however needed changes to make it more intuitive and efficient. The realization test of usability, even with a small sample user, is important to provide feedback on the system's user experience and help identify problems.

  5. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  6. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  7. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  8. Improving biological control of stalk borers in sugarcane by applying silicon as a soil amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikpay Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane stalk borers, Sesamia spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae are the most destructive sugarcane insect pests in Iran. The efficiency of Telenomus busseolae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae used alone or in combination with silicon fertilization was investigated for controlling the sugarcane stalk borers under field conditions. The treatments were: a combination of silicon plus multiple releases of 2,500 T. busseolae, and multiple releases of 5,000, 2,500 and 1,250 T. busseolae alone. Plots receiving no soil amendment or parasites were included as the controls. Three weeks after the first application of each treatment, 100 shoots were selected randomly from each plot and the percentage of dead heart was determined. Then, three months after the first application of parasites, the percentage of stalks damaged, the percentage of internodes bored, and the level of parasitism were determined. Finally, at harvest the percentage of stalks damaged, the percentage of internodes bored, and sugarcane quality characteristics were determined. Results indicated that the efficiency of parasitism increased when combined with an application of silicon fertilizer. The release of 2,500 T. busseolae followed by an application of silicon fertilizer decreased dead hearts to 4%, while 12% dead hearts was observed in the control plots. For the combination treatment, the percentages of stalk damage were 1.5% and 17.2%, at 3 weeks and 3 months after time release, respectively. However, the percentages of stalk damage were 35.2% and 51% when no treatment was applied. Cane quality was significantly higher with the application of silicon fertilizer plus the release of 2,500 T. busseolae, followed by releasing 5,000 Hymenoptera. The level of parasitism was also greater when parasites were released in combination with an application of silicon. We conclude that biological control by egg parasitoids can be enhanced with concurrent applications of silicon fertilizer as a soil

  9. Transition-ready technologies and expertise from the Chemical and Biological National Security Program at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, P A; McBride, M T

    2006-02-22

    HSARPA has initiated a new Bioinformatics and Assay Development solicitation, BIAD2 (BAA 06-01), to address a number of technology gaps and requirements for biodetection (www.hsarpabaa.com). This solicitation will leverage the vast research and development capabilities of the private sector and academia in order to meet the needs of HSARPA and Homeland Security. In order to meet these requirements, this solicitation will: (1) Develop and validate actionable assays for the public and private sector; (2) Develop and validate new assays and novel assay methodologies to enhance existing detection systems and enable future detection platforms; (3) Develop next generation assays which are robust against novel, emerging and engineered threats; (4) Develop novel assays that detect low levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based viral threats in complex backgrounds; (5) Develop novel assays to characterize the viability, degree of virulence or toxicity, and countermeasure resistance of a biological agent; and (6) Develop new bioinformatics tools to support assay development and assay validation The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioassays and Signature Program (BSP) develops nationally-validated detection and identification assays to cover the full range of biological threat agents, starting from human, animal, and plant pathogens on the Select Agent list. The assays that have been co-developed by the CDC and the BSP are used internationally and represent the gold standard for molecular detection of select agent pathogens for the public health community. They are also used in the DHS environmental monitoring operations such as BioWatch and DHS National Security Special Events support. These reagents have been used to process and analyze more than 5 million samples and have delivered exceptional performance for the end users, with zero false positives since their deployment. Currently, highly-multiplexed nucleic acid assays that represent the &apos

  10. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  11. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework.

  12. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 1: Automation costs versus crew utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Hambright, R. N.; Nedungadi, A.; Mcfayden, G. M.; Tsuchida, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A significant emphasis upon automation within the Space Biology Initiative hardware appears justified in order to conserve crew labor and crew training effort. Two generic forms of automation were identified: automation of data and information handling and decision making, and the automation of material handling, transfer, and processing. The use of automatic data acquisition, expert systems, robots, and machine vision will increase the volume of experiments and quality of results. The automation described may also influence efforts to miniaturize and modularize the large array of SBI hardware identified to date. The cost and benefit model developed appears to be a useful guideline for SBI equipment specifiers and designers. Additional refinements would enhance the validity of the model. Two NASA automation pilot programs, 'The Principal Investigator in a Box' and 'Rack Mounted Robots' were investigated and found to be quite appropriate for adaptation to the SBI program. There are other in-house NASA efforts that provide technology that may be appropriate for the SBI program. Important data is believed to exist in advanced medical labs throughout the U.S., Japan, and Europe. The information and data processing in medical analysis equipment is highly automated and future trends reveal continued progress in this area. However, automation of material handling and processing has progressed in a limited manner because the medical labs are not affected by the power and space constraints that Space Station medical equipment is faced with. Therefore, NASA's major emphasis in automation will require a lead effort in the automation of material handling to achieve optimal crew utilization.

  13. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration in cooperation with Todd Pacific Shipyards...AUG 1985 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program Process Analysis Via...lighting, retraining work- ers, or other such approaches. This product of A/C is called process or method analysis. Process analysis involves a

  14. Renew the car track control panel programming with SIEMENS

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Jeevan

    2013-01-01

    This research examines use of automation controllers for the solution of automation problem. The automated car track at the HAMK automation la-boratory was used as an example for implementation. The commissioner of the thesis was the Department of Automation, HAMK University of Applied Sciences. It is located in Häme region in southern Finland having 7 campuses in different locations. The objective of the study was to build a PLC program that could control the speed of the car. The other ...

  15. Latex Dipping Machine PLC Control and Its Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Latex dipping machine is based on a latex patent products new-production condom and the development of the machine. The latex dipping agencies combined with production condom mechanism. First it realized a 3-dimensional accurate localization system using stepping motors. SIMATIC S7-200 series programmable controller, motion module EM253 and stepping motor are tied in wedlock to realize allocation of 3-dimension of X axis and Y axis and Z axis. Through the PTO pulse of Siemens S7-200 PLC controller and combined with the use of EM253 module, through the mould precise control programming soak glue and roll edge to achieve the control mold of rotation and swinging the uniform distributed latex. And the system has applied successfully in foreign-funded enterprise of Singapore.

  16. Understanding the biology and control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Kuster, Tatiana; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite capable of causing pathology in birds, amongst other animals. It is an increasingly important pathogen in egg layers and is responsible for substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Even though PRM poses a serious problem, very little is known about the basic biology of the mite. Here we review the current body of literature describing red mite biology and discuss how this has been, or could be, used to develop methods to control PRM infestations. We focus primarily on the PRM digestive system, salivary glands, nervous system and exoskeleton and also explore areas of PRM biology which have to date received little or no study but have the potential to offer new control targets.

  17. Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Controllability Test of a Class of Boolean Biological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Boolean-network-model-based approaches to dynamical analysis of complex biological networks such as gene regulatory networks have been extensively studied. One of the fundamental problems in control theory of such networks is the problem of determining whether a given substance quantity can be arbitrarily controlled by operating the other substance quantities, which we call the controllability problem. This paper proposes a polynomial-time algorithm for solving this problem. Although the algorithm is based on a sufficient condition for controllability, it is easily computable for a wider class of large-scale biological networks compared with the existing approaches. A key to this success in our approach is to give up computing Boolean operations in a rigorous way and to exploit an adjacency matrix of a directed graph induced by a Boolean network. By applying the proposed approach to a neurotransmitter signaling pathway, it is shown that it is effective.

  18. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  19. Flower power? Potential benefits and pitfalls of using (flowering) vegetation for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, F.L.; Rijn, van P.C.J.; Winkler, K.; Olson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas nectar and pollen provision to predators and parasitoids is a main objective in pursuing agricultural biodiversity, we often know little about whether the flowering plant species involved are actually suitable as insect food sources or about their ultimate impact on biological pest control.

  20. Acquired natural enemies of the weed biological control agent Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Australian curculionid Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe was introduced into Florida during 1997 as a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake. Populations of the weevil increased rapidly and became widely distributed throughout much of the invasive tree’s adve...

  1. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  2. Preliminary study on three pathogens with potential biological control in Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus galli)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ More than 10 species of pathogenic fungi were isolated from the naturally infected leaves of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in paddy. After preliminary bioassaying, it was found that the Alternaria alternata (Fr.) keissler(AA), Exserohilum monoceras (EM),and "99-10" were three potential agents for biological control of barnyard grass.

  3. Erroneous host identification frustrates systematics and delays implementation of biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin, F.; Roversi, P.F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Misidentifications of pests and their natural enemies and misinterpretations of pest-natural enemy associations have led to the failure of a number of biological control projects. In addition to misidentification, more complicated kinds of errors, such as mistakes in establishing host records of par

  4. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  5. Host range of the inadvertent biological control agent Caloptilia triadicae: an invasive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inadvertent biological control agent of the invasive weed Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera) first appeared in North America in 2004. Identified as a Caloptilia triadicae, this leaf miner was found damaging T. sebifera saplings. In Gainesville, FL we exposed naturalized populations of C. tria...

  6. Evolutionary interactions between the invasive tallow tree and herbivores: implications for biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding interactions between insect agents and host plants is critical for forecasting their impact before the insects are introduced, and for improving our knowledge of the mechanisms driving success or failure in biological weed control. As invasive plants may undergo rapid adaptive evolutio...

  7. Biological control of whitefly on greenhouse tomato in Colombia: Encarsia formosa or Amitus fuscipennis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, de R.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Colombia, biological control of pests in greenhouse crops is only applied on a very limited scale in ornamentals and as yet non-existent in greenhouse vegetables. Greenhouse production of vegetables - mostly tomatoes- is a recent development, as a result of the high losses of field production due

  8. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  9. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic growers in California typically devote 5 to 10% of the area in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields to insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritime (L.) Desv.) to attract syrphid flies (Syrphidae) whose larvae provide biological control of aphids. A 2-year study with organic romaine lettuc...

  10. Grape Berry Colonization and Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea by Indigenous Vineyard Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis bunch rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important disease of grape berries, especially during transportation and storage. Biological control is a potential means of postharvest management of Botrytis bunch rot. The study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that antagonistic yeast...

  11. Status of biological control projects on terrestrial invasive alien weeds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In cooperation with foreign scientists, we are currently developing new classical biological control agents for five species of invasive alien terrestrial weeds. Cape-Ivy. A gall-forming fly, Parafreutreta regalis, and a stem-boring moth, Digitivalva delaireae, have been favorably reviewed by TAG...

  12. Evaluation of Puccinia carduorum for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rust fungus Puccinia carduorum is a candidate for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in the USA. In Tunisia, rusted C. pycnocephalus has been found in many fields during surveys conducted in the north of the country. The pathogenicity of Puccinia carduorum was evaluated under greenhou...

  13. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  14. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  15. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  16. Evaluation of Amitus fuscipennis as biological control agent of Trialeurodes vaporariorum on bean in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzano Martinez, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the study of a natural enemy of whiteflies, Amitus fuscipennis MacGown & Nebeker under Colombian field and laboratory conditions. The general aim of the project was to study whether biological control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) with A. fusc

  17. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  18. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a key pest of clementines. Biological control of A. spiraecola is still poorly known and efforts were based on the use and conservation of parasitoids but it did not success. With all this said, the aims of this thesis were: i) to disentangle the reasons behind the low parasitism of A. spiraecola; ii) to determine when and how predators can control A. spiraecola populations; and, finally, iii) to evaluate whether a ground cover of Poaceae...

  1. Biological control with Trichogramma pretiosum increases organic maize productivity by 19.4%

    OpenAIRE

    de Lourdes Corrêa Figueiredo, Maria; Cruz, Ivan; da Silva, Rafael Braga; Foster, John Edward

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractSpodoptera frugiperda is a major pest causing maize yield loss in Brazil. There is therefore a need for control methods, notably for organic farming because classical pesticides are not allowed. A potential solution for organic maize is to apply the biological control agent Trichogramma pretiosum to reduce S. frugiperda populations. Here, we tested the application of one, two, or three releases of T. pretiosum. We measured plant damage ratings, egg masses paras...

  2. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  3. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  4. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  5. Imposing early stability to ecological and biological networks through Evolutionary Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis of the dynamical networks is a well-studied topic, both in ecology and in biology. In this work, I adopt a different perspective: instead of analysing the stability of an arbitrary ecological network, I seek here to impose such stability as soon as possible (or, contrariwise, as late as possible during network dynamics. Evolutionary Network Control (ENC is a theoretical and methodological framework aimed to the control of ecological and biological networks by coupling network dynamics and evolutionary modelling. ENC covers several topics of network control, for instance a the global control from inside and b from outside, c the local (step-by-step control, and the computation of: d control success, e feasibility, and f degree of uncertainty. In this work, I demonstrate that ENC can also be employed to impose early (but, also, late stability to arbitrary ecological and biological networks, and provide an applicative example based on the nonlinear, widely-used, Lotka-Volterra model.

  6. Variable Cycle Engine Control System Definition Study. Turbine Engine Technology Demonstrator Component Development Program, Project 668A. Controls Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    with a contvol system was developed along with cOMUtet.-ed optimi.-ation ard conetraint proedure... to e-totlish optimal enine jam• ?a. ... O1 • j1.4St 1...self-test and diagnostic features of the controller software . It should be noted from a systems concept that failure detection applies to both the...deve’..., and validation of software for implementing the final control mode for the J.:-’on-, strator test stand running. The test program also

  7. Biological computational approaches: new hopes to improve (re)programming robustness, regenerative medicine and cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs) are expressed and work in each cell type, but the identity of the cells is defined and maintained through the activity of a small number of core TFs. Existing reprogramming strategies predominantly focus on the ectopic expression of core TFs of an intended fate in a given cell type regardless of the state of native/somatic gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of the starting cells. Interestingly, an important point is that how much products of the reprogramming, transdifferentiation and differentiation (programming) are identical to their in vivo counterparts. There is evidence that shows that direct fate conversions of somatic cells are not complete, with target cell identity not fully achieved. Manipulation of core TFs provides a powerful tool for engineering cell fate in terms of extinguishment of native GRNs, the establishment of a new GRN, and preventing installation of aberrant GRNs. Conventionally, core TFs are selected to convert one cell type into another mostly based on literature and the experimental identification of genes that are differentially expressed in one cell type compared to the specific cell types. Currently, there is not a universal standard strategy for identifying candidate core TFs. Remarkably, several biological computational platforms are developed, which are capable of evaluating the fidelity of reprogramming methods and refining existing protocols. The current review discusses some deficiencies of reprogramming technologies in the production of a pure population of authentic target cells. Furthermore, it reviews the role of computational approaches (e.g. CellNet, KeyGenes, Mogrify, etc.) in improving (re)programming methods and consequently in regenerative medicine and cancer therapeutics.

  8. Biological control of Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs with Metarhizium anisopliae blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Selzer, Philipp; Steidle, Johannes L M; Mackenstedt, Ute

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a biological pest control agent against various arthropod species, including ticks. However, the efficacy depends on tick species, tick stage and fungus strain. We studied the effect of M. anisopliae on engorged larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant tick species in Europe, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. A significant reduction of engorged larvae and nymphs could be shown under laboratory as well as under semi-field conditions. Only 3.5% of the larvae treated in the lab and only 18.5% kept under semi-field conditions were able to develop into nymphs compared to the recovered nymphs of the control groups, which were regarded as 100%. Only 7.1% of nymphs were recovered as adult ticks after fungal treatment under semi-field conditions compared to the control (100%). The efficacy of blastospores of M. anisopliae against engorged larvae and nymphs of I. ricinus under semi-field conditions was demonstrated in this study, showing their high potential as a biological control agent of ticks. Further studies will have to investigate the effect of this agent against other stages of I. ricinus as well as other tick species before its value as a biological control agent against ticks can be fully assessed.

  9. Commercial Biological Control Agents Targeted Against Plant-Parasitic Root-knot Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stéphane Tranier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes are microscopic round worms, which cause severe agricultural losses. Their attacks affect the productivity by reducing the amount and the caliber of the fruits. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using microorganisms to reduce the quantity of pests infecting crops. Biological control is developing gradually, and with time, more products are being marketed worldwide. They can be formulated with bacteria, viruses or with filamentous fungi, which can destroy and feed on phytoparasitic nematodes. To be used by the farmers, biopesticides must be legalized by the states, which has led to the establishment of a legal framework for their use, devised by various governmental organizations.

  10. The Google matrix controls the stability of structured ecological and biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lewi

    2016-09-01

    May's celebrated theoretical work of the 70's contradicted the established paradigm by demonstrating that complexity leads to instability in biological systems. Here May's random-matrix modelling approach is generalized to realistic large-scale webs of species interactions, be they structured by networks of competition, mutualism or both. Simple relationships are found to govern these otherwise intractable models, and control the parameter ranges for which biological systems are stable and feasible. Our analysis of model and real empirical networks is only achievable on introducing a simplifying Google-matrix reduction scheme, which in the process, yields a practical ecological eigenvalue stability index. These results provide an insight into how network topology, especially connectance, influences species stable coexistence. Constraints controlling feasibility (positive equilibrium populations) in these systems are found more restrictive than those controlling stability, helping explain the enigma of why many classes of feasible ecological models are nearly always stable.

  11. NASA F-16XL supersonic laminar flow control program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA supersonic laminar flow control program are provided. Successful application of laminar flow control to a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) offers significant benefits in reductions of take-off gross weight, mission fuel burn, cruise drag, structural temperatures, engine size, emissions, and sonic boom. The ultimate economic success of the proposed HSCT may depend on the successful adaption of laminar flow control, which offers the single most significant potential improvements in lift drag ratio (L/D) of all the aerodynamic technologies under consideration. The F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) Experiment was conceived based on the encouraging results of in-house and NASA supported industry studies to determine if laminar flow control is feasible for the HSCT. The primary objective is to achieve extensive laminar flow (50-60 percent chord) on a highly swept supersonic wing. Data obtained from the flight test will be used to validate existing Euler and Navier Stokes aerodynamic codes and transition prediction boundary layer stability codes. These validated codes and developed design methodology will be delivered to industry for their use in designing supersonic laminar flow control wings. Results from this experiment will establish preliminary suction system design criteria enabling industry to better size the suction system and develop improved estimates of system weight, fuel volume loss due to wing ducting, turbocompressor power requirements, etc. so that benefits and penalties can be more accurately assessed.

  12. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Deloose; J. Cuperus; P. Charrue; F. DiMaio; K. Kostro; M. Vanden Eynden (CERN); W. Watson (TJNAF)

    1999-10-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common control as infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organized in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described.

  13. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Charrue, P; Deloose, I; Di Maio, F; Kostro, K; Van den Eynden, M; Watson, W

    1999-01-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common controls infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organised in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described.

  14. Adaptive dynamic programming with applications in optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding; Yang, Xiong; Li, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the most recent developments in adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The text begins with a thorough background review of ADP making sure that readers are sufficiently familiar with the fundamentals. In the core of the book, the authors address first discrete- and then continuous-time systems. Coverage of discrete-time systems starts with a more general form of value iteration to demonstrate its convergence, optimality, and stability with complete and thorough theoretical analysis. A more realistic form of value iteration is studied where value function approximations are assumed to have finite errors. Adaptive Dynamic Programming also details another avenue of the ADP approach: policy iteration. Both basic and generalized forms of policy-iteration-based ADP are studied with complete and thorough theoretical analysis in terms of convergence, optimality, stability, and error bounds. Among continuous-time systems, the control of affine and nonaffine nonlinear systems is studied using the ADP app...

  15. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  16. Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Elham A; Shigidi, M T; Hassan, S M

    2013-12-15

    In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.

  17. 78 FR 20924 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research eSubmitter Pilot Evaluation Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Pilot Evaluation Program for Investigational New Drug Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...) applications to participate in a pilot evaluation program for CBER's eSubmitter Program (eSubmitter). CBER's e... FDA. II. eSubmitter Pilot Evaluation Program Expectations The eSubmitter pilot evaluation program...

  18. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  19. CR mammography: Design and implementation of a quality control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Ramirez, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Villasenor-Navarro, Y.; Galvan, H. A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Departamento de Radiodiagnostico, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, DF 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Despite the recent acquisition of significant quantities of computed radiography CR equipment for mammography, Mexican regulations do not specify the performance requirements for digital systems such as those of CR type. The design of a quality control program QCP specific for CR mammography systems was thus considered relevant. International protocols were taken as reference to define tests, procedures and acceptance criteria. The designed QCP was applied in three CR mammography facilities. Important deficiencies in spatial resolution, noise, image receptor homogeneity, artifacts and breast thickness compensation were detected.

  20. Conservation biological control of pests in the molecular era: new opportunities to address old constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurr eGeoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBiological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular – particularly DNA-related – techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and now – in turn – are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS- based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate the plant defence mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles.

  1. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, Thomas; Collins, Debbie; Hérard, Franck; Maspero, Matteo; Eyre, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Japan, and fungal infection results in high mortality rates. Parasitic nematodes: Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser have potential for use as biopesticides as an alternative to chemical treatments. Parasitoids: a parasitoid of Anoplophora chinensis Forster, Aprostocetus anoplophorae Delvare (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was discovered in Italy in 2002 and has been shown to be capable of parasitising up to 72% of A. chinensis eggs; some native European parasitoid species (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) also have potential to be used as biological control agents. Predators: two woodpecker (Piciformis: Picidae) species that are native to Europe, Dendrocopos major Beicki and Picus canus Gmelin, have been shown to be effective at controlling Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky in Chinese forests. The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for Anoplophora spp. in Europe, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible.

  2. Pathogen variation and urea influence selection and success of Streptomyces mixtures in biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto-Hanson, L K; Grabau, Z; Rosen, C; Salomon, C E; Kinkel, L L

    2013-01-01

    Success in biological control of plant diseases remains inconsistent in the field. A collection of well-characterized Streptomyces antagonists (n = 19 isolates) was tested for their capacities to inhibit pathogenic Streptomyces scabies (n = 15 isolates). There was significant variation among antagonists in ability to inhibit pathogen isolates and among pathogens in their susceptibility to inhibition. Only one antagonist could inhibit all pathogens, and antagonist-pathogen interactions were highly specific, highlighting the limitations of single-strain inoculum in biological control. However, the collection of pathogens could be inhibited by several combinations of antagonists, suggesting the potential for successful antagonist mixtures. Urea generally increased effectiveness of antagonists at inhibiting pathogens in vitro (increased mean inhibition zones) but its specific effects varied among antagonist-pathogen combinations. In greenhouse trials, urea enhanced the effectiveness of antagonist mixtures relative to individual antagonists in controlling potato scab. Although antagonist mixtures were frequently antagonistic in the absence of urea, all n= 2 and n = 3 antagonist-isolate combinations were synergistic in the presence of urea. This work provides insights into the efficacy of single- versus multiple-strain inocula in biological control and on the potential for nutrients to influence mixture success.

  3. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleixandre Beltrà

    Full Text Available Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa, sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain.

  4. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H.; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain. PMID:26047349

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Trace contaminant control simulation computer program, version 8.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control Simulation computer program is a tool for assessing the performance of various process technologies for removing trace chemical contamination from a spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Included in the simulation are chemical and physical adsorption by activated charcoal, chemical adsorption by lithium hydroxide, absorption by humidity condensate, and low- and high-temperature catalytic oxidation. Means are provided for simulating regenerable as well as nonregenerable systems. The program provides an overall mass balance of chemical contaminants in a spacecraft cabin given specified generation rates. Removal rates are based on device flow rates specified by the user and calculated removal efficiencies based on cabin concentration and removal technology experimental data. Versions 1.0 through 8.0 are documented in NASA TM-108409. TM-108409 also contains a source file listing for version 8.0. Changes to version 8.0 are documented in this technical memorandum and a source file listing for the modified version, version 8.1, is provided. Detailed descriptions for the computer program subprograms are extracted from TM-108409 and modified as necessary to reflect version 8.1. Version 8.1 supersedes version 8.0. Information on a separate user's guide is available from the author.

  7. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an... release of Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the...-2323. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to...

  8. Development of biological control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari:Tetranychidae) and Phorodon humuli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Oregon Hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporal development of biological control of arthropod pests in perennial cropping systems is largely unreported. In this study, the development of biological control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) in a new planting of hop in Oregon...

  9. The influence of flower morphology and nectar quality on the longevity of a parasitoid biological control agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattala, H.D.; Wratten, S.D.; Phillips, C.B.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of arthropod biological control agents, such as parasitoids, partly by providing them with access to floral nectar. However, the suitability of a flower species for providing nectar to a parasitoid is dependent on the morphologies of the p

  10. A theoretical lens on a biology intensive orientation program: A study of self-efficacy and self-regulation of freshman biology majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Erin R.

    There is a national effort to increase the number of undergraduate students graduating in science, math, engineering, and technology (STEM) (National Science Foundation, 2007). The majority of students initially populating these STEM majors ultimately switch to and graduate from non-STEM majors (Seymour & Hewitt, 2000; Seymour, 2002). The source of attrition from STEM fields lies within the difficulty of concepts presented in freshman STEM introductory courses (Jensen & Moore, 2007, 2008, 2009; Seymour & Hewitt, 2000). These gateway courses are considered high-risk because nearly half of students enrolled in these courses receive either a "D" or "F" or completely withdraw from the course (Labov, 2004). Research shows that students who have uncalibrated self-efficacy and an attenuated self-regulated learning are unsuccessful in high-risk courses (Kitsantas et al., 2008; Ross, Green, Salisbury-Glennon, & Tollefson, 2006; Zimmerman, 2002). Traditional academic assistance, such as tutoring, learning to learn courses, and supplemental instruction, does not explicitly develop an undergraduate's self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as it specifically relates to the STEM domains (Cao & Nietfeld, 2007; Dembo & Seli, 2006; Ross et al., 2006; Simpson, Hind, Nist, Burrell, 1997). Some STEM departments have created academic interventions, such as one-credit seminars, orientation programs, and bridge programs, to directly address the needs of STEM majors (Belzer, 2003; Bonner, 2009; Chevalier, Chrisman, & Kelsey, 2001; Hutchison-Green, Follman, & Bodner, 2008; D. J. Minchella, Yazvac, C. W., Fodrea, R. A., Ball G., 2007; Reyes, Anderson-Rowland, & McCartney, 1998). This study focused on the effect of a biology-intensive orientation program on biology majors' self-efficacy and self-regulated learning. The study utilized approximately 300 undergraduate biology majors participating in a biology-intensive orientation that occurred on August 7-12, 2011, at a public state

  11. The Effects of Program Control, Learner Control, and Learner Control with Advisement Lesson Control Strategies on Anxiety and Learning from Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorough, Randall P.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three computer-assisted instruction (CAI) locus of instructional control strategies--learner control, learner control with advisement, and program control--on posttest performance and anxiety. The instructional content was a lesson addressing the effects of alcohol on the body. To examine the…

  12. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species. PMID:25376303

  13. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species.

  14. Economic Benefits of Advanced Control Strategies in Biological Nutrient Removal Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Nielsen, M.K.; Harremoës, Poul

    1994-01-01

    Advances in on-line monitoring of nutrient salt concentrations and computer technology has created a large potential for the implementation of advanced and complex control strategies in biological nutrient removal systems. The majority of wastewater treatment plants today are operated with very...... strategies incorporating information from the grey box models are capable of reducing the total nitrogen discharge as well as energy costs. These results have a major impact on both existing and future plants. In fact, it is expected that future plants can be reduced with 10-20 per cent in size......, and that the complexity in reactor design of biological nutrient removal systems will be substituted by complexity in control in the future....

  15. A simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of advanced control techniques in biological wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor O.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. They are large and nonlinear systems subject to great disturbances in incoming loads. The primary goal of a WWTP is to reduce pollutants and the second goal is disturbance rejection, in order to obtain good effluent quality. Modeling and computer simulations are key tools in the achievement of these two goals. They are essential to describe, predict and control the complicated interactions of the processes. Numerous control techniques (algorithms and control strategies (structures have been suggested to regulate WWTP; however, it is difficult to make a discerning performance evaluation due to the nonuniformity of the simulated plants used. The main objective of this paper is to present a benchmark of an entire biological wastewater treatment plant in order to evaluate, through simulations, different control techniques. This benchmark plays the role of an activated sludge process used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen from domestic effluents. The development of this simulator is based on models widely accepted by the international community and is implemented in Matlab/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc. platform. The benchmark considers plant layout and the effects of influent characteristics. It also includes a test protocol for analyzing the open and closed-loop responses of the plant. Examples of control applications in the benchmark are implemented employing conventional PI controllers. The following common control strategies are tested: dissolved oxygen (DO concentration-based control, respirometry-based control and nitrate concentration-based control.

  16. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two...

  17. The Use and Exchange of Biological Control Agents for Food and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.C.van; Lenteren; M.J.W.Cock; J.Brodeur; B.Barratt; F.Bigler; K.Bolckmans; F.Haas; P.G.Mason; J.R.P.Parra

    2010-01-01

    The report sets out to summarize the past and current situation regarding the practice of biologicalcontrol inrelationtothe use and exchange of genetic resources relevant for BCAs.It considers the twomain categories of biological control:classical and augmentative.Allowing access to BCAs for use inanother country imposes no risk of liability to the source country.Local scientific knowledge abouthabitats,fauna andflora,can be helpful

  18. Protein-polymer nano-machines. Towards synthetic control of biological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Cameron

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The exploitation of nature's machinery at length scales below the dimensions of a cell is an exciting challenge for biologists, chemists and physicists, while advances in our understanding of these biological motifs are now providing an opportunity to develop real single molecule devices for technological applications. Single molecule studies are already well advanced and biological molecular motors are being used to guide the design of nano-scale machines. However, controlling the specific functions of these devices in biological systems under changing conditions is difficult. In this review we describe the principles underlying the development of a molecular motor with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for control of the motor function. The molecular motor is a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification (R-M enzyme and the synthetic polymer is drawn from the class of materials that exhibit a temperature-dependent phase transition. The potential exploitation of single molecules as functional devices has been heralded as the dawn of new era in biotechnology and medicine. It is not surprising, therefore, that the efforts of numerous multidisciplinary teams 12. have been focused in attempts to develop these systems. as machines capable of functioning at the low sub-micron and nanometre length-scales 3. However, one of the obstacles for the practical application of single molecule devices is the lack of functional control methods in biological media, under changing conditions. In this review we describe the conceptual basis for a molecular motor (a derivative of a TypeI Restriction-Modification enzyme with numerous potential applications in nanotechnology and the use of specific synthetic polymers as prototypic molecular switches for controlling the motor function 4.

  19. Phosphorus limitation controls rates of biological N2-fixation in boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, K. A.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    N2-fixation, once thought to occur at negligible rates in pristine boreal peatlands, has recently been demonstrated to be the dominant input of nitrogen (N) to these ecosystems. The controls of biological N2-fixation in pristine boreal peatlands are not well understood, but limitation of the nutrients molybdenum (Mo) and phosphorus (P) may play a key role. Because the enzyme nitrogenase requires molybdenum-containing cofactors to function, biological N2-fixation may be limited by the trace metal molybdenum. Recent studies have shown that Mo limits nitrogen fixation rates in tropical soils. P availability may also be important in regulating N2-fixation rates; N2-fixation is a P-intensive process because the nitrogenase enzyme is rich in P, and P is likely to be the most limiting nutrient to boreal peatland productivity, next to N. In this study, we examined the role of Mo and P limitation in controlling rates of biological N2-fixation in boreal peatlands. We applied Mo and P nutrient amendments equivalent to 5 mg m-2 yr-1and 10 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively, both alone and in combination, to fifteen 0.36 m2 plots in a pristine Alberta fen throughout the summer 2013 growing season. We periodically assessed N2-fixation rates in Sphagnum angustifolium moss samples using the acetylene reduction assay with subsequent calibration using 15N2. We found a significant overall treatment effect (F3,44=15.62, pTukey's HSD indicates that N2-fixation rates were significantly higher in plots receiving P additions relative to control plots. However, Mo additions had no effect on N2-fixation rates. These results indicate that P, not Mo, availability is dominant in controlling rates of biological N2-fixation in boreal peatland ecosystems.

  20. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 2. Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    this agent should be considered in concert with other biological control methods. The dying canes are incapable of asexual reproduction via layering...two, Multiflora Rose seedlings grow inconspicuously, but quickly become well anchored. Multiflora Rose reproduces asexually by suckering and...mowing the remaining topgrowth eliminates any remaining live plant parts that could asexually reproduce. ERDC TR-08-11 8 Table 1. Herbicides that

  1. Recent Advances in Biological Control of Pest Insects by Using Viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-lian SUN; Hui-yin PENG

    2007-01-01

    Insect viruses are attractive as biological control agents and could be a feasible alternative to chemical insecticides in the management of insect infestations. This review describes recent advances in the development of wild-type and genetically modified viruses as insecticides. A new strategy of application of insect viruses in China is reviewed. Also, the assessment of biosafety of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedovirus (HearNPV) is emphasized as a case-study.

  2. Integration of biological control and botanical pesticides : evaluation in a tritrophic context

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, D.S.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Kfir, R.

    2001-01-01

    The plant kingdom is by far the most efficient producer of chemical compounds, synthesising many products that are used in defence against herbivores. Extracts made from some plants, particularly extracts from plants within the Meliaceae (mahogany) family, have been shown to have insecticidal properties. We investigated the potential of these extracts and the possibility of integrating botanical pesticides with biological control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Sub-lethal doses ...

  3. Control of the surface radioactive contamination in the field of biological research; Control de la contaminacion radiactiva superficial en el ambito de la investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S.; Encina, A. de la; Gaspar, J.; Macias, M. T.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2012-11-01

    The manipulation of unsealed sources in biomedical research involves significant risk of radioactive contamination. the aim of this study has been to analyze the radioactive contamination occurring in the field of biomedical research, assessing its magnitude, identifying the equipment that can be contaminated with higher probability and monitoring the evolution of the contaminations production taking into account the radioisotopes and the activities uses, and the radiation protection control applied. The data used for this study correspond to a very lengthy period of time and it have been collected in the radioactive facility, of the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), a very large biological research centre that can be used perfectly as a reference for this area. The results obtained show a gradual and significant decrease in the incidence of the radioactive contamination. This is due to the optimization of radiation protection standards applied and the implementation or a systematic operational radiation protection program. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science.

  5. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  6. The control and execution of programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, R.; Pathak, N.; Hasnain, S.E.; Sah, N.K. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.; Taneja, T.K.; Mohan, M. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.]|[Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India); Athar, M. [Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India)

    1999-07-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved genetically controlled response of metazoan cells to commit suicide. Non apoptotic programmed cell death seems to operate in single celled eukaryotes implying that evolution of PCD has preceded the evolution of multicellularity. PCD plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular and tissue homeostasis and any aberrations in apoptosis leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS. The mechanisms by which apoptosis is controlled are varied. In some cells, members of bcl-2 family or p53 are crucial for regulating the apoptosis programme, whereas in other cells Fas ligand is more important. bcl-2 family members have a prime role in the regulation of cell death at all stages including development, whereas cell death during development is independent of p53. bcl-2 family members being localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, control the mitochondrial homeostasis and cytochrome c redistribution and thereby regulate the cell death process. p53 promotes DNA damage mediated cell death after growth arrest and failed DNA repair. Caspases play a key role in the execution of cell death by mediating highly specific cleavages of crucial cellular proteins collectivley manifesting the apoptotic phenotype. Protein inhibitors like crm A, p35 and IAPs could prevent/control apoptosis induced by a broad array of cell death stimuli by several mechanisms specially interfering in caspase activation or caspase activity. Among endonucleases, caspase activated DNase (CAD) plays a crucial role in DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. As regulation of cell death seems to be as complex as regulation of cell proliferation, multiple kinase mediated regulatory mechanisms might control the apoptotic process. Thus, in spite of intensive research over the past few years, the field of apoptosis still remains fertile to unravel among others, the molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c

  7. 75 FR 33421 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... ``Food Stamp Program: Non-Discretionary Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

  8. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  9. Cell biology in neuroscience: Architects in neural circuit design: glia control neuron numbers and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corty, Megan M; Freeman, Marc R

    2013-11-11

    Glia serve many important functions in the mature nervous system. In addition, these diverse cells have emerged as essential participants in nearly all aspects of neural development. Improved techniques to study neurons in the absence of glia, and to visualize and manipulate glia in vivo, have greatly expanded our knowledge of glial biology and neuron-glia interactions during development. Exciting studies in the last decade have begun to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which glia exert control over neuronal circuit formation. Recent findings illustrate the importance of glial cells in shaping the nervous system by controlling the number and connectivity of neurons.

  10. Use of a general control simulation program to evaluate HVAC control stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinbang; Warren, M. L.

    1987-08-01

    A general process engineering simulation program for a microcomputer is used to evaluate the response of a cooling system to changes in load, set point, and controller tuning parameters to better understand the control stability of a supply air cooling system used in the Mobile Windows Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility. A detailed system model is built out of standard components and is used to plot the steady state performance under different operating conditions. The response of the cooling coil output depends strongly on the transport delays. For a system with a linear control valve, the process gain of the cooling coil increases rapidly as the valve flow fraction decreases. A system which is stable at mid-range is shown to become marginally unstable at the low end of the control range. The application of both an equal percentage valve and reheat are shown to improve the control response of the system under low cooling load conditions.

  11. Efficacy of Chaetomium Species as Biological Control Agents against Phytophthora nicotianae Root Rot in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Phung Manh; Wattanachai, Pongnak; Kasem, Soytong; Poeaim, Supattra

    2015-09-01

    Thailand is one of the largest citrus producers in Southeast Asia. Pathogenic infection by Phytophthora, however, has become one of major impediments to production. This study identified a pathogenic oomycete isolated from rotted roots of pomelo (Citrus maxima) in Thailand as Phytophthora nicotianae by the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Then, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of Chaetomium globosum, Chaetomium lucknowense, Chaetomium cupreum and their crude extracts as biological control agents in controlling this P. nicotianae strain. Represent as antagonists in biculture test, the tested Chaetomium species inhibited mycelial growth by 50~56% and parasitized the hyphae, resulting in degradation of P. nicotianae mycelia after 30 days. The crude extracts of these Chaetomium species exhibited antifungal activities against mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, with effective doses of 2.6~101.4 µg/mL. Under greenhouse conditions, application of spores and methanol extracts of these Chaetomium species to pomelo seedlings inoculated with P. nicotianae reduced root rot by 66~71% and increased plant weight by 72~85% compared to that in the control. The method of application of antagonistic spores to control the disease was simple and economical, and it may thus be applicable for large-scale, highly effective biological control of this pathogen.

  12. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus macropilis and Macrolophus pygmaeus in tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigon, Vincent; Camps, Cédric; Le Corff, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Biological control against phytophagous arthropods has been widely used under greenhouse conditions. Its success is dependent on a number of factors related to the abiotic conditions and to the interactions between pests and biological control agents. In particular, when multiple predator species are introduced to suppress one pest, competitive interactions might occur, including intraguild predation (IGP). In tomato crops, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a very problematic phytophagous mite and its control is not yet satisfactory. In 2012 and 2013, the ability of a potential new predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) was assessed, alone and in the presence of Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a polyphagous mirid supposed to predate on P. macropilis. Both years, under greenhouse conditions, the effectiveness of the two predators was compared between the following treatments: T. urticae, T. urticae + P. macropilis, T. urticae + M. pygmaeus, and T. urticae + P. macropilis + M. pygmaeus. The number of arthropods per tomato plant over time indicated that P. macropilis well-controlled the population of T. urticae, whereas M. pygmaeus had a very limited impact. Furthermore, there was no evidence of IGP between the two predators but in the presence of M. pygmaeus, P. macropilis tended to have a more clumped spatial distribution. Further studies should clarify the number and location of inoculation points to optimize the control of T. urticae by P. macropilis.

  13. Synthetic biology and genetic causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems.

  14. Integration of plant defense traits with biological control of arthropod pests: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Peterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically-, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically-mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management.

  15. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  16. Primary Study on Biological Control Potential of Trichoderma harzianum TL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Zhenyu; Xiao; Man; Gao; Xinzheng; Tang; Libo; Li; Li

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a widely used biocontrol fungus. The growth promoting effect of strain Trichoderma harzianum TL-1 on tomato and pepper and its biological control effects against tomato seedling damping-off and pepper blight were investigated through pot experiments. The results showed that the stain TL-1 had significant promotion effect on growth of pepper and tomato in sterilized and natural soils. With the application dose of 3. 0 and 0. 5g/ pot,their dry weight were increased up to 46% and 150% compared with control,respectively. In addition,TL-1 had good control effects against tomato seedling damping-off and pepper blight. Compared with fungicide treatment,TL-1 treatment could control diseases for long term,without repeat occurrence of diseases.

  17. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  18. High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J L; Gruber, N; Brzezinski, M A; Dunne, J P

    2004-01-01

    The ocean's biological pump strips nutrients out of the surface waters and exports them into the thermocline and deep waters. If there were no return path of nutrients from deep waters, the biological pump would eventually deplete the surface waters and thermocline of nutrients; surface biological productivity would plummet. Here we make use of the combined distributions of silicic acid and nitrate to trace the main nutrient return path from deep waters by upwelling in the Southern Ocean and subsequent entrainment into subantarctic mode water. We show that the subantarctic mode water, which spreads throughout the entire Southern Hemisphere and North Atlantic Ocean, is the main source of nutrients for the thermocline. We also find that an additional return path exists in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, where enhanced vertical mixing, perhaps driven by tides, brings abyssal nutrients to the surface and supplies them to the thermocline of the North Pacific. Our analysis has important implications for our understanding of large-scale controls on the nature and magnitude of low-latitude biological productivity and its sensitivity to climate change.

  19. System-active approach in working with gifted children on the program author's circle of ecological and biological orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plonish Julia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author's program of environmental and biological circle orientation. It is shown that the basis of the federal state educational standards is a system-activity approach. The result of its application is the development of the child on the basis of Universal Instructional activities. The main advantage of the course by choice "school environmental monitoring 'is his experimental and practice-oriented direction. As a result of the development of the educational program students will learn: about current research in biology, chemistry, ecology, and their practical and moral-ethical significance, the actions of human beings in critical environmental situations, the impact of the natural environment on human health (eg, geochemical characteristics of terrain, the quality of drinking water, dust atmosphere, etc., health-enhancing effects of natural elements (plants, recreational resources, etc..

  20. Cooperation between socialist countries in space biology and medicine within the framework of the Interkosmos program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovskiy, N. N.

    1974-01-01

    Upon the proposal of the Soviet Union, experts from the socialist countries accepted the following scientific problems for cooperation in space biology and medicine: (1) the effect on the body of extreme space flight factors (space physiology); (2) radiation safety of space flights and search for pharmaco-chemical means of antiradiation protection; and (3) medico-biological aspects of closed ecological systems.

  1. The iSBTc/SITC primer on tumor immunology and biological therapy of cancer: a summary of the 2010 program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urba Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC (formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc, aims to improve cancer patient outcomes by advancing the science, development and application of biological therapy and immunotherapy. The society and its educational programs have become premier destinations for interaction and innovation in the cancer biologics community. For over a decade, the society has offered the Primer on Tumor Immunology and Biological Therapy of Cancer™ in conjunction with its Annual Scientific Meeting. This report summarizes the 2010 Primer that took place October 1, 2010 in Washington, D.C. as part of the educational offerings associated with the society's 25th anniversary. The target audience was basic and clinical investigators from academia, industry and regulatory agencies, and included clinicians, post-doctoral fellows, students, and allied health professionals. Attendees were provided a review of basic immunology and educated on the current status and most recent advances in tumor immunology and clinical/translational caner immunology. Ten prominent investigators presented on the following topics: innate immunity and inflammation; an overview of adaptive immunity; dendritic cells; tumor microenvironment; regulatory immune cells; immune monitoring; cytokines in cancer immunotherapy; immune modulating antibodies; cancer vaccines; and adoptive T cell therapy. Presentation slides, a Primer webinar and additional program information are available online on the society's website.

  2. Rice Tolerance to Saflufenacil in Clomazone Weed Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Camargo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate (1 rice tolerance to saflufenacil applied preemergence (PRE and postemergence (POST and (2 the combination of saflufenacil and clomazone in light-textured soils. No injury from PRE application of saflufenacil was observed in 2009, and minimal injury for saflufenacil alone was observed in 2010. Injury as high as 68% was observed with combinations of 505 g ha−1 of clomazone applied PRE and 50 g ha−1 of saflufenacil applied POST in 2009 early evaluations. No interaction between clomazone and POST saflufenacil rates was observed in 2010. Rice injury intensified with increasing rates of saflufenacil applied POST. However, rice recovered with time for herbicide treatments applied PRE and POST in both years. Consequently, rice yield was not affected by any of the saflufenacil rates applied either PRE or POST in a clomazone weed control program.

  3. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  4. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  5. Assessment of the scientific-technological production in molecular biology in Brazil (1996-2007): the contribution of genomics programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Rogério; Gamba, Estêvão C

    2011-06-01

    Several genome sequencing programs were launched in Brazil by the end of the nineties and the early 2000s.The most important initiatives were supported by the ONSA program (http://watson.fapesp.br/onsa/Genoma3.htm) and aimed at gaining domain in genomic technology and bringing molecular biology to the state of art. Two main sets of data were collected in the 1996-2007 period to evaluate the results of these genome programs: the scientific production (Scopus and Web of Science databases) and the register of patents (US Patent and Trademark Office), both related to the progress of molecular biology along this period. In regard to the former, Brazil took a great leap in comparison to 17 other developed and developing countries, being only surpassed by China. As to the register of patents in the area of molecular biology, Brazil's performance lags far behind most of the countries focused in the present study, confirming the Brazilian long-standing tendency of poor achievements in technological innovations when compared with scientific production. Possible solutions to surpass this inequality are discussed.

  6. Phenotypic charactheristics of fluorescent pseudomonss, biological control agent of lincat disease of temanggung tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINING NURUL AZIZAH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonass isolated from local plants-rishosphere in temanggung controlled lincat disease of tobacco. This report describe phenotypic charactheristics of the bacteria in order to be used as a base for the development of the bacteria as a biological control agent of lincat disease. Phenotypic charactheristics of six isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonass which controlled lincat disease in the field were determined in the laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Plant pathogenicity tests were conducted by hypersensitive reaction into tobacco leaf and inoculation to tobacco plants. Antagonism test between fluorescent Pseudomonass and other candidate of biological control agents were also conducted. The results indicated that the bacteria were rod shape, Gram negative, positive reaction in catalase and oxidase tests. Nitrate reduce to nitrite, arginine was hydrolysed, fluorescent pigment were produced on King’s B medium, levan formation positive and all bacteria denitrifiy. The bacteria used urea, tween 80 and amylum were not hydrolised, poly--hydroxybutyrate was not accumulated in the cells. Negative reactions were observed for lysine decarboxylation, indol production, VP/MR reaction, and gelatn liquefation. Some compounds could be used as solely carbon sources. All isolates grew on the medium containing 2% NaCl. The best pH for growth was 6-7 and all isolates grew at 20-41C. Negative result were obtained for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity tests.

  7. [Biological activities of exogenous polysaccharides via controlling endogenous proteoglycan metabolism in vascular endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Chika; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2008-05-01

    Proteoglycan contains glycosmainoglycans, which are endogenous sulfated polysaccharides, in the molecule. The metabolism of proteoglycans regulates cell behavior and cellular events. It is possible that exogenous polysaccharide-related molecules exhibit their biological activities by two mechanisms. One is the interaction with cells and the other is the interaction with growth factors/cytokines that regulate proteoglycans. In this review, we describe sodium spirulan, a sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a hot-water extract of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, as an exogenous polysaccharide that stimulates the release of proteoglycans from vascular endothelial cells. Factors that regulate endothelial proteoglycan metabolism are also being described as possible target molecules of exogenous polysaccharides. Further research is required to obtain exogenous polysaccharide-related molecules that exhibit useful biological activities through controlling endothelial proteoglycan metabolism for protection against vascular lesions such as atheroslcerosis.

  8. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle, should it become established within Europe, represents a real and live threat to the UK bee keeping industry. Here we review the biology and current pest status of A. tumida and up to-date research in terms of both chemical and biological control used against this honey bee pest [Current Zoology 59 (5: 644–653, 2013].

  9. Program Applied Biology and Biotechnology. Annual report 1988. Programm Angewandte Biologie und Biotechnologie. Jahresbericht 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report of the Biology, Ecology, Energy Department (PBE) of Juelich Nuclear Research Center contains short descriptions of the projects subsidized by the Federal Government on the following subjects: 1. Biological process and enzyme engineering; 2. Cell culture and cell fusion engineering; 3. Genetic engineering and microbial techniques; 4. Alternative methods for animal experiments, biological safety; 5. Plant breeding and plant protection; 6. Gene centres and priority projects; 7. New fields and interdisciplinary activities of biotechnology; 8. Regeneration of the raw materials. (RB).

  10. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  11. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Francina Alberts

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof or clay minerals pre- and postharvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Postharvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, postharvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP production and storage management

  12. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  13. A controlled rate freeze/thaw system for cryopreservation of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    A system which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cc sample volume of an arbitrary biological material was constructed. Steady state and dynamic temperature control was obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container was totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Sample volume thermodynamic property data were obtained by measurements of heater power and heat flux through the container walls. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at -79 C, sample volume was controlled from +40 C to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady state temperature precision was better than 0.2 C while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the thermal mass of the sample and the container.

  14. [Nematophagous fungi used for the biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes in livestock and administration routes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagüés, María Federica; Purslow, Peter; Fernández, Silvina; Fusé, Luis; Iglesias, Lucía; Saumell, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies at present mostly on antihelmintic treatments using synthetic molecules. This approach, however, has led to the appearance of resistance to some types of antihelmintics which, together with the need to cut down on the use of chemicals, has fostered the development of other control methods, such as biological control, which is the use of living organisms that are naturally antagonistic to an unwanted species. Among the natural enemies of nematode parasitic larvae is the microfungus Duddingtonia flagrans. Research has shown the ability of this fungus to reduce the number of nematode larvae in faeces, the ability of its chlamydospores to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract of livestock and, moreover, to keep its germinative ability, thus facilitating the development of formulations. The present review looks at the species currently used and the different ways of administering already tested nematophagous fungi.

  15. Dynamic programming approach for newborn's incubator humidity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattoura, D; Villon, P; Farges, G

    1998-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the human skin have been studied for a long time. A special interest has been shown in the water permeability of the premature infant's skin, which is known to be an important factor in the maintenance of a controlled water and heat balance. The rate of evaporative heat exchange between the skin surface of a very premature infant and the surrounding incubator air may be so high that evaporative heat loss alone may exceed the infant's total metabolic heat production. However, it has been demonstrated in several investigations published in recent years that basal evaporative water loss can be consistently reduced by increasing the ambient humidity. Nevertheless, the passive humidification system (water reservoir) used in most incubators cannot achieve high and steady humidity levels. In this paper, we propose an active humidification system. The algorithm is based on a combination of optimal control theory and dynamic programming approach. The relative-humidity (R.H.) regulation is performed in range of 35-90% at 33 degrees C with small oscillations (+/- 0.5% R.H.) around the reference value (i.e., prescribed R.H.).

  16. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; Bloem, J;

    2008-01-01

     Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological...... promoting negative environmental impacts of agriculture by reducing internal biological cycles and pest control. On the contrary, organic farming fosters microbial and faunal decomposers and this propagates into the aboveground system via generalist predators thereby increasing conservation biological...... control. However, grain and straw yields were 23% higher in systems receiving mineral fertilizers and herbicides reflecting the trade-off between productivity and environmental responsibility....

  17. Biological and chemical control of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of chemical and biological control agents against larvae of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow), in turfgrass under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions were determined. In field trials where insecticides were applied preventively against eggs and young larvae, the molt-accelerating compound halofenozide and the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were ineffective, whereas another neonicotinoid, clothianidin, provided 62-93% control. In greenhouse experiments against third instars in pots, the carbamate insecticide carbaryl was ineffective, whereas the organophosphate trichlorfon provided 71-83% control. In laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments, the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema glaseri Steiner (not tested in the field) were ineffective against third instars, whereas S. scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer provided excellent control. In microplot field experiments at a rate of 2.5 x 10(9) infective juveniles per ha, H. bacteriophora provided 12-33% control and S. scarabaei 71-86% control. Combinations of S. scarabaei and imidacloprid did not provide more control of third instars compared with S. scarabaei alone.

  18. Toward Building Hybrid Biological/in silico Neural Networks for Motor Neuroprosthetic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaturk, Mehmet; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan; Canbeyli, Resit

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the Bioinspired Neuroprosthetic Design Environment (BNDE) as a practical platform for the development of novel brain-machine interface (BMI) controllers, which are based on spiking model neurons. We built the BNDE around a hard real-time system so that it is capable of creating simulated synapses from extracellularly recorded neurons to model neurons. In order to evaluate the practicality of the BNDE for neuroprosthetic control experiments, a novel, adaptive BMI controller was developed and tested using real-time closed-loop simulations. The present controller consists of two in silico medium spiny neurons, which receive simulated synaptic inputs from recorded motor cortical neurons. In the closed-loop simulations, the recordings from the cortical neurons were imitated using an external, hardware-based neural signal synthesizer. By implementing a reward-modulated spike timing-dependent plasticity rule, the controller achieved perfect target reach accuracy for a two-target reaching task in one-dimensional space. The BNDE combines the flexibility of software-based spiking neural network (SNN) simulations with powerful online data visualization tools and is a low-cost, PC-based, and all-in-one solution for developing neurally inspired BMI controllers. We believe that the BNDE is the first implementation, which is capable of creating hybrid biological/in silico neural networks for motor neuroprosthetic control and utilizes multiple CPU cores for computationally intensive real-time SNN simulations.

  19. Use of ryegrass strips to enhance biological control of aphids by ladybirds in wheat fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Ke Dong; Feng-Juan Gao; Run-Zhi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Non-crop habitats may play a vital role in conservation biological control.This study tested the effect of ryegrass (Lolium muitiflorum L.) strips on aphid and ladybird populations in adjacent winter wheat fields.The field experiment was conducted in three ryegrass-margin wheat plots and three control plots in 2010 in North China.In spring,the same aphid species,Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi),was found in both the ryegrass strips and wheat plots.The population density of ladybirds in the ryegrass strips (3.5±0.9/m2) was significantly higher than in the wheat plots (1.5±0.5/m2).We cut the ryegrass,forcing the ladybirds to migrate to the wheat fields.Three and eight days after cutting the ryegrass,the aphid numbers in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots decreased significantly:they were 19.9% and 53.6%,respectively,lower than in control plots.In the early period of ladybird population development,the percentage of larvae was greater in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots than in controls,and the peak number of pupae in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots occurred 5 days earlier than in the control plots.The results suggest that ryegrass strips may promote the development of ladybird populations.Cutting ryegrass can manipulate ladybirds to enhance biological aphid control in wheat fields.The efficiency of this management approach is discussed.

  20. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abdigoudarzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific me­dia. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method."nMethods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued ."nResults: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months."nConclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed.   Keywords: Biological control, fungi, Beauveria bassiana, ticks, Ixodidae, Iran