WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological control agents

  1. Ecological Complexity and the Success of Fungal Biological Control Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Guy R.; Louise-Marie C. Dandurand

    2014-01-01

    Fungal biological control agents against plant pathogens, especially those in soil, operate within physically, biologically, and spatially complex systems by means of a variety of trophic and nontrophic interspecific interactions. However, the biocontrol agents themselves are also subject to the same types of interactions, which may reduce or in some cases enhance their efficacy against target plant pathogens. Characterization of these ecologically complex systems is challenging, but a number...

  2. Nonpathogenic Fusarium as a Biological Control Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum is an important fungal group among the soil bone microflora. These strains are well-known for inducing wilt or root rots in important agricultural crops worldwide and some occur only as a saprophytes in rhizosphere of plants. There are certain strains which are nonpathogenic and protect plants from pathogenic strains. Based on phenotypic and genetic studies F. oxysporum showed a great diversity among its populations. The nonpathogenic strains, which were first isolated from suppressive soils strains showed several modes of action against pathogenic strains and thus exploited as biocontrol agents. These nonpathogenic strains suppress pathogens by competing for nutrients in the soil, reduce their chlamydospore germination, compete for infection sites on the root and induce systemic resistance in plant when invade host plant species before the pathogen. The nonpathogenic strains are formulated in talc and charcoal based media and commercial formulations are also available. These strains of Fusarium has been successfully combined with other biocontrol agents to obtain a effective biocontrol of plant pathogens. For application of nonpathogenic Fusarium under field condition some additional research is needed in several areas including: field studies and integration into production systems; risk assessment; and genetic improvement of biocontrol agents.

  3. Optimal Control for a Dispersing Biological Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    A bioeconomic model is developed to analyze the optimal control management strategies for an introduced herbivore in a two-compartment ecosystem. This paper analyzes cost-effective control strategies that decrease the spillover effects of the herbivore on endangered plant species, thereby reducing extinction pressure and increasing benefits. The optimal level of control is presented in different circumstances. The level of optimal control is high if the herbivore has a relatively low attack r...

  4. Functional Agents to Biologically Control Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Cereal Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Tan, Yanglan; Liu, Na; Liao, Yucai; Sun, Changpo; Wang, Shuangxia; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, as microbial secondary metabolites, frequently contaminate cereal grains and pose a serious threat to human and animal health around the globe. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a commonly detected Fusarium mycotoxin, has drawn utmost attention due to high exposure levels and contamination frequency in the food chain. Biological control is emerging as a promising technology for the management of DON contamination. Functional biological control agents (BCAs), which include antagonistic microbes, natural fungicides derived from plants and detoxification enzymes, can be used to control DON contamination at different stages of grain production. In this review, studies regarding different biological agents for DON control in recent years are summarized for the first time. Furthermore, this article highlights the significance of BCAs for controlling DON contamination, as well as the need for more practical and efficient BCAs concerning food safety. PMID:27064760

  5. Leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Justine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Krüger, Erika; Reineke, Annette; Strohmeier, Stephan; Wohanka, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of biological control agents (BCAs) against Botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of BCAs on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. Strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three BCAs—namely, RhizoVital 42 fl. (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), and Naturalis (Beauver...

  6. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  7. High-throughput assay for optimising microbial biological control agent production and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of technologies to produce and deliver effective biological control agents (BCAs) is a major barrier to their commercialization. A myriad of variables associated with BCA cultivation, formulation, drying, storage, and reconstitution processes complicates agent quality maximization. An efficie...

  8. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the control of Arundo donax (giant reed, Carrizo cane). The environmental assessment considers the... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. We are making...

  9. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the control of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp.). The environmental assessment considers the effects of, and... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds. We are...

  10. Probiotic Bacteria as Biological Control Agents in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verschuere, L.; Rombaut, G.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstraete, W.

    2000-01-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustace...

  11. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  12. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative to the control of... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. We...

  13. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... prepared an environmental assessment relative to the release of Symnus coniferarum to control hemlock... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to...

  14. Control of Lymantria dispar L. by biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGuo-cai; WANGYue-jie; YANGXiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    The experiment on control of Lymantria dispar L by using different kinds of biological measures, including nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of Lymantria dispar L., BtMP-342, sex-attractant as well as botanical insecticide, was carried out in the forest regions of Inner Mongolia in 2003. Two concentrations (2.632×106 PIB·ml-1 and 2.632×107 PIB·ml-1) of Lymantria dispar L. NPV were sprayed on the 2rd-instar-larvae of L. dispar and 70% and 77.8% control effect were obtained respectively. BtMP0-342 was applied to the 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae and the control effect was around 80%. The sex-attractant provided by Canada Pacific Forestry Research Center also showed a good result in trapping L. dispar adults. The self-produced botanical insecticide, which was extracted from a kind of poisonous plant distributed in Daxing'an Mountains, China, exhibited a good control result in controlling the larvae of L. dispar, and 82% mortality was observed when spraying primary liquid of the botanical insecticide on the 3rd-5th-instar-larvae in lab.

  15. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, L; Rombaut, G; Sorgeloos, P; Verstraete, W

    2000-12-01

    There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed. PMID:11104813

  16. Evaluation of biological control agents for mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Vatandoost Hassan; Rassi Yavar; Abai Mohammad Reza; Sanei Dehkordi Ali Reza; Paksa Azim

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the entomological impact of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on mosquitoes control in artificial breeding places.Methods:A Latin square design with 4 replicates was performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis, andGambusia affinis on larva. The larvicide was applied at the dosage of 100 mg a.h/ha,Bacillus thuringiensis at the recommended dosage and 10 fishes per m2 were applied at 1í1 m2 artificial breeding sites. The larval densities for both anopheline and culicine were counted according to larvae /10 dippers prior and 24 h after application.Results:All three control agents are effective for mosquito density reduction, and the difference between the three agents and the control is significant (P<0.05). There is also significant difference among chlorpyrifos-methyl,Bacillus thuringiensis andGambusia affinis.Bacillus thuringiensisexhibited more reduction on mosquito larval density than fish and larvicide (P<0.05).Conclusions:Bacillus thuringiensis in comparison with two other agents is the appropriate method for larviciding in the breeding places. Although long term assessing for biological activities as well as monitoring and mapping of resistance is required.

  17. Ecological risks of biological control agents: impacts on IPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokkanen, H.M.T.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Menzler-Hokkanen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early days of integrated pest management a sound ecological foundation has been considered essential for the development of effective systems. From time to time, there have been attempts to evaluate the ways in which ecological theory is exploited in pest control, and to review the lessons

  18. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  19. Population regulation of a classical biological control agent: larval density dependence in Neochetina eichhorniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J R U; Rees, M; Ajuonu, O

    2006-04-01

    The release of classical biological control agents has reduced the economic, environmental and social problems caused by water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes; however, additional control measures are needed in some locations. Water hyacinth plants were treated with different densities of eggs of the weevil Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, one of the main control agents, under different nutrient regimes in a controlled experiment. Plants were destructively sampled and the development of N. eichhorniae was assessed. The survival of first and second instars declined as larval density increased. Plant nutrient status did not directly affect the mortality rate of larvae, but at higher nutrient concentrations larvae developed faster and were larger at a given developmental stage. It is argued that the density dependence operating in N. eichhorniae occurs through an interaction between young larvae and leaf longevity. Consequently, events which disrupt water hyacinth leaf dynamics, e.g. frost or foliar herbicides, will have a disproportionately large effect on the control agents and may reduce the level of control of the host. PMID:16556335

  20. Trichogramma spp. as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  1. Variability of Botrytis cinerea sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by biological control agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajouz, Sakhr; Walker, Anne Sophie; Fabre, Frédéric; Leroux, Pierre; Nicot, Philippe; Bardin, Marc

    2011-01-01

    To establish a baseline sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by several biological control agents, 204 isolates were tested for sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin using a spore germination assay. The results showed that the isolates exhibited a wide range of sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, with an 8.4-fold difference in EC50 (effective concentration to reduce spore germination by 50% comparing to the control) values between the least and the most sensitive isolates. T...

  2. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  3. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Ronseaux; Essaid Ait Barka; Christophe Clément

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16) in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditio...

  4. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  5. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  6. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  7. Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A novel and efficient biological control agent for Colletotrichum acutatum during pre-harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos Roberto; Klein, Mariana Nadjara; Ferraz, Luriany Pompeo; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of six isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in controlling Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of postbloom fruit drop that occur in pre-harvest citrus. We analyzed the mechanisms of action involved in biological control such as: production of antifungal compounds, nutrient competition, detection of killer activity, and production of hydrolytic enzymes of the isolates of S. cerevisiae on C. acutatum and their efficiency in controlling postbloom fruit drop on detached citrus flowers. Our results showed that all six S. cerevisiae isolates produced antifungal compounds, competed for nutrients, inhibited pathogen germination, and produced killer activity and hydrolytic enzymes when in contact with the fungus wall. The isolates were able to control the disease when detached flowers were artificially inoculated, both preventively and curatively. In this work we identified a novel potential biological control agent for C. acutatum during pre-harvest. This is the first report of yeast efficiency for the biocontrol of postbloom fruit drop, which represents an important contribution to the field of biocontrol of diseases affecting citrus populations worldwide. PMID:25960430

  9. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wyatt I.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Gaskin, John F.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the invasive shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States, and how differences in plant traits affect interactions with a biological control agent. Introgression varied strongly with latitude of origin and was highly correlated with plant performance. Increased levels of T. ramosissima introgression resulted in both higher investment in roots and tolerance to defoliation and less resistance to insect attack. Because tamarisk hybridization occurs predictably on the western U.S. landscape, managers may be able to exploit this information to maximize control efforts. Genetic differentiation in plant traits in this system underpins the importance of plant hybridization and may explain why some biological control releases are more successful than others.

  10. Phenotypic charactheristics of fluorescent pseudomonss, biological control agent of lincat disease of temanggung tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINING NURUL AZIZAH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonass isolated from local plants-rishosphere in temanggung controlled lincat disease of tobacco. This report describe phenotypic charactheristics of the bacteria in order to be used as a base for the development of the bacteria as a biological control agent of lincat disease. Phenotypic charactheristics of six isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonass which controlled lincat disease in the field were determined in the laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University. Plant pathogenicity tests were conducted by hypersensitive reaction into tobacco leaf and inoculation to tobacco plants. Antagonism test between fluorescent Pseudomonass and other candidate of biological control agents were also conducted. The results indicated that the bacteria were rod shape, Gram negative, positive reaction in catalase and oxidase tests. Nitrate reduce to nitrite, arginine was hydrolysed, fluorescent pigment were produced on King’s B medium, levan formation positive and all bacteria denitrifiy. The bacteria used urea, tween 80 and amylum were not hydrolised, poly--hydroxybutyrate was not accumulated in the cells. Negative reactions were observed for lysine decarboxylation, indol production, VP/MR reaction, and gelatn liquefation. Some compounds could be used as solely carbon sources. All isolates grew on the medium containing 2% NaCl. The best pH for growth was 6-7 and all isolates grew at 20-41C. Negative result were obtained for hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity tests.

  11. Opportunities for improving risk communication during the permitting process for entomophagous biological control agents: A review of current systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns about potentially irreversible non-target impacts from the importation and release of entomophagous biological control agents (BCAs) have resulted in increasingly stringent import requirements by National Plant Protection Organizations. Despite numerous scientific publications on the poten...

  12. The influence of flower morphology and nectar quality on the longevity of a parasitoid biological control agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vattala, H.D.; Wratten, S.D.; Phillips, C.B.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biological control aims to enhance the efficacy of arthropod biological control agents, such as parasitoids, partly by providing them with access to floral nectar. However, the suitability of a flower species for providing nectar to a parasitoid is dependent on the morphologies of the p

  13. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  14. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt;

    Fungal endophytes live naturally inside plants without causing symptoms. On the contrary, they can promote plant growth and increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. These beneficial effects have increased the agricultural interest for exploitation of fungal isolates with an endophytic life......-style. Clonostachys rosea occurs naturally world-wide and is capable of colonizing many different habitats. The fungus is primarily known as a versatile biological control agent. However, it has also been reported as a plant endophyte in, e.g., soybean, red clover and cacao. The C. rosea isolate IK726 efficiently...... controls seed- and soil-borne diseases and can furthermore promote plant growth. However, it is not known whether IK726 can colonize plants internally and therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the possibility of an endophytic life-style of IK726 in tomato. Tomato seeds were sown...

  15. Metarhizium anisopliae as a Biological Control Agent Against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Shigidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p≤0.05 reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.

  16. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  17. Isolation, characterization, and identification of biological control agent for potato soft rot in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ali, M E; Khan, A A; Akanda, A M; Uddin, Md Kamal; Hashim, U; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5-62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers. PMID:22645446

  18. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative to the control...

  19. Effect of host-plant genotypes on the performance of three candidate biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian pepper is a weed in Florida, California and Hawaii that originates from South America. In Florida we have found two distinct types of Brazilian pepper plant and a hybrid between these two types. To control this weed, three biological control agents are being evaluated from Brazil. These ar...

  20. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Li; Xiaoling Tan; Nicolas Desneux; Giovanni Benelli; Jing Zhao; Xinhai Li; Fan Zhang; Xiwu Gao; Su Wang

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anth...

  1. Purpureocillium lilacinum, potential agent for biological control of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffré, D; Folgarait, P J

    2015-09-01

    Many leaf-cutter ant species are well known pests in Latin America, including species of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta. An environmentally friendly strategy to reduce the number of leafcutter ants and avoid indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides is biological control. In this work we evaluated the effectiveness of a strain of the entomopathogen Purpureocillium lilacinum, against worker ants from six Acromyrmex lundii field colonies, after immersions in pure suspensions at a concentration of 1×10(6)conidiaml(-1). Survival of ants treated with P. lilacinum was significantly lower than that recorded in controls, and median lethal time (LT50) was 6-7days. P. lilacinum was responsible for 85.6% (80.6-89.7) of the mortality in inoculated ants, in which we found that the percentage of other entomopathogens that naturally infected ants decreased also, suggesting a good competitive capability of the fungus. Horizontal transmission to non-inoculated ants was also evidenced, given that 58.5% (41.9-64.2) of them died because of P. lilacinum. Moreover, we tested pathogenicity for three concentrations of this strain (1.0×10(4), 10(6) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1)) and found a significantly faster mortality of ants and greater median percentage of infection at 10(8)conidiaml(-1) of P. lilacinum. CL50 value was 2.8×10(5)conidiaml(-1). We thus propose the use of P. lilacinum as a biological control agent of leafcutter ants in crops and plantations. PMID:26205173

  2. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  3. Pochonia chlamydosporia: Advances and Challenges to Improve Its Performance as a Biological Control Agent of Sedentary Endo-parasitic Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-López, Rosa H.; Esteves, Ivania; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Ward, Elaine; Devonshire, Jean; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological control agents against plant (semi-) endo-parasitic nematodes of the genera Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus and, more recently, Rotylenchulus. In this paper we present highlights from more than three decades of worldwide research on this biological control agent. We cover different aspects and key components of the complex plant-fungus-nematode tri-trophic interaction, an interaction that needs to be addressed to ensure the efficient use of P. chlamydosporia as a biopesticide as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:23589653

  4. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  5. Identification and Characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a Biological Control Agent Against Some Fungal Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Guo-liang; HU Bai-shi; JIANG Ying-hua; LIU Feng-quan

    2009-01-01

    Strain OH11, a Gram-negative, nonspore forming, rod-shaped bacterium with powerful antagonistic activity, was isolated from rhizosphere of green pepper in Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences of China and characterized to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OH11 belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and had the highest degree of sequence similarity to Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 (AY074793) (99%), Lysobacter enzyrnogenes strain N4-7 (U89965) (99%), Lysobacter antibioticus strain (AB019582) (97%), and Lysobacter gummosus strain (AB16136) (97%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain OH11 possesses a quinine system with Q-8 as the predominant compound and C15:0 iso,C17:1 iso w9c as the predominant iso-branched fatty acids,all of which corroborated the assignment of strain OH11 to the genus Lysobacter. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests clearly showed that strain OH11 was classified as Lysobacter enzymogenes. Strain OH11 could produce protease, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase. It showed strong in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia scletotiorum, and several other phytopathogenic fungi. This is the first report of identification and characterization of Lysobacter enzymogenes as a biological control agent of plant diseases in China.

  6. Life history of Parafreutreta regalis, (diptera:tephritidae), a candidate agent for biological control of delairea odorata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lamaire, is an ornamental vine, native to the eastern part of South Africa, which has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. Exploratory surveys in South Africa located several potential biological control agents. One of these is Parafreu...

  7. Life history and host range of Oxydia vesulia transpeneus, an unsuitable biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suitability of Oxydia vesulia (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was assessed as a potential biological control agent of the invasive weed Brazilian Peppertree Schinus terebinthifolia. Larvae were collected in Brazil feeding on the plant in its native range and colonized in quarantine where lif...

  8. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    pepton agar, the composts and their water extracts were checked towards their ability to inhibit growth of F. oxysporum. It was shown that three composts - CD, FPM and RD - possessed suppressiveness towards the model phytopathogen. From these three wastes, 28 bacterial and fungal strains were isolated and, in their turn, checked towards their ability to inhibit F. oxysporum. It was demonstrated that five of the isolated strains are highly suppressive to model test-object (the growth area of F. oxysporum did not exceed 30%), six of the stains were moderate suppressive (the growth area of F. oxysporum ranged from 35% to 60%), and other strains did not cause negative effects for the model phytopathogen. Further, we will check the composts and the isolated strains using the model system "soil - tomato plant - phytopathogen". As a result, effective composts and strains will be recommended as agents for biological control of fungal diseases in the region. Besides, the structure of bacterial and fungal community of the composts with suppressive properties will be assessed using 454-pyrosequencing.

  9. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato... severity of air potato infestations. We are making the EA available to the public for review and...

  10. Biologic agents in juvenile spondyloarthropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsicas, María Martha; Russo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The juvenile spondyloarthropathies (JSpA) are a group of related rheumatic diseases characterized by involvement of peripheral large joints, axial joints, and entheses (enthesitis) that begin in the early years of life (prior to 16(th) birthday).The nomenclature and concept of spondyloarthropathies has changed during the last few decades. Although there is not any specific classification of JSpA, diseases under the spondyloarthropathy nomenclature umbrella in the younger patients include: the seronegative enthesitis and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease-associated arthritis. Moreover, the ILAR criteria for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis includes two categories closely related to spondyloarthritis: Enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.We review the pathophysiology and the use of biological agents in JSpA. JSpA are idiopathic inflammatory diseases driven by an altered balance in the proinflammatory cytokines. There is ample evidence on the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-17 in the physiopathology of these entities. Several non-biologic and biologic agents have been used with conflicting results in the treatment of these complex diseases. The efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents, such as etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab, have been analysed in controlled and uncontrolled trials, usually showing satisfactory outcomes. Other biologic agents, such as abatacept, tocilizumab and rituximab, have been insufficiently studied and their role in the therapy of SpA is uncertain. Interleukin-17-blocking agents are promising alternatives for the treatment of JSpA patients in the near future. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with JSpA have recently been proposed and are discussed in the present review. PMID:26968522

  11. Metabolic behavior of bacterial biological control agents in soil and plant rhizospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control provides an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for the control of plant diseases. To date, however, few biocontrol products have been developed successfully at the commercial level. This stems largely from variability in disease control performance that is often obser...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of two native fishes from tropical North Queensland as biological control agents of subterranean Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B M; Wang, J; Williams, Y; Hearnden, M N; Kay, B H

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 2 freshwater fishes, eastern rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida and fly-specked hardyhead Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, native to North Queensland to prey on immature Aedes aegypti was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The predation efficiency of the 2 species was compared to the exotic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, which is commonly used as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae. Of the 3 fish species tested, M. s. splendida was shown to be the most promising agent for the biological control of Ae. aegypti that breed in wells. Melanotaenia s. splendida consumed significantly greater numbers of immature Ae. aegypti than P. reticulata, irrespective of developmental stage or light conditions. Unlike C s. stercusmuscarum, M. s. splendida could be handled, transported, and kept in captivity for extended periods with negligible mortality. However, M. s. splendida was also an efficient predator of Litoria caerulea tadpoles, a species of native frog found in wells during the dry season. This result may limit the usefulness of M. s. splendida as a biological control agent of well-breeding Ae. aegypti and suggests that predacious copepods, Mesocyclops spp., are more suitable. However, the use of M. s. splendida as a mosquito control agent in containers that are unlikely to support frog populations (e.g., aquaculture tanks and drinking troughs) should be given serious consideration. PMID:11480819

  13. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    OpenAIRE

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena; Damszel Marta Maria; Głosek-Sobieraj Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009). The experiment involved the following treatments: 1) biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. in...

  14. Predicting the host range of Nystalea ebalea: secondary plant chemistry and host selection by a surrogate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The safety of weed biological control depends upon the selection and utilization of the target weed by the agent while causing minimal harm to non-target species. Selection of weed species by biological control agents is determined by the presence of behavioral cues, generally host secondary plant c...

  15. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  16. Adaptive evolution of a generalist parasitoid: implications for the effectiveness of biological control agents

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca A; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A; Figueroa, Christian C.; Lavandero, Blas

    2013-01-01

    The use of alternative hosts imposes divergent selection pressures on parasitoid populations. In response to selective pressures, these populations may follow different evolutionary trajectories. Divergent natural selection could promote local host adaptation in populations, translating into direct benefits for biological control, thereby increasing their effectiveness on the target host. Alternatively, adaptive phenotypic plasticity could be favored over local adaptation in temporal and spat...

  17. Does phylogeny explain the host choice behaviour of potential biological control agents for Brassicaceae weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four invasive Brassicaceae are currently being studied for biological control at the CABI Centre in Switzerland. A phylogenetic approach to host testing has so far been hampered by the fact that the evolutionary relationships of taxa within the Brassicaceae were unclear. Recently, a new phylogeny of...

  18. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis V26 as a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani on potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Dammak, Mouna; Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Hayfa; Daami-Remadi, Mejda; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the strain Bacillus subtilis V26, a local isolate from the Tunisian soil, to control potato black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The in vitro antifungal activity of V26 significantly inhibited R. solani growth compared to the untreated control. Microscopic observations revealed that V26 caused considerable morphological deformations of the fungal hyphae such as vacuolation, protoplast leakage and mycelia crack. The most effective control was achieved when strain V26 was applied 24h prior to inoculation (protective activity) in potato slices. The antagonistic bacterium V26 induced significant suppression of root canker and black scurf tuber colonization compared to untreated controls with a decrease in incidence disease of 63% and 81%, respectively, and promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions on potato plants. Therefore, B. subtilis V26 has a great potential to be commercialized as a biocontrol agent against R. solani on potato crops. PMID:26563555

  19. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species. PMID:25376303

  20. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising tempe...

  1. The Use and Exchange of Biological Control Agents for Food and Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.C.van; Lenteren; M.J.W.Cock; J.Brodeur; B.Barratt; F.Bigler; K.Bolckmans; F.Haas; P.G.Mason; J.R.P.Parra

    2010-01-01

    The report sets out to summarize the past and current situation regarding the practice of biologicalcontrol inrelationtothe use and exchange of genetic resources relevant for BCAs.It considers the twomain categories of biological control:classical and augmentative.Allowing access to BCAs for use inanother country imposes no risk of liability to the source country.Local scientific knowledge abouthabitats,fauna andflora,can be helpful

  2. Characterization and mechanism of action of the biological control agent Pantoea agglomerans EPS125

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno González, M. del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    La soca EPS125 ha mostrat ser un efectiu agent de control biològic de diferents patògens fúngics de postcollita en diferents fruits. Degut a la seva elevada eficàcia, es va plantejar desenvolupar aquesta soca comercialment i per aquest motiu en el present treball es plantejà complementar la informació necessària pel seu registre. D'acord amb els resultats obtinguts mitjançant proves fenotípiques i genotípiques, la soca EPS125 queda inclosa dins l'espècie Pantoea agglomerans (Enterobacter aggl...

  3. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO4-), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata

  4. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Mary A. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: mary.sorensen@ucr.edu; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata.

  5. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  6. Detection and Quantification of Plectosphaerella cucumerina, a Potential Biological Control Agent of Potato Cyst Nematodes, by Using Conventional PCR, Real-Time PCR, Selective Media, and Baiting

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, S. D.; Clark, I M; Sosnowska, D.; Hirsch, P. R.; Kerry, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are serious pests in commercial potato production, causing yield losses valued at approximately $300 million in the European Community. The nematophagous fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina has demonstrated its potential as a biological control agent against PCN populations by reducing field populations by up to 60% in trials. The use of biological control agents in the field requires the development of specific techniques to monitor the release, population size, sp...

  7. STUDY OF MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF FUNGAL COMMUNITIES FROM RHIZOSPHERE AND PHYLOSPHERE OF STRAWBERRY TREATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi-Mirela Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of long term utilization of pesticides on yields quality, as well as on the human health made scientific community to seek new ways, less expensive and environmental friendly for protecting cultivated plants against pathogens. Biological control agents of microbial origin represented by living selected strains or their metabolites are more and more frequently utilized for protecting horticultural plants intensely consumed by European population, such as strawberry. A green house experiment was designed to compare the structure of rhizospheric and phylospheric microflora of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana, sensible to Botrytis cinerea (the agent of grey mould treated with systemic and contact fungicides, as well as with four biological control preparations of microbial origin administrated on plant leaves or in the soil. The structure of fungal communities in rhizosphere and phylosphere of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana varied as a function of the nature of control agent and the method of administration. Non significant influence on soil fungal community diversity index and species number was registered after the treatment with chemical and biological control agents, but significant increments were induced in time by control agents as compared with both non-treated control and chemical pesticides. Fungal community structure from strawberry leaves was not significantly influenced by chemical and biological control agents. The most favourable influence on fungal communities registered for bio-control agents E1 and E2 due to

  8. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Xiwu; Wang, Su

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anthocorid Orius sauteri (Poppius). We compared the attractiveness of pollens from crops and banker plants to that of common prey homogenates (aphids and thrips, respectively). Attractiveness of the tested odor sources was checked via field trapping experiments conducted in organic apple orchards and by release-recapture assays in organic greenhouse tomato crops. Maize and canola pollen were attractive to both P. japonica and O. sauteri, in laboratory and field assays. P. japonica was highly attracted by balm mint pollen, whereas O. sauteri was attracted by alfalfa pollen. Our results encourage the use of pollen from crops and banker plants as low-cost and eco-friendly attractors to enhance the monitoring and attraction of arthropod predators in biological control programs. PMID:26235136

  9. The effect of biological and chemical control agents on the health status of the very early potato cultivar Rosara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwalina-Ambroziak Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance and quality of table potatoes are determined, among other factors, by the health status of the plants during the growing season. Chemical control methods are often combined with biocontrol agents to effectively fight potato pathogens. Potatoes of the very early cultivar Rosara were grown in experimental plots. The plots were located in Tomaszkowo (NE Poland, 2007-2009. The experiment involved the following treatments: 1 biological control − mycorrhizal Glomus spp. inoculum was applied to the roots, − tubers were dressed and plants were sprayed with Polyversum three times during the growing season, 2 chemical control - at two-week intervals, plants were sprayed with the following fungicides: Infinito 687.5 SC and Tanos 50 WG, Valbon 72 WG and Tanos 50 WG. In the control treatment, potato plants were not protected against pathogens. During the growing season, the severity of late blight and early blight was evaluated on a nine-point scale. The composition of fungal communities colonising potato stems was analysed. The fungistatic properties of the fungicides used in the field experiment were evaluated in an in vitro test. The symptoms of infections caused by Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria spp. were significantly reduced in the treatment which used the integrated chemical and biological control. The least diverse fungal community was isolated from fungicide-treated plants. In the in vitro test, fungicides at all analysed concentrations inhibited the linear mycelial growth of selected pathogens.

  10. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a person has been exposed to riot control agents. Long-term health effects of exposure to riot control agents Prolonged ... person is removed from exposure to riot control agents, long-term health effects are unlikely to occur. How you can ...

  11. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  12. The importance of molecular tools in classical biological control of weeds: Two case studies with yellow starthistle candidate biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular analyses may play a primary role in the process of host-specificity evaluation at species and population levels; here are reported two examples of their application with new candidate biocontrol agents for yellow starthistle (YST). Ceratapion basicorne is a root-crown boring weevil that sh...

  13. Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, K R; Daane, K M; Kirk, A; Andrews, J W; Johnson, M W; Messing, R H

    2007-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured. Potential barriers to the successful establishment of P. ponerophaga, including the geographic origins of parasitoid and pest populations and constraints imposed by fruit size, were also evaluated as part of this investigation. Under insectary conditions, all larval stages except neonates were acceptable hosts. Provided a choice of host ages, the parasitoids' host-searching and oviposition preferences were a positive function of host age, with most offspring reared from hosts attacked as third instars. Immature developmental time was a negative function of tested temperatures, ranging from 25.5 to 12.4 days at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Evaluation of adult longevity, at constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 34 degrees C, showed that P. ponerophaga had a broad tolerance of temperature, living from 3 to 34 days at 34 and 15 degrees C, respectively. Lifetime fecundity was 18.7 +/- 2.8 adult offspring per female, with most eggs deposited within 12 days after adult eclosion. Olive size affected parasitoid performance, with lower parasitism levels on hosts feeding in larger olives. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to field manipulation and selection of parasitoid species for olive fruit fly biological control in California and worldwide. PMID:17524155

  14. Evaluation of biological control agents for managing cucurbit powdery mildew on greenhouse-grown melon

    OpenAIRE

    Torés Montosa, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the ability of two mycoparasite-based products AQ10® (Ampelomyces quisqualis) and Mycotal® (Lecanicillium lecanii), as well as three strains of Bacillus subtilis, to manage powdery mildew disease, caused by Podosphaera fusca on melon seedlings maintained under different regimes of relative humidity and on plants grown under greenhouse conditions in Spain. In every case fungal and bacterial biocontrol agents (BCAs) performed better under conditions of high relative hu...

  15. Studies on the use ofEchinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Echinostoma revolutum larvae as an agent for biological control of Fasciola gigantica has been studied in the laboratory of Parasitology, Balitvet. Infection of Lymnaea rubiginosa with Echinostoma revolutum increased the growth and mortality rates of the snails and completely suppressed their egg production . These effects were attributed to a destruction of gonads and other organs of the snails by echinostome rediae, production of which commenced during the second week after the infection. From laboratory studies with L. rubiginosa, there was an evidence of strong antagonism between larvae of E. revolutum and larvae of F. gigantica. Concurrent infection of L. rubiginosa with miracidia of F. gigantica and E. Revolutum resulted in that all snails were infected with E. revolutum only, when they were dissected 30 days later. In contrast, 94% of the snails which were exposed to miracidia of F. gigantica only, were infected with larvae of this species after 30 days . When L. rubiginosa were infected with F. gigantica 20 days previously were exposed to infection with E. revolutum and examined 30 days later, it was found that 77% of the snails had a single infection with E. revolutum, 16 % were infected with F. Gigantica only, and the remaining 7% had common infection. It was concluded that the dominant antagonism of E. revolutum over F. gigantica in L. rubiginosa and the reduction of fecundity and longevity ofsnails infected with E. revolutum could be useful for biological control of F. gigantica.

  16. Sensors for detecting biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E. Sapsford

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological agents including viruses, bacteria, and other naturally occurring pathogenic organisms, along with the toxins they produce, are considered far harder to detect and defend against than chemical agents. Here we provide an overview of the predominant molecular sensing technologies for the detection of these agents. This includes biosensing strategies based upon use of antibodies, genomic analysis, biochemical testing, other recognition interactions, and cellular-based responses. We survey some popular sensing approaches, illustrate them with current examples showing how they have been applied, and discuss their intrinsic benefits and potential liabilities. Lastly, within the context of security applications, some approaches for integrating sensing technologies into field-portable devices are discussed.

  17. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:24310522

  18. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages, ...

  19. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity. Now, a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents, usually administered by infusion, have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents, adverse effects have been documented, including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease. In some, only limited symptoms have been recorded, but in others, severe colitis with serious complications, such as bowel perforation has been recorded. In others, adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis, while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection. Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases, or be responsible for disease exacerbation. Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response. This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies, notably, malignant melanoma. Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated. One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe, and occasionally, fatal. Other agents include rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, including infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept.

  20. P-solubilizing Fungi as Biological Control Agents to Increase Growth and Prevent Moler Disease on Red Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwiyono

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to obtain phosphate-solubilizing fungi have antagonistic ability to Fusarium oxysporum f. cepae, and increase soil available-P. The experiment was hold in April 2013 to February 2014. Antagonistic capability was observed in two stages i.e. in vitro test which was conducted in the Laboratory of Soil Biology and Biotechnology, while in vivo test in green house, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD. The treatment factors of in vitro test were kinds of phosphate solubilizing fungi and incubation time with Pikovkaya liquid medium, while the treatment factor of in vivo test was isolates combination of phosphate solubilizing fungi. Each treatment combination was repilcate three times. The observated variable included soil available phosphate, shallot height, shoot dry weight, moler disease intensity, infection rate, and area under the disease progress curve. The research obtained 3 isolates of fungi with high potential as inoculums of P-solubilizing biofertilizer and biological control agents against moler desease of red onion. The resullt showed that mix of JK12 isolate (isolated from Entisol of Bantul District and isolate of JK14 (from Andisol of Tawangmangu sub district demonstrated the highest ability in solubilizing phosphate and suppressing moler disease of red onion.

  1. Chemical crowd control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  2. Diversity and biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii, causal agent of stem rot of groundnut

    OpenAIRE

    Lê, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important legume crop in Vietnam and many other countries worldwide. Stem rot disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut cultivation. Current control methods mostly rely on the extensive use of fungicides and on cultural practices. Both methods are not always effective and repeated fungicide use can lead to resistance development in the pathogen population. To further impro...

  3. Biology, epidemiology and control of Fusicladium eriobotryae, causal agent of loquat scab

    OpenAIRE

    González Domínguez, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    El moteado del níspero, causado por el hongo Fusicladium eriobotryae es la principal enfermedad que afecta al cultivo del níspero, produciendo pérdidas importantes en la cosecha en los años con condiciones climáticas adecuadas. Sin embargo, no existen estudios sobre la epidemiología y el control de esta enfermedad, por lo que éstos constituyen el principal objetivo de la presente Tesis. Para ello, se va ha caracterizar in vitro y en campo la influencia de las principales variables climáticas ...

  4. The paper irradiation for the control of decay produced by biological agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of books and documents by insects and mould is a source of deterioration for the materials and a health risk for the library and archive staff and for the readers. The use of gamma radiation for decontamination is not widely used due to the damage it might cause to the paper and to some misconceptions concerning radiation technology that prevail among conservators. This paper reports the effects a dose of 15 KGy had on some properties of two kinds of paper in use in the library, one common paper for photocopies, printing and writing (Executive Ledesma) and the other a free of acid paper (Permalife) used in conservation and document restoration. The tenacity (MPa), tensile energy absorption (N/mm) and percent deformation were measured. No significant differences were found between irradiated and control samples of both kinds of paper. Light microscopy after the treatment with a reactive for the detection of lignin showed no differences after irradiation of the papers. No changes in the structure of the cellulosic fibres were detected by scanning electron microscopy after the irradiation treatment. Further studies have been undertaken regarding the ageing of the irradiated paper in relation to the non-irradiated controls. (author)

  5. Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Pochonia chlamydosporia as possible biological control agents of Oxyuris equi and Austroxyuris finlaysoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F R; Araújo, J V; Silva, A R; Araujo, J M; Carvalho, R O; Campos, A K; Tavela, A O; Ferreira, S R; Frassy, L N; Alves, C D F

    2010-03-01

    The action of four fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on eggs of Oxyuris equi and Austroxyuris finlaysoni was evaluated in two assays (A and B). Eggs of O. equi (Test A) and A. finlaysoni (Test B) were plated on Petri dishes with 2% water-agar with grown fungal isolates and control without fungus. After 5, 10 and 15 days, 100 eggs were collected and classified according to the following parameters: type 1 effect, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 effect, lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; and type 3 effect, lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo, hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. Pochonia chlamydosporia isolates VC1 and VC4 showed ovicidal activity for type 1, 2 and 3 effects on eggs of O. equi and eggs of A. finlaysoni. In vitro assays A and B showed that P. chlamydosporia had a negative influence on eggs of O. equi and A. finlaysoni and can be considered as a potential biological control agent of nematodes. PMID:19570314

  6. Isolation and evaluation of bacteria and fungi as biological control agents against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlali, R; Bajii, M; Jijakli, M H

    2007-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important limiting factors for potato production and storage in Belgium and worldwide. Its management is still strongly dependent on chemical treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting bacteria and fungi in order to control this pathogen. Among a collection of 220 bacterial strains isolated from different organs of healthy potato plants and rhizospheric soils, 25 isolates were selected using screening methods based on in vitro dual culture assays. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of the pathogen was ranged from 59.4 to 95.0%. Also seven fungal strains isolated from the rhizospheric soil and potato roots showed a highly mycelial growth inhibition of R. solani. The mycelial growth inhibition rate obtained with these fungi was included between 60.0 and 99.4%. From this preliminary study, the further investigations will be planned to determine the bacterial isolates systematic, species of fungal strains by using molecular tools and to assess their efficacy against R. solani in greenhouse trials. PMID:18396837

  7. Biological control agents for suppression of post-harvest diseases of potatoes: strategies on discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As used in plant pathology, the term "biological control" or its short form “biocontrol” commonly refers to the decrease in the inoculum or the disease-producing activity of a pathogen accomplished through one or more organisms, including the host plant but excluding man. Biological control of plant...

  8. Biologic agents in the treatment of glomerulonephritides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, See Cheng; Liew, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Current immunosuppression strategies in the treatment of glomerulonephritides remain unsatisfactory, especially in glomerular diseases that are frequently relapsing or are resistant to treatment. Toxicities associated with the use of drugs with non-specific targets for the immune response result in treatment non-compliance, and increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. Advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritis and the availability of biologics have led to their successful use in the treatment of immune-mediated glomerular diseases. Biologics are usually very large complex molecules, often produced using recombinant DNA technology and manufactured in a living system such as a microorganism, or plant or animal cells. They are novel agents that can target specific immune cell types, cytokines or immune pathways involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. It is attractive to consider that, given their specific mode of action, these agents can potentially offer a more directed and effective immunosuppression, with side-effect profiles that are much more desirable. However, there have been few randomized controlled trials comparing biologic agents to conventional immunosuppression, and in many of these studies the side-effect profiles have been disappointingly similar. In this review, we will examine the rationale, efficacy and safety of some commonly used biologics in the treatment of primary and secondary glomerulonephritides. We will also discuss some of the key challenges that may be encountered with the use of biologics in treating glomerulonephritis in the future. PMID:26040770

  9. Influence of Temperature, Humidity, and Plant Terpenoid Profiles on Life History Characteristics of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a Biological Control Agent of the Invasive Tree Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the introduced weed biological control agent Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore is widely established among stands of its host Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtaceae) in south Florida, it’s population densities decline markedly during summer months. We investigated the hypothesis tha...

  10. Natural enemies of balloon vine, Cardiospermum grandiflorum Swartz (Sapindaceae), in Argentina and their potential use as biological control agents in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exploratory field surveys of the natural enemies associated with balloon vine, Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Sapindaceae), an environmental weed in South Africa, Australia and other countries, were conducted in northern Argentina from 2005 to 2009, to search for suitable biological control agents. The...

  11. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    epidemic of glandular/oropharyngeal tularemia occurs in East part of the country (26 cases confirmed by serology only, subspecies not confirmed). F. tularensis could be used as a biological weapon in a number of ways. Release in a dense populated area would be expected to result in an abrupt onset of large numbers of acute, nonspecific febrile illness beginning after 3-5 days (incubation 1-14 days). An aerosol release would likely have the greatest adverse medical and public health consequences. Airborne F. tularensis would be expected to principally cause pleuropneumonitis, might contaminate the eye (ocular tularaemia); penetrate broken skin (ulceroglandular or glandular disease); or cause oropharyngeal disease with cervical lymphadenitis. Stockpiling effective antibiotics to treat infected people, coordinating a nation-wide program, sharing of information, education for health professionals (prevention, diagnosis, treatment), the public and the media are essential needs for prevention and control of tularemia, occurred naturally or by possible bio attack by F.tularensis.(author)

  12. Cultural and chemical pest control methods alter habitat suitability for biological control agents: An example from Wisconsin commercial cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated pest control program requires an in-depth understanding of the compatibility of all control strategies used. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry production, early-season control strategies may include either a broad-spectrum insecticide application or a corresponding spring flood, along ...

  13. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process for the mass production of biological control agents. Conidiospores produced are cost-effective and show good stability and viability for field applications on a commercial scale. Studies on bioreactor design are essential for scaling up solid-state fermentation processes, but they are scarce yet. We did an in-depth analysis on the production of fungal spores by solid state fermentation for commercial scale application against root-knot nematodes.

  14. The Potential Role of Nuclear Techniques in Support of the Production of Biological Control Agents of Insect Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nuclear techniques could play a vital role in enabling cost-effective mass production of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control, surprisingly little use has been made of these techniques or ionizing radiation produced by other means (e.g., x-rays or electron beams from linear accelerators) for mass rearing beneficial insects. This technology has been available for quite some time, having been used to reproductively sterilize screwworm flies as early as 1951 (Bushland and Hopkins). Similarly, gamma radiation has been accepted internationally for human food preservation and disinfestation for many years (Anon., 1995). Quite a number of gamma radiation sources exist at or near USDA ARS and APHIS facilities throughout the U.S., as well as in many universities. Still, relatively little use has been made of this approach to assist in mass rearing of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control. As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there still is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Nuclear techniques should play an increasing role in the future, as the overall thrust of biological control moves more and more toward augmentative releases (Knipling, 1992). It is the intent of this presentation to review some of the existing and potential uses that can be made of nuclear techniques and other sources of ionizing radiation in support of the biological control of insect pests. (author)

  15. Host range determination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae, a biological control agent of tumbleweed: from BLUPs to biomass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host range tests were conducted with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae (CGS) in quarantine to determine whether the fungus is safe to release in N. America for biological control of tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L., Chenopodiaceae). Ninety-two accessions were analyzed from 19 families and...

  16. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  17. The Potential Role of Nuclear Techniques to Facilitate the Use of Biological Control Agents, an Industrial Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is a critical component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). One strategy of biological control includes augmentation with mass-reared predator and parasitic arthropods (natural enemies). These living organisms must be produced, delivered, and applied in such a manner as to achieve the desired outcome. Increased production and use of natural enemies can be achieved by addressing current constraints, including: high cost of production, very limited storage time, shipping difficulties, inefficient application technology, lack of understanding of the role of these organisms in insect pest management, and lack of enabling regulations. The appropriate use of nuclear techniques could benefit the industry and facilitate the use of these natural enemies if cost-effective, safe, readily accessible facilities are made available. (author)

  18. Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera : trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) in Reunion Island : initial field trials

    OpenAIRE

    Soula B.,; Goebel F.R.,; Caplong P.,; Karimjee H.,; Tibere R.,; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    The spotted stalk borer, Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer, is a major pest of sugarcane in southern Asia, the Indian Ocean islands and Mozambique in southern Africa. Since 1999, a biological control programme has been developed on this pest in Reunion Island through a partnership between research and development organisations. Trichogramma chilonis Ishii has been shown to be the most naturally efficient parasitoid of the borer in Reunion, following a comparison of the bionomics of di...

  19. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other P...

  20. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  1. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  2. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  3. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  4. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses. PMID:15532680

  5. Interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Helen; Gray, Simon N; Crump, David H

    2003-01-01

    The efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (PCN) as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) regime were studied. The compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium bilaii and Trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. Paecilomyces lilacinus was the most successful competitor when the ability to grow and inhibit growth of an opposing colony at both 10 and 20 degrees C was considered. P. lilacinus also showed potential for control of the soil-borne fungal pathogen R. solani, releasing a diffusable substance in vitro which inhibited its growth and caused morphological abnormalities in its hyphae. Pochonia chlamydosporia was least susceptible to growth inhibition by other fungi at 20 degrees in vitro, but the isolate tested did not grow at 10 degrees. Plectosphaerella cucumerina was a poor saprophytic competitor. Radial growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Plectosphaerella cucumerina was slowed, but not prevented, when grown on potato dextrose agar incorporating the fungicides fenpiclonil and tolclofos-methyl, and was not inhibited by the addition of pencycuron or the nematicide oxamyl. Radial growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia was partially inhibited by all the chemical pesticides tested. The efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a control agent for R. solani was further investigated in situ. Treatment with P. lilacinus significantly reduced the symptoms of Rhizoctonia disease on potato stems in a pot trial. The effectiveness of P. lilacinus and P. cucumerina against PCN was also tested in situ. Three application methods were compared; incorporating the fungi into alginate pellets, Terra-Green inoculated with the fungi and applying conidia directly to the tubers. Both formulations containing P

  6. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  7. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  8. Antipredator defense of biological control agent Oxyops vitiosa is mediated by plant volatiles sequestered from the host plant Melaleuca quinquenervia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, G S; Massey, L M; Southwell, I A

    2002-02-01

    The weevil Oxyops vitiosa is an Australian species imported to Florida, USA, for the biological control of the invasive weed species Melaleuca quinquenervia. Larvae of this species feed on leaves of their host and produce a shiny orange secretion that covers the integument. When this secretion is applied at physiological concentrations to dog food bait, fire ant consumption and visitation are significantly reduced. Gas chromatographic analysis indicates that the larval secretion qualitatively and quantitatively resembles the terpenoid composition of the host foliage. When the combination of 10 major terpenoids from the O. vitiosa secretion was applied to dog food bait, fire ant consumption and visitation were reduced. When these 10 terpenoids were tested individually, the sesquiterpene viridiflorol was the most active component in decreasing fire ant consumption. Fire ant visitation was initially (15 min after initiation of the study) decreased for dog food bait treated with viridiflorol and the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. Fire ants continued to avoid the bait treated with viridiflorol at 18 microg/mg dog food for up to 6 hr after the initiation of the experiment. Moreover, ants avoided bait treated with 1.8 microg/mg for up to 3 hr. The concentrations of viridiflorol, 1,8-cineole, and alpha-terpineol in larval washes were about twice that of the host foliage, suggesting that the larvae sequester these plant-derived compounds for defense against generalist predators. PMID:11925069

  9. Use of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices as biological control agent of the nematode Nacobbus aberrans parasitizing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Marro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant-parasitic nematode Nacobbus aberrans is an endoparasite that induces gall formation in the roots and causes severe losses to diverse crops. Some populations of this nematode show preference for certain hosts, revealing the existence of "races/groups" with different behaviour and making nematode management difficult. A possible biological control alternative to reduce the damage caused by this species may be the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. In the present work, the effect of Glomus intraradices on tomato plants inoculated with the nematode at transplanting and three weeks later was tested. At 60 days, the following parameters were estimated: percentage of AMF colonization, root and aerial dry weight, number of galls and egg masses, and reproduction factor (RF=final population/initial population of N. aberrans. AMF colonization was higher in the presence of the nematode. The use of AMF favoured tomato biomass and reduced the number of galls and RF on the plants inoculated with the nematode at transplanting.

  10. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  11. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  12. Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani, the Causal Agent of Rice Sheath Blight by Antagonistics Bacteria in Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Niknejad Kazempour

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates that inhibited growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, the rice sheath blight pathogen were collected the rhizosplane and surrounding soil of healthy and rice sheath blight disease in farming of the Guilan province, Iran. Two hundred eighty eight isolates tested and among them only antagonistic ability of 8 isolates were demonstrated by using the dual culture method. According to the results of biochemical and morphological trials all isolates were identified as P. fluorescens biovar 3. By determining the effects of volatile metabolites, secretion of extracellular and antibiotics of these isolates inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro. All P. fluorescens isolates produced siderophore on King`s medium B, inhibited the mycelial growth of the R. solani. Antagonistics isolates reduced the germination and cause the lysis of sclerotia of R. solani. In greenhouse conditions antagonistic isolates were used by seed coating, soil drenching and foliar spray. Statistical analysis of data indicated that there existed significant differences between seed, soil and plant treatments. All of the isolates in seed coating are more effective. In the field conditions foliar spray of isolate B41 mixed with benlate were applied. The disease intensity in B41 isolate for seed coating, soil drenching and seed coating + foliar spray were 10.5, 11.75 and 18.75%, respectively, while the control plants showed 52% disease intensity. These results suggest that the P. fluorescens isolates studied have an excellent potential to be used as biocontrol agents of R. solani in rice at the field conditions.

  13. Efforts to establish a biological control agent against incipient infestations of Old World climbing fern in southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    When available, field-adapted insects should be selected for colonization and redistribution, because they appear to offer better prospects for establishment than lab-reared insects. Small founder populations of monophagous biocontrol agents that depend on a patchy, rare host plant are susceptible t...

  14. The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

  15. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  16. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  17. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae, the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparman Suparman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely low. A conventional way of controlling S. nitens using crude sap of infected larvae has been applied in several oil palm plantations in Sumatra Island, but various improvements are required to make the method more effective, efficient, widely acceptable and scientifically justified. A research on the potential use of entomopathogenic virus native to Sumatra Island as biological control agent of slug caterpillar was conducted to comprehend the pathogenicity and virulence of the entomopathogenic virus and to reveal the morphological identify of its particle. The results showed that the use of virus infecting caterpillars to control the insect was quite successful in term of increasing the number of infected caterpillars and reducing the rate of population development in the field. The use of homogenized infected caterpillars to orally infect healty S. nitens caterpillars resulted in the symptoms characteristics to viral infections appeared in all treated caterpillars with various extent of symptom developments. Some caterpillars could spine cocons but failed to release adult moth. Purification of the virus particles from infected caterpillars resulted in the apperarance of white band in the sucrose gradient indicated the presence of viral RNA. Electron microscopic observation showed that the white band in the sucrose gradient contained sphericle shape of virus particles justifying that the agent infecting S. nitens caterpillars is a virus which still need

  18. Optimizing Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) as a biological control agent: mathematical models for predicting its development as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Héctor; Román-Fernández, Luis R; Sáenz-Romo, María G; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente S

    2016-04-01

    For optimal application of Nesidiocoris tenuis as a biological control agent, adequate field management and programmed mass rearing are essential. Mathematical models are useful tools for predicting the temperature-dependent developmental rate of the predator. In this study, the linear model and nonlinear models Logan type III, Lactin and Brière were estimated at constant temperatures and validated at alternating temperatures and under field conditions. N. tenuis achieved complete development from egg to adult at constant temperatures between 15 and 35°C with high survivorship (>80%) in the range 18-32°C. The total developmental time decreased from a maximum at 15°C (76.74 d) to a minimum at 33°C (12.67 d) and after that, increased to 35°C (13.98 d). Linear and nonlinear developmental models all had high accuracy (R a 2 >0.86). The maximum developmental rate was obtained between 31.9°C (Logan type III and Brière model for N1) and 35.6°C (for the egg stage in the Brière model). Optimal survival and the highest developmental rate fell within the range 27-30°C. The field validation revealed that the Logan type III and Lactin models offered the best predictions (95.0 and 94.5%, respectively). The data obtained on developmental time and mortality at different temperatures are useful for mass rearing this predator, and the developmental models are valuable for using N. tenuis as a biological control agent. PMID:26700327

  19. Biological Control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, the Causal Agent of Basal Kernel Blight of Barley, by Antagonistic Pantoea agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Kiewnick, A; Jacobsen, B J; Sands, D C

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT Strains of Pantoea agglomerans (synanamorph Erwinia herbicola) suppressed the development of basal kernel blight of barley, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, when applied to heads prior to the Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae infection window at the soft dough stage of kernel development. Field experiments in 1994 and 1995 revealed 45 to 74% kernel blight disease reduction, whereas glasshouse studies resulted in 50 to 100% disease control depending on the isolate used and barley cultivar screened. The efficacy of biocontrol strains was affected by time and rate of application. Percentage of kernels infected decreased significantly when P. agglomerans was applied before pathogen inoculation, but not when coinoculated. A single P. agglomerans application 3 days prior to the pathogen inoculation was sufficient to provide control since populations of about 10(7) CFU per kernel were established consistently, while Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae populations dropped 100-fold to 2.0 x 10(4) CFU per kernel. An application to the flag leaf at EC 49 (before heading) also reduced kernel infection percentages significantly. Basal blight decreased with increasing concentrations (10(3) to 10(7) CFU/ml) of P. agglomerans, with 10(7) CFU/ml providing the best control. For long-term preservation and marketability, the survival of bacterial antagonists in several wettable powder formulations was tested. Over all formulations tested, the survival declined between 10- to >100-fold over a period of 1.5 years (r = -0.7; P = 0.000). Although not significant, storage of most formulations at 4 degrees C was better for viability (90 to 93% survival) than was storage at 22 degrees C (73 to 79%). However, long-term preservation had no adverse effect on biocontrol efficacy. PMID:18944586

  20. Biological agents targeting beyond TNF-alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological agents represent an important addition to the therapies for immuno-inflammatory conditions and have a great impact on the disease course and quality of life of these patients. However, recent reports of serious infections like tuberculosis, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases, pancytopenia, cardiovascular diseases, etc. after anti-TNF therapy raised questions on their safety. Hence, focus is shifted towards drugs targeting cytokine checkpoints in the inflammatory cascades beyond TNF-a. Existing therapeutic targets include the biological agents acting as antagonists of various inflammatory cytokines (Anakinra, Tocilizumab, Atlizumab and modulators of CD80 or CD86-CD28 co-stimulatory signal (Abatacept, CD2 receptors on T-cells (Alefacept, CD11a, subunit of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (Efalizumab, vitronectin receptor and CD20 antigen on pre-B, immature and mature B cells (Rituximab. With the introduction of these novel molecules the future for immunomodulatory intervention in rheumatology, asthma, crohn′s disease, septic shock etc. looks very promising. These novel therapeutic agents could truly give a new hope to the clinician to modify the disease and achieve tangible improvements in the lives of the patients.

  1. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J Tobón

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogenesis of RA and the development of joint damage. These biological agents have been proven effective in RA patients with inadequate responses to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Preventing joint damage is now the primary goal of RA treatment, and guidelines exist for the follow-up of joint abnormalities. Most biologic agents produced high clinical and radiological response rates in patients with established or recent-onset RA. Thus, for the first time, obtaining a remission is a reasonable treatment goal in RA patients. Factors that are crucial to joint damage control are: early initiation of DMARDs, use of intensive treatments including biological agents, and close monitoring of clinical disease activity and radiographic progression. However, some patients remain unresponsive to all available treatments and continue to experience joint damage progression. A major objective now is to identify patients at high risk for severe joint damage, in order to tailor the treatment regimen to their specific needs.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, radiographic progression, biologics

  2. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii Maskell on mango in Ismailia, Saissetia coffeae (Walker on olive in Marsa Matruh, and Saissetia oleae (Oliver on olive in the Northern Coast. The population of C. scutellaris showed a significant correlation with the build up of the population of the soft scale insects population in all of the release sites studied. The maximum rate of parasitism of the other species of parasitoids associated with soft scale insects at the release sites decreased after the release of C. scutellaris.

  3. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontaminatio...

  4. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  5. Meta-analysis Reveals That the Genus Pseudomonas Can Be a Better Choice of Biological Control Agent against Bacterial Wilt Disease Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Yoon, Ee; Kwon, Taehoon; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Biological control agents (BCAs) from different microbial taxa are increasingly used to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. However, a quantitative research synthesis has not been conducted on the role of BCAs in disease suppression. Therefore, the present study aimed to meta-analyze the impacts of BCAs on both Ralstonia wilt disease suppression and plant (host) growth promotion. The analysis showed that the extent of disease suppression by BCAs varied widely among studies, with effect size (log response ratio) ranging from -2.84 to 2.13. The disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased on average by 53.7% and 49.3%, respectively. BCAs inoculation also significantly increased fresh and dry weight by 34.4% and 36.1%, respectively on average. Also, BCAs inoculation significantly increased plant yield by 66%. Mean effect sizes for genus Pseudomonas sp. as BCAs were higher than for genus Bacillus spp. Among antagonists tested, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. cereus, B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens were found to be more effective in general for disease reduction. Across studies, highest disease control was found for P. fluorescens, annual plants, co-inoculation with more than one BCA, soil drench and greenhouse condition were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to R. solanacearum. Our results suggest that more efforts should be devoted to harnessing the potential beneficial effects of these antagonists, not just for plant growth promoting traits but also in mode of applications, BCAs formulations and their field studies should be considered in the future for R. solanacearum wilt disease suppression. PMID:27298597

  6. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents.......To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  7. Treatment of relapsing polychondritis in the era of biological agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Eoghan M

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare disorder, often requiring high doses of immunosuppressive therapy to control its potentially life-threatening consequences. The advent of biological agents has added to the armamentarium available to treat RP, but the lack of controlled trials, along with the small numbers of patients and disease heterogeneity means that new therapies are prescribed without the benefits of rigorous clinical research. Thus, information on individual cases is of value in expanding our knowledge of the use of biologic agents in rare conditions. We report on the use of rituximab in a patient who subsequently developed catastrophic aortic incompetence, and we review the literature in relation to the use of this drug in RP.

  8. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, D; C. R. Soccol; A. Sabu; S. Roussos

    2010-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process...

  9. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faedo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.

  10. Biological agents in management of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with an imbalance between formation and resorption, leading to net loss of bone mass, loss of bone microarchitecture, and development of fractures. Bone resorption is primarily due to an activation of osteoclastogenesis and an increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression, a cytokine involved in the final pathway of the osteoclast cycle.Recent studies of genetic diseases led to the discovery of the wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway that plays a major role in bone formation. Further work showed that sclerostin produced by osteocytes and the Dickkopf (DKK1) protein secreted in bone were negative regulators of the Wnt signaling bone formation pathway that act directly by binding to the co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 of WnT and thereby inhibiting the anabolic Wnt pathway. This understanding of the bone remodeling led to the discovery of new biological drugs that target these pathways and have been evaluated in clinical trials.The current article discusses the role of these newer "biological" agents in management of osteoporosis. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds RANKL, blocks the binding of RANK to its ligand markedly reducing bone resorption, increases bone density, and reduces fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone PTH 1-34 (teriparatide) stimulates bone formation through inhibition of sclerostin, DKK1, and frizzled protein; increases BMD; improves microarchitecture; and decreases fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. The anti-sclerostin antibodies (romosozumab, blosozumab) increase bone mass by neutralizing the negative effects of sclerostin on the Wnt signaling pathway. These biologics are being evaluated now in a clinical trial and early data looks promising. Cathepsin K is a proteolytic enzyme that degrades bone matrix and inhibitors such as odanacatib show increasing bone density and perhaps decreased fractures. The

  11. Management of plant pathogens and pests using microbial biological control agents. In: Trigiano, R.N. and Ownley, B.H., editors. Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    All parts of plants face continual attack by plant pathogens and insects. Some insects are vectors of pathogens. Plant pests can be controlled by a variety of methods including application of pesticides but one of the most stainable and environmentally friendly approaches is biological control. Mic...

  12. Quality control protocols for radiodiagnosis agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the compilation of pharmacopoeia methods, literature, manuals and other information developed in our laboratory, protocols have been prepared to carry out quality controls for radiodiagnosis agents (RDA), better known as kits and RDA labelled with Tc99m. Quality control protocols cover physicochemical and biological controls. Physicochemical controls described for RDA include physical characteristics, particle size and number, pH, chemical identification, humidity, tin II; whereas biological controls include sterility, acute toxicity and bacterial endotoxin determination (LAL). Physicochemical controls described for radiopharmaceuticals labelled with Tc99m are pH and radiochemical purity; while biological distribution is described as a biological control

  13. Spatial occurrence and hatch of field eggs of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae), a potential biological control agent of immature mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    The tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae) is a potential biological control agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in ephemeral habitats. The occurrence of TPS eggs in soil and their hatch were investigated in 11 flood-irrigated date gardens in the Coachella Valley of southern California in 1999. Each garden was sampled several times after the rows were recently irrigated. All these date gardens harbored from very few to a large number of eggs in the soil. Overall, the average density of total eggs on ranches with clay loam soil was significantly higher than that on ranches with silt loam soil. The average densities of total eggs were significantly lower on the ranches that were disked compared to those on the ranches that were undisked before sampling. Two types of eggs were found and designated as "fresh" (yellowish to brownish) and "old" (blackish) eggs. This is the first time that these dimorphic eggs have been reported. The density of fresh eggs was lower than that of old eggs in most soil samples. The date gardens with high egg densities were sampled for determination of vertical occurrence, where soil was sampled up to 38.5 cm deep. Fresh eggs were recovered from soil in depths up to 25.6 cm, but the densities progressively declined with depth. The old eggs, however, were recovered from all soil depths studied, and there was no obvious relationship between soil depth and their density. This pattern of vertical occurrence of TPS eggs is the result of frequent disking for weed control and fruit harvest. Hatch of TPS eggs in surface soil samples ranged from 0 to 7.2 per 100 g dried soil. Hatch of viable eggs had an inverse relationship with soil depth. No TPS hatched out from the soil samples taken deeper than 15.4 cm. Fresh and old eggs distinguished by color were subjected to hatching tests. Fresh eggs exhibited high hatch, with hatching rates of 35.5-45.0% and 40.2-60.3% for the 1st and 1st plus the 2nd hydrations

  14. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  15. F1 Sterile insect technique: a novel approach for risk assessment of Episimus unguiculus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolus in the Continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal regulations mandate that researchers in the field of classical weed biological control follow the precautionary principle when proposing the release of an organism that can affect our environment. However, the host range observed in traditional laboratory cage experiments typically is broad...

  16. Best linear unbiased prediction of host range of the facultative parasite Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae, a potential biological control agent of Russian thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbleweed or Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.) is an introduced invasive weed in N. America. It is widely distributed in the U.S. and is a target of biological control efforts. The facultative parasitic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. f. sp. salsolae is a po...

  17. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causing anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) in Turkey, is a potential biological control agent of this weed in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; family Polygonaceae) is an exotic annual barbed vine that has invaded the northeastern USA, Mississippi, and Oregon. In July of 2010, in a search for potential biological control pathogens, diseased P. perfoliata plants were found along the Firtina...

  18. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA sinc...

  19. Potential of the strain of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8637 as a biological control agent against Cameraria ohridella and other pests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Awad, Mona; Hussein, Hany

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2012), s. 79-80. ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.4.00/12.0082 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * horse chestnut leaf miner * Colorado potato beatle

  20. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  1. Evaluating the suitability of Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Ashley B.

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest injurious to hemlock trees (Tsuga spp.) in the eastern United States. HWA currently infests hemlock in over 50% of its geographic range and has the potential to spread throughout its entire range. Since HWA populations in the eastern United States are not regulated effectively by natural enemies (Wallace and Hain 2000), classical biological control is the most promising option for controlling t...

  2. Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential biological control agent for spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Virginia vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Jessica A.

    2001-01-01

    Outbreaks of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in vineyards have been increasing with the expansion of the industry in Virginia. Only three effective acaricides are registered on grapes and as resistance begins to occur, control options are limited. Biological control of spider mites by inoculative or inundative releases of predatory mites has been tried on a wide range of crops including grapes. This project examined the feasibility of using Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as ...

  3. Release-Recovery in the Field and Reproductive Success in the Lab of Laricobius osakensis (Coleopera: Derodontidae) a Biological  Control Agent for the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    OpenAIRE

    Mooneyham, Katlin L

    2015-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is a small, non-native insect that feeds on hemlock (Tsuga spp.) species native to the eastern United States. One biological control agent, Laricobius osakensis, shows promise due to its voracious feeding on and synchronous life cycle with HWA. This beetle species is originally from Japan and has undergone all the necessary testing while in quarantine, gaining permission for field release in 2010. Field releases be...

  4. Pre-release Evaluation of Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent for the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the Eastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Cota Vieira, Ligia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive pest threatening eastern (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana Englem.) forests in the eastern US. A new predator, Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake, has been found in association with A. tsugae in Japan. Laricobius osakensis was evaluated in a series of pre-release studies to assess its potential as a biological control agent for A. tsugae. Host-range studies indicated that L. osakensis is...

  5. Ecological Compatibility of GM Crops and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) crops pervade many modern cropping systems, and present challenges and opportunities for developing biologically-based pest management programs. Interactions between biological control agents (insect predators, parasitoids, and pathog...

  6. Biological Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Causal Agent of Sunflower Head and Stem Rot Disease, by Use of Soil borne Actinomycetes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baniasadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High level of biosafety and non adverse effects on the environment of biocontrol strategies of pest management, are priorities of tomorrow's world agriculture. Actinomycetes are active biocontrol agents due to their antagonistic properties against wide range of plant pathogens particularly fungi. Fungal pathogens are liable for a big part of damages in agriculture economy. Approach: In the present research antifungal bioactivity of 50 isolates of Actinomycetes collected from soils of Kerman province of Iran was investigated against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib., the causal agent of stem rot in sunflower, through agar disc method and dual culture bioassays. The Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which several biological characterizations performed. Greenhouse studies were achieved to confirm laboratory results. Results: Among the tested Streptomyces isolates, 10 isolates revealed antagonistic properties in dual culture procedure from which isolate No. 363 showed highest bioactivity. The active metabolite of Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was polar and well soluble in H2O. Using agar-disc method, progressive growth of the pathogen was highly reduced by the antagonist through exhibiting ability to constitute fungus-free zones of inhibitions. The results indicated that isolate No. 363 was a proper candidate for field biocontrol studies. Conclusion: Results may open a horizon for production of resistant transgenic plants having antifungal properties originated from biologically active Streptomyces spp. recognition and production of effective metabolite(s of Streptomyces spp. which was responsible for antifungal activities will be our commercial goal due to rich reserves of soil borne Actinomycetes in Iran.

  7. Studies on the Asian sawflies of Formosempria Takeuchi (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, with notes on the suitability of F. varipes Takeuchi as a biological control agent for skunk vine, Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosempria Takeuchi, 1929, is distributed in southeastern Asia from Taiwan and China to Vietnam, Myanmar, and possibly northern India. Three species are included: F. crassicornis Wei & Nie, 2002, F. shanensis Malaise, 1961, and F. varipes Takeuchi, 1929 (= F. annamensis Malaise, 1961, syn. n.; = F. metallica Wei, 2003, syn. n.. Formosempria varipes was reared from larvae feeding on Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Hong Kong and was a potential biological agent for the invasive P. foetida in Florida. Larval feeding tests indicate more than one species of Paederia are suitable hosts for F. varipes and further study for use as a biological control agent in Florida is unwarranted. Descriptions and illustration of the species are given, and life history notes on F. varipes are presented.

  8. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  9. Susceptibility of the leaf-eating beetle, Galerucella calmariensis, a biological control agent for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salcaria), to three mosquito control larvicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T.P.; Hershberger, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of Galerucella calmariensis, a species used to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), to three mosquito control larvicides. Larvae and adults were fed loosestrife cuttings dipped in Abate? (3.75 g?L-1) was reduced significantly and survival was significantly lower among larvae and adults eating cuttings dipped in Abate (>0.17 g?L-1 and >2.27 g?L-1, respectively). Hatching success of eggs dipped in Altosid (>2.52 g?L-1) was reduced significantly. With exposure to Altosid, larval survival to pupation and adult emergence was reduced significantly at concentrations of >2.92 g?L-1 and >0.63 g?L-1, respectively. Altosid (>0.23 g?L-1) also delayed the onset of pupation and adult emergence among larvae that survived to pupate. Larvae that survived with exposure to Altosid (>1.72 g?L-1) grew to 70% larger than those exposed to lower concentrations. Pupal survival was unaffected with exposure to Abate and Altosid and adult survival was unaffected with exposure to Altosid. Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis did not adversely affect any life stage of G. calmariensis. The mean Abate concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced egg hatchability and adult survival but was higher than concentrations that caused complete mortality of larvae. The mean Altosid concentration on cuttings exposed to operational spraying was in the range that reduced hatching success in eggs and delayed pupation and adult emergence of larvae.

  10. Biomedicines—Moving Biologic Agents into Approved Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Cornetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of biologic agents for therapeutic purposes, or biomedicines, has seen an active area of research both at the bench and in clinical trials. There is mounting evidence that biologic products can provide effective therapy for diseases that have been unresponsive to traditional pharmacologic approaches. Monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer and rheumatologic diseases has become a well accepted part of disease treatment plans. Gene therapy products have been approved in China and Europe. Bioengineering of new agents capitalizing on microRNA biology, nanoparticle technology, stem cell biology, and an increasing understanding of immunology predict a rich future for product development. [...

  11. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  12. Rapid - PCR ( LightCycler ) in diagnosis of biological agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Hadfield, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Although the historic use of biological weapons has been infrequent, a belief that state sponsored armies or terrorist organizations will use this type of weapon has never been greater which demands a capability for rapid medical response and early intervention. Molecular diagnostic methods, based on DNA amplification known as PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are promising tools in fast and specific detection and identification of biological agent(s). The R.A.P.I.D.TM - PCR ( Ruggedized Adv...

  13. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment

  14. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author)

  15. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period

  16. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, K.L.S

    1981-11-15

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period.

  17. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  18. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch

  19. Carbon Nanotubes: Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Kumar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of carbon nanotubes has great impact on the development of newer methodologies and devicesuseful for the analysis of various types of chemicals. The functionalisation of CNTs with biomolecules relatedto chemical and biological warfare agents makes these useful for the detection of these agents. The detectionsensitivity can be increased manyfold. Various types of chemical and biological sensors were developed usingvarious type of carbon nanotubes as well as nano particles of different metals.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.617-625, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1684

  20. Biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis: 2008 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweiss, Nadera J; Hushaw, Linda L

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with a complex underlying pathology and varied presentation in patients. Several novel biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have become available for the treatment of RA. Agents in late-stage clinical trials include golimumab and certolizumab, which are anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha agents; ocrelizumab, an anti-CD20 agent; and tocilizumab, an inhibitor of interleukin-6. As treatment options for RA expand, nursing care will play an increasingly important role in empowering patients through interventions such as patient education and adverse effect management. PMID:19142153

  1. Current laboratory methods for biological threat agent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchal, E A; Teska, J D; Ludwig, G V; Shoemaker, D R; Ezzell, J W

    2001-09-01

    The authors present an integrated approach for the identification of biological threat agents. The methods used have been used extensively in field exercises and during response to incidents of biological terrorism. A diagnostic system, which integrates the clinical diagnosis or medical intelligence with immunodiagnostic tests, rapid gene amplification assays, and standard culture, provides results of the highest quality and confidence. In the future, selected reagents and technologies will be distributed through a network of civilian and military laboratories. PMID:11572145

  2. Biological agents with potential for misuse: a historical perspective and defensive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological and chemical agents capable of producing serious illness or mortality have been used in biowarfare from ancient times. Use of these agents has progressed from crude forms in early and middle ages, when snakes and infected cadavers were used as weapons in battles, to sophisticated preparations for use during and after the second World War. Cults and terrorist organizations have attempted the use of biological agents with an aim to immobilize populations or cause serious harm. The reasons for interest in these agents by individuals and organizations include relative ease of acquisition, potential for causing mass casualty or panic, modest financing requirement, availability of technology, and relative ease of delivery. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified Critical Biological Agents into three major categories. This classification was based on several criteria, which include severity of impact on human health, potential for delivery in a weapon, capacity to cause panic and special needs for development, and stockpiling of medication. Agents that could cause the greatest harm following deliberate use were placed in category A. Category B included agents capable of producing serious harm and significant mortality but of lower magnitude than category A agents. Category C included emerging pathogens that could be developed for mass dispersion in future and their potential as a major health threat. A brief description of the category A bioagents is included and the pathophysiology of two particularly prominent agents, namely anthrax and smallpox, is discussed in detail. The potential danger from biological agents and their ever increasing threat to human populations have created a need for developing technologies for their early detection, for developing treatment strategies, and for refinement of procedures to ensure survival of affected individuals so as to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating the threat from intentional use of

  3. Pyrazine-Derived Disulfide-Reducing Agent for Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lukesh, John C.; Wallin, Kelly K.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    For fifty years, dithiothreitol (DTT) has been the preferred reagent for the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins and other biomolecules. Herein we report on the synthesis and characterization of 2,3-bis(mercaptomethyl)pyrazine (BMMP), a readily accessible disulfide-reducing agent with reactivity under biological conditions that is markedly superior to DTT and other known reagents.

  4. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Kamareddine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.

  5. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  6. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  7. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  8. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1692

  9. Herbivory, Predation, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terence M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Authors describe a set of controlled ecosystems that can be used to demonstrate the effects of herbivory on the health and growth of a plant population and of predation on the growth of a primary consumer population. The system also shows the effectiveness of biological pest control measures in a dramatic way. The construction of the ecosystems is…

  10. The Use of Biologic Agents in Athletes with Knee Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Michaela; Bradley, James P

    2016-07-01

    Biologic agents are gaining popularity in the management of bony and soft tissue conditions about the knee. They are becoming the mainstay of nonoperative therapy in the high-demand athletic population. The most well-studied agents include platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells-both of which have shown promise in the treatment of various conditions. Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated improved outcomes following PRP treatment in early osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as in chronic patellar tendinopathy. Early clinical evidence also lends support for PRP in the augmentation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Research investigating the role of biologic agents in collateral ligament and meniscal injuries is ongoing. Studies assessing the utility of stem cells have shown encouraging results in the setting of osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, strict regulations by the FDA continue to restrict their application in clinical practice. A major limitation in the interpretation of current data is the significant variability in the harvesting and preparation of both PRP and stem cells. As the volume and quality of evidence continue to grow, biologic agents are poised to become an integral component of comprehensive patient care throughout all orthopedic specialties. PMID:27206071

  11. The efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum as a biological control agent : A comparative analysis of the decay fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum), a chemical herbicide and mechanical cutting to control sprouting of broad-leaved tree species.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemola, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In forestry, manual control of broad-leaved trees is tedious and costly. To reduce costs, chemicals have been applied to keep these species in control. However, some chemicals are not recommended to use because of possibly adverse effects on the environment. Instead of chemicals, biological alternatives, such as a fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum, might be used to prevent sprouting. C. purpureum is a common decay fungus in Finland; it has been investigated at Metla, to find out whether it cou...

  12. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  13. Intelligent agent based control of TL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agent based control of complex systems is becoming popular due to its ability to identify the critical situation and its ability to dynamically search for the best available solution to the problem with constrained optimization of the inputs. In this paper we are presenting the architecture of intelligent agent for automatic control of power supplies of TL-1 (Transfer Line 1) to maximise the injection process against the changes in the input beam obtained from Microtron. The paper discusses the results obtained by applying this agent architecture to the accelerator model comprises of Microtron output, TL-1 and booster. (author)

  14. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed

  15. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  16. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae), the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    OpenAIRE

    Suparman Suparman; Yulia Pujiastuti; Hisanori Bando; Shin-ichiro Asano

    2013-01-01

    Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely ...

  17. Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, the Causal Agent of Root Rot Disease of Greenhouse Cucurbits in Kerman Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shafii Bafti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic activity of 178 soil actinomycete isolates was assayed against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Schlecht, Emend (Snyde and Hansen cause of root rot and fusarium wilt of greenhouse cucurbits in Kerman Province, southeast of Iran. From tested isolates, Streptomyces olivaceus (strain 115 showed anti-fusarium activity revealed through screening and bioassays by agar disk and well-diffusion methods. The active strain was grown in submerged cultures for determination of growth curve and preparation of crude extract for further biological characterizations. Antifungal activity was fungistatic type on the pathogen mycelia. It is prominent that amending greenhouse soil mix with the S. olivaceus (strain 115 will reduce crop losses by the pathogen.

  18. Biological control in greenhouse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitz, T C; Bélanger, R R

    2001-01-01

    The controlled environment of greenhouses, the high value of the crops, and the limited number of registered fungicides offer a unique niche for the biological control of plant diseases. During the past ten years, over 80 biocontrol products have been marketed worldwide. A large percentage of these have been developed for greenhouse crops. Products to control soilborne pathogens such as Sclerotinia, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium include Coniothyrium minitans, species of Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Streptomyces, and Bacillus, and nonpathogenic Fusarium. Products containing Trichoderma, Ampelomyces quisqualis, Bacillus, and Ulocladium are being developed to control the primary foliar diseases, Botrytis and powdery mildew. The development of Pseudomonas for the control of Pythium diseases in hydroponics and Pseudozyma flocculosa for the control of powdery mildew by two Canadian research programs is presented. In the future, biological control of diseases in greenhouses could predominate over chemical pesticides, in the same way that biological control of greenhouse insects predominates in the United Kingdom. The limitations in formulation, registration, and commercialization are discussed, along with suggested future research priorities. PMID:11701861

  19. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Suárez-López del Amo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB, Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD, Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF, Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2, Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7, Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5.

  20. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Monje, Alberto; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Tang, ZhiHui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD), Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2), Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7), Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5). PMID:26509173

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  2. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis therapy with genetically engineered biological agents in the Republic of Karelia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Mikhailovna Marusenko

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers whether a current treatment option for rheumatoid arthritis with genetically engineered biological agents that selectively block the activity of individual proinflammatory mediators and cell surface antigens involved in autoimmune inflammation may be performed in Karelia, which can achieve control of the disease, retard its progression, and improve prognosis.

  4. Is 'class effect' relevant when assessing the benefit/risk profile of a biologic agent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterry, W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically predisposed skin disorder, characterised by thickened scaly plaques. Although no therapy is recognised as curative, therapies aimed at symptom control include biologic agents that are generally designed to block molecular activation of cellular pathways of a patho

  5. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Devauchelle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogen...

  6. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposur...

  7. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the fa...

  8. Potential exposure of a classical biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, on non-target aphids in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    In summer 2007, the Asian parasitoid Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was released in North America for control of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae). Despite its comparatively narrow host range, releases of B. communis may still constitute a risk to native a...

  9. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  10. Enhancement of trichogramma evanescens westwood as biological control agents by grape seeds against irradiated and non -irradiated potato tuber moth phthorimaea operculella eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly oviposited eggs of Phthorimaea operculellla (zeller) were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy. eggs parasitization and emergence of the parasitoid trichogramma evanescens were decreased in the irradiated eggs than in the control. the parasitization % reduced from 84.3 unirradiated eggs to 78.3 and 69.0 in eggs irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy, respectively, parasite emerges decrease also by γ -irradiation . Grape seeds extract (g.s.e.) decreased the parasitization% and the parasitoid emergence. the g.s.e. may be has a repellent effect on T. evanescens which decrease parasitization % and parasitoid emergence. Grape seed powder (g.s.p.) increased the egg parasitization to 92.5 while decreased to 86.5% and 73.0% when eggs irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy, respectively. parasitoid emergence was also increased when the eggs treated with (G.S.P)

  11. Biological control of Colletotrichum panacicola on Panax ginseng by Bacillus subtilis HK-CSM-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hojin; Park, Hoon; Suh, Dong-Sang; Jung, Gun Ho; Park, Kyungseok; Lee, Byung Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological control of plant pathogens using benign or beneficial microorganisms as antagonistic agents is currently considered to be an important component of integrated pest management in agricultural crops. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent against Colletotrichum panacicola. Methods The potential of B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent for ginseng anthracnose was assessed. C. panacicola was i...

  12. Field parasitism of nontarget weevil species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by the introduced biological control agent Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) over an altitude gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, B I P; Ferguson, C M; Bixley, A S; Crook, K E; Barton, D M; Johnstone, P D

    2007-08-01

    The parasitoid, Microctonus aethiopoides Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was introduced into New Zealand in 1982 to control the alfalfa pest, Sitona discoideus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Studies have shown that a number of nontarget weevil species are attacked in the field by this parasitoid. A field study was carried out to investigate nontarget parasitism by M. aethiopoides over an altitudinal sequence from the target host habitat (alfalfa) into native grassland. Three locations were selected for the study, and at each, the alfalfa growing in the valley floor was sampled annually for parasitism of the target pest that ranged between 17 and 78%. At progressively higher altitudes, three further grassland sites at each location were sampled monthly during spring to autumn for up to 6 yr. Weevil densities were estimated, species identified, and dissections carried out to determine reproductive status and parasitism. Almost 12,000 weevils were collected during the study, which were identified as 36 species in total from the three locations. Eight weevil species were found to be parasitized, including S. discoideus, the target host that was found at all sites. Parasitism of nontarget species was approximately 2% overall but varied with location, site, and season. Substantial nontarget parasitism was found at only one of the locations, with up to 24% parasitism of a native weevil, Nicaeana fraudator Broun (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), recorded. Another species, Irenimus egens (Broun) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was also found at this location at similar population densities but was attacked far less by M. aethiopoides. Results are discussed in relation to weevil phenology. PMID:17716473

  13. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

  14. Genetically engineered biological agents in therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Aseeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype for chronic autoimmune disease. Its prevalence is 20 to 70 cases per 100,000 women and varies by race and ethnicity. Despite considerable progress in traditional therapy, many problems associated with the management of these patients need to be immediately solved: thus, 50-80% are found to have activity signs and/or frequent exacerbations and about 30% of the patients have to stop work; Class IV lupus nephritis increases the risk of terminalrenal failure. In the past 20 years great progress has been made in studying the pathogenesis of SLE: biological targets to affect drugs have been sought and fundamentally new therapeutic goals defined. Belimumab is the first genetically biological agent specially designed to treat SLE, which is rightly regarded as one of the most important achievements of rheumatology in the past 50 years.

  15. Genetically engineered biological agents in therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Aseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype for chronic autoimmune disease. Its prevalence is 20 to 70 cases per 100,000 women and varies by race and ethnicity. Despite considerable progress in traditional therapy, many problems associated with the management of these patients need to be immediately solved: thus, 50-80% are found to have activity signs and/or frequent exacerbations and about 30% of the patients have to stop work; Class IV lupus nephritis increases the risk of terminalrenal failure. In the past 20 years great progress has been made in studying the pathogenesis of SLE: biological targets to affect drugs have been sought and fundamentally new therapeutic goals defined. Belimumab is the first genetically biological agent specially designed to treat SLE, which is rightly regarded as one of the most important achievements of rheumatology in the past 50 years.

  16. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effective use of these wasps against target pests. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate criteria and methods for identification and selection of Trichogramma species/strains for biological control...

  17. Update on the use of systemic biologic agents in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasadhika S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirichai Pasadhika,1 James T Rosenbaum2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Southern Arizona Veterans Administration Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Legacy Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Noninfectious uveitis may be associated with other systemic conditions, such as human leukocyte antigen B27-related spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents (such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine may not be sufficient to control ocular inflammation or prevent non-ophthalmic complications in refractory patients. Off-label use of biologic response modifiers has been studied as primary and secondary therapeutic agents. They are very useful when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed or has been poorly tolerated, or to treat concomitant ophthalmic and systemic inflammation that might benefit from these medications. Biologic therapy, primarily infliximab, and adalimumab, have been shown to be rapidly effective for the treatment of various subtypes of refractory uveitis and retinal vasculitis, especially Behçet's disease-related eye conditions and the uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Other agents such as golimumab, abatacept, canakinumab, gevokizumab, tocilizumab, and alemtuzumab may have great future promise for the treatment of uveitis. It has been shown that with proper monitoring, biologic therapy can significantly improve quality of life in patients with uveitis, particularly those with concurrent systemic symptoms. However, given high cost as well as the limited long-term safety data, we do not routinely recommend biologics as first-line therapy for noninfectious uveitis in most patients. These agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present

  18. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J., E-mail: jiri.dammer@lf1.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F. [Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Benes, J. [Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Salmovská 1, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Sopko, V. [Hospital Na Bulovce, Department of Radiological Physics, Budinova 2, 180 81 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Gelbic, I. [Biology Centre, AS CR, Institute of Entomology, Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system.

  19. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system

  20. Biological soil crusts: a fundamental organizing agent in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem function is profoundly affected by plant community composition, which is ultimately determined by factors that govern seed retention. Dryland ecosystems constitute ~35% of terrestrial surfaces, with most soils in these regions covered by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), a community whose autotrophs are dominated by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses. Studies at 550 sites revealed that plant community composition was controlled by the interaction among biocrust type, disturbance regime, and external morphology of seeds. In bare soils (due to disturbance), all seed types were present in the seedbank and plant community. As biocrusts became better developed (i.e., the cover of lichens and mosses increased), they more strongly filtered out seeds with appendages. Thus, soils under late successional biocrusts contained seedbanks dominated by smooth seeds and vascular plants growing in late successional biocrusts were dominated by those with smooth seeds. Therefore, the tension between the removal of biocrusts by soil surface disturbance and their recovery creates a shifting mosaic of plant patch types in both space and time. Because changes in vascular plant communities reverberate throughout both below ground and above ground food webs and thus affect multiple trophic levels, we propose that biocrusts are a fundamental organizing agent in drylands worldwide. Future increased demand for resources will intensify land use both temporally and spatially, resulting in an increased rate of biocrust loss across larger areas. As a result, we can expect shifts in the composition and distribution of plant communities, accompanied by concomitant changes in many aspects of dryland ecosystems. Conceptual model of shifting dryland plant mosaics through space and time. Within the large circles, soil surface type changes with time in the same space, going from bare uncrusted soil (B) to cyanobacterial biocrust (C) to lichen/moss (L/M) biocrust. Disturbance (D) drives the

  1. The use of contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, J; Sopko, V; Jakubek, J [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Weyda, F, E-mail: jiri.dammer@utef.cvut.cz [Biological center of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, CZ-37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    The technique of X-ray transmission imaging has been available for over a century and is still among the fastest and easiest approaches to the studies of internal structure of biological samples. Recent advances in semiconductor technology have led to the development of new types of X-ray detectors with direct conversion of interacting X-ray photon to an electric signal. Semiconductor pixel detectors seem to be specially promising; compared to the film technique, they provide single-quantum and real-time digital information about the objects being studied. We describe the recently developed radiographic apparatus, equipped with Medipix2 semiconductor pixel detector. The detector is used as an imager that counts individual photons of ionizing radiation, emitted by an X-ray tube (micro- or nano-focus FeinFocus). Thanks to the wide dynamic range of the Medipix2 detector and its high spatial resolution better than 1{mu}m, the setup is particularly suitable for radiographic imaging of small biological samples, including in-vivo observations with contrast agent (Optiray). Along with the description of the apparatus we provide examples of the use iodine contrast agent as a tracer in various insects as model organisms. The motivation of our work is to develop our imaging techniques as non-destructive and non-invasive. Microradiographic imaging helps detect organisms living in a not visible environment, visualize the internal biological processes and also to resolve the details of their body (morphology). Tiny live insects are an ideal object for our studies.

  2. Comparison and Analysis of Biological Agent Category Lists Based On Biosafety and Biodefense

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Deqiao; Zheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Biological agents pose a serious threat to human health, economic development, social stability and even national security. The classification of biological agents is a basic requirement for both biosafety and biodefense. We compared and analyzed the Biological Agent Laboratory Biosafety Category list and the defining criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the European Union (EU) and China. We also compared and analyzed the Biologic...

  3. Biological control and sustainable food production

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, J S; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Bigler, F

    2007-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentative control has been successfully applied against a range of open-field and greenhouse pests, and conservation biological control schemes have been developed with indigenous predators and parasitoid...

  4. Chemiluminescence assay for the detection of biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langry, K; Horn, J

    1999-11-05

    A chemiluminescent homogeneous immunoassay and a hand-size multiassay reader are described that could be used for detecting biological materials. The special feature of the assay is that it employs two different antibodies that each bind to a unique epitope on the same antigen. Each group of epitope-specific antibodies has linked to it an enzyme of a proximal-enzyme pair. One enzyme of the pair utilizes a substrate in high concentration to produce a second substrate required by the second enzyme. This new substrate enables the second enzyme to function. The reaction of the second enzyme is configured to produce light. This chemiluminescence is detected with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The proximal pair enzymes must be in close proximity to one another to allow the second enzyme to react with the product of the first enzyme. This only occurs when the enzyme-linked antibodies are attached to the antigen, whether antigen is a single protein with multiple epitopes or the surface of a cell with a variety of different antigens. As a result of their juxtaposition, the enzymes produce light only in the presence of the biological material. A brief description is given as to how this assay could be utilized in a personal bio-agent detector system.

  5. Controlling Sulfuryl-Transfer Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Wang, Wei; Kopp, Felix; Wu, Peng; Leyh, Thomas S

    2016-05-19

    In humans, the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze regiospecific transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to thousands of metabolites, including numerous signaling small molecules, and thus regulates their activities and half-lives. Imbalances in the in vivo set points of these reactions leads to disease. Here, with the goal of controlling sulfonation in vivo, molecular ligand-recognition principles in the SULT and nuclear receptor families are integrated in creating a strategy that can prevent sulfonation of a compound without significantly altering its receptor affinity, or inhibiting SULTS. The strategy is validated by using it to control the sulfonation and estrogen receptor (ER) activating activity of raloxifene (a US Food and Drug Administration-approved selective estrogen receptor modulator) and its derivatives. Preventing sulfonation is shown to enhance ER-activation efficacy 10(4)-fold in studies using Ishikawa cells. The strategy offers the opportunity to control sulfuryl transfer on a compound-by-compound basis, to enhance the efficacy of sulfonated drugs, and to explore the biology of sulfuryl transfer with unprecedented precision. PMID:27203377

  6. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effectiv

  7. Biological agents and biosimilars: Essential information for the internist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasina, Luca; Casadei, Gianluigi; Nobili, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Biologics embrace a wide range of substances synthesized by cells or living organisms by means of different biological processes, including recombinant DNA technology, controlled gene expression, or antibody technologies. A biosimilar establishes similarity to the reference medicinal product in terms of quality characteristics, biological activity, safety, and efficacy based on a comprehensive comparability exercise. Minimizing development costs and accelerating their market access create a convergence of interests between health services, worried about sustainability, and generic manufacturers. While the demonstration of bioequivalence is sufficient for small synthetic molecules, this approach is not scientifically applicable to a copy of biological drug constituted by large and complex molecules, which are similar but not identical to the originator and are also subject to different post-translational processes. Internists should be confident that the development process of biosimilars ensures a comparable risk-to-benefit balance with the originators. On the basis of available evidence and pharmacovigilance network, there are no grounds to believe that the use of a biosimilar carries more risks for the patient than the use of an originator. Since the first biosimilar was authorized in Europe in 2006, no clinical alerts have raised red flags about the established EMA biosimilar pathway. In this article, we discuss some of the most frequent concerns raised by clinicians about biosimilars and try to explains the scientific principles underlying the biosimilar concept established in the EU in order to license biosimilar drugs. PMID:27342030

  8. Biological control and sustainable food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, J.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Bigler, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentati

  9. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents. PMID:15750748

  10. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  11. Agents-based distributed processes control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gligor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large industrial distributed systems have revealed a remarkable development in recent years. We may note an increase of their structural and functional complexity, at the same time with those on requirements side. These are some reasons why there are involvednumerous researches, energy and resources to solve problems related to these types of systems. The paper addresses the issue of industrial distributed systems with special attention being given to the distributed industrial processes control systems. A solution for a distributed process control system based on mobile intelligent agents is presented.The main objective of the proposed system is to provide an optimal solution in terms of costs, maintenance, reliability and flexibility. The paper focuses on requirements, architecture, functionality and advantages brought by the proposed solution.

  12. Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Persistence of Metarhizium Spp. Fungi from Soil of Strawberry Crops and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents against the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago Rodriguesde

    using pathogenic fungi as a tool in integrated pest management. Metarhizium spp. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) are generalist entomopathogenic fungi with worldwide distribution and can cause diseases in a large number of hosts. Many studies on the development of Metarhizium as a biological control...

  13. A review of research on common biological agents and their impact on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological agents are unique class of microorganisms which can be used to produce the disease in large populations of humans, animals and plants. If used for hostile purposes, any disease-causing microorganism could be considered a weapon. The use of biological agents is not a new concept and history is replete with examples of biological weapon use. Before the twenty century, biological warfare took on three main forms by deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and use of biologically inoculated fabrics. Four kinds of biological warfare agents are bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi. These are distinguished by being living organisms, that reproduce within their host victims, who then become contagious with a deadly multiplier effect, bacteria, viruses, or fungi or toxin found in nature can be used to kill or injure people. Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, as well as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands. These biological agents represent a dangerous military threat because they are alive, and are therefore unpredictable and uncontrollable once released. The act of bioterrorism can range from a simple hoax to the actual use of biological weapons. Biological agents have the potential to make an environment more dangerous over time. If the environment is contaminated, a long-term threat to the population could be created. This paper discusses common biological agents, their mode of action in living organisms and possible impact on the environment. (author)

  14. Cement industry control system based on multi agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海东; 邱冠周; 黄圣生

    2004-01-01

    Cement production is characterized by its great capacity, long-time delay, multi variables, difficult measurement and muhi disturbances. According to the distributed intelligent control strategy based on the multi agent, the multi agent control system of cement production is built, which includes integrated optimal control and diagnosis control. The distributed and multiple level structure of multi agent system for the cement control is studied. The optimal agent is in the distributed state, which aims at the partial process of the cement production, and forms the optimal layer. The diagnosis agent located on the diagnosis layer is the diagnosis unit which aims at the whole process of the cement production, and the central management unit of the system. The system cooperation is realized by the communication among optimal agents and diagnosis agent. The architecture of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are designed. The detailed functions of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are analyzed.At last the realization methods of the agents are given, and the application of the multi agent control system is presented. The multi agent system has been successfully applied to the off-line control of one cement plant with capacity of 5 000 t/d. The results show that the average yield of the clinker increases 9.3% and the coal consumption decreases 7.5 kg/t.

  15. Biological Control in Brazil: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Postali Parra

    2014-01-01

    The use of Biological Control methods is on the increase, mainly as a result of the mobilization of human resources in entomology studies since the establishment of graduate programs in this country in the 1960s. This review approaches the retrospective of Biological Control in Brazil in recent decades, with an emphasis on the "culture of applying agrochemicals" adopted by Brazilian growers, which constrains progress in this area. Successful cases of Biological Control have been reported on i...

  16. Naphthoflavones as Antiproliferative Agents: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Onkar; Nepali, Kunal; Bedi, Pms; Qayum, Arem; Singh, Shashank; Jain, Subheet K

    2016-01-01

    The present study involves the design and synthesis of naphthoflavones as antiproliferative agents. The strategy presents naphthoflavones as hybrids of naphthyl based chalcones and flavones. A panel of human cancer cell lines were employed for the cytotoxicity studies. DK-13 exhibited significant cytoxicity against MiaPaCa-2 cell lines with IC50 value of 1.93 μM and 5.63 μM against MCF-7 cell lines. The compound DK-13 was found to induce apoptosis evidenced through phase contrast microscopy, DAPI staining, and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. The cell phase distribution studies indicated an increase from 11.26 % (control sample) to 55.19 % (sample treated with 20 μM compound DK-13) in the apoptotic population. PMID:26845133

  17. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  18. Biological control of leatherjackets using insect pathogens OF0116T

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, David

    1998-01-01

    Leatherjackets (Tipula spp.; larvae of crane flies) are significant pests affecting the organic farming sector. Effective non-chemical methods of protecting organic crops from leatherjackets have not yet been developed, although insect pathogens are a promising method for biological control of these pests. This study will aim to identify and evaluate fungi, nematodes and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for their effectiveness as control agents. The pathogens will be sourced from the HRI ...

  19. The influence of the workplace-related biological agents on the immune systems of emergency medical personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Depczyńska, Daria; Borecka, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Kubiak, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services workers' (EMSWs) acute exposures to many biological agents are frequent and well recognised in their workplaces, as well as occupational diseases resulting from some of these exposures. At the same time, there is only scant information on the adverse effects of chronic exposure to biological hazard factors on the immune systems of EMSWs. In the Polish legislation system, the Ordinance of the Minister of Health about harmful biological agents in the workplace and ways of protecting workers from exposure to those agents is an implement of Directive 2000/54/EC, which deals thoroughly with those issues in European Union Countries. Emergency medical services workers play an essential role as primary providers of pre-hospital emergency medical care, and they are part of the integral components of disaster response. Traumatic experiences can affect emergency medical staff immune systems negatively, by functioning as a chronic stressor. Conscious use of biological agents in workplaces such as microbial laboratories can be easily controlled and monitored. However, risk assessment is more difficult for workers when they are exposed unintentionally to biological agents. Exposure to bio-aerosols is considered especially harmful. This review summarises available information about biological risk factors for emergency medical services workers, and some information about the influence of these factors on their immune systems. PMID:26557040

  20. Control Prosody using Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji MATSUI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Persons who have undergone a laryngectomy have a few options to partially restore speech but no completely satisfactory device. Even though the use of an electrolarynx (EL is the easiest way for a patient to produce speech, it does not produce a natural tone and appearance is far from normal. Because of that and the fact that none of them are hands-free, the feasibility of using a motion sensor to replace a conventional EL user interface has been explored. A mobile device motion sensor with multi-agent platform has been used to investigate on/off and pitch frequency control capability. A very small battery operated ARM-based control unit has also been developed to evaluate the motion sensor based user-interface. This control unit is placed on the wrist and the vibration device against the throat using support bandage. Two different conversion methods were used for the forearm tilt angle to pitch frequency conversion: linear mapping method and F0 template-based method A perceptual evaluation has been performed with two well-trained normal speakers and ten subjects. The results of the evaluation study showed that both methods are able to produce better speech quality in terms of the naturalness.

  1. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  2. Population Control for Multi-agent Based Topical Crawlers

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, Alban; Marteau, Pierre-François

    2008-01-01

    International audience The use of multi-agent topical Web crawlers based on the endogenous fitness model raises the problem of controling the population of agents. We tackle this question through an energy based model to balance the reproduction/life expectency of agents. Our goal is to simplify the tuning of parameters and to optimize the use of ressources available for the crawling. We introduce an energy based model designed to control the number of agents according to the precision of ...

  3. Quality of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports on biological pest control / Thea Henriette Carroll

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Thea Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Decision making regarding the release of biological control agents for invasive species such as lantana, Lantana camara, requires the consideration and evaluation of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports by a competent authority. Although various biological control agents have been authorised for release into the environment for the control of lantana, the quality of the EIA reports that form the basis for decision making has never been evaluated. The evaluation of the ...

  4. Biological toxin warfare: threat, proliferation, and the effects of neutron energy on BTW agents

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Jeffrey R.

    1995-01-01

    The threat of biological weapons presents a special military challenge. Biological toxin warfare (BTW) agents are more potent than chemical warfare agents. Depending on the yield of the nuclear weapon, a biological weapon also can have a higher lethality than nuclear weapons. This thesis examines existing international restricions on the proliferation of BTW technology and identifies their shortcomings. These loopholes contribute to the eay availability of the technology necessary to examine ...

  5. The role of ionizing radiation in biological control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the commercial biological control industry is growing, it still represents only a small portion of the international market of pest control sales (about 3%). This low ratio is due to several factors including high cost of production of biological control agents and technical and regulatory difficulties that complicate the shipping procedures and create trade barriers. This article summarizes the role of ionizing radiation in supporting the use of biological control agents in insect pest control and concentrates on its role in the production, transport, distribution, and release of parasites and predators and the advantages that ionizing radiation can offer, in comparison with traditional techniques. (author)

  6. Biological control of Fusarium graminearum on wheat by antagonistic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Nourozian; Hassan Reza Etebarian; Gholam Khodakaramian

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains 53 and 71, Pseudomonas fluorescens biov1 strain 32 and Streptomyces sp. Strain 3 were evaluated as potential biological agents for control of fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum. Mycelial growth of the pathogen was reduced by cell free and volatile metabolites of bacterial antagonists by 37%-97%. Streptomyces sp. Strain 3 reduced disease severity of FHB 21 d after inoculation. The yield of wheat from plants treated with Streptomyces sp. strain 3...

  7. Treatment of psoriasis with biologic agents in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Mercieca, Liam; Boffa, Michael J.; Clark, Eileen; Scerri, Lawrence; Aquilina, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biologic therapy has revolutionalised the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis leading to improved clinical outcomes and quality of life scores. This study aims to determine current biologic use in psoriatic patients at our Dermatology department at Sir Paul Boffa hospital, Malta. Method: All patients who were administered biologic therapy for psoriasis in Malta until the end of 2014 were included. Data included demographic details, disease dur...

  8. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets[I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas[2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study[3] has been

  9. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  10. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  11. Agent-Based Decentralized Control Method for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Feixiong; Chen, Minyou;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an agent-based decentralized control model for islanded microgrids is proposed, which consists of a two-layer control structure. The bottom layer is the electrical distribution microgrid, while the top layer is the communication network composed of agents. An agent is regarded...... is processed according to control laws, agents adjust the production of distributed generators to which they connect. The main contributions of this paper are (i) an agent-based model for decentralized secondary control is introduced and the rules to establish the communication network are given; (ii...... agents use the proposed control laws. Finally, the simulation results show that frequency and voltage fluctuations are small and meet the requirements....

  12. Biological control of chestnut blight in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Luís; Castro, João Paulo; Gouveia, Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    Plant protection is a multi-disciplinary subject and different strategies need to be addressed for sustainable plant health management Biological control is an ecosystem-based approach extending from lab based investigation to fie ld applications. Hipovirulence is a specific method for biological control of Chestnut Blight a lethal disease of the American and European chestnut. The causal pathogen of Chestnut Blight is Cryphonectria parasitica a fungus of Asian origin which ...

  13. Predatory hoverflies increase oviposition in response to colour stimuli offering no reward: implications for biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R.L.; Hickman, J.M.; Sprague, R.I.; Wratten, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    There are increasing efforts worldwide to engineer agroecosystems to enhance ecosystem services such as carbon storage, minimisation of erosion, and biological control of pests. A key group of insect biological control agents is the hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). While adult Syrphidae are pollen and nectar feeders, the larvae of many species are aphidophagous, thus demonstrating life-history omnivory and their potentially important role in the biological control of aphids and other pests. S...

  14. Controllability of a swarm of topologically interacting autonomous agents

    CERN Document Server

    Komareji, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has been the focal point of many recent studies in the field of complexity. These landmark advances shed a new light on the dynamics of natural and technological complex systems. Here, we analyze the controllability of a swarm of autonomous self-propelled agents having a topological neighborhood of interactions, applying the analytical tools developed for the study of the controllability of arbitrary complex directed networks. To this aim we thoroughly investigate the structural properties of the swarm signaling network which is the information transfer channel underpinning the dynamics of agents in the physical space. Our results show that with 6 or 7 topological neighbors, every agent not only affects, but is also affected by all other agents within the group. More importantly, still with 6 or 7 topological neighbors, each agent is capable of full control over all other agents. This finding is yet another argument justifying the particular value of the number of topologic...

  15. The potential of TaqMan Array Cards for detection of multiple biological agents by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Rachwal

    Full Text Available The TaqMan Array Card architecture, normally used for gene expression studies, was evaluated for its potential to detect multiple bacterial agents by real-time PCR. Ten PCR assays targeting five biological agents (Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis were incorporated onto Array Cards. A comparison of PCR performance of each PCR in Array Card and singleplex format was conducted using DNA extracted from pure bacterial cultures. When 100 fg of agent DNA was added to Array Card channels the following levels of agent detection (where at least one agent PCR replicate returned a positive result were observed: Y. pestis 100%, B. mallei & F. tularensis 93%; B. anthracis 71%; B. pseudomallei 43%. For B. mallei & pseudomallei detection the BPM2 PCR, which detects both species, outperformed PCR assays specific to each organism indicating identification of the respective species would not be reproducible at the 100 fg level. Near 100% levels of detection were observed when 100 fg of DNA was added to each PCR in singleplex format with singleplex PCRs also returning sporadic positives at the 10 fg per PCR level. Before evaluating the use of Array Cards for the testing of environmental and clinical sample types, with potential levels of background DNA and PCR inhibitors, users would therefore have to accept a 10-fold reduction in sensitivity of PCR assays on the Array Card format, in order to benefit for the capacity to test multiple samples for multiple agents. A two PCR per agent strategy would allow the testing of 7 samples for the presence of 11 biological agents or 3 samples for 23 biological agents per card (with negative control channels.

  16. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  17. DIRAC - Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; van Herwijnen, E; Loverre, F; Ponce, S; Graciani Diaz, R.; Galli, D; Marconi, U; Vagnoni, V; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Harrison, K; Schmelling, M; Egede, U; Bogdanchikov, A; Korolko, I; Washbrook, A; Palacios, J P; Klous, S; Saborido, J J; Khan, A; Pickford, A; Soroko, A; Romanovski, V; Patrick, G N; Kuznetsov, G; Gandelman, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes DIRAC, the LHCb Monte Carlo production system. DIRAC has a client/server architecture based on: Compute elements distributed among the collaborating institutes; Databases for production management, bookkeeping (the metadata catalogue) and software configuration; Monitoring and cataloguing services for updating and accessing the databases. Locally installed software agents implemented in Python monitor the local batch queue, interrogate the production database for any outstanding production requests using the XML-RPC protocol and initiate the job submission. The agent checks and, if necessary, installs any required software automatically. After the job has processed the events, the agent transfers the output data and updates the metadata catalogue. DIRAC has been successfully installed at 18 collaborating institutes, including the DataGRID, and has been used in recent Physics Data Challenges. In the near to medium term future we must use a mixed environment with different types of grid mid...

  18. 75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... appropriate practices for physical security and cyber security for facilities that possess Tier 1 agents. The..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-16864 Filed 7-7-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Executive Order 13546--Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United...

  19. AFECS. multi-agent framework for experiment control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurjyan, V.; Abbott, D.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2008-07-01

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  20. AFECS. Multi-Agent Framework for Experiment Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2008-01-23

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  1. AFECS. multi-agent framework for experiment control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC

  2. Use of nuclear techniques in biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Among these approaches, biological control is a keystone. However, because of increasing concerns about the introduction of exotic natural enemies of insect pests and weeds (Howarth 1991, Delfosse 1997), the overall thrust of biological control has moved toward augmentative biological control, involving releases of established natural enemy species (Knipling 1992). This in turn has created a need to develop more cost-effective mass rearing technologies for beneficial insects. Nuclear techniques could play an especially important role in augmentative biological control, not only in facilitating mass rearing, but in several other ways, as indicated below. Recognising the potential value for use of nuclear techniques in biological control, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, sponsored a Consultants' Group Meeting on this subject in April 1997. The Group produced a document entitled Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. The consultants included the authors of this paper as well as Ernest Delfosse (at that time, with the USDA-APHIS National Biological Control Institute), Garry Hill (Intl. Institute for Biological Control), Sinthya Penn (Beneficial Insectary), and Felipe Jeronimo (USDA-APHIS PPQ, Guatemala). The remarks presented in this paper reflect the thoughts presented by these consultants and other participants at the IAEA-sponsored meeting. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques were identified by the Consultants' Group, including: 1) improvements in rearing media (either artificial diets or natural hosts/prey), 2) provision of sterilised natural prey to be used as food during shipment, to ameliorate concerns relating to the

  3. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Layla Kamareddine

    2012-01-01

    The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute co...

  4. The Tiny Agent - Wireless Sensor Networks Controlling Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Platt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available CSIRO is using wireless sensor network technology to deploy “tiny agents”, working as autonomous controllers for individual pieces of electrical load/generation equipment in a distributed energy system. The tiny agent concept is a novel application of wireless sensor networks, providing the benefits of multi-agent systems science in a cheap, mobile, and highly distributable platform. However, the performance constraints inherent to wireless sensor networks mean the real-world realization of a tiny agent system is a significant challenge. This article details our work on tiny agents. We include a brief review of multiagent system benefits, and then discuss the challenges inherent to the tiny agent concept. We also detail our applications work in applying wireless sensor network technology to operate as tiny agents, with a focus on intelligent heating, ventilation and air- conditioning control.

  5. Mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial antagonists improve biological control of fire blight of pear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixtures of biological control agents can be superior to individual agents in suppressing plant disease, providing enhanced efficacy and reliability from field to field relative to single biocontrol strains. Nonetheless, the efficacy of combinations of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a commercial bio...

  6. Agent-based Models in Synthetic Biology: Tools for Simulation and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V.Krishnamurthy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiset of agents based modeling and simulation paradigm for synthetic biology. The multiset of agents –based programming paradigm, can be interpreted as the outcome arising out of deterministic, nondeterministic or stochastic interaction among elements in a multiset object space, that includes the environment. These interactions are like chemical reactions and the evolution of the multiset can emulate the system biological functions. Since the reaction rules are inherently parallel, any number of actions can be performed cooperatively or competitively among the subsets of elements, so that the elements evolve toward equilibrium or emergent state. Practical realization of this paradigm for system biological simulation is achieved through the concept of transactional style programming with agents, as well as soft computing (neural- network principles. Also we briefly describe currently available tools for agent-based-modeling, simulation and animation.

  7. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  8. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - VII. Biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gatto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of biological agents has been a major turning-point in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis. This review describes the principle milestones that have led, through the knowledge of the structure and functions of nucleic acids, to the development of production techniques of the three major families of biological agents: proteins, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. A brief history has also been traced of the cytokines most involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IL-1 and TNF and the steps which have led to the use of the main biological drugs in rheumatology: anakinra, infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept and rituximab.

  9. Multispectral analysis of biological agents to implement a quick tool for stand-off biological detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Lungaroni, M.; Gabriele, J.; Ludovici, G. M.; Cenciarelli, O.; Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.

    2015-10-01

    With the aim of identifying an approach to exploit the differences in the fluorescence signatures of biological agents BAs, we have investigated the response of some BAs simulants to a set of different excitation wavelengths in the UV spectral range (i.e. 266, 273, 280, 300, 340, 355 nm). Our preliminary results on bacterial spores and vegetative forms, dispersed in water, showed that the differences in the fluorescence spectra can be enhanced, and more easily revealed, by using different excitation wavelengths. Specifically, the photo luminescence (PL) spectra coming from different species of Bacillus, in the form of spores (used as simulants of Bacillus anthracis), show significant differences under excitation at all the wavelengths, with slightly larger differences at 300, 340, 355 nm. On the other hand, the vegetative forms of two Bacillus species, did not show any appreciable difference, i.e. the PL spectra are virtually identical, for the excitation wavelengths of 266, 273, 280 nm. Conversely, small yet appreciable difference appear at 300, 340, 355 nm. Finally, large difference appear between the spore and the vegetative form of each species at all the wavelengths, with slightly larger variations at 300, 340, 355 nm. Together, these preliminary results support the hypothesis that a multi-wavelength approach could be used to improve the sensitivity and specificity of UV-LIF based BAs detection systems. The second step of this work concerns the application of a Support Vector Regression (SVR) method, as evaluated in our previous work to define a methodology for the setup of a multispectral database for the stand-off detection of BAs.

  10. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust Bioprospecção de bactérias endofíticas como agentes de biocontrole da ferrugem do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Franco Shiomi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, and on potted seedling of cv. Mundo Novo. The endophytic bacterial isolates tested proved to be effective in inhibiting urediniospore germination and/or rust development, with values above 50%, although the results obtained in urediniospore germination tests were inferior to the treatment with fungicide propiconazole. Endophytic isolates TG4-Ia, TF2-IIc, TF9-Ia, TG11-IIa, and TF7-IIa, demonstrated better coffee leaf rust control in leaf discs, detached leaves, and coffee plant tests. The endophytic isolates TG4-Ia and TF9-Ia were identified as Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky and Bacillus cereus Frank. & Frank., respectively. Some endophytic bacterial isolates were effective in controlling the coffee leaf rust, although some increased the severity of the disease. Even though a relatively small number of endophytic bacteria were tested, promising results were obtained regarding the efficiency of coffee leaf rust biocontrol. These selected agents appears to be an alternative for future replacement of chemical fungicide.Supressão de doenças de plantas por microrganismos endofíticos tem sido demonstrada em diversos patossistemas. Neste trabalho foram selecionados isolados de bactérias endofíticas de folhas e ramos de cafeeiro com potencial para o controle biológico da ferrugem do cafeeiro, pois é conhecido que esses microrganismos podem possuir essa característica. Bactérias endofíticas isoladas previamente de folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica L e Coffea

  11. SOFT CONTROL ON COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR OF A GROUP OF AUTONOMOUS AGENTS BY A SHILL AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing HAN; Ming LI; Lei GUO

    2006-01-01

    This paper asks a new question: how can we control the collective behavior of self-organized which keeps the local rule of the existing agents in the system. We show the feasibility of soft control by a case study. Consider the simple but typical distributed multi-agent model proposed by Vicsek et al. for flocking of birds: each agent moves with the same speed but with different headings which are updated using a local rule based on the average of its own heading and the headings of its neighbors.Most studies of this model are about the self-organized collective behavior, such as synchronization of headings. We want to intervene in the collective behavior (headings) of the group by soft control. A as an ordinary agent by other agents. We construct a control law for the shill so that it can synchronize the whole group to an objective heading. This control law is proved to be effective analytically and numerically. Note that soft control is different from the approach of distributed control. It is a natural way to intervene in the distributed systems. It may bring out many interesting issues and challenges on the control of complex systems.

  12. Terahertz signatures of biological-warfare-agent simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Tatiana; Woolard, Dwight L.; Khromova, Tatyana; Partasarathy, Ramakrishnan; Majewski, Alexander; Abreu, Rene; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Pan, Shing-Kuo; Ediss, Geoff

    2004-09-01

    This work presents spectroscopic characterization results for biological simulant materials measured in the terahertz gap. Signature data have been collected between 3 cm-1 and 10 cm-1 for toxin Ovalbumin, bacteria Erwinia herbicola, Bacillus Subtilis lyophilized cells and RNA MS2 phage, BioGene. Measurements were conducted on a modified Bruker FTIR spectrometer equipped with the noise source developed in the NRAL. The noise source provides two orders of magnitude higher power in comparison with a conventional mercury lamp. Photometric characterization of the instrument performance demonstrates that the expected error for sample characterization inside the interval from 3 to 9.5 cm-1 is less then 1%.

  13. Integrative biological studies of anti-tumour agents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    3, 11-difluoro-6, 8, 13-trimethyl-8H- quino [4, 3, 2-kl] acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4) is a member of a series of pentacyclic acridines developed at the University of Nottingham, which bind to, and stabilise the structure of G-quadruplex DNA and inhibit the action of telomerase at sub-micromolar concentrations in the cell free TRAP assay and limit cancer cell growth therefore leading to the conclusion that RHPS4 has potential anti-tumour activity. Previous biological studies, however, have...

  14. Controlling formation of autonomous agents with distance disagreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina, H.; Cao, M.; Jayawardhana, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the robustness issue for controlling, using only local information, the shapes of undirected rigid formations of autonomous agents when the agents disagree with their neighboring peers on the prescribed or measured distances between them. We propose to make use of simple local estimators

  15. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA EMPHASIZING THE CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata, Siam weed, a very important weed of Java Island (Indonesia is native to Central and South America. In the laboratory it showed rapid growth (1.15 g/g/week in the first 8 weeks of its growth. The biomass was mainly as leaves (LAR : 317.50 cm'/g total weight. It slowed down in the following month as the biomass was utilized for stem and branch formation. This behavior supported the growth of C. odorata into a very dense stand. It flowered, fruited during the dry season, and senesced following maturation of seeds from inflorescence branches. These branches dried out, but soon the stem resumed aggressive growth following the wet season. Leaf biomass was affected by the size of the stem in its early phase of regrowth, but later on it was more affected by the number of branches. The introduction of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata to Indonesia, was successful only in North Sumatera. In Java it has not been reported to establish succesfully. The introduction of another biological control agent, Procecidochares conneca to Indonesia was shown to be sp ecific and upon release in West Java it established immediately. It spread exponentia lly in the first 6 months of its release. Field monitoring continues to eval uate the impact of the agents. Other biocontrol agents (Actmole anteas and Conotrachelus wilt be introduced to Indonesia in 1997 through ACIAR Project on the Biological Control of Chromolaena odorata in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

  16. A Bayesian Dose-finding Design for Oncology Clinical Trials of Combinational Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunyan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Treating patients with novel biological agents is becoming a leading trend in oncology. Unlike cytotoxic agents, for which efficacy and toxicity monotonically increase with dose, biological agents may exhibit non-monotonic patterns in their dose-response relationships. Using a trial with two biological agents as an example, we propose a dose-finding design to identify the biologically optimal dose combination (BODC), which is defined as the dose combination of the two agents with the highest efficacy and tolerable toxicity. A change-point model is used to reflect the fact that the dose-toxicity surface of the combinational agents may plateau at higher dose levels, and a flexible logistic model is proposed to accommodate the possible non-monotonic pattern for the dose-efficacy relationship. During the trial, we continuously update the posterior estimates of toxicity and efficacy and assign patients to the most appropriate dose combination. We propose a novel dose-finding algorithm to encourage sufficient exploration of untried dose combinations in the two-dimensional space. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed design has desirable operating characteristics in identifying the BODC under various patterns of dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy relationships. PMID:24511160

  17. Biology & control of Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V P; Dev, V

    2015-05-01

    Malaria epidemiology is complex due to multiplicity of disease vectors, sibling species complex and variations in bionomical characteristics, vast varied terrain, various ecological determinants. There are six major mosquito vector taxa in India, viz. Anopheles culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. minimus, An. dirus and An. sundaicus. Among these, An. culicifacies is widely distributed and considered the most important vector throughout the plains and forests of India for generating bulk of malaria cases (>60% annually). Major malaria epidemics are caused by An. culicifaices. It is also the vector of tribal malaria except parts of Odisha and Northeastern States of India. An. culicifacies has been the cause of perennial malaria transmission in forests, and over the years penetrated the deforested areas of Northeast. An. culicifacies participates in malaria transmission either alone or along with An. stephensi or An. fluviatilis. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) spends about 80 per cent malaria control budget annually in the control of An. culicifacies, yet it remains one of the most formidable challenges in India. With recent advances in molecular biology there has been a significant added knowledge in understanding the biology, ecology, genetics and response to interventions, requiring stratification for cost-effective and sustainable malaria control. Research leading to newer interventions that are evidence-based, community oriented and sustainable would be useful in tackling the emerging challenges in malaria control. Current priority areas of research should include in-depth vector biology and control in problem pockets, preparation of malaria-risk maps for focused and selective interventions, monitoring insecticide resistance, cross-border initiative and data sharing, and coordinated control efforts for achieving transmission reduction, and control of drug-resistant malaria. The present review on An. culicifacies

  18. Biology and host range of Omolabus piceus, a weevil rejected for biological control for Schinus terebinthifolius in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveys for biological control agents of the invasive weed Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) discovered two Omolabus weevils (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) feeding on the plant in its native range. Molecular and morphological analysis indicated that one of these species consistently fed on the tar...

  19. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  20. The use contrast agent for imaging biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, František; Sopko, V.; Jakůbek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, C01096 (2011), s. 1-7. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /12./. Cambridge, 11.07.2010-15.7.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant ostatní: Research Program(CZ) 6840770029; Research Program(CZ) 6840770040; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600550614; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06007; GA MŠk(CZ) 1PO4LA211; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : x-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) * x-ray detectors * inspections with x-rays Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  1. The architectural foundations for agent-based shop floor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    The emerging theory regardingHolonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) presents a advantageoustheoretical foundation for the control system of themanufacturing system of the future. Previous research, at theDepartment, has demonstrated how company tailored shop floorcontrol can be developed by applying...... the HoMuCS architecture can berealised by using multi-agent technology,and that it is also therequired foundation for implementation of agent technology inmanufacturing system control. The work is based on a theoreticalstudy of new manufacturing system theories, research of agent and multi...... simulation and cell controlenabling technologies. In order to continuethis research effortnew concepts and theories for shop floor control are investigated.This paper reviews the multi-agent concept aimed at investigatingits potential use in shop floor control systems. The paper willalso include a survey of...

  2. H∞ CONTROL OF NETWORKED MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongkui LI; Zhisheng DUAN; Lin HUANG

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the disturbance rejection problem arising in the coordination control of a group of autonomous agents subject to external disturbances. The agent network is said to possess a desired level of disturbance rejection, if the H∞ norm of its transfer function matrix from the disturbance to the controlled output is satisfactorily small. Undirected graph is used to represent the information flow topology among agents. It is shown that the disturbance rejection problem of an agent network can be solved by analyzing the H∞ control problem of a set of independent systems whose dimensions are equal to that of a single node. An interesting result is that the disturbance rejection ability of the whole agent network coupled via feedback of merely relative measurements between agents will never be better than that of an isolated agent. To improve this, local feedback injections are applied to a small fraction of the agents in the network. Some criteria for possible performance improvement are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, extensions to the case when communication time delays exist are also discussed.

  3. Probiotics as Control Agents in Aquaculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gómez R. Geovanny D; Balcázar José Luis; MA Shen

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases constitute a limiting factor in the development of the aquaculture production, and control has solely concentrated on the use of antibiotics. However, the massive use of antibiotics for the control of diseases has been questioned by acquisition of antibiotic resistance and the need of alternative is of prime importance. Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts that confer a healthy effect on the host, are emerging as significant microbial food supplements in the field of prophylaxis.

  4. Agentes Biológicos en el tratamiento de la Artritis Reumatoide Biological Agents in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz-Coto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El mayor conocimiento inmuno-patológico de la artritis reumatoide permitió mediante una sofisticada tecnología molecular elaborar antagonistas contra blancos específicos en diversos pasos de la inmuno patogenia de la enfermedad. Existe una amplia evidencia sobre la eficacia, tolerabilidad y seguridad de estos agentes en diferentes escenarios clínicos de la artritis reumatoide. La introducción de estos agentes biológicos en el arsenal terapéutico de la artritis reumatoide ha marcado un hito en su evolución y pronóstico artritis reumatoide.A better understanding of the immuno-pathological rheumatoid arthritis enabled by sophisticated molecular technology to develop antagonists against specific targets in various steps of the immune pathogenesis of the disease. There is ample evidence on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of these agents in different clinical scenarios of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of biological agents in the armamentarium of rheumatoid arthritis has marked a milestone in its evolution and prognosis rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Multi Agent and Holonic Manufacturing Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nejad, Hossein Tehrani Nik; Sugimura, Nobuhiro; Iwamura, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing companies at the beginning of 21th century have to face a dynamic environment where economical, technological and customer trends change rapidly, requiring the increase of flexibility and agility to react to unexpected disturbances, maintaining the productivity and quality parameters. The traditional manufacturing control systems are adapted on a case-by- case basis, requiring an expensive and huge time-consuming effort to develop, maintain or re-configure. The missing re- confi...

  6. The R.A.P.I.D. System – Rapid Response in Detection of Biological Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso; Hafield, Ted

    2006-01-01

    Biological agents (BA) today present the greatest danger of all weapons of mass destruction. A belief that terrorist organizations, groups or individuals, or state sponsored armies, will use this type of weapon, has never been greater, especially after the intentional distribution of anthrax spores through the USA mail delivery system. Different problems during initial stages of biological attack arising from variety and number of clinical and environmental samples, costs, preparedness an...

  7. Physicochemical and biological study of a renal scintigraphy agent: the DMSA - 99mTc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis deals with the study of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) marked with 99mTc, a recently developed scintigraphy agent used for the kidney isotopic exploration. The author notably studied the relationships between the physicochemical properties of solutions of dimercaptosuccinic acid marked with 99mTc and the biological distribution of 99mTc in order to reach a better understanding of the biological mechanism which results in technetium fixation to the kidney

  8. Cardiometabolic risk in psoriasis: differential effects of biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana J Kaplan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mariana J KaplanDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV complications. Overall, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in premature CV complications in psoriasis appear to be complex and multifactorial, with traditional and nontraditional risk factors possibly contributing to the increased risk. Based on what is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasis and extrapolating the current knowledge on CV complications in other inflammatory diseases, studies are needed to investigate if appropriate control of the inflammatory, immunologic and metabolic disturbances present in psoriasis can prevent the development of this potentially lethal complication. It is clear that there is a great need for heightened awareness of the increased risk for vascular damage in patients with psoriasis. It is also crucial to closely monitor patients with psoriasis for CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Whether treatment regimens that effectively manage systemic inflammation will lead to prevention of CV complications in psoriasis needs to be investigated. Clearly, studies should focus on establishing the exact mechanisms that determine CV risk in psoriasis so that appropriate preventive strategies and treatment guidelines can be established.Keywords: psoriasis, atherosclerosis, inflammation, vascular

  9. Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable distributed control and management for microgrids, this paper explores the application of information consensus and local decisionmaking methods formulating an agent based distributed hierarchical control system. A droop controlled paralleled DC/DC converter system is taken as ....... Standard genetic algorithm is applied in each local control system in order to search for a global optimum. Hardware-in-Loop simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method....

  10. Landscape Structure and Biological Control in Agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Thies, Carsten; Tscharntke, Teja

    1999-01-01

    Biological pest control has primarily relied on local improvements in populations of natural enemies, but landscape structure may also be important. This is shown here with experiments at different spatial scales using the rape pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), an important pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The presence of old field margin strips along rape fields was associated with increased mortality of pollen beetles resulting from parasitism and adjacent, large, old fallow habit...

  11. Biological contamination and control in cleanrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Andre; Darbord, Jacques C.; Schmeitzky, Olivier; Pedersen, Flemming; Dubourg, Vincent; Salvan, Bernard

    Requirements for the prevention of forward and backward contamination are handled by the COSPAR. For missions exploring Mars, one of the main requirement for the prevention of forward contamination impose to control the biological cleanliness of space hardware, needing bioburden reduction operations and the assembly of probes inside cleanrooms where their recontamination shall be controlled using swabbing techniques and witnesses. The results of such assays, needing cultures, is known after a delay of 3 days during which integration activities are continuing. A study has been done by CNES, with the participation of agencies, industries and laboratories who kindly provided access to their cleanrooms in different cleanliness classes and different utilization configurations, in order to evaluate with witnesses the biological contamination over time in worst case conditions (without biological control measures in place). The goal of the study is to be able to make recontamination prediction a function of different parameters such as cleanliness class and use or occupancy. In addition, taking also into account that different kind of swabs or witnesses may be used, and knowing that the result of such assessments is linked to the capability of witnesses and swabs to collect, keep and release micro organisms, comparative studies have also be done in order to evaluate the correction factor to consider for the results of bacterial spores enumeration.

  12. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussinesq M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerca volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related postivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection for chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Griffin, Guy D.; Vass, Arpad A.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2004-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of chemical agent simulants such as dimethyl methylphonate (DMMP), pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA), and 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), and biological agent simulants such as bacillus globigii (BG), erwinia herbicola (EH), and bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were obtained from silver oxide film-deposited substrates. Thin AgO films ranging in thickness from 50 nm to 250 nm were produced by chemical bath deposition onto glass slides. Further Raman intensity enhancements were noticed in UV irradiated surfaces due to photo-induced Ag nanocluster formation, which may provide a possible route to producing highly useful plasmonic sensors for the detection of chemical and biological agents upon visible light illumination.

  14. Novel fluorescence-based integrated sensor for chemical and biological agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.; Fagan, Steve; Krouse, Justin; Hutchinson, Kira D.

    2004-12-01

    There is a renewed interest in the development of chemical and biological agent sensors due to the increased threat of weapons deployment by terrorist organizations and rogue states. Optically based sensors address the needs of military and homeland security forces in that they are reliable, rapidly deployed, and can provide continuous monitoring with little to no operator involvement. Nomadics has developed optically based chemical weapons sensors that utilize reactive fluorescent chromophores initially developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT. The chromophores provide unprecedented sensitivity and selectivity toward toxic industrial chemicals and certain chemical weapon agents. The selectivity is based upon the reactivity of the G-class nerve agents (phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme) that makes them toxic. Because the sensor recognizes the reactivity of strong electrophiles and not molecular weight, chemical affinity or ionizability, our system detects a specific class of reactive agents and will be able to detect newly developed or modified agents that are not currently known. We have recently extended this work to pursue a combined chemical/biological agent sensor system incorporating technologies based upon novel deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) developed out of the DARPA Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) program.

  15. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF SUGAR BEET DAMPING-OFF WITH TRICHODERMA SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of damping-off in sugar beet seedlings with Trichoderma species. Isolates of Trichoderma virens and other Trichoderma species are effective biocontrol agents for diseases of several crops. Control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani has been observed in a number of c...

  16. Implications of Rheumatic Disease and Biological Response-Modifying Agents in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, David M; Borah, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    The preoperative evaluation for any reconstructive or aesthetic procedure requires a detailed history of existing medical conditions and current home medications. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and psoriasis is high, but the impact of these chronic illnesses on surgical outcome and the side effects of the powerful medications used for treatment are often underappreciated. In this review, the authors highlight key perioperative considerations specific to rheumatologic diseases and their associated pharmacologic therapies. In particular, the authors discuss the perioperative management of biological response-modifying agents, which have largely become the new standard of therapy for many rheumatic diseases. The literature reveals three key perioperative concerns with biological therapy for rheumatic disease: infection, wound healing delays, and disease flare. However, data on specific perioperative complications are lacking, and it remains controversial whether withholding biological therapy before surgery is of benefit. The risk of these adverse events is influenced by several factors: age, sex, class of biological agent, duration of exposure, dosage, onset and severity of disease, and type of surgical procedure. Overall, it remains best to develop an individualized plan. In younger patients with recent onset of biological therapy, it is reasonable to withhold therapy based on 3 to 5 half-lives of the specific agent. In older patients with a substantial history of rheumatic disease, the decision to discontinue therapy must be weighed and decided carefully in conjunction with the rheumatologist. PMID:26595025

  17. The reverse control of irreversible biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Joo, Jae Il; Shin, Dongkwan; Kim, Dongsan; Park, Sang-Min

    2016-09-01

    Most biological processes have been considered to be irreversible for a long time, but some recent studies have shown the possibility of their reversion at a cellular level. How can we then understand the reversion of such biological processes? We introduce a unified conceptual framework based on the attractor landscape, a molecular phase portrait describing the dynamics of a molecular regulatory network, and the phenotype landscape, a map of phenotypes determined by the steady states of particular output molecules in the attractor landscape. In this framework, irreversible processes involve reshaping of the phenotype landscape, and the landscape reshaping causes the irreversibility of processes. We suggest reverse control by network rewiring which changes network dynamics with constant perturbation, resulting in the restoration of the original phenotype landscape. The proposed framework provides a conceptual basis for the reverse control of irreversible biological processes through network rewiring. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:366-377. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1346 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27327189

  18. Portable Raman device for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Martin, Matthew E.; Yan, Fei; Stokes, David L.; Mobley, Joel; Cullum, Brian M.; Wintenberg, Alan; Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a compact, self-contained, cost effective, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTs) for screening a wide variety of chemical and biological agents for homeland defense applications. The instrument is a fully-integrated, tunable, "point-and-shoot" Raman monitor based on solid-state acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. It also consists of a 830-nm diode laser for excitation, and an avalanche photodiode for detection. Evaluation of this instrument has been performed by analyzing several standard samples and comparing the results those obtained using a conventional Raman system. In addition to system evaluation, this paper will also discuss potential applications of the RAMiTs for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents.

  19. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LABOR UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety & Health Administration About OSHA A to Z Index Contact Us ... OF LABOR Career & Internships | Contact Us Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  20. Environmental distribution and population biology of Candidatus Accumulibacter, a primary agent of Biological Phosphorus Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, S. Brook; Warnecke, Falk; Madejska, Julita; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Members of the uncultured bacterial genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are capable of intracellular accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but were also recently shown to inhabit freshwater and estuarine sediments. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing of two bioreactor cultures enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter, but housed on separate continents, revealed the potential for glob...

  1. How psoriasis patients perceive, obtain, and use biologic agents: Survey from an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Faranak; Isip, Leah; Bhutani, Tina; Dennis, Madison; Heller, Misha M; Lee, Eric S; Nie, Hong; Liao, Wilson

    2013-02-01

    The availability of new biologic agents for the treatment of psoriasis provides hope for improved quality of life outcomes. However, the way patients come to use biologics, the potential barriers they encounter, and their attitudes towards using these medications are still not well studied. Here, we conducted a survey of 106 psoriasis patients at an academic medical center to discern patient attitudes towards biologics. We found that most patients learn of biologics through their physician and perform follow-up research using the Internet. Most patients did not find it difficult to make the decision to start a biologic. Difficulty in obtaining biologics was associated with age less than 55 (p = 0.01), lower income level (p = 0.007), and lack of insurance (p = 0.04). Patients were found to have high satisfaction and compliance rates on biologics. Of patients who missed a dose of their biologic, this was mainly due to logistical reasons such as not having the medication or forgetting to take it, rather than being depressed or overwhelmed. Patients with lower income levels had increased cut backs in personal expenses due to co-payments (p = 0.001). Among respondents, the mean annual out-of-pocket expense for a biologic was $557.12 per year, with a range of $0-7000. PMID:22007699

  2. Mammalian safety of microbial agents for vector control: a WHO Memorandum*

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum outlines recommended safety tests for application to biological agents under consideration for widespread use for pest control. The basic principles utilized in developing these recommendations were that: (i) the hazards presented by microbial pesticides are inherently different from those associated with chemical pesticides and the tests used to determine hazard potential to man should reflect this; (ii) a high proportion of negative results is likely; (iii) tiered testing sy...

  3. Efficacy of biological agents administered as monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a Bayesian mixed-treatment comparison analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migliore A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Migliore,1 Emanuele Bizzi,1 Colin Gerard Egan,2 Mauro Bernardi,3 Lea Petrella4 1Rheumatology Unit, San Pietro Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Rome, 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, 3Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, 4MEMOTEF Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Background: Biological agents provide an important therapeutic alternative for rheumatoid arthritis patients refractory to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Few head-to-head comparative trials are available.Purpose: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the relative efficacy of different biologic agents indicated for use as monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: A systemic literature search was performed on electronic databases to identify articles reporting double-blind randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of biologic agents indicated for monotherapy. Efficacy was assessed using American College of Rheumatology (ACR 20, 50, and 70 criteria at 16–24 weeks. Relative efficacy was estimated using Bayesian mixed-treatment comparison models. Outcome measures were expressed as odds ratio and 95% credible intervals.Results: Ten randomized controlled trials were selected for data extraction and analysis. Mixed-treatment comparison analysis revealed that tocilizumab offered 100% probability of being the best treatment for inducing an ACR20 response versus placebo, methotrexate, adalimumab, or etanercept. Likewise, for ACR50 and ACR70 outcome responses, tocilizumab had a 99.8% or 98.7% probability of being the best treatment, respectively, compared to other treatments or placebo. Tocilizumab increased the relative probability of being the best treatment (vs methotrexate by 3.2-fold (odds ratio: 2.1–3.89 for all ACR outcomes.Conclusion: Tocilizumab offered the greatest possibility of obtaining an ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 outcome vs other monotherapies or placebo. Keywords: biologics, meta

  4. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  5. nab-Paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for early and metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerdichian, Christine; Olimpiadi, Yuliya; Hurvitz, Sara A

    2014-06-01

    Taxanes are highly active chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer. Novel formulations have been developed to improve efficacy and decrease toxicity associated with these cytotoxic agents. nab-Paclitaxel is a biologically interactive, solvent-free, 130-nm-sized albumin-bound paclitaxel, developed to avoid the Cremophor vehicle used in solvent-based paclitaxel. Based on a pivotal phase 3 study, nab-paclitaxel was shown to be safely infused at a significantly higher dose of paclitaxel than the doses used with standard paclitaxel therapy, and had a shorter infusion time, no premedication, and higher response rates. It is now approved in the United States for treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant therapy, and has demonstrated promising efficacy and favorable tolerability. Recently, several phase 2 and 3 studies have suggested a role for nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for the treatment of early- and late-stage breast cancer. This review will discuss the findings of clinical trials evaluating nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted therapeutic agents for breast cancer in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings. PMID:24560997

  6. An Integrated Biological Control System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimate spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  7. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  8. Landscape structure and biological control in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies; Tscharntke

    1999-08-01

    Biological pest control has primarily relied on local improvements in populations of natural enemies, but landscape structure may also be important. This is shown here with experiments at different spatial scales using the rape pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), an important pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The presence of old field margin strips along rape fields was associated with increased mortality of pollen beetles resulting from parasitism and adjacent, large, old fallow habitats had an even greater effect. In structurally complex landscapes, parasitism was higher and crop damage was lower than in simple landscapes with a high percentage of agricultural use. PMID:10436158

  9. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust Bioprospecção de bactérias endofíticas como agentes de biocontrole da ferrugem do cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Franco Shiomi; Harllen Sandro Alves Silva; Itamar Soares de Melo; Flávia Vieira Nunes; Wagner Bettiol

    2006-01-01

    Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, ...

  10. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  11. Medical applications of nanoparticles in biological imaging, cell labeling, antimicrobial agents, and anticancer nanodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravina; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2011-08-01

    This article reviews the applications of nanotechnology in the fields of medical and life sciences. Nanoparticles have shown promising applications from diagnosis to treatment of various types of diseases including cancer. In this review, we discuss the applications of nanostructured materials such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, nanowires, and carbon nanotubes in diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labeling, contrast agents for biological imaging, antimicrobial agents, drug delivery systems, and anticancer nanodrugs for treatment of cancer and other infectious diseases. The adverse affects of nanoparticles on human skin from daily use in cosmetics and general toxicology of nanoscale materials are also reviewed. PMID:21870454

  12. Agent concepts for traffic control; Agentenmodelle in der Verkehrsleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, A. [ABB Forschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Automatisierungs- und Informationstechnik

    2000-07-01

    All modes of traffic reach - in their current form of operation - the limits of their respective infrastructure. Therefore, new control concepts are being investigated which allow for a more efficient usage of the existing infrastructure. In the previous issue of atp, agents have been introduced as a promising approach for decentralised control. Agents provide a means for flexible resource allocation and, thus, for achieving an optimised balance between infrastructure load and customer requirements. This paper describes how agents can be used in traffic control, taking road and rail traffic as examples. This might also give hints regarding the possible role of agents in automation and control in general. (orig.) [German] Die verschiedenen Verkehrssysteme stossen in ihrer jeweiligen bisherigen Betriebsweise an Kapazitaetsgrenzen der bestehenden Infrastruktur. Daher werden neue leittechnische Konzepte gesucht, die eine effizientere Nutzung der vorhandenen Infrastruktur ermoeglichen. Im letzten Heft wurden Agenten als dezentraler Leittechnikansatz vorgestellt. Mit Hilfe von Agenten kann ein flexibles Ressourcenmanagement betrieben werden und so ein optimaler Kompromiss zwischen Auslastung der Infrastruktur und Erfuellung der Kundenanforderungen gefunden werden. Der Beitrag beschreibt Agentenmodelle fuer die Verkehrsleittechnik am Beispiel des Schienen- und des Strassenverkehrs und gibt damit Denkanstoesse zur moeglichen Rolle von Agenten in der Leittechnik allgemein. (orig.)

  13. Cohesive Motion Control Algorithm for Formation of Multiple Autonomous Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Atta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control strategy for a rigid and constraint consistent formation that can be modeled by a directed graph whose each vertex represents individual agent kinematics and each of directed edges represents distance constraints maintained by an agent, called follower, to its neighbouring agent. A rigid and constraint consistent graph is called persistent graph. A persistent graph is minimally persistent if it is persistent, and no edge can be removed without losing its persistence. An acyclic (free of cycles in its sensing pattern minimally persistent graph of Leader-Follower structure has been considered here which can be constructed from an initial Leader-Follower seed (initial graph with two vertices, one is Leader and another one is First Follower and one edge in between them is directed towards Leader by Henneberg sequence (a procedure of growing a graph containing only vertex additions. A set of nonlinear optimization-based decentralized control laws for mobile autonomous point agents in two dimensional plane have been proposed. An infinitesimal deviation in formation shape created continuous motion of Leader is compensated by corresponding continuous motion of other agents fulfilling the shortest path criteria.

  14. Fuzzy Decsion Based Soft Multi Agent Controller for Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathod Nirali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft Multi agent controllers are used for control of complex systems. Induction motor is widely used inindustrial applications. But due to its highly non linear behavior its control is very complex. Non linearspeed control techniques are employed to improve dynamic performance of electric drives.Paper describes multi agent based approach to control speed of Induction motor. Design and simulationof Multi Agent System is developed for Indirect vector controlled 3-phase Induction motor. Soft computingtechniques are used for implementation. Three types of controllers: Classical controller (PI, Fuzzy (FLC& Neural Network ANN are constitutant of the Multi Agent system. Simulated speed responses parametersviz: rise time, steady state error and overshoot of SIMULINK models are used to make by a fuzzy logic isused to select the best controller from the constituents.

  15. Lectins of fungal pathogens as potential tools in selecting promising biological control agents of Trichoderma spp%植物病原菌凝集素用于筛选生防木霉菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合同; 唐文华; Maarten Ryder; 李纪顺; 郭勇; 周红姿

    2004-01-01

    In this article, lectins of eight pathogen strains were extracted and purified. By testing agglutination lectins with 19 Trichoderma spp. srains, all lectins from fungi agglutinated the conidia of Trichoderma spp. with different titers, except lectin from Alternaria solani Ms. Result indicated that the agglutination of Trichoderma conidia by fungal lectins was related to their effectiveness caused by the corresponding pathogens. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between titers of Fusarium lectin and the effectiveness of Trichoderma against the disease.The agglutination test might be applied to predict potential effectiveness of a given Trichoderma strain against the corresponding disease and the lectins could be employed in screening Trichoderma spp as biocontrol agents efficiently.%提取并纯化了番茄早疫病、黑根霉、棉花立枯病菌和黄瓜灰霉病菌等8个植物病原菌菌株的凝集素,试验观察凝集素与供试19个木霉菌株的凝集反应效价,结果表明除番茄早疫病外,木霉菌分生孢子不同浓度悬浮液与植物病原菌产生的凝集素均有凝集反应,并且木霉菌分生孢子与病原菌凝集素的凝集反应效价与木霉菌对其防效有显著相关性,统计分析表明镰刀菌产生的凝集素与木霉菌的凝集反应效价与木霉菌对它的防效具有显著相关性.因此可以利用凝集素筛选木霉高效生防菌株.

  16. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population

  17. Structural, spectroscopic and biological investigation of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder composed of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents has been synthesized and characterized with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), glycol propylene, glycerin and glycerin plus ammonia were used as capping agents. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that nanoparticles form agglomerates with the size from 80 to 120 nm while particles size determined from the XRD experiment was in the range from 7 to 21 nm. XPS and XRD experiments revealed that depending on capping and reducing agents used in the synthesis nanoparticles are composed of Cu2O, CuO or a mixture of them. The biological activity test performed for a selected sample where the capping agent was glycerin plus ammonia has shown promising killing/inhibiting behavior, very effective especially for Gram negatives bacteria. - Highlights: • We obtained copper oxide nanoparticles in a powder form. • Several capping agents were tested. • Structural and chemical tests showed that the main component were Cu2O and CuO. • The size of nanoparticles was in the range 7–21 nm. • Nanoparticles with glycerin and ammonia capping agent showed good antibacterial properties

  18. Structural, spectroscopic and biological investigation of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, A., E-mail: ana.maria.nowak@gmail.com [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Szade, J.; Talik, E.; Ratuszna, A. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Ostafin, M. [Agricultural University of Cracow, Department of Microbiology, Krakow (Poland); Peszke, J. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Powder composed of copper oxides nanoparticles with various capping agents has been synthesized and characterized with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), glycol propylene, glycerin and glycerin plus ammonia were used as capping agents. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that nanoparticles form agglomerates with the size from 80 to 120 nm while particles size determined from the XRD experiment was in the range from 7 to 21 nm. XPS and XRD experiments revealed that depending on capping and reducing agents used in the synthesis nanoparticles are composed of Cu{sub 2}O, CuO or a mixture of them. The biological activity test performed for a selected sample where the capping agent was glycerin plus ammonia has shown promising killing/inhibiting behavior, very effective especially for Gram negatives bacteria. - Highlights: • We obtained copper oxide nanoparticles in a powder form. • Several capping agents were tested. • Structural and chemical tests showed that the main component were Cu{sub 2}O and CuO. • The size of nanoparticles was in the range 7–21 nm. • Nanoparticles with glycerin and ammonia capping agent showed good antibacterial properties.

  19. Primary screen for potential sheep scab control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J A; Prickett, J C; Collins, D A; Weaver, R J

    2016-07-15

    The efficacy of potential acaricidal agents were assessed against the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis using a series of in vitro assays in modified test arenas designed initially to maintain P. ovis off-host. The mortality effects of 45 control agents, including essential oils, detergents, desiccants, growth regulators, lipid synthesis inhibitors, nerve action/energy metabolism disruptors and ecdysteroids were assessed against adults and nymphs. The most effective candidates were the desiccants (diatomaceous earth, nanoclay and sorex), the growth regulators (buprofezin, hexythiazox and teflubenzuron), the lipid synthesis inhibitors (spirodiclofen, spirotetramat and spiromesifen) and the nerve action and energy metabolism inhibitors (fenpyroximate, spinosad, tolfenpyrad, and chlorantraniliprole). PMID:27270393

  20. Ecological Studies on Formica yessensis Forel, with Special Reference to Its Effectiveness as a Biological Control Agent of the Pine Caterpillar Moth in Korea : V. Usefulness of Formica yessensis Forel

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Hyo; Murakami, Yozo

    1983-01-01

    Formica yessensis is a highly polyphagous predator with a broad spectrum of prey range, i.e., live and dead lepidopterous larvae, coleopterous adults and larvae, hemipterous adults as well as honeydew secreted by aphids. The results of experiments for examining the effect of predation by the ant with the physical check method revealed that the ant is extremely effective in controlling the younger larvae of the pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus specfabilis. The ant hunts in one of two ways. T...

  1. Agreements and Discrepancies between FDA Reports and Journal Papers on Biologic Agents Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Furst, Daniel E; Woo, Jennifer M P;

    2016-01-01

    reports on biologic agents developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Available data on FDA-approved drugs were extracted from the website, and a systematic literature search was conducted to identify matching studies in peer-reviewed medical journals. Outcome measures were the American...... odds ratios. A ratio of odds ratios not equal to 1 was categorized as a discrepancy. RESULTS: FDA reports were available for 8 of 9 FDA-approved biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis; all identified trials (34) except one were published in peer-reviewed journals. Overall, discrepancies were noted......BACKGROUND: Sponsors that seek to commercialize new drugs apply to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which independently analyzes the raw data and reports the results on its website. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine if there are differences between the FDA assessments and journal...

  2. [Review of risks of biological agents and preventive measures to safeguard the health of compost production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubileo, L; Sarti, A M; Bianchi, L A; Calcaterra, E; Colombi, A

    1998-01-01

    A review of studies made in the compost production industry showed the biological agents posing a risk for workers were fungi and thermophile bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and endotoxins, with a prevalent inhalation exposure to airborne contaminated dusts. Medical examinations revealed cases of extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to A. fumigatus, and more frequently irritative and infectious disorders occurring especially in conditions of poor environmental hygiene and macroscopic dust pollution. For the evaluation of the air dispersion of microorganisms, which is high in compost transport and turning operations, at present no exposure limit values are available for biological agents; nevertheless, the concentrations measured were often higher than the limit values proposed for other manufacturing sectors by individual authors and by regulatory agencies in Europe, and were comparable to values observed in other industrial settings for which adverse health effects have been shown. Although the number of studies available are few in number, the results suggest that the hazards posed by microorganisms and the poor environmental hygiene conditions often encountered can undoubtedly be a source of risk for workers, which at present is difficult to establish but significant considering the high airborne concentrations of contaminated dust. Besides technical measures to avoid environmental macroscopic dispersion of dusts, measurement of airborne microbiological contaminants is also recommended. Health surveillance needs to be aimed at identifying subjects with hypersusceptibility to the infectious action of the pathogenetic and/or allergenic agents or with hypersensitivity to the same, and also to periodic control of respiratory organs. PMID:9847532

  3. Controlled teleportation with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Man; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for implementing controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qutrit with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement. In our proposal, the sender can successfully teleport the qutrit state to a distant receiver with the help of all agents. However, if one agent in each group does not cooperate, the receiver cannot gain any information (including amplitude information or phase information or both) about the qutrit state to be teleported. Since a qubit is a special case of a qutrit when the state lies in a fixed two-dimensional subspace of the qutrit, the present proposal can be also applied in the implementation of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qubit with many control agents in two groups. We note that our proposal is the first one to use two groups of agents to achieve controlled teleportation.

  4. PCR Based Systems in Rapid Detection and Identification of Biological Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2012-01-01

    Of all weapons of mass destruction, biological weapons (BW) today present the greatest danger. A belief that state sponsored armies or terrorist organizations, groups or individuals will use this type of weapon has never been greater which demands a capability for rapid medical response and early intervention. The specter of potential BA is well known and includes: anti-human, anti-plant and anti-animal agents. Unusual outbreaks of illnesses might be essential suspicion in recognizing of deli...

  5. Product Distribution Theory for Control of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia Fan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for controlling Multi-Agent Systems (MAS's). First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint stare of the agents. Accordingly we can consider a team game in which the shared utility is a performance measure of the behavior of the MAS. For such a scenario the game is at equilibrium - the Lagrangian is optimized - when the joint distribution of the agents optimizes the system's expected performance. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a reinforcement learning algorithm. Here we investigate the alternative of exploiting PD theory to run gradient descent on the Lagrangian. We present computer experiments validating some of the predictions of PD theory for how best to do that gradient descent. We also demonstrate how PD theory can improve performance even when we are not allowed to rerun the MAS from different initial conditions, a requirement implicit in some previous work.

  6. Status of biological control projects on terrestrial invasive alien weeds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In cooperation with foreign scientists, we are currently developing new classical biological control agents for five species of invasive alien terrestrial weeds. Cape-Ivy. A gall-forming fly, Parafreutreta regalis, and a stem-boring moth, Digitivalva delaireae, have been favorably reviewed by TAG...

  7. Employing spatial information technologies to monitor biological control of saltcedar in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhadha spp.) has shown promise as a biocontrol agent for saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) invasions in the United States. In Texas, natural resource managers need assistance in monitoring biological control of invasive saltcedars. This study describes application of a medium fo...

  8. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weedy Plants and Challenges for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. In the past 20 years 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation but only four have been authorized for introduction. Prior to this, three species were success...

  9. Finalizing host range determination of a weed biological control pathogen with BLUPs and damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. (CGS) is a facultative parasitic fungus being evaluated as a classical biological control agent of Russian thistle or tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L.). In initial host range determination tests, Henderson’s mixed model equat...

  10. Dynamic coordinated control laws in multiple agent models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, David S. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Code 6792, Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Section, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)]. E-mail: dmorgan@cantor.nrl.navy.mil; Schwartz, Ira B. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Code 6792, Nonlinear Systems Dynamics Section, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2005-06-06

    We present an active control scheme of a kinetic model of swarming. It has been shown previously that the global control scheme for the model, presented in [Systems Control Lett. 52 (2004) 25], gives rise to spontaneous collective organization of agents into a unified coherent swarm, via steering controls and utilizing long-range attractive and short-range repulsive interactions. We extend these results by presenting control laws whereby a single swarm is broken into independently functioning subswarm clusters. The transition between one coordinated swarm and multiple clustered subswarms is managed simply with a homotopy parameter. Additionally, we present as an alternate formulation, a local control law for the same model, which implements dynamic barrier avoidance behavior, and in which swarm coherence emerges spontaneously.

  11. Biological control of Botrytis spp. by Ulocladium atrum : an ecological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, G.J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi from the genus Botrytis cause economically important diseases in a wide range of crops during the production phase as well as post harvest phase. Control is based on the frequent use of fungicides. Alternative approaches for control are studied because of the development of fungicide resistance in the pathogen and environmental concerns.The fungal saprophytic antagonist Ulocladium atrum is an effective biological control agent of B. cinerea in cyclamen. U. atrum may als...

  12. Agents, assemblers, and ANTS: scheduling assembly with market and biological software mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Fejel, Tihamer T.

    2000-06-01

    Nanoscale assemblers will need robust, scalable, flexible, and well-understood mechanisms such as software agents to control them. This paper discusses assemblers and agents, and proposes a taxonomy of their possible interaction. Molecular assembly is seen as a special case of general assembly, subject to many of the same issues, such as the advantages of convergent assembly, and the problem of scheduling. This paper discusses the contract net architecture of ANTS, an agent-based scheduling application under development. It also describes an algorithm for least commitment scheduling, which uses probabilistic committed capacity profiles of resources over time, along with realistic costs, to provide an abstract search space over which the agents can wander to quickly find optimal solutions.

  13. Advanced Algorithms for Rapidly Reconstructing Clandestine Releases of Biological Agents in Urban Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H.; Hall, C.H.; Neher, L.A.; Wilder, F.J.; Gouveia, D.W.; Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.

    2000-02-25

    As the United States plays a greater role in the 21st Century as global peacekeeper and international defender of human rights and democratic principles, there is an increasing likelihood that it will become the focus of acts of terrorism. Such acts of terrorism--sometimes described as ''asymmetric''--could involve the threat or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those considered unconventional, which include ones designed to release chemical or biological agents. In fact, biological agents are of great concern because, as noted by D.A. Henderson of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, ''... with shortages of hospital space, vaccines, antibiotics, there would be chaos.'' (Williams, 2000). Unfortunately, potential aggressor nations, terrorist groups, and even individuals, can, for a modest cost and effort, develop covert capabilities for manufacturing, transporting, and offensively using biological weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that terrorist increasingly are targeting civilian populations--in order to inflict indiscriminate casualties--as well as other more traditional targets such as symbolic buildings or organizations (see Tucker, 1999), which suggest that introducing rapid treatment after a biological event may be more practical than concentrating on prevention (see Siegrist, 1999), especially because sensors are unlikely to be placed in all major urban areas to detect even an atmospheric biological release. For these reasons, and because symptoms for the majority of those effected may not occur or be directly identified for several days, early identification of a covert undetected biological event (CUBE) will contribute to timely medical intervention, which can save many lives.

  14. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Courtot, Mélanie; Juty, Nick; Knüpfer, Christian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Zhukova, Anna; Dräger, Andreas; Dumontier, Michel; Finney, Andrew; Golebiewski, Martin; Hastings, Janna; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah; Douglas B. Kell; Kerrien, Samuel; Lawson, James

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. This Perspective discusses the development and use of ontologies that are designed to add semantic information to computational models and simulations.

  15. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BY MEANS OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chemical herbicides are not allowed, if resistant weed species are present or in the integrated pest management against weeds with reduced herbicides doses and other non-chemical measures, but it has certain limitations and disadvantages.

  16. Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Korsten, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Losses from postharvest fruit diseases range from 1 to 20 percent in the United States, depending on the commodity. The application of fungicides to fruits after harvest to reduce decay has been increasingly curtailed by the development of pathogen resistance to many key fungicides, the lack of replacement fungicides, negative public perception regarding the safety of pesticides and consequent restrictions on fungicide use. Biological control of postharvest diseases (BCPD) has emerged as an effective alternative. Because wound-invading necrotrophic pathogens are vulnerable to biocontrol, antagonists can be applied directly to the targeted area (fruit wounds), and a single application using existing delivery systems (drenches, line sprayers, on-line dips) can significantly reduce fruit decays. The pioneering biocontrol products BioSave and Aspire were registered by EPA in 1995 for control of postharvest rots of pome and citrus fruit, respectively, and are commercially available. The limitations of these biocontrol products can be addressed by enhancing biocontrol through manipulation of the environment, using mixtures of beneficial organisms, physiological and genetic enhancement of the biocontrol mechanisms, manipulation of formulations, and integration of biocontrol with other alternative methods that alone do not provide adequate protection but in combination with biocontrol provide additive or synergistic effects. PMID:12147766

  17. Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to

  18. Metadata Control Agent approach for Replication in Grid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SunilGavaskar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available since grid environment is dynamic, network latency and user requests may change. In order to provide better communication, access time and fault tolerant in decentralized systems, the replication is a technique to reduce access time, storage space. The objective of the work is to propose an agent control approach for Heterogeneous environments using the Agents for storing objects as replicas in decentralized environments. Our idea minimizes the more replicas (i.e. causes overhead on response time and update cost, therefore maintaining suitable number of replicas is important. Fixed replicas provides file access structure to identify the esteem files and gives optimal replication location, which minimize replication issues like access time and update cost by assuming a given traffic pattern. In this context we present the Agents as replicas to maintain a suitable scalable architecture. The solution uses fewer replicas, which lead to fewer agents as a result of that frequent updating is possible. Our tests show that the proposed strategy outperforms previous solutions in terms of replication issues.

  19. Adaptive, Distributed Control of Constrained Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniawski, Stefan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PO) theory was recently developed as a broad framework for analyzing and optimizing distributed systems. Here we demonstrate its use for adaptive distributed control of Multi-Agent Systems (MASS), i.e., for distributed stochastic optimization using MAS s. First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (Probability dist&&on on the joint state of the agents. When the game in question is a team game with constraints, that equilibrium optimizes the expected value of the team game utility, subject to those constraints. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a Reinforcement Learning (E) algorithm. PD theory reveals this to be a particular type of search algorithm for minimizing the Lagrangian. Typically that algorithm i s quite inefficient. A more principled alternative is to use a variant of Newton's method to minimize the Lagrangian. Here we compare this alternative to RL-based search in three sets of computer experiments. These are the N Queen s problem and bin-packing problem from the optimization literature, and the Bar problem from the distributed RL literature. Our results confirm that the PD-theory-based approach outperforms the RL-based scheme in all three domains.

  20. Intelligent Multi-Agent Fuzzy Control System Under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Khayut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional control systems are a set of hardware and software infrastructure domain and qualified personnel to facilitate the functions of analysis, planning, decision-making, management and coordination of business processes. Human interaction with the components of these systems is done using a specified in advance script dialogue "menu", mainly based on human intellect and unproductive use of navigation. This approach doesn't lead to making qualitative decision and effective control, where the situations and processes cannot be structured in advance. Any dynamic changes in the controlled business process make it necessary to modify the script dialogue. This circumstance leads to a redesign of the components of the entire control system. In the autonomous Fuzzy Control System, where the situations are unknown in advance, fuzzy structured and artificial intelligence is crucial, the redesign described above is impossible. To solve this problem, we propose the data, information and knowledge based technology of creation Situational, Intelligent Multi-agent Control System, which interacts with users and/ or agent systems in natural and other languages, utilizing the principles of Situational Control and Fuzzy Logic theories, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Knowledge Base technologies and others. The proposed technology is defined by a methods of situational fuzzy control of data, information and knowledge, b modelling of fuzzy logic inference, c generalization and explanation of knowledge, d fuzzy dialogue control, e machine translation, f fuzzy decision-making, g planning and h fuzzy control of organizational unit in real-time under uncertainty, fuzzy conditions, heterogeneous domains, multi-lingual communication in Fuzzy Environment.

  1. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, Alexandrea; McNulty, Alison; Williamson, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this stu...

  2. Association Between Changes in Coronary Artery Disease Progression and Treatment With Biologic Agents for Severe Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen; Bøttcher, Morten; Vestergaard, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    , controlled, observer-blinded clinical study at a tertiary dermatology university hospital clinic enrolled patients with severe psoriasis initiating biological therapy and matched controls not receiving systemic therapy from April 11, 2011, through June 30, 2014. Interventions: Biological therapy approved for...... index remained unchanged from baseline to follow-up in the intervention group (mean [SD] baseline, 7.1 [1.5], follow-up, 7.1 [1.7]; P = .91), while controls demonstrated statistically nonsignificant progression (baseline, 8.3 [1.6], follow-up, 8.9 [2.2]; P = .06). Conclusions and Relevance: Clinically...

  3. Nonpathogenic Fusarium as a Biological Control Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, J.; Kaur, R.; Singh, Rama S.

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important fungal group among the soil bone microflora. These strains are well-known for inducing wilt or root rots in important agricultural crops worldwide and some occur only as a saprophytes in rhizosphere of plants. There are certain strains which are nonpathogenic and protect plants from pathogenic strains. Based on phenotypic and genetic studies F. oxysporum showed a great diversity among its populations. The nonpathogenic strains, which were first isolated from...

  4. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  5. Coordinated Motion Control of Autonomous and Semiautonomous Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Quan Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses networked control problems which arise in the coordinated motion control of autonomous and semiautonomous mobile agents, where the sensors and controllers are geographically separated and connected by digital communication channels carrying a finite number of bits per unit time. Different from the existing results, this case with quantized output measurements and limited data rates is considered. A quantization, coding and control scheme is presented under communication constraints. In particular, it is shown that the unstable plant may be stabilizable in the mean square sense if the data rate of the channel is greater than the lower bound proposed in our results. Simulation results show the validity of the proposed scheme.

  6. Spacer/linker based synthesis and biological evaluation of mutual prodrugs as antiinflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velingkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual prodrugs of some antiinflammatory agents were synthesized with the aim of improving the therapeutic index through prevention of gastrointestinal complications and to check the efficiency of release of the parent drug in presence of spacer. These mutual prodrugs were synthesized by direct condensation method using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide as a coupling agent and glycine as a spacer. The title compounds were characterized by spectral techniques and the release of the parent drug from mutual prodrug was studied in two different non-enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2, pH 7.4 and in 80% human plasma. All mutual prodrugs exhibited encouraging hydrolysis profile in 80% human plasma. Biological activity of title compounds was studied by carrageenan-induced paw edema method. From the results obtained, it was concluded that these compounds retain the antiinflammatory action.

  7. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration. PMID:27234148

  8. A Novel Agent Based Approach for Controlling Network Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Dr T R Gopalakrishnan; M, Vaidehi

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental data transmission mechanisms in Ethernet LAN is broadcasting. Flooding is a direct broadcasting technique used in these networks. A significant drawback of this method is that it can lead to broadcast storms. This phenomenon is more common in multivendor switch environment. Broadcast storms usually results in dissension, collision and redundancy leading to degradation of the network performance. Most of the storms appear without much warning and it affects the efficiency of network even in situations when the network is expected to work most efficiently. There are several characteristic patterns by which storm can appear in a LAN, like rate monotonic repetition, transient appearances with different types of growth properties and decay profiles. In this paper we discuss the storm build up pattern in an industry and present various reasons for storm in LAN. We have identified a strategy for controlling network storms, using multiple static agents. These agents inhibit storm packet regener...

  9. Machine perception and intelligent control architecture for multirobot coordination based on biological principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Braught, Grant

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent control, inspired by biological and AI (artificial intelligence) principles, has increased the understanding of controlling complex processes without precise mathematical model of the controlled process. Through customized applications, intelligent control has demonstrated that it is a step in the right direction. However, intelligent control has yet to provide a complete solution to the problem of integrated manufacturing systems via intelligent reconfiguration of the robotics systems. The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent control architecture and design methodology based on biological principles that govern self-organization of autonomous agents. Two key structural elements of the proposed control architecture have been tested individually on key pilot applications and shown promising results. The proposed intelligent control design is inspired by observed individual and collective biological behavior in colonies of living organisms that are capable of self-organization into groups of specialized individuals capable of collectively achieving a set of prescribed or emerging objectives. The nervous and brain system in the proposed control architecture is based on reinforcement learning principles and conditioning and modeled using adaptive neurocontrollers. Mathematical control theory (e.g. optimal control, adaptive control, and neurocontrol) is used to coordinate the interactions of multiple robotics agents.

  10. Determination of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents in biological and environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telgmann, Lena [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); Sperling, Michael [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany); European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis (EVISA), Münster (Germany); Karst, Uwe, E-mail: uk@uni-muenster.de [University of Münster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Münster (Germany)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► All major methods for the analysis of Gd-based MRI contrast agents are discussed. ► Biological and environmental samples are covered. ► Pharmacokinetics and species transformation can be investigated. ► The figures of merit as limit of detection and analysis time are described. -- Abstract: The development of analytical methods and strategies to determine gadolinium and its complexes in biological and environmental matrices is evaluated in this review. Gadolinium (Gd) chelates are employed as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since the 1980s. In general they were considered as safe and well-tolerated, when in 2006, the disease nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was connected to the administration of MRI contrast agents based on Gd. Pathogenesis and etiology of NSF are yet unclear and called for the development of several analytical methods to obtain elucidation in this field. Determination of Gd complex stability in vitro and in vivo, as well as the quantification of Gd in body fluids like blood and urine was carried out. Separation of the Gd chelates was achieved with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). For detection, various methods were employed, including UV–vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A second challenge for analysts was the discovery of high concentrations of anthropogenic Gd in surface waters draining populated areas. The source could soon be determined to be the increasing administration of Gd complexes during MRI examinations. Identification and quantification of the contrast agents was carried out in various surface and groundwater samples to determine the behavior and fate of the Gd chelates in the environment. The improvement of limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) was and still is the goal of past and ongoing

  11. Operation and control interfaces based upon distributed agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of todays large scale compute clusters and software systems running on them are using operation and control interfaces (OCI) for monitoring and control. The majority of these OCI's are still based upon single node applications, which are limited by the physical system they are running on. In areas where hundred thousand and more statistical values have to be analyzed and taken into account for visualization and decision making this kind of OCI's are no option at all. Furthermore, this kind of OCI's do not empower whole collaborations to control and operate cluster at the same time from around the world. Distributed agent networks (DAN) tend to have the possibility to overcome this limitations. A distributed agent network is per design a multi-node approach. Together with a web based OCI, automatic data propagation and distributed locking algorithms they provide simultaneous operation and control, distributed state tracking and visualization to world wide collaborations. The first compute cluster in the scientific world using this combination of technologies is the ALICE HLT at CERN.

  12. Use of Biologic Agents in Combination with Other Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cather, Jennifer C.; Crowley, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, which is associated with a significant negative impact on a patient’s quality of life. Traditional therapies for psoriasis are often not able to meet desired treatment goals, and high-dose and/or long-term use is associated with toxicities that can result in end-organ damage. An improved understanding of the involvement of cytokines in the etiology of psoriasis has led to the development of biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF...

  13. LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

  14. Biological agents: investigation into leprosy and other infectious diseases before indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, João Roberto; Soubhia, Rosa Maria Cordeiro; Paschoal, Vania Del Arco; Amarante, Carolina Forte; Travolo, Ana Regina Franchi

    2013-01-01

    Biological agents are widely used for various immune-mediated diseases, with remarkable effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease. However, attention needs to be drawn to the adverse effects of these therapies and the risk of reactivating underlying granulomatous infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis, leishmaniasis, among others. The objective of this paper is to describe a case of leprosy in a patient with RA using anti-TNF alfa, demonstrating the need for systematic investigation of skin lesions suggestive of leprosy in patients who require rheumatoid arthritis therapeutic treatment, especially in endemic regions like Brazil. PMID:24346871

  15. Synthesis, analysis and biological evaluation of novel indolquinonecryptolepine analogues as potential anti-tumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gresley, A; Gudivaka, V; Carrington, S; Sinclair, A; Brown, J E

    2016-03-21

    A small library of cryptolepine analogues were synthesised incorporating halogens and/or nitrogen containing side chains to optimise their interaction with the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA to give improved binding, interfering with topoisomerase II hence enhancing cytotoxicity. Cell viability, DNA binding and Topoisomerase II inhibition is discussed for these compounds. Fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the uptake of the synthesised cryptolepines into the nucleus. We report the synthesis and anti-cancer biological evaluation of nine novel cryptolepine analogues, which have greater cytotoxicity than the parent compound and are important lead compounds in the development of novel potent and selective indoloquinone anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:26893255

  16. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Matatagui; José Luis Fontecha; María Jesús Fernández; Isabel Gràcia; Carles Cané; José Pedro Santos; María Carmen Horrillo

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentr...

  17. Autonomous Detection of Aerosolized Biological Agents by Multiplexed Immunoassay with PCR Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Setlur, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Nasarabadi, S L; Venkateswaran, K S; Farrow, S W; Colston, Jr., B W; Dzenitis, J M

    2004-05-27

    The autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) is an automated, podium-sized instrument that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed to warn of a biological attack in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The APDS performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and detection using multiplexed immunoassay followed by confirmatory PCR using real-time TaqMan assays. We have integrated completely reusable flow-through devices that perform DNA extraction and PCR amplification. The fully integrated system was challenged with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii and botulinum toxoid. By coupling highly selective antibody and DNA based assays, the probability of an APDS reporting a false positive is extremely low.

  18. Nanostructure Control of Biologically Inspired Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Adrianne Marie

    Biological polymers, such as polypeptides, are responsible for many of life's most sophisticated functions due to precisely evolved hierarchical structures. These protein structures are the result of monodisperse sequences of amino acids that fold into well-defined chain shapes and tertiary structures. Recently, there has been much interest in the design of such sequence-specific polymers for materials applications in fields ranging from biotechnology to separations membranes. Non-natural polymers offer the stability and robustness necessary for materials applications; however, our ability to control monomer sequence in non-natural polymers has traditionally operated on a much simpler level. In addition, the relationship between monomer sequence and self-assembly is not well understood for biological molecules, much less synthetic polymers. Thus, there is a need to explore self-assembly phase space with sequence using a model system. Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence-specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of sequence on self-assembly. A variety of monomer interactions have an impact on polymer properties, such as chirality, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic interactions. Thus, a necessary starting point for this project was to investigate monomer sequence effects on the bulk properties of polypeptoid homopolymers. It was found that several polypeptoids have experimentally accessible melting transitions that are dependent on the choice of side chains, and it was shown that this transition is tuned by the incorporation of "defects" or a comonomer. The polypeptoid chain shape is also controlled with the choice of monomer and monomer sequence. By using at least 50% monomers with bulky, chiral side chains, the polypeptoid backbone is sterically twisted into a helix, and as found for the first time in this work, the persistence length is increased. However, this persistence length, which is a measure of the stiffness of the polymer, is

  19. The Potential for the Integration of Nuclear Techniques in Arthropod Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is today being practised more widely than ever before and its popularity looks set to increase further in the future. While the discipline has historically been dominated by 'classical' biological control (the one-off introduction of natural enemies to control pests in their adventive range) augmentative biological control (the repeated introduction of biocontrol agents to a particular crop or forest) has increased substantially over the past 20 years and is likely to increase in importance further in the future. This view is supported by an assessment of some of the key issues facing the discipline of biological control today. There is no clear role for nuclear techniques in the future of classical biological control. However the use of irradiation as a means of creating increased rates of mutation in natural enemy populations being selected for enhanced beneficial traits (such as insecticide resistance), might be useful and could be investigated further. There is scope for the use of irradiation in killing or sterilising insect diets and hosts, a technique which has been used for over 25 years without gaining wide acceptance. Augmentative biological control as an adjunct to SIT may have a role in future pest control campaigns, although it is likely to prove difficult to provide a clear economic justification given the technical difficulties of measuring separately the effects of the two techniques. It is suggested that the technical advances in project development and implementation (e.g. insect rearing techniques and field application) which have been made by SIT practitioners have a potentially useful role in assisting the development of improved production and delivery of biological control agents for augmentative release (author)

  20. A Novel Secondary Control for Microgrid Based on Synergetic Control of Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In power systems, the secondary control is a very useful way to restore the system frequency and voltage to the rated value. This paper tries to propose a secondary frequency and voltage control of islanded microgrids based on the distributed synergetic control of multi-agent systems. In the proposed control, since each distributed generation only requires its own information and that of the neighbors, the secondary control is fully distributed. The system is more reliable because the central controller and complex communication network are reduced in the distributed structure. Based on multi-agent systems, the dynamic model is established, and distributed synergetic control algorithms are given to design the secondary control of the islanded microgrid. Meanwhile, the system has globally asymptotic stability under the proposed control, which is proved by the direct Lyapunov method. Simulation results about a test microgrid are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  1. Optimizing urban traffic control using a rational agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvador IBARRA-MARTÍNEZ; José A. CASTÁN-ROCHA; Julio LARIA-MENCHACA

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to developing and evaluating a set of technologies with the objective of designing a method-ology for the implementation of sophisticated traffic lights by means of rational agents. These devices would be capable of op-timizing the behavior of a junction with multiple traffic signals, reaching a higher level of autonomy without losing reliability, accuracy, or efficiency in the offered services. In particular, each rational agent in a traffic signal will be able to analyze the requirements and constraints of the road, in order to know its level of demand. With such information, the rational agent will adapt its light cycles with the view of accomplishing more fluid traffic patterns and minimizing the pollutant environmental emissions produced by vehicles while they are stopped at a red light, through using a case-based reasoning (CBR) adaptation. This paper also integrates a microscopic simulator developed to run a set of tests in order to compare the presented methodology with traditional traffic control methods. Two study cases are shown to demonstrate the efficiency of the introduced approach, increasing vehicular mobility and reducing harmful activity for the environment. For instance, in the first scenario, taking into account the studied traffic volumes, our approach increases mobility by 23%and reduces emissions by 35%. When the roads are managed by sophisticated traffic lights, a better level of service and considerable environmental benefits are achieved, demon-strating the utility of the presented approach.

  2. The Effects of Biological Agents on Melanocytic Nevi: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurşah Doğan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of the melanocytic nevi during the biological agent therapy. Methods: For this purpose, 40 index nevi of 25 adult patients who were treated with infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept or rituximab were included in this study. All of the patients underwent clinical and dermoscopic evaluation before the beginning of the treatment, 6 months and 1 year after the beginning of the treatment. Among dermoscopic examination methods, pattern analysis, ABCD score system and three-point checklist were performed. Results: In terms of the diameter of the index nevi, there was no statistically significant difference between the first examination and that of the sixth month, but differences was observed between the first examination and that of the twelfth month. There was also no statistically significant difference in total dermoscopy scores calculated by ABCD score system application on 31 nevi at the times of assessment. At the end of the study, we detected 24 new nevi formation in 7 patients, whom all of were over 35 years of age, however no eruptive nevi or melanoma formation were observed. Conclusion: An increase in the diameters of the present nevi and formation of new nevi may be seen with biological agent therapy in one-year-follow-up.

  3. Basic analytical methods for identification of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in doping control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, P. V.; Krotov, G. I.; Efimova, Yu A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2016-02-01

    The design of new erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for clinical use necessitates constant development of methods for detecting the abuse of these substances, which are prohibited under the World Anti-Doping Code and are included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. This review integrates and describes systematically the published data on the key methods currently used by WADA-accredited anti-doping laboratories around the world to detect the abuse of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, including direct methods (various polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, membrane enzyme immunoassay and mass spectrometry) and indirect methods (athlete biological passport). Particular attention is given to promising approaches and investigations that can be used to control prohibited erythropoietins in the near future. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  4. Degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment: implications for terrorism response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Amy L; Wilkening, Dean A

    2005-04-15

    We investigate the impact on effective terrorism response of the viability degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment. We briefly review the scientific understanding and modeling of agent environmental viability degradation. In general, agent susceptibility to viability loss is greatest for vegetative bacteria, intermediate for viruses, and least for bacterial spores. Survival is greatest in soil and progressively decreases in the following environments: textiles, water, hard surfaces, and air. There is little detailed understanding of loss mechanisms. We analyze the time behavior and sensitivity of four mathematical models that are used to represent environmental viability degradation (the exponential, probability, and first- and second-order catastrophic decay models). The models behave similarly at short times (representation of the hazard. For longer time phenomena, including decontamination, the current model capabilities are likely insufficient. Finally, we implement each model in a simple numerical integration of anthrax dispersion, viability degradation, and dose response. Decay models spanning the current knowledge of airborne degradation result in vastly different predicted hazard areas. This confounds attempts to determine necessary medical and decontamination measures. Hence,the current level of understanding and representation of environmental viability degradation in response models is inadequate to inform appropriate emergency response measures. PMID:15884371

  5. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown. PMID:26018288

  6. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Courtot, Mélanie; Hucka, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. Model structures, simulation descriptions and numerical results can be encoded in structured formats, but there is an increasing need to provide an additional semantic layer. Semantic information adds meaning to components of structured descriptions to help identify and interpret them unambiguously. Ontologies are one of the tools frequently used for this purpose. We describe here ...

  7. Homeostasis control of building environment using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Eri; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    A human centered system for building is demanded to meet variety of needs due to the diversification and maturation of society. Smart buildings and smart houses have been studied to satisfy this demand. However, it is difficult for such systems to respond flexibly to unexpected events and needs that are caused by aging and complicate emotion changes. With this regards, we suggest "Biofied Buildings". The goal for this research is to realize buildings that are safer, more comfortable and more energy-efficient by embedding adaptive functions of life into buildings. In this paper, we propose a new control system for building environments, focused on physiological adaptation, particularly homeostasis, endocrine system and immune system. Residents are used as living sensors and controllers in the control loop. A sensor agent robot is used to acquire resident's discomfort feeling, and to output hormone-like signals to activate devices to control the environments. The proposed system could control many devices without establishing complicated scenarios. Results obtained from some simulations and the demonstration experiments using an LED lighting system showed that the proposed system were able to achieve robust and stable control of environments without complicated scenarios.

  8. Detection of aerosolized biological agents by immunoassay followed by autonomous PCR confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Hindson, B J; McBride, M T; Makarewicz, A J; Henderer, B D; Sathyam, U S; Smith, S M; Gutierrez, D M; Metz, T R; Venkateswaran, K S; Colston, B W; Farrow, S W

    2003-12-15

    An Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) unit is an automated, podium-sized system that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins). The system has been developed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy and Department of Homeland Security by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to protect people in critical or high-traffic facilities and at special events. The system performs continuous aerosol collection, sample preparation, and multiplexed biological tests using advanced immunoassays as the primary screen. Over ten agents are assayed at once, and results are reported hourly. R&D work this year focused on incorporating polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) techniques for detecting DNA as confirmation of immunoassay positives. The primary objective of the Dugway testing was to demonstrate the APDS with immunoassay identification and PCR confirmation of bacteria. A secondary objective was to demonstrate immunoassay identification of a protein toxoid (denatured toxin) aerosol release. A total of 12 agent trials were conducted over 14 days of testing, for a total of four work weeks at Dugway. Both testing objectives were achieved with multiple releases and clear identifications. The APDS was shown to be effective for identifying aerosolized Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus globigii, and botulinum toxoid. The two areas for improvement were operational as opposed to hardware-related. The first was slowing the PCR thermal cycling to achieve stronger signals, which was demonstrated during the later phases of testing. The second area is to improve the parameters for autonomous PCR triggering; this is one of the focuses of the upcoming year's work.

  9. An Improved Contract Net Protocol with Multi-Agent for Reservoir Flood Control Dispatch

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Huang; Xingnan Zhang; Xiaodong Wei

    2011-01-01

    Contract Net Protocol (CNP) has been widely used in solving the problems of multi-Agent cooperates and reservoir flood control optimization dispatch. This paper designs an Agent functional module based on the multi-Agent coordinated the construction of reservoir flood control optimization dispatch and the corresponding Agent to solve the problem of classical CNP in the Agent communication aspect, to enhance the efficiency of reservoir optimization dispatch and to improve the insufficiency of ...

  10. Biological Control of Water Hyacinth Under Conditions of Maintenance Management: Can Herbicides and Insects Be Integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTER; DRAY JR; JUBINSKY; GRODOWITZ

    1999-02-01

    / We hypothesized that repeated herbicidal (maintenance) control of water hyacinth infestations in Florida suppressed biological control agent populations, especially the weevils Neochetina eichhorniae and N. bruchi. We therefore sampled water hyacinth and weevil populations at 54 sites distributed statewide. Half were under maintenance control, half were not treated with herbicides. General site conditions were assessed, demographic data were collected on weevil and plant populations, the reproductive condition of the weevils was determined, and plant nutrient and proximate composition of water hyacinth leaves were analyzed. Water hyacinth infestations under maintenance control were minimal when compared to unmanaged sites. Likewise, on a population basis, all weevil cohorts were much lower due to the paucity of plants. Plants at unmanaged sites, where weevil intensities were much higher, suffered high levels of stress and showed low growth potential. Lower percentages of the female weevils were reproductive at unmanaged sites when compared to managed sites, so densities of reproductives and immatures were similar at both site types. Reproductive status of the weevils improved with increased plant quality. Plant quality, in turn, declined as stresses arising from weevil feeding increased. Plant quality was positively correlated with plant growth potential and flower production. Thus, maintenance control improved plant nutritive quality thereby inducing reproductive vigor of the weevils, but ensuring plant regrowth and the need for future control. This suggests that biological and herbicidal controls should be integrated, using herbicides to maintain water hyacinth infestations below management thresholds but in a manner that conserves biological control agent populations. This approach would lead to improved plant nutritional quality that would, in turn, stimulate reproduction in biological control agent populations. KEY WORDS: Eichhornia crassipes; Neochetina

  11. Step-coordination Algorithm of Traffic Control Based on Multi-agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Zhang; Fang Yu; Wen Li

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiency of conventional traffic control method, this paper proposes a new method based on multi-agent technology for traffic control. Different from many existing methods, this paper distinguishes traffic control on the basis of the agent technology from conventional traffic control method. The composition and structure of a multi-agent system (MAS) is first discussed. Then, the step-coordination strategies of intersection-agent, segment-agent, and area-agent are put forward. The advantages of the algorithm are demonstrated by a simulation study.

  12. Control of dengue: Consensus views of Endemic Disease Control Agents and Community Health Agents on their integrated action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, João Paulo de Morais; Oliveira, Ellen Synthia Fernandes de; Teixeira, Ricardo Antônio Gonçalves; Lemos, Cristiane Lopes Simão; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2016-08-01

    Dengue is one of Brazil's most important public health challenges. Activities for its prevention and control have been based on the strategy of integrated management proposed in health policies, in which the central actors are the Endemic Disease Control Agent(ACE) and the Community Health Agent (ACS). This study analyzes consensus opinions produced by ACSs and ACEs on theactions for incorporating ACEs into the teams of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). It is a qualitative study from a large municipality in Brazil in which dengue is endemic, using a focus group of professionals that is subsequently analyzed using Collective Subject Discourse Analysis, supported by WebQDA. The results indicate consensus positions in relation to the following subjects: I) difficulty in the process of integration of ACSs and ACEs for control of dengue; II) inclusion of ACEs in the primary healthcare of the ESF; and III) absence of monitoring and assessment of the integrated actions. In conclusion, there are needs: to make participants more aware, seeking changes in behavior; to offer an environment of support to those involved with training courses about dengue; and to monitor the process of integration, and evaluate it periodically, creating indicators of quality and quantity. PMID:27557006

  13. Biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis treatment%类风湿关节炎的生物制剂治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 袁国华

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common disabling diease, seriously affecting the patients' quality of life. Traditional drugs treatment for rheumatoid arthritis include nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs,however,these drugs are often not satisfied to control the condition of refractory rheumatoid arthritis,and resulting in severe joint damage. Recently , the emergence of multiple biological agents brought hope to the treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients These agents play an important role in the control of rheumatic conditions and the improvement of quality of life in PtA patients.%类风湿关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)是一种常见的致残性疾病,严重影响患者的生活质量.传统的RA药物治疗主要包括非甾体抗炎药、糖皮质激素以及慢作用药物,然而这些药物常常不能满意控制那些难治性RA患者的病情,最终导致关节进行性破坏.近年,由于多种生物制剂的出现,为治疗难治性RA带来了希望,这些生物制剂在控制风湿病情和改善生活质量方面发挥了重要作用.

  14. Assessment of tuberculosis infection during treatment with biologic agents in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Cavusoglu, Cengiz; Dortkardesler, Merve; Sozeri, Betul

    2016-02-01

    Biologic therapies, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockers, are commonly used to treat rheumatological diseases in childhood. Screening patients for tuberculosis (TB) is highly recommended before starting therapy with TNF-α blockers. Despite appropriate screening, TB still remains a problem in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy in countries where TB is not endemic. TB in anti-TNF-treated patients is often diagnosed late due to altered presentation, and this delay results in high morbidity and mortality with a high proportion of extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. The aim of this study is to show the course of TB disease in children who are on biologic therapy, in an era where many of the children are BCG-vaccinated and TB is intermediately endemic. We recruited 71 patients with several types of inflammatory diseases. Six of them had a positive test result during TB screening and began taking isoniazid (INH) prophylactically. During the 3 years of follow-up, none of these patients developed TB disease. Biologic agents can be safely used in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population, as long as patients are closely monitored to ensure that any cases of TB will be detected early. PMID:25515621

  15. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2011 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents (including microorganisms and viruses) in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS......) assessment was developed by EFSA for its own use to provide a generic risk assessment approach applicable across EFSA’s scientific Panels, for biological agents notified for intentional use in the whole food chain. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents at the highest taxonomic unit that is...... recommendations. The anamorph yeast form Phaffia rhodozyma of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was included on the QPS list and to the qualification for yeasts ‘absence of resistance to antimycotics used for medical treatment of yeast infections’, the sentence was added that ‘in the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  16. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-D. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in

  17. Statistical properties and robustness of biological controller-target networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D Feala

    Full Text Available Cells are regulated by networks of controllers having many targets, and targets affected by many controllers, in a "many-to-many" control structure. Here we study several of these bipartite (two-layer networks. We analyze both naturally occurring biological networks (composed of transcription factors controlling genes, microRNAs controlling mRNA transcripts, and protein kinases controlling protein substrates and a drug-target network composed of kinase inhibitors and of their kinase targets. Certain statistical properties of these biological bipartite structures seem universal across systems and species, suggesting the existence of common control strategies in biology. The number of controllers is ∼8% of targets and the density of links is 2.5%±1.2%. Links per node are predominantly exponentially distributed. We explain the conservation of the mean number of incoming links per target using a mathematical model of control networks, which also indicates that the "many-to-many" structure of biological control has properties of efficient robustness. The drug-target network has many statistical properties similar to the biological networks and we show that drug-target networks with biomimetic features can be obtained. These findings suggest a completely new approach to pharmacological control of biological systems. Molecular tools, such as kinase inhibitors, are now available to test if therapeutic combinations may benefit from being designed with biomimetic properties, such as "many-to-many" targeting, very wide coverage of the target set, and redundancy of incoming links per target.

  18. Distributed Cooperative Control of Nonlinear and Non-identical Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidram, Ali; Lewis, Frank; Davoudi, Ali; Guerrero, Josep M.

    This paper exploits input-output feedback linearization technique to implement distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems with nonlinear and non-identical dynamics. Feedback linearization transforms the synchronization problem for a nonlinear and heterogeneous multi-agent system to the...... synchronization problem for an identical linear multi-agent system. The controller for each agent is designed to be fully distributed, such that each agent only requires its own information and the information of its neighbors. The proposed control method is exploited to implement the secondary voltage control...... for electric power microgrids. The effectiveness of the proposed control is verified by simulating a microgrid test system....

  19. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  20. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  1. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  2. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  3. Prescribed fire effects on biological control of leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, D.P.; Newton, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The flea beetle, Aphthona nigriscutis Foudras, is a potentially useful agent for biological control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) in grasslands devoted to wildlife conservation. However, effects of other grassland management practices on the persistence and dynamics of flea beetle populations are not well understood. We conducted small plot tests to evaluate 1) the effect of prerelease burning on establishment of A. nigriscutis colonies, and 2) the ability of established A. nigriscutis colonies to survive prescribed fire. More colonies established on plots that were burned prior to beetle release (83% establishment) than on unburned plots (37% establishment), possibly due to litter reduction and baring of the soil surface. However, most colonies established with the aid of fire did not survive past the first generation unless the habitat was otherwise suitable for the species, and we conclude that the primary benefit of prerelease burning is increased recruitment of A. nigriscutis during the first few generations. Established colonies were not harmed by burns in October and May. Both spring and fall burns resulted in an increase in leafy spurge stem density during the first growing season, but stem density declined to the preburn level by the second growing season.

  4. A systematic screen of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of biological threat agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Madrid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses.

  5. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. ► Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. ► Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. ► Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. ► Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and

  6. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K., E-mail: Upadhyayula.Venkata@epa.gov [Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education (ORISE), MC-100-44, PO Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors are needed for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smart sensors detect analytes with rapid speed, high sensitivity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially smart sense threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized GNPs support multiple analytical methods for sensing threat agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threat agents of all types can be detected using functionalized GNPs. - Abstract: There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad

  7. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I. E.; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and ...

  8. Preparation and biological behavior of 99m Tc(V)-DMS as a tumor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 99m Tc - labelled radiopharmaceutical has been developed for tumor imaging under commercial name of DMS-PENTATEC. We used for the preparation 2,3 meso dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), as ligand, and SnCl2 x 2H2O, as reducing agent. The mass ratio DMSA: SnCl2 is 1:0.43 in the mixture of inositol, ascorbic acid and natrium chloride as the antioxidant system. The labelling with 99m Tc was performed at an alkaline pH (7.5 - 8.5) with the result of a new coordination complex DMS - 99m Tc(V) with higher uptake by the tumor cells. The biological studies were made on Wistar London rats with Walker tumors. After intravenous (i.v.) administration of 30 mCi DMS - 99m Tc(V), the biodistribution measurements were carried out at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min and 60 min for the tumors and following organs: blood, liver, spleen, kidneys. The DMS - 99m Tc(V) accumulates quantitatively in the tumor 30 min after i.v. injection. The present study provides a good basis for DMS-99'm Tc(V) clinical application as a tumor imaging agent, mainly for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, medullar thyroid cancers and soft-tissue tumors. (authors)

  9. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    OpenAIRE

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive aff...

  10. Recent Advances in Biological Control of Pest Insects by Using Viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-lian SUN; Hui-yin PENG

    2007-01-01

    Insect viruses are attractive as biological control agents and could be a feasible alternative to chemical insecticides in the management of insect infestations. This review describes recent advances in the development of wild-type and genetically modified viruses as insecticides. A new strategy of application of insect viruses in China is reviewed. Also, the assessment of biosafety of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedovirus (HearNPV) is emphasized as a case-study.

  11. Mechanisms of biological control of Fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber by Gliocladium catenulatum

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterton, Syama Gauri Dasi

    2010-01-01

    Gliocladium catenulatum strain J1446 (formulated as Prestop WP, Verdera Oy) is a biological control agent of Fusarium root and stem rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum on greenhouse cucumber plants. The mechanisms involved in biocontrol efficacy are currently unknown. Following transformation of G. catenulatum with the ß-glucuronidase (uidA) gene, blue-stained mycelia could be seen growing on the surface and within epidermal and cortical cells of roots, stems and shoot...

  12. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Odes S; Greenberg D

    2014-01-01

    Shmuel Odes,1 Dan Greenberg21Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel; 2Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences and Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, IsraelAbstract: The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing ...

  13. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  14. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Gorochowski

    Full Text Available Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher.

  15. BSim: an agent-based tool for modeling bacterial populations in systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorochowski, Thomas E; Matyjaszkiewicz, Antoni; Todd, Thomas; Oak, Neeraj; Kowalska, Kira; Reid, Stephen; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira T; Savery, Nigel J; Grierson, Claire S; di Bernardo, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale collective behaviors such as synchronization and coordination spontaneously arise in many bacterial populations. With systems biology attempting to understand these phenomena, and synthetic biology opening up the possibility of engineering them for our own benefit, there is growing interest in how bacterial populations are best modeled. Here we introduce BSim, a highly flexible agent-based computational tool for analyzing the relationships between single-cell dynamics and population level features. BSim includes reference implementations of many bacterial traits to enable the quick development of new models partially built from existing ones. Unlike existing modeling tools, BSim fully considers spatial aspects of a model allowing for the description of intricate micro-scale structures, enabling the modeling of bacterial behavior in more realistic three-dimensional, complex environments. The new opportunities that BSim opens are illustrated through several diverse examples covering: spatial multicellular computing, modeling complex environments, population dynamics of the lac operon, and the synchronization of genetic oscillators. BSim is open source software that is freely available from http://bsim-bccs.sf.net and distributed under the Open Source Initiative (OSI) recognized MIT license. Developer documentation and a wide range of example simulations are also available from the website. BSim requires Java version 1.6 or higher. PMID:22936991

  16. Comparing Effects of Biologic Agents in Treating Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Regression Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Fride Tvete

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis patients have been treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and the newer biologic drugs. We sought to compare and rank the biologics with respect to efficacy. We performed a literature search identifying 54 publications encompassing 9 biologics. We conducted a multiple treatment comparison regression analysis letting the number experiencing a 50% improvement on the ACR score be dependent upon dose level and disease duration for assessing the comparable relative effect between biologics and placebo or DMARD. The analysis embraced all treatment and comparator arms over all publications. Hence, all measured effects of any biologic agent contributed to the comparison of all biologic agents relative to each other either given alone or combined with DMARD. We found the drug effect to be dependent on dose level, but not on disease duration, and the impact of a high versus low dose level was the same for all drugs (higher doses indicated a higher frequency of ACR50 scores. The ranking of the drugs when given without DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, etanercept, tocilizumab/ abatacept and adalimumab. The ranking of the drugs when given with DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, tocilizumab, anakinra/rituximab, golimumab/ infliximab/ abatacept, adalimumab/ etanercept [corrected]. Still, all drugs were effective. All biologic agents were effective compared to placebo, with certolizumab the most effective and adalimumab (without DMARD treatment and adalimumab/ etanercept (combined with DMARD treatment the least effective. The drugs were in general more effective, except for etanercept, when given together with DMARDs.

  17. Exploring the use of Controlled English for communication with ACT-R agents

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, David; Stone, Paul; Richardson, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    Research is being undertaken into sense-making by collaborative agents, based upon a cognitive framework of human behaviour, ACT-R, together with communication between the agents. We explore the use of Controlled English for this purpose

  18. ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF INTEGRATED CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report presents results of a four-year study of the ecological impacts of chemical, biological, and integrated methods of aquatic weed control. Biological and water quality changes occurred as abundance of macrophytic vegetation was altered by natural factors or manage...

  19. Biological control of Verticillium dahliae by Talaromyces flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagtzaam, M.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt in a wide range of host plants. Control of Verticillium wilt is by soil disinfestation and to a lesser extent by crop rotation or, for a few host plants, by growing resistant varieties. For environmental reasons, the development of alternatives to chemical soil disinfestation is being sought. Biocontrol by microbial agents is one of the options. The potential of Talaromyces flavus as a biocontrol agent in management of the disease is the subject of th...

  20. Microencapsulation of Self Healing Agents for Corrosion Control Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, S. T.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, is a very costly problem that has a major impact on the global economy. Results from a 2-year breakthrough study released in 2002 by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) showed that the total annual estimated direct cost associated with metallic corrosion in nearly every U.S. industry sector was a staggering $276 billion, approximately 3.1% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GOP). Corrosion protective coatings are widely used to protect metallic structures from the detrimental effects of corrosion but their effectiveness can be seriously compromised by mechanical damage, such as a scratch, that exposes the metallic substrate. The incorporation of a self healing mechanism into a corrosion control coating would have the potential to significantly increase its effectiveness and useful lifetime. This paper describes work performed to incorporate a number of microcapsule-based self healing systems into corrosion control coatings. The work includes the preparation and evaluation of self-healing systems based on curable epoxy, acrylate, and siloxane resins, as well as, microencapsulated systems based on passive, solvent born, healing agent delivery. The synthesis and optimization of microcapsule-based self healing systems for thin coating (less than 100 micron) will be presented.

  1. Comparison of long-term drug survival and safety of biologic agents in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, R; Bang, B; Bryld, L E;

    2015-01-01

    has a significantly longer drug survival than the anti-TNF-α agents. Switching from one biologic to another is associated with an impairment of drug survival. Preventing loss of efficacy is a major area of medical need in the biologic therapy of psoriasis and the strategies that improve drug survival......BACKGROUND: Drug survival (time to drug discontinuation) has recently emerged as an important parameter reflecting the long-term therapeutic performance in a real-life setting. Biologic drug survival in psoriasis is mainly limited by a gradual loss of efficacy over time. Previous studies have been...... and to analyse the factors that influence drug survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the prospective registry DERMBIO covering all patients with psoriasis vulgaris treated with biologic agents in the academic centres in Denmark. Drug survival was analysed using the Kaplan...

  2. Biological control of weeds release sites : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table of release sites of insects for biological control of invasive plants at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD). Insects were released on Kulm WMD to...

  3. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen;

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  4. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  5. Crop association to improve aphid biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas; Bosquée, Emilie; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests (“push-pull” approach). In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures ...

  6. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  7. Migration control for mobile agents based on passport and visa

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Su; T. Wang; Ong, SH

    2003-01-01

    Research on mobile agents has attracted much attention as this paradigm has demonstrated great potential for the next-generation e-commerce. Proper solutions to security-related problems become key factors in the successful deployment of mobile agents in e-commerce systems. We propose the use of passport and visa (P/V) for securing mobile agent migration across communities based on the SAFER e-commerce framework. P/V not only serves as up-to-date digital credentials for agent-host authentica...

  8. Biological control of Leptosphaeria maculans on Brassica napus and quantification of the microbes in planta using qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    Cholerton, Linda Jane

    2015-01-01

    Brassica napus is a commercially important crop worldwide and its use is quickly increasing due to its beneficial oil products and biofuel demands. Yield can be lost through infection by a fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker (blackleg). An early indication of the presence of stem canker is a lesion (leaf spot) on the cotyledons or early leaves. The leaf spot stage of the disease was used in this work to ascertain if biological control agents applied both i...

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of biological agents using FTIR, normal Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Pineda, Tatiana; Soto-Feliciano, Kristina; De La Cruz-Montoya, Edwin; Pacheco Londoño, Leonardo C.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) requires a minimum of sample allows fast identification of microorganisms. The use of this technique for characterizing the spectroscopic signatures of these agents and their stimulants has recently gained considerable attention due to the fact that these techniques can be easily adapted for standoff detection from considerable distances. The techniques also show high sensitivity and selectivity and offer near real time detection duty cycles. This research focuses in laying the grounds for the spectroscopic differentiation of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Salmonella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli, together with identification of their subspecies. In order to achieve the proponed objective, protocols to handle, cultivate and analyze the strains have been developed. Spectroscopic similarities and marked differences have been found for Spontaneous or Normal Raman spectra and for SERS using silver nanoparticles have been found. The use of principal component analysis (PCA), discriminate factor analysis (DFA) and a cluster analysis were used to evaluate the efficacy of identifying potential threat bacterial from their spectra collected on single bacteria. The DFA from the bacteria Raman spectra show a little discrimination between the diverse bacterial species however the results obtained from the SERS demonstrate to be high discrimination technique. The spectroscopic study will be extended to examine the spores produced by selected strains since these are more prone to be used as Biological Warfare Agents due to their increased mobility and possibility of airborne transport. Micro infrared spectroscopy as well as fiber coupled FTIR will also be used as possible sensors of target compounds.

  10. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  11. Control of Biologically Inspired Robotic Microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei Cheang, U.; Lee, Jun Hee; Roy, Dheeraj; Kim, Min Jun

    2010-11-01

    Flagella have been employed as nanoactuators for biomimetic microswimmers in low Reynolds number fluidic environments. The microswimmers utilize flagellar filaments isolated from Salmonella typhimurium to mimic the spiral-type propulsion mechanism of flagellated bacteria. The microswimmer included a polystyrene microbead conjugated to one or multiple magnetic nanobeads via flagellar filaments using avidin-biotin linkages. Wireless propulsion energy was supplied to magnetic bead by an AC magnetic field, which in turn rotate the bead and induce spiral-type swimming. A magnetic controller consisted of electromagnetic coils arranged in an approximate Helmholtz configuration was designed and constructed. In conjunction with a LabVIEW input interface, a DAQ controller was used as a function generator to induce AC current outputs from the power supply to the magnetic controller in order to generate an AC magnetic field. Numerical analysis was performed to characterize the magnetic controller. A high-speed camera provided real-time imaging of the microswimmer motion in a static fluidic environment. The robotic microswimmers exhibited active propulsion under an AC magnetic field, which demonstrates the possibility for future biomedical applications for drug delivery.

  12. Terapia com agentes biológicos na criança e no adolescente Treatment with biologic agents in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Maisse Suehiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os mecanismos fisiopatológicos e novos alvos terapêuticos, os agentes biológicos disponíveis, principais indicações e a evidência científica atual para o uso de terapias biológicas na população pediátrica. FONTES DE DADOS: Pesquisa na base de dados Medline e SciELO, nas línguas inglesa e portuguesa, entre 2000 e 2009. As palavras-chave usadas foram "agentes biológicos", "crianças" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os agentes biológicos são uma importante opção terapêutica para tratar as doenças autoimunes refratárias às terapias convencionais na infância e na adolescência. Com exceção da artrite idiopática juvenil, a maioria dos estudos em outras doenças autoimunes não é controlada. CONCLUSÕES: Os agentes biológicos têm demonstrado eficácia no tratamento de doenças autoimunes pediátricas como artrite idiopática juvenil, miopatias idiopáticas inflamatórias, lúpus eritematoso juvenil, vasculites, uveítes crônicas, doenças inflamatórias intestinais e púrpura trombocitopênica imune crônica, assim como no linfoma não-Hodgkin. Considerando-se o custo elevado e os potenciais eventos adversos, o uso desses agentes deve ser individualizado e acompanhado por especialista.OBJECTIVE: To review the physiopathology and new therapeutical targets, the available biologic agents, the main indications and the current scientific evidence for the use of biological therapies in the pediatric population. DATA SOURCES: A bibliographical search was obtained from Medline and SciELO databases in English and Portuguese from 2000 to 2009. The key-words included were "biologic agent", "children" and "adolescent". DATA SYNTHESIS: Biologic agents are important therapeutic options to treat refractory autoimmune diseases to conventional therapies in childhood and adolescence. Excluding juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the majority of studies in other autoimmune diseases are uncontrolled trials. CONCLUSIONS

  13. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L; Palmer, Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  14. Autonomous Traffic Control System Using Agent Based Technology

    CERN Document Server

    M, Venkatesh; V, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    The way of analyzing, designing and building of real-time projects has been changed due to the rapid growth of internet, mobile technologies and intelligent applications. Most of these applications are intelligent, tiny and distributed components called as agent. Agent works like it takes the input from numerous real-time sources and gives back the real-time response. In this paper how these agents can be implemented in vehicle traffic management especially in large cities and identifying various challenges when there is a rapid growth of population and vehicles. In this paper our proposal gives a solution for using autonomous or agent based technology. These autonomous or intelligent agents have the capability to observe, act and learn from their past experience. This system uses the knowledge flow of precedent signal or data to identify the incoming flow of forthcoming signal. Our architecture involves the video analysis and exploration using some Intelligence learning algorithm to estimate and identify the...

  15. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W., III; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. HIGHLY SELECTIVE SENSORS FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS, INSECTICIDES AND VOCS BASED ON A MOLECULAR SURFACE IMPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract was given as an oral platform presentation at the Pittsburgh Conference, Orlando FL (March 5-9, 2006). Research described is the development of sensors based on molecular surface imprinting. Applications include the monitoring of chemical and biological agents and inse...

  17. Multiplication of bio-control agents on locally available organic media

    OpenAIRE

    Devakumar, N.; Shubha, S.; Rao, G.G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiplication of micro organisms used as bio control agents can be done by using locally available organic materials viz., compost extract, Jeevamrutha, Press mud, digested biogas slurry only. Performance of bio control agents was better with the combination of digested biogas slurry+ Panchagavya; Press mud + Panchagavya and digested biogas slurry + Press mud. Bio-control agents can be multiplied locally with low cost by adding Jaggery solution.

  18. A Loosely Coupled Control Architecture Based on Agent and CORBA for Multiple Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shandong(吴山东); Chen Yimin; He Yongyi

    2003-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, adopting advanced distributed computing technology to construct robot control system is becoming an effective approach gradually. This paper proposes a distributed loosely coupled software architecture based on Agent and CORBA to control multiple robots. This model provides the robot user with agent control units at the semantic level and CORBA provides function interfaces to agent at the syntax level, which shows a good adaptability, flexibility and transparence.

  19. Ambient agents: embedded agents for remote control and monitoring using the PANGEA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation. PMID:25090416

  20. Functionalized gold nanoparticle supported sensory mechanisms applied in detection of chemical and biological threat agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K K

    2012-02-17

    There is a great necessity for development of novel sensory concepts supportive of smart sensing capabilities in defense and homeland security applications for detection of chemical and biological threat agents. A smart sensor is a detection device that can exhibit important features such as speed, sensitivity, selectivity, portability, and more importantly, simplicity in identifying a target analyte. Emerging nanomaterial based sensors, particularly those developed by utilizing functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a sensing component potentially offer many desirable features needed for threat agent detection. The sensitiveness of physical properties expressed by GNPs, e.g. color, surface plasmon resonance, electrical conductivity and binding affinity are significantly enhanced when they are subjected to functionalization with an appropriate metal, organic or biomolecular functional groups. This sensitive nature of functionalized GNPs can be potentially exploited in the design of threat agent detection devices with smart sensing capabilities. In the presence of a target analyte (i.e., a chemical or biological threat agent) a change proportional to concentration of the analyte is observed, which can be measured either by colorimetric, fluorimetric, electrochemical or spectroscopic means. This article provides a review of how functionally modified gold colloids are applied in the detection of a broad range of threat agents, including radioactive substances, explosive compounds, chemical warfare agents, biotoxins, and biothreat pathogens through any of the four sensory means mentioned previously. PMID:22244163

  1. Low-level Control of Network Elements from an Agent Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Stenhuus; Jensen, P.; Soldatos, J.; Vayias, E.

    1999-01-01

    An important issue for the implementation of an agent system, which controls a telecommunications network, is to enable low-level access of the network devices by the agent platform, bypassing the control logic inherent in them. This issue has been coped with successfully in the IMPACT project....... Although the specific implementation targeted an ATM network environment, the concepts formulated during this implementation are generic and can be also used in the adaptation of other network technologies for agent-based control and management. The fact that the project has succeeded in having IP...... applications operating seamlessly over an agent-controlled ATM network illustrates this generality....

  2. Identification of Biocontrol Agents to Control the Fungal Pathogen, Geomyces destructans, in Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, S.; Cheng, T.

    2013-12-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) causes the disease White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in bats and is estimated to have killed millions of bats since its emergence in North America in 2006. Gd is predicted to cause the local extinction of at least three bat species if rates of decline continue unabated. Given the devastating impacts of Gd to bat populations, identifying a viable method for controlling the pathogen is pertinent for conservation of affected bat species. Our work focuses on identifying naturally-occurring skin bacteria on bats that are antagonistic to Gd that could potentially be used as a biocontrol. We cultured bacteria from skin swabs taken from wild bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis sodalis, Perimyotis subflavus). We conducted challenge experiments to identify bacterial strains that inhibited Gd growth. Bacteria that exhibited antifungal properties were identified using 16S and gyrB markers. Our methods identified several bacteria in the Pseudomonas fluorescens complex as potential biocontrol agents. Future work will continue to test the viability of these bacteria as biocontrol agents via experimental treatments with live captive bats. The failure of previous non-biocontrol methods highlights the importance of developing these bacteria as a biologically-friendly method for controlling Gd. A bat infected with Geomyces destructans. Photo by West Virginia Division of Natural Resources Bacterial culture from the swab of a bat's wings

  3. Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 μm diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-μm microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

  4. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.; Townsley, C.

    1995-04-01

    DRE Suffield has initiated a research program to develop methods and equipment for field detection and laboratory identification of mid-spectrum agents, molecules of biological origin such as proteins, peptides and toxins. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defence interest: bradykinin, bradykinin fragment 1-5, substance P,ARG8-vasopressin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, bombesin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin, and oxytocin. Using a 50 micrometer x 47 cm capillary column, 22.5 kV separation voltage and a 100 mM pH 2.5 phosphate buffer, all nine peptide could separated in under 10 minutes. Three strategies, which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system, were demonstrated for the identification of unknown peptides: comparison of migration times, comparison of electrophoretic mobilities, and co-injection of multiple reference standards. These experiments demonstrate that a separation based analytical method such as capillary electrophoresis could form the basis of a generic detection system for mid-spectrum protein and peptide toxins.

  5. Biological evaluation of Phellinus linteus-fermented broths as anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Lien, Hsiu-Man; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chao-Lu; Liu, Jau-Jin; Chang, Yun-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Phellinus linteus and its constituent hispolon induce potent anti-inflammatory activity in macrophages. Efficient production of the effective constituent and the biological function of P. linteus in the regulation of innate sensing have rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to efficiently manufacture P. linteus-fermented broth containing the effective constituent, hispolon, and evaluate its immunoregulatory functions in macrophages. Four distinct fermented broths (PL1-4) and the medium dialyzate (MD) were prepared to screen suitable culture conditions for the mycelial growth of P. linteus. The P. linteus-fermented broth exhibited a dose-responsive inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production by murine macrophages. In addition, the P. linteus-fermented broths suppressed macrophage LPS-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Among the tested samples from P. linteus, PL4 contained vast amounts of hispolon and showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity in both the RAW264.7 cells and murine primary peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs). This study demonstrates that the purification of the effective constituent from P. linteus-fermented broth may enable the production of a potent therapeutic agent for anti-inflammation in macrophages. PMID:24503424

  6. Controllability of Discrete-Time Multi-Agent Systems with Multiple Leaders on Fixed Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates controllability of discrete-time multi-agent systems with multiple leaders on fixed networks. The leaders are particular agents playing a part in external inputs to steer other member agents. The followers can arrive at any predetermined configuration by regulating the behaviors of the leaders. Some sufficient and necessary conditions are proposed for the controllability of discrete-time multi-agent systems with multiple leaders. Moreover, the case with isolated agents is discussed. Numerical examples and simulations are proposed to illustrate the theoretical results we established.

  7. Multi-Variable Flocking Control for Multi-Agent Systems via a Received Signal Strength Indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Ping Guan; Shao-Min Xing; Xiao-Yuan Luo

    2011-01-01

    A novel flocking control approach is proposed for multi-agent systems by integrating the variables of velocities,motion directions,and positions of agents.A received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is applied as a variable to estimate the inter-distance between agents.A key parameter that contains the local information of agents is defined,and a multi-variable controller is proposed based on the parameter.For the position control of agents,the RSSI is introduced to substitute the distance as a control variable in the systems.The advantages of RSSI include that the relative distance between every two agents can be adjusted through the communication quality under different environments,and it can shun the shortage of the limit of sensors.Simulation studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  8. Safety of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis: data from randomized controlled trials and registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the use of biologics has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biologics selectively target components of the immune system, resulting in better disease control. However, the growing use of biologics in RA has increased safety concerns among rheumatologists. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registries are the most reliable sources of clinical safety data. Although safety data from RCTs provide certain insights into the clinical safety profile of an agent, strict constraints in study design (eg, exclusion criteria and restrictive treatment protocols) often do not accurately reflect possible safety issues in the use of the agent, either in the clinical setting or over long-term treatment. Registries, on the other hand, are not restrictive regarding patient enrollment, making them more reliable in evaluating long-term safety. A number of registries have been established globally: in Europe, the United States, and Asia. However, the availability of registry data from Eastern Europe is lacking. The notable exceptions so far are registries from the Czech Republic (ATTRA, a registry of patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha drugs) and Serbia (National registry of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Serbia [NARRAS]). The current report provides an overview of safety data with biologics in RA from RCTs and registries. Availability of regional safety data from Eastern Europe is of great importance to its clinicians for making evidence-based treatment decisions in RA. PMID:25670881

  9. Proceedings First Workshop on Applications of Membrane computing, Concurrency and Agent-based modelling in POPulation biology

    CERN Document Server

    Milazzo, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.33

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the first International Workshop on Applications of Membrane Computing, Concurrency and Agent-based Modelling in Population Biology (AMCA-POP 2010) held in Jena, Germany on August 25th, 2010 as a satellite event of the 11th Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). The aim of the workshop is to investigate whether formal modelling and analysis techniques could be applied with profit to systems of interest for population biology and ecology. The considered modelling notations include membrane systems, Petri nets, agent-based notations, process calculi, automata-based notations, rewriting systems and cellular automata. Such notations enable the application of analysis techniques such as simulation, model checking, abstract interpretation and type systems to study systems of interest in disciplines such as population biology, ecosystem science, epidemiology, genetics, sustainability science, evolution and other disciplines in which population dynamics and interactions...

  10. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  11. Radiation sources supporting the use of natural enemies for biological control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augmentative biological control as a component of integrated pest management programmes involves the release of natural enemies of the pest, such as parasitoids and predators. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques have been identified which can benefit such programmes; these benefits include facilitating trade, protecting the environment and increasing the overall efficacy of the programmes. This may involve sterilising feed material, hosts or even the control insects. Radiation is currently the most favoured sterilising agent, although availability and cost of radiation sources are considered as limiting the use of radiation in support of biological control. This paper reviews various radiation sources that may be used for this purpose, including a comparison of several key parameters such as cost estimates of these radiation sources that should assist in making a judicious selection of a suitable irradiator. (author)

  12. Macrocyclic Trichothecene Production and Sporulation by a Biological Control Strain of Myrothecium verrucaria is Regulated by Cultural Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrothecium verrucaria is a pathogen of several invasive weed species and is currently being evaluated for use as a bioherbicide. However, the fungus also produces macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins such as verucarins and roridins. The safety of this biological control agent would be improved if...

  13. Controlling the release of peptide antimicrobial agents from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anita; Fleming, Kathleen E; Chuang, Helen F; Chau, Tanguy M; Loose, Christopher R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory N; Hammond, Paula T

    2010-03-01

    Medical conditions are often exacerbated by the onset of infection caused by hospital dwelling bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics taken orally or intravenously can require large and frequent doses, further contributing to the sharp rise in resistant bacteria observed over the past several decades. These existing antibiotics are also often ineffective in preventing biofilm formation, a common cause of medical device failure. Local delivery of new therapeutic agents that do not allow bacterial resistance to occur, such as antimicrobial peptides, could alleviate many of the problems associated with current antibacterial treatments. By taking advantage of the versatility of layer-by-layer assembly of polymer thin films, ponericin G1, an antimicrobial peptide known to be highly active against S. aureus, was incorporated into a hydrolytically degradable polyelectrolyte multilayer film. Several film architectures were examined to obtain various drug loadings that ranged from 20 to 150 microg/cm2. Release was observed over approximately ten days, with varying release profiles, including burst as well as linear release. Results indicated that film-released peptide did not suffer any loss in activity against S. aureus and was able to inhibit bacteria attachment, a necessary step in preventing biofilm formation. Additionally, all films were found to be biocompatible with the relevant wound healing cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These films provide the level of control over drug loading and release kinetics required in medically relevant applications including coatings for implant materials and bandages, while eliminating susceptibility to bacterial resistance. PMID:20004967

  14. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzimidazole-2-substituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives as antitumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-tao; Jiang, Zhi; Shen, Jia-jia; Yi, Hong; Zhan, Yue-chen; Sha, Ming-quan; Wang, Zhen; Xue, Si-tu; Li, Zhuo-rong

    2016-05-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives were designed and synthesized. The biological activities of these derivatives were then evaluated as potential antitumour agents. These compounds were assayed for growth-inhibitory activity against HCT116, MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in vitro. The IC50 values of compounds A1 and A7 against the cancer cells were 0.06-3.64 μM and 0.04-9.80 μM, respectively. Their antiproliferative activities were significantly better than that of 5-Fluorouracil (IC50: 56.96-174.50 μM) and were close to that of Paclitaxel (IC50: 0.026-1.53 μM). The activity of these derivatives was over 100 times more effective than other reported structures of chalcone analogues (licochalcone A). A preliminary mechanistic study suggested that these compounds inhibit p53-MDM2 binding. Compounds A1, A7 and A9 effectively inhibited tumour growth in BALB/c mice with colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. The group administered 200 mg/kg of compound A7 showed a 74.6% tumour growth inhibition with no signs of toxicity at high doses that was similar to the inhibition achieved with the 12.5 mg/kg irinotecan positive control (70.2%). Therefore, this class of benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives represents a promising lead structure for the development of possible p53-MDM2 inhibitors as new antitumour agents. PMID:27017265

  16. Biological control of invasive plant species: a reassessment for the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastedt, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    The science of finding, testing and releasing herbivores and pathogens to control invasive plant species has achieved a level of maturity and success that argues for continued and expanded use of this program. The practice, however, remains unpopular with some conservationists, invasion biologists, and stakeholders. The ecological and economic benefits of controlling densities of problematic plant species using biological control agents can be quantified, but the risks and net benefits of biological control programs are often derived from social or cultural rather than scientific criteria. Management of invasive plants is a 'wicked problem', and local outcomes to wicked problems have both positive and negative consequences differentially affecting various groups of stakeholders. The program has inherent uncertainties; inserting species into communities that are experiencing directional or even transformational changes can produce multiple outcomes due to context-specific factors that are further confounded by environmental change drivers. Despite these uncertainties, biological control could play a larger role in mitigation and adaptation strategies used to maintain biological diversity as well as contribute to human well-being by protecting food and fiber resources. PMID:25303317

  17. Combining various biological methods to control powdery mildew of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Bardin, Marc; Dantony, Lea; Duffaud, Magali; Neu, Laurent; Pascal, Michel; Troulet, Claire; Nicot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Various biological methods, mainly based on the utilization of antagonistic microorganisms or plant extracts, have been studied to control powdery mildews. The hyperparasite fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis (AQ-10, De Sangosse) is registered in many countries to control powdery mildew on various crops, including Oidium neolycopersici on tomato in France. A plant extract from orange (Prev-Am, Vivagro) is registered to control powdery mildew and whitefly on various crops but its effect on tomat...

  18. Biological control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Davanlou, Mehrnaz

    2000-01-01

    Common bunt (Tilletia tritici syn. T. caries) is a significant seed borne plant disease in organic agriculture. General measures in ecological crop protection like crop rotation and manuring practice has in practice failed to control this disease, and direct seed treatment therefore seems to be necessary to ensure yield and food quality. Current study indicate that biological control can give successful control without negative effects on seed germination vigour. A combination of biocontrol a...

  19. Citrus growers vary in their adoption of biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E

    2012-01-01

    In a spring 2010 survey, we investigated the characteristics that influenced whether California growers controlled major citrus pests with beneficial insects. We also performed statistical analysis of growers' reliance on Aphytus melinus, a predatory wasp, to control California red scale. The survey results suggest that growers with greater citrus acreage and more education are more likely to use biological control. Marketing outlets, ethnicity and primary information sources also influenced ...

  20. Cooperative control of multi-agent systems optimal and adaptive design approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Frank L; Hengster-Movric, Kristian; Das, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Task complexity, communication constraints, flexibility and energy-saving concerns are all factors that may require a group of autonomous agents to work together in a cooperative manner. Applications involving such complications include mobile robots, wireless sensor networks, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), spacecraft, and so on. In such networked multi-agent scenarios, the restrictions imposed by the communication graph topology can pose severe problems in the design of cooperative feedback control systems.  Cooperative control of multi-agent systems is a challenging topic for both control theorists and practitioners and has been the subject of significant recent research. Cooperative Control of Multi-Agent Systems extends optimal control and adaptive control design methods to multi-agent systems on communication graphs.  It develops Riccati design techniques for general linear dynamics for cooperative state feedback design, cooperative observer design, and cooperative dynamic output feedback design.  B...

  1. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  2. Biology and host preferences of Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a possible biocontrol agent for Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Elisabeth; Johnson, M Tracy; Chacón, Eduardo; Anderson, Robert S; Wheeler, Terry A

    2010-12-01

    The introduced plant Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) poses a grave threat to Hawaii's native ecosystems and biodiversity. One potential candidate for classical biological control is Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae), a stem-boring weevil from Central and South America. This weevil feeds on M. calvescens in its native Costa Rica and has been successfully reared under greenhouse conditions. Comparison of its environmental conditions in Costa Rica with those in the Miconia infested areas of Hawaii indicates the latter is a suitable habitat for C. melastomae. C. melastomae has one or two generations per year. Adults feed on new stems, petioles, leaf buds, veins, and lamina, whereas larvae mine the stem until pupation. Adults appear to prefer saplings for oviposition and feeding. Under greenhouse conditions both adults and larvae can seriously damage and kill small M. calvescens. Preliminary host testing indicates that C. melastomae may be family specific on Melastomataceae. However, because Hawaii lacks native melastomes and has many other serious melastome weeds, a family specific insect may be suitable as a biocontrol agent in this case. PMID:22182550

  3. Intermittent observer-based consensus control for multi-agent systems with switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaole; Gao, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we focus on the consensus problem for leaderless and leader-followers multi-agent systems with periodically intermittent control. The dynamics of each agent in the system is a linear system, and the interconnection topology among the agents is assumed to be switching. We assume that each agent can only share the outputs with its neighbours. Therefore, a class of distributed intermittent observer-based consensus protocols are proposed for each agent. First, in order to solve this problem, a parameter-dependent common Lyapunov function is constructed. Using this function, we prove that all agents can access a prescribed value, under the designed intermittent controller and observer, if there are suitable conditions on communication. Second, based on the investigation of the leader-following consensus problem, we design a new distributed intermittent observer-based protocol for each following agent. Finally, we provide an illustrative example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Safety of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis: data from randomized controlled trials and registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codreanu C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalin O Codreanu,1 Nemanja Damjanov2 1Rheumatology Department, Center of Rheumatic Diseases, Bucharest, Romania; 2Institute of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, SerbiaAbstract: Over the past decade, the use of biologics has significantly changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Biologics selectively target components of the immune system, resulting in better disease control. However, the growing use of biologics in RA has increased safety concerns among rheumatologists. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and registries are the most reliable sources of clinical safety data. Although safety data from RCTs provide certain insights into the clinical safety profile of an agent, strict constraints in study design (eg, exclusion criteria and restrictive treatment protocols often do not accurately reflect possible safety issues in the use of the agent, either in the clinical setting or over long-term treatment. Registries, on the other hand, are not restrictive regarding patient enrollment, making them more reliable in evaluating long-term safety. A number of registries have been established globally: in Europe, the United States, and Asia. However, the availability of registry data from Eastern Europe is lacking. The notable exceptions so far are registries from the Czech Republic (ATTRA, a registry of patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha drugs and Serbia (National registry of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Serbia [NARRAS]. The current report provides an overview of safety data with biologics in RA from RCTs and registries. Availability of regional safety data from Eastern Europe is of great importance to its clinicians for making evidence-based treatment decisions in RA. Keywords: biologic therapy, biologic drugs, adverse events, infections, pregnancy, malignancies

  5. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  6. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 μg/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, KD (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  7. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  8. Domain Nucleation and Confinement In Agent Controlled Bistable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Battogtokh, Dorjsuren

    2014-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of pattern formation in growing bistable systems coupled indirectly. A modified Fujita et. al. model is studied as an example of a reaction-diffusion system of nondiffusive activator and inhibitor molecules immersed in the medium of a fast diffusive agent. Here we show that, as the system grows, a new domain nucleates spontaneously in the area where the local level of the agent becomes critical. Newly nucleated domains are stable and the pattern formation is different from Turing's mechanism in monostable systems. Domains are spatially confined by the agent even if the activator and inhibitor molecules diffuse. With the spatial extension of the system, a larger domain may undergo a wavenumber instability and the concentrations of active molecules within the neighboring elements of a domain can become sharply different. The new mechanism reported in this work can be generic for pattern formation systems involving multistability, growth, and indirect coupling.

  9. Distributed Mo del Predictive Control Based on Multi-agent Mo del for Electric Multiple Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-Qi; YANG Hui; ZHANG Kun-Peng; FU Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    The distributed-power electric multiple units (EMUs) are widely used in high-speed railway. Due to the structural characteristic of mutual-coupled power units in EMUs, each power unit is set as an agent. Combining with the traction/brake characteristic curve and running data of EMUs, a subtractive clustering method and pattern classification algorithm are adopted to set up a multi-model set for every agent. Then, the multi-agent model is established according to the multi-agent network topology and mutual-coupled constraint relations. Finally, we adopt a smooth start switching control strategy and a multi-agent distributed coordination control algorithm to ensure the synchronous speed tracking control of each agent. Simulation results on the actual CRH380A running data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Reference model based consensus control of second-order multi-agent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the consensus problem of multi-agent systems with second-order dynamics. The objective is to design algorithms such that all agents will have same positions and velocities. First, a reference model based consensus algorithm is proposed. It is proved that the consensus can be achieved if the communication graph has a spanning tree. Different from most of the consensus algorithms proposed in the literature, the parameters of the control laws are different among agents. Therefore, each agent can design its control law independently. Secondly, it gives a consensus algorithm for the case that the velocities of the agents are not available. Thirdly, the effectiveness of the input delay and the communication delay is considered. It shows that consensus can be achieved if the input delay of every agent is smaller than a bound related to parameters in its control law. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed results. (general)

  11. Modeling of the Cloud Interconnected Human Friendly Multi-Agent Based Sustainable Power Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Gricius, G.; Drungilas, D.; Guseinovaitė, J.; Grigaitis, K.; Bielskis, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents model of the cloud interconnected multi-agent human friendly sustainable power controller (Controller). The Controller is based on the human ambient comfort affect reward index (ACAR index). The ACAR index depends on human physiological parameters: the temperature, the ECG- electrocardiogram and the EDA-electro-dermal activity. These physiological parameters are used for sustainable power control by multi-agent system developed as the cloud interconnected, instrumented, and...

  12. Hierarchical Distributed Control Design for Multi-agent Systems Using Approximate Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yu-Tao; HONG Yi-Guang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a hierarchical control design for multi-agent systems based on approximate simulation.To reduce complexity,we first construct a simple abstract system to guide the agents,then we discuss the simulation relations between the abstract system and multiple agents.With the help of this abstract system,distributed hierarchical control is proposed to complete a coordination task.By virtue of a common Lyapunov function,we analyze the collective behaviors with switching multi-agent topology in light of simulation functions.

  13. Agent based Particle Swarm Optimization for Load Frequency Control of Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Saleem, Arshad; Wu, Qiuwei;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based on multi-agent controller. Real-time digital simulator (RTDS) is used for modelling the power system, while a PSO based multi-agent LFC algorithm is developed in JAVA for communicating with resource agents and determines the scenario...... to stabilize the frequency and voltage after the system enters into the islanding operation mode. The proposed algorithm is based on the formulation of an optimization problem using agent based PSO. The modified IEEE 9-bus system is employed to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller via RTDS...

  14. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses. PMID:23419022

  15. Construction of biological control strain of Trichoderma viride and study of their ability to induce plant disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-wang; GUO Ze-jian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Plant diseases heavily affct plant growth and crop yield even in modern agriculture. Control its difficult because pathogens mutate frequently, and this leads in frequent breaking of disease resistance in commercial cultivars. The excessive application of chemical pesticides is not only producing pesticideresistant pathogens, but it is harming the environment threatening the health of human beings.Therefore, the use of biological control agents (BCA) may provide an environmental friendly alternative to chemicals for plant disease control. Hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are the typical expressions of plant defense reactions. Once SAR is established,, the plants exhibits a broad-spectrum of disease resistance against pathogen attack. Researchers have identified elicitor proteins, such as elicitins and harpins, which activate plant defense reactions. It would be useful to explore the possibility of using biological control agents to induce a status of SAR in crop plants.

  16. Effects of saltcedar invasion and biological control on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) on bird populations and communities have received considerable interest, but impacts on other vertebrate taxa have received less attention. Moreover, only one published study examined effects on vertebrates of biological control efforts directed at saltc...

  17. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Artemisinin-Indoloquinoline Hybrids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a–7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in vitro were tested. Nearly all of the tested compounds (7–9, except for compounds 7d and 7e against HCT-116 showed an increased antitumor activity against HCT-116 and A549 cell lines when compared to the dihydroartemisinin control. Especially for the artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrid 8, with an 11-aminopropylamino-10H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoline substituent, the antiproliferative activity against the A549 cell line had improved more than ten times. The IC50 value of hybrid 8 against A549 cell lines was decreased to 1.328 ± 0.586 μM, while dihydroartemisin showed IC50 value of >20 µM in the same cell line. Thus, these results have proven that the strategy of introducing a planar basic fused aromatic moiety, such as the indoloquinoline skeleton, could improve the antiproliferative activity and selectivity towards cancer cell lines.

  19. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde; Peter Goldsmith

    2008-01-01

    The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the cont...

  20. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Tautorus, T. E.; Townsley, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus no...

  1. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes) isolates as potential agents for control of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Wa Zhang; Yu-Jun Liu; Jian Yao; Bin Wang; Bo Huang; Zeng-Zhi Li; Mei-Zhen Fan; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, as a destructive invasive pest, has become one of the most economically important forest pest in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, have shown great potential for the management of some bark beetle species. In this study, 12 isolates of B. bassiana from bark beetle were examined for biological characteristics and virulence, to assess their potential as biocontrol agents for RTB. There were significant differences (at P = 0.05) in colony growth rate, conidial yield, conidial germination, tolerance to UV light and extracellular proteases activity among the tested B. bassiana isolates. Isolates, including Bbl801, Bbl906, Bb789 and Bb773, exhibited the best characteristics, because they have faster hyphal growth rate, higher spore production and faster spore germination, higher UV tolerance and protease (Prl) production. The results of a pathogenicity test of B. bassiana on RTB larvae showed that most isolates of B. bassiana have demonstrated high efficacy and the highest virulent isolate was Bbl801, which killed 100% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time (LT50) of 4.60 days at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/mL. Therefore, isolate Bb 1801 has a great potential for sustainable control of RTB in the forest. The correlation between biological characteristics and virulence of the fungal isolates is discussed and the possibility of combination of entomopathogenic fungi with semiochemicals, as one of the promising strategy for RTB control, is considered.

  2. A Review on Biological Control of Fungal Plant Pathogens Using Microbial Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pessarakli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the published research works on biological control of fungal plant diseases during past 50 years. Fungal plant pathogens are among the most important factors that cause serious losses to agricultural products every year. Biological control of plant diseases including fungal pathogens has been considered a viable alternative method to chemical control. In plant pathology, the term biocontrol applies to the use of microbial antagonists to suppress diseases. Throughout their lifecycle, plants and pathogens interact with a wide variety of organisms. These interactions can significantly affect plant health in various ways. Different mode of actions of biocontrol-active microorganisms in controlling fungal plant diseases include hyperparasitism, predation, antibiosis, cross protection, competition for site and nutrient and induced resistance. Successful application of biological control strategies requires more knowledge-intensive management. Various methods for application of biocontrol agents include: application directly to the infection court at a high population level to swamp the pathogen, application at one place in which biocontrol microorganisms are applied at one place (each crop year but at lower populations which then multiply and spread to other plant parts and give protection against pathogens and one time or occasional application that maintain pathogen populations below threshold levels. Commercial use and application of biological disease control have been slow mainly due to their variable performances under different environmental conditions in the field. To overcome this problem and in order to take the biocontrol technology to the field and improve the commercialization of biocontrol, it is important to develop new formulations of biocontrol microorganisms with higher degree of stability and survival. Majority of biocontrol products are applied against seed borne and soil borne fungal

  3. Radiochemical and biological evaluation of a new brain serotonin1A receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical and biological evaluations are made of a new bidentate radioligand as a potential brain serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor imaging agent. The bidentate part of the complex was a derivative of the well known serotonin1A receptor antagonist molecule, namely WAY 100635; the monodentate parts were thiocresol, thiosalicylic acid and thio-2-naphthol. The labelling procedure was performed through the 99mTc(V)-glucoheptonate precursor. The bidentate + monodentate complex formed during the reaction in the case of thiocresol was identified as 99TcO(o-CH3-C6H4-N(CH2-CH2)2N-CH2CH2S)( p-C6H4CH3)2 (99mTc-1). Its labelling efficiency and stability were determined by thin layer chromatography, the organic solvent extraction method and high performance liquid chromagraphy. The biodistribution of the labelled compound was found by using male Wistar rats. On the basis of these data, kinetic curves were constructed for different organs and the dosimetry for humans was calculated. The brain uptake and pharmacokinetics were followed by planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in rats. Average brain count density was calculated and different regional count densities (counts/gram tissue) were obtained for the hippocampus and other receptor-rich regions. A detailed SPECT study was carried out after administration of 99mTc-1 to a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca cynomolgus). The results found show that, of three investigated aromatic thiol compounds, the labelling efficiency was the highest in the case of thiocresol as the monodentate part. Therefore all further studies were carried out using thiocresol. The labelling efficiency of this bidentate complex was about 80%, and the molecule was stable for up to one hour. The biodistribution data show that more than 0.1% of the injected dose is present in the rat brains a few minutes after administration, and the metabolic pathway is through the hepatobiliary system. From the results obtained with the study of the

  4. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

    1991-01-01

    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  5. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. PMID:26503345

  6. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Ted C J Turlings

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of com...

  7. Controllability of heterogeneous multi-agent systems under directed and weighted topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongqiang; Ji, Zhijian; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the controllability problem for both continuous- and discrete-time linear heterogeneous multi-agent systems with directed and weighted communication topology. First, two kinds of neighbour-based control protocols based on the distributed protocol of first-order and second-order multi-agent systems are proposed, under which it is shown that a heterogeneous multi-agent system is controllable if the underlying communication topology is controllable. Then, under special leader selection, the result shows that the controllability of a heterogeneous multi-agent system is solely decided by its communication topology graph. Furthermore, some necessary and/or sufficient conditions are derived for controllability of communication topology from algebraic and graphical perspectives. Finally, simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  8. Stable Flocking of Multiple Agents Based on Molecular Potential Field and Distributed Receding Horizon Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-Peng; DUAN Hai-Bin; ZHANG Xiang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    @@ A novel distributed control scheme to generate stable flocking motion for a group of agents is proposed.In this control scheme, a molecular potential field model is applied as the potential field function because of its smoothness and unique shape.The approach of distributed receding horizon control is adopted to drive each agent to find its optimal control input to lower its potential at every step.Experimental results show that this proposed control scheme can ensure that all agents eventually converge to a stable flocking formation with a common velocity and the collisions can also be avoided at the same time.%A novel distributed control scheme to generate stable flocking motion for a group of agents is proposed. In this control scheme, a molecular potential field model is applied as the potential field function because of its smoothness and unique shape. The approach of distributed receding horizon control is adopted to drive each agent to find its optimal control input to lower its potential at every step. Experimental results show that this proposed control scheme can ensure that all agents eventually converge to a stable flocking formation with a common velocity and the collisions can also be avoided at the same time.

  9. Preferences of patients and health professionals for route and frequency of administration of biologic agents in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Tuan Khai; Ostergaard, Ann; Egsmose, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the preferences of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and health professionals (HPs) for the route and frequency of administration of biologic drugs. METHODS: One hundred and seven RA patients treated with biological agents for intravenous or subcutaneous use, 35 biologic...

  10. Thresholds for HLB vector control in infected commercial citrus and compatibility with biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Monzo, C.; Hendricks, K.; Roberts, P; Stansly, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Control of the HLB vector, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is considered a basic component for management this disease, even in a high HLB incidence scenario. Such control is mostly chemically oriented. However, over use of insecticides would increase costs and be incompatible with biological control. Establishment of economic thresholds for psyllid control under different price scenarios could optimize returns on investment.

  11. An overview of coordinated control for multi-agent systems subject to input saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoling Wang; Housheng Su; Xiaofan Wang; Guanrong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated control of multi-agent systems has widespread application in engineering such as unmanned aerial vehicles and unmanned ground vehicles. Due to the fact that input saturation can lead a control system to deterioration and instability, a lot of efforts have been devoted to investigating this subject of great importance. The present article offers a survey of recent developments on coordinated control of multi-agents systems subject to input saturation. Some preliminaries about graph...

  12. Combined effect of gamma radiation and some fungal control agents on the greasy cut- worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    attention by scientists for their potential for biological control of pests. Some insect pathogenic fungi have restricted host ranges while other fungal species have a wide host range for example, Beauveria bassiana ,Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Many researchers have focused on the selection of virulent strains for target pests and their development as biological control agents.

  13. Epigenetics and Why Biological Networks are More Controllable than Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Adilson

    2013-03-01

    A fundamental property of networks is that perturbations to one node can affect other nodes, potentially causing the entire system to change behavior or fail. In this talk, I will show that it is possible to exploit this same principle to control network behavior. This approach takes advantage of the nonlinear dynamics inherent to real networks, and allows bringing the system to a desired target state even when this state is not directly accessible or the linear counterpart is not controllable. Applications show that this framework permits both reprogramming a network to a desired task as well as rescuing networks from the brink of failure, which I will illustrate through various biological problems. I will also briefly review the progress our group has made over the past 5 years on related control of complex networks in non-biological domains.

  14. Antimicrobial agents used in the control of periodontal biofilms: effective adjuncts to mechanical plaque control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Palmier Teles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of periodontal disease prevention for decades. However, the widespread prevalence of gingivitis suggests the inefficiency of self-performed mechanical plaque control in preventing gingival inflammation. This is particularly relevant in light of recent evidence suggesting that long standing gingivitis increases the risk of loss of attachment and that prevention of gingival inflammation might reduce the prevalence of mild to moderate periodontitis. Several antimicrobials have been tested as adjuncts to mechanical plaque control in order to improve the results obtained with oral home care. Recent studies, including meta-analyses, have indicated that home care products containing chemical antimicrobials can provide gingivitis reduction beyond what can be accomplished with brushing and flossing. Particularly, formulations containing chlorhexidine, mouthrinses containing essential oils and triclosan/copolymer dentifrices have well documented clinical antiplaque and antigingivitis effects. In vivo microbiological tests have demonstrated the ability of these antimicrobial agents to penetrate the biofilm mass and to kill bacteria growing within biofilms. In addition, chemical antimicrobials can reach difficult-to-clean areas such as interproximal surfaces and can also impact the growth of biofilms on soft tissue. These agents have a positive track record of safety and their use does not seem to increase the levels of resistant species. Further, no study has been able to establish a correlation between mouthrinses containing alcohol and oral cancer. In summary, the adjunct use of chemical plaque control should be recommended to subjects with well documented difficulties in achieving proper biofilm control using only mechanical means.

  15. Fatigue distribution optimization for offshore wind farms using intelligent agent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Rongyong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Knudsen, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    A novel control approach is proposed to optimize the fatigue distribution of wind turbines in a large‐scale offshore wind farm on the basis of an intelligent agent theory. In this approach, each wind turbine is considered to be an intelligent agent. The turbine at the farm boundary communicates...... with its neighbouring downwind turbines and organizes them adaptively into a wind delivery group along the wind direction. The agent attributes and the event structure are designed on the basis of the intelligent agent theory by using the unified modelling language. The control strategy of the...... intelligent agent is studied using topology models. The reference power of an individual wind turbine from the wind farm controller is re‐dispatched to balance the turbine fatigue in the power dispatch intervals. In the fatigue optimization, the goal function is to minimize the standard deviation of the...

  16. The Foundation for Application of Multi-Agent Technology In a Holonic Shop Floor Control Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1997-01-01

    system control. The work is based on a theoretical study of new manufacturing systems theories, research of agent multi-agent technology, and two case studies. It is part of a larger research project which aims at developing a multi-cell control architecture based on the Holonic Manufacturing System...... applying simulation and cell control enabling technologies. In order to continue this research effort new concepts and theories for shop floor control are investigated. This article presents an overview of the multi-agent concept based on a literature study. This is followed by an investigation regarding...... the adaptation and development of shop floor control architectures. The adaptation is aimed at providing a sound foundation for application of multi-agent technology. This will include a summary of the ongoing research on HMS, and current results regarding the development of a holonic SFC architecture...

  17. Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

  18. Biologically inspired autonomous agent navigation using an integrated polarization analyzing CMOS image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkaer, M.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Van Hoof, C.; Theuwissen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The navigational strategies of insects using skylight polarization are interesting for applications in autonomous agent navigation because they rely on very little information for navigation. A polarization navigation sensor using the Stokes parameters to determine the orientation is presented. The

  19. Controlling the Solidification of Organic Photovoltaic Blends with Nucleating Agents

    KAUST Repository

    Nekuda Malik, Jennifer A.

    2014-11-20

    Blending fullerenes with a donor polymer for the fabrication of organic solar cells often leads to at least partial vitrification of one, if not both, components. For prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene blend, we show that the addition of a commercial nucleating agent, di(3,4-dimethyl benzylidene)sorbitol, to such binary blends accelerates the crystallization of the donor, resulting in an increase in its degree of crystallinity in as-cast structures. This allows manipulation of the extent of intermixing/ phase separation of the donor and acceptor directly from solution, offering a tool to improve device characteristics such as power conversion efficiency.

  20. Economic aspects of antiviral agents to control Classical Swine Fever epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Asseldonk, van, N.; Backer, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever have detrimental effects on the livestock sector in an affected country as well as on society at large. The development of antiviral agents to control these epidemics can reduce the consequences of such outbreaks. The economic impact of applying these antiviral agents is until now unknown. In this report these consequences are investigated.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Gigantol Derivatives as Potential Agents in Prevention of Diabetic Cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Lu, Chuanjun; Li, Xue; Fang, Hua; Wan, Wencheng; Yang, Qiaohong; Sun, Xiaosheng; Wang, Meiling; Hu, Xiaohong; Chen, C.-Y. Oliver; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our efforts directed towards the development of natural anti-diabetic cataract agents, gigantol was isolated from Herba dendrobii and was found to inhibit both aldose reductase (AR) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, which play a significant role in the development and progression of diabetic cataracts. To improve its bioefficacy and facilitate use as a therapeutic agent, gigantol (compound 14f) and a series of novel analogs were designed and synthesized...

  2. Applying radiation approaches to the control of public risks from chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IF a hazardous agent has a threshold, prevention is the obvious measure of success. To the eyes of this author, success is also achieveable for a hazardous agent that may have no threshold and that causes its effects in a probabilistic manner. First, the technical people responsible for protection must be given a reasonable, well defined risk objective by governmental authorities. To the extent that they meet that objective (1) without unnecessarily increasing operational costs, (2) without interfering unnecessarily with operational activities, and (3) without diverting resources away from greater risks, they are successful. Considering these three qualifications, radiation protection for members of the public can hardly be presented as the panacea for other hazardous agents. It would be an error to dismiss the improvement opportunities discussed above as being of acdemic interest only. Decades of experience with radiation have demonstrated that these problems are both real adn significant. In the US the axioms discussed above are accepted as scientific fact for radiation by many policy makers, the news media and the public. For any operation the collective dose is calculated using zero dose as the lower limit of integration, the results are converted to cancer deaths using the risk coefficients, and decisions are made as though these deaths would actually occur without governmental intervention. As a result, billions of dollars and a very large number of highly skilled persons are being expended to protect against radiation doses far smaller than geographical variations in the natural radiation background. These expenditures are demanded by, and required for well-meaning, nontechnical people who have been misled. It is often stated by knowledgeable people that if the degree of protection required for radiation were also to be requested for the other hazards, human progress would come to a halt. If the radiation approaches are to be used in the control of public

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological controllers: New insights into their virulence and pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ali Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi vary considerably in their mode of action and virulence. Successful infection depends primarily on the adherence and penetration ability of a fungus to the host integuments. A variety of extracellular enzymes is produced during the degradation of insect integument. The attempts to control insects have changed over time from chemicals to natural control methods. This is why the development of natural methods of insect control or biopesticides, is preferred. By the use of fungal entomopathogens, insect pests can be controlled. There is no doubt that insects have been used for many years, but their effective use in the field remains elusive. However, their additional role in nature has also been discovered. Comparison of entomopathogens with conventional chemical pesticides depends on their efficiency and cost. In addition to efficiency, there are advantages in using microbial control agents, such as human safety and other non-target organisms; pesticide residues are minimized in food and biodiversity increased in managed ecosystems. In the present review the pathogenicity and virulence of entomopathogenic fungi and their role as biological control agents using biotechnology will be discussed.

  4. Controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Maki K

    2007-08-30

    Humanitarian demining requires to accurately detect, locate and deactivate every single landmine and other buried mine-like objects as safely and as quickly as possible, and in the most non-invasive manner. The quality of landmine detection affects directly the efficiency and safety of this process. Most of the available methods to detect explosives and landmines are limited by their sensitivity and/or operational complexities. All landmines leak with time small amounts of their explosives that can be found on surrounding ground and plant life. Hence, explosive signatures represent the robust primary indicator of landmines. Accordingly, developing innovative technologies and efficient techniques to identify in real-time explosives residue in mined areas represents an attractive and promising approach. Biological and biologically inspired detection technology has the potential to compete with or be used in conjunction with other artificial technology to complement performance strengths. Biological systems are sensitive to many different scents concurrently, a property that has proven difficult to replicate artificially. Understanding biological systems presents unique opportunities for developing new capabilities through direct use of trained bio-systems, integration of living and non-living components, or inspiring new design by mimicking biological capabilities. It is expected that controlled bio-systems, biotechnology and microbial techniques will contribute to the advancement of mine detection and other application domains. This paper provides directions, evaluation and analysis on the progress of controlled biological and biomimetic systems for landmine detection. It introduces and discusses different approaches developed, underlining their relative advantages and limitations, and highlighting trends, safety and ecology concern, and possible future directions. PMID:17662594

  5. Possible reasons for the inefficacy of genetically engineered biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis and ways of its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Chichasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered biological agents (GEBAs have held a firm place in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Patients are selected for this treatment in accordance with international and Russian guidelines. The question as to whether GEBAs should be added to therapy with disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs (DMAIDs is raised after there is an inadequate response to therapy with two DMAIDs, one of which should be methotrexate. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors as a first-line drug are indicated only in high RA activity. There are few predictors of the efficacy of GEBAs. It is noted that in accordance with the principles of the Treatment to Target program, RA is treated under control of monthly estimated scores in patients with high/moderate disease activity; if there is no remission (with low disease activity being an alternative aim after three months it is decided whether to correct therapy. In routine practice, when the effect of GEBAs, which is observed in many patients in the first week of treatment, appears, physicians often begin to discontinue symptomatic drugs and at times to decrease the dose or withdraw DMAIDs, which may result in the progression of symptoms of arthritis and which may be misinterpreted as the inadequate or none effect of GEBAs. There are objective reasons for the possible inefficacy of GEBAs. The valid predictor for a response to inhibitors of TNF-α is its baseline expression by synovial membrane cells. It is also important to take into account the nature of previous GEBA therapy. All GEBAs are noted to be highly effective when applying a weighed approach to selecting and managing patients; in so doing, rapid discontinuation of symptomatic therapy should be avoided.

  6. Demonstration Exercise of a Validated Sample Collection Method for Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents in Georgia 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August 7, 2006 the state of Georgia conducted a collaborative sampling exercise between the Georgia National Guard 4th Civil Support Team Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) and the Georgia Department of Human Resources Division of Public Health demonstrating a recently validated bulk powder sampling method. The exercise was hosted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynn County, Georgia and involved the participation of the Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA), Georgia National Guard, Georgia Public Health Laboratories, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Office, Georgia Coastal Health District, and the Glynn County Fire Department. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate a recently validated national sampling standard developed by the American Standards and Test Measures (ASTM) International; ASTM E2458 Standard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces. The intent of the exercise was not to endorse the sampling method, but to develop a model for exercising new sampling methods in the context of existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) while strengthening operational relationships between response teams and analytical laboratories. The exercise required a sampling team to respond real-time to an incident cross state involving a clandestine bio-terrorism production lab found within a recreational vehicle (RV). Sample targets consisted of non-viable gamma irradiated B. anthracis Sterne spores prepared by Dugway Proving Ground. Various spore concentration levels were collected by the ASTM method, followed by on- and off-scene analysis utilizing the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) and National Guard Bureau (NGB) CST mobile Analytical Laboratory Suite (ALS) protocols. Analytical results were compared and detailed surveys of participant evaluation comments were examined. I will present

  7. Quality control of X-ray irradiator by biological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of animals or cultured cells to radiation is the essential and common step in experimental researches to elucidate biological effects of radiation. When an X-ray generator is used as a radiation source, physical parameters including dose, dose rate, and the energy spectrum of X-ray play crucial roles in biological outcome. Therefore, those parameters are the important points to be checked in quality control and to be carefully considered in advance to the irradiation to obtain the accurate and reproductive results. Here we measured radiation dose emitted from the X-ray irradiator for research purposes by using clonogenic survival of cultured mammalian cells as a biological marker in parallel with physical dosimetry. The results drawn from both methods exhibited good consistency in the dose distribution on the irradiation stage. Furthermore, the close relationship was observed between cell survival and the photon energy spectrum by using different filter components. These results suggest that biological dosimetry is applicable to quality control of X-ray irradiator in adjunct to physical dosimetry and that it possibly helps better understanding of the optimal irradiating condition by X-ray users in life-science field. (author)

  8. System-Awareness for Agent-based Power System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    more decentralized openaccess collaboration control paradigm. This shift cannot happen at once, but must fit also with current operation principles. In order to establish a scalable and transparent system control architecture, organizing principles have to be identified that allow for a smooth...... transition. This paper presents a concept for the representation and organization of control- and resource-allocation, enabling computational reasoning and system awareness. The principles are discussed with respect to a recently proposed Subgrid operation concept....

  9. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II STTR project is to develop advanced control algorithms that enable multiple autonomous agents to perform complex tasks in...

  10. Health effects of selected microbiological control agents. A 3-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Jesper; Larsen, Preben; Doekes, Gert;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Microbiological control agents (MBCA) are widely used in greenhouses, replacing chemical pesticides. The presented study aims to describe health effects of exposure to three types commonly used: Bacillus thuringiensis, Verticillium lecanii, and Trichoderma harzenianum...

  11. VALIDATION OF EMBRYO TESTS FOR DETERMINING EFFECTS OF FUNGAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS ON NONTARGET AQUATIC ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing embryos of the inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina and grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to conidiospores of the fungal weed control agent, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, f. sp. aeschynomene, and the entomopathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. nly Metarhiz...

  12. Robot Control Using UML and Multi-agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavliska

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased industrialization and new markets have led to an accumulation of used technical consumer goods, which results in greater exploitation of raw materials, energy and landfill sites. In order to reduce the use of natural resources conserve precious energy and limit the increase in waste volume. The application of disassembly techniques is the first step towards this prevention of waste. These techniques form a reliable and clean approach: "noble" or high-graded recycling. This paper presents a multi agent system for disassembly process, which is implemented in a computer-aided application for supervising of the disassembling system: the Interactive Intelligent Interface for Disassembling System. Unified modeling language diagrams are used for an internal and external definition of the disassembling system.

  13. Multi Agent System Based Process Control in Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events; a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper. Due to some unexpected failures of control strategy execution or the consequent unexpected disturbance, the power system will face...... more complex emergent situation than planned. The process control strategy will be applied to improve the effectiveness and reliability of MAS based control strategy. The supervisory agent will help control center in the high level to manage not only the regular control process against the estimated...

  14. Biological Characteristics and Control of Orobanche Crenata Forsk., a Review

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Orobanche crenata is a holoparasitic phanerogam which is particularly noxious to legumes, such as faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), etc., and commonly considered one of the major causes which has contributed to re-rizing the area designed to their cultivation. After a few brief references on the origin and diffusion of O. crenata, in this work summarises the results of research into biological aspects and control ...

  15. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Eusebio Nava Pérez; Cipriano García Gutiérrez; Jesús Ricardo Camacho Báez; Elva Lorena Vázquez Montoya

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also...

  16. Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) Seed Biology, Control, and Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Goatsrue is an introduced perennial plant that has proven to have great invasive potential, leading to its classification as a noxious weed in many states and at the federal level. This research focused on seed biology, herbicide control, and toxic dynamics of goatsrue. Physical dormancy of mature goatsrue seed was tested through scarification using sulfuric acid with exposures of up to 60 minutes resulting in 100% germination. Comparison of dormancy for 26-year-old and 6-month-old goatsru...

  17. Evolution in invasive plants: implications for biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that invasive plants can undergo rapid adaptive evolution during the process of range expansion. Here, we argue that evolutionary change during invasions will also affect plant–antagonist inter-actions and, thus, will have important implications for biological control programmes targeted at invasive plants. We explore how altered selection in the new range might influence the evolution of plant defence (resistance and tolerance) and life history. The degree to which suc...

  18. Biological control of water hyacinth on Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiel, G.R.S.; Mailu, A.M.; Gitonga, W.; Njoka, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) imported 12 800 curculionid weevils (Neochetina spp.) from Benin, Uganda, South Africa and Australia for biological control of water hyacinth between 1993 and1998. In 1996, KARI’s rearing and quarantine facility at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Muguga, provided initial “breeding stock” to another rearing facility at the National Fibre Research Centre, Kibos, near Lake Victoria. To date, 36 500 weevils and 42 000 w...

  19. APPLICATION OF STEM CELL THERAPEUTIC AGENTS TO CONTROL CRITICAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell research has been hailed for the potential to revolutionize the future of medicine with the ability to regenerate damaged and diseased organs. On the other hand, stem cell research has been highly controversial due to the ethical issues concerned with the culture and use of stem cells derived from human embryos. This article presents an overview of what stem cells are, what roles they play in normal processes such as development and cancer, and how stem cells could have the potential to treat incurable diseases. Ethical issues are not the subject of this review. In addition to offering unprecedented hope in treating many debilitating diseases, stem cells have advanced our understanding of basic biological processes. This review looks at two major aspects of stem cells. Three processes in which stem cells play a central role in an organism, development, repair of damaged tissue, and cancer resulting from stem cell division going awry. II. Research and clinical applications of cultured stem cells: this includes the types of stem cells used, their characteristics, and the uses of stem cells in studying biological processes, drug development and stem cell therapy; heart disease, diabetes and Parkinson's disease are used as examples.

  20. A multi-agent design for a pressurized water reactor (P.W.R.) control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD work is in keeping with the complex industrial process control. The starting point is the analysis of control principles in a Pressurized Water Reactor (P.W.R). In order to cope with the limits of the present control procedures, a new control organisation by objectives and means is defined. This functional organisation is based on the state approach and is characterized by the parallel management of control functions to ensure the continuous control of the installation essential variables. With regard to this complex system problematic, we search the most adapted computer modeling. We show that a multi-agent system approach brings an interesting answer to manage the distribution and parallelism of control decisions and tasks. We present a synthetic study of multi-agent systems and their application fields.The choice of a multi-agent approach proceeds with the design of an agent model. This model gains experiences from other applications. This model is implemented in a computer environment which combines the mechanisms of an object language with Prolog. We propose in this frame a multi-agent modeling of the control system where each function is represented by an agent. The agents are structured in a hierarchical organisation and deal with different abstraction levers of the problem. Following a prototype process, the validation is realized by an implementation and by a coupling to a reactor simulator. The essential contributions of an agent approach turn on the mastery of the system complexity, the openness, the robustness and the potentialities of human-machine cooperation. (author)

  1. A Distributed Multi-agent Control System for Power Consumption in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver

    This paper presents a distributed controller for adjusting the electrical consumption of a residential building in response to an external power setpoint in Watts. The controller is based on a multi-agent system and has been implemented in JCSP. It is modularly built, capable of self......-configuration and adopting to a dynamic environment. The paper describes the overall architecture and the design of the individual agents. Preliminary results from proof-of-concept tests on a real building are included....

  2. Response of an invasive liana to simulated herbivory: implications for its biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, S.; Dhileepan, K.; Treviño, M.

    2006-05-01

    Pre-release evaluation of the efficacy of biological control agents is often not possible in the case of many invasive species targeted for biocontrol. In such circumstances simulating herbivory could yield significant insights into plant response to damage, thereby improving the efficiency of agent prioritisation, increasing the chances of regulating the performance of invasive plants through herbivory and minimising potential risks posed by release of multiple herbivores. We adopted this approach to understand the weaknesses herbivores could exploit, to manage the invasive liana, Macfadyena unguis-cati. We simulated herbivory by damaging the leaves, stem, root and tuber of the plant, in isolation and in combination. We also applied these treatments at multiple frequencies. Plant response in terms of biomass allocation showed that at least two severe defoliation treatments were required to diminish this liana's climbing habit and reduce its allocation to belowground tuber reserves. Belowground damage appears to have negligible effect on the plant's biomass production and tuber damage appears to trigger a compensatory response. Plant response to combinations of different types of damage did not differ significantly to that from leaf damage. This suggests that specialist herbivores in the leaf-feeding guild capable of removing over 50% of the leaf tissue may be desirable in the biological control of this invasive species.

  3. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles to enhance biological control in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaflor, M F G V; Bento, J M S

    2013-08-01

    Plants under herbivore attack synthetize defensive organic compounds that directly or indirectly affect herbivore performance and mediate other interactions with the community. The so-called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) consist of odors released by attacked plants that serve as important cues for parasitoids and predators to locate their host/prey. The understanding that has been gained on the ecological role and mechanisms of HIPV emission opens up paths for developing novel strategies integrated with biological control programs with the aim of enhancing the efficacy of natural enemies in suppressing pest populations in crops. Tactics using synthetic HIPVs or chemically/genetically manipulating plant defenses have been suggested in order to recruit natural enemies to plantations or help guiding them to their host more quickly, working as a "synergistic" agent of biological control. This review discusses strategies using HIPVs to enhance biological control that have been proposed in the literature and were categorized here as: (a) exogenous application of elicitors on plants, (b) use of plant varieties that emit attractive HIPVs to natural enemies, (c) release of synthetic HIPVs, and (d) genetic manipulation targeting genes that optimize HIPV emission. We discuss the feasibility, benefits, and downsides of each strategy by considering not only field studies but also comprehensive laboratory assays that present an applied approach for HIPVs or show the potential of employing them in the field. PMID:23949852

  4. Distributed H∞ control of multi-agent systems with directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Ai-Li; Zhou, Shao-Lei

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies the distributed H∞ control problem of identical linear time invariant multi-agent systems subject to external disturbances. A directed graph containing a spanning tree is used to model the communication topology. Based on the relative states of the neighbor agents and a subset of absolute states of the agents, distributed static H∞ controllers are proposed. The concept of an H∞ performance region is extended to the directed graph situation. Then the results are used to solve the leader-follower H∞ consensus problem. Sufficient conditions are proposed based on bounded real lemma and algebraic graph theory. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is illustrated via numerical simulations.

  5. Substituted 3-Benzylcoumarins as Allosteric MEK1 Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation as Antiviral Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel antiviral agents, a series of allosteric MEK1 inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Based on docking results, multiple optimizations were made on the coumarin scaffold. Some of the derivatives showed excellent MEK1 binding affinity in the appropriate enzymatic assays and displayed obvious inhibitory effects on the ERK pathway in a cellular assay. These compounds also significantly inhibited virus (EV71 replication in HEK293 and RD cells. Several compounds showed potential as agents for the treatment of viral infective diseases, with the most potent compound 18 showing an IC50 value of 54.57 nM in the MEK1 binding assay.

  6. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain. PMID:26047349

  7. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleixandre Beltrà

    Full Text Available Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa, sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain.

  8. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H.; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain. PMID:26047349

  9. Biological evaluation of 99mTc-Voriconazole as a potential agent for diagnosis of fungal infections by gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spread of HIV has led to an increase of fungal infections such as candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Several types of antifungals are used to treat them and some of them can be radiolabeled with a gamma emitting agent to allow detection by scintigraphy of foci of infection. Voriconazole is a triazole agent, suitable for the synthesis of a complex linked with the precursor [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+. The aim of his work was to label and determine the physicochemical and biological characteristics of voriconazole with 99mTc for the early detection of fungal infections. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC and the complex remained stable during at least 120 min. In vivo studies in rats bearing either sterile inflammation, infection with C. Albicans or A. Niger showed differentiation of the processes not only in biodistribution but also in scintigraphic images

  10. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutka, Alexandrea; McNulty, Alison; Williamson, Sally M

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm(2) soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment. PMID:26618084

  11. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the controller are designed using a computing-with-words approach called Fuzzy-Lyapunov synthesis to improve the stability and robustness of an adaptive fuzzy controller. Computing-with-words provides a powerful tool to manipulate numbers and symbols, like words in a natural language.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2012 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS assessment was developed for safety risk assessments to provide a harmonised generic pre-assessment to support EFSA’s scientific Panels. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents at the highest taxonomic unit appropriate for the purpose for which an application is intended and the completeness of the body of knowledge are assessed. Identified safety concerns for a taxonomic unit are where possible and reasonable in number reflected as ‘qualifications’ with a recommendation for the QPS list. The list of QPS recommended biological agents is reviewed and updated annually. Therefore, the only valid list is the one in the most recently published scientific opinion. The 2012 update reviews microorganisms previously assessed including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and viruses used for plant protection purposes. The BIOHAZ Panel confirmed all taxonomic units previously recommended for the QPS list. The notifications were reviewed. Bacillus firmus was re-evaluated and not recommended for the QPS list. A new recommendation was made for Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum was assessed for the first time and not recommended for the QPS list. Qualifications for the taxonomic units included in the QPS recommended list were reviewed and confirmed. Filamentous fungi and enterococci were not recommended for the QPS list following updating and reviewing of current scientific knowledge. For Enterococcus faecium recent data indicate a possible distinction between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. This is considered too recent knowledge for a QPS recommendation, considering the recent information on the evolution of the epidemiology of Enterococcus infections in

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of andrographolide derivatives as potent anti-HIV agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Jing Li; Wen Long Huang; Hui Bin Zhang; Hai Qian; Yong Tang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A series of Andro derivatives were described and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in vitro. Compound 10 and 16b, of which TI were >10, had some anti-HTV-1 activity in vitro. Therein, compound 10 which was the best potent compound, could serve as a new lead for further development of anti-AIDS agents.

  14. Synthesis, biological evaluation and QSAR study of a series of substituted quinazolines as antimicrobial agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buha, V. M.; Rana, D. N.; Chhabria, M. T.; Chikhalia, K. H.; Mahajan, B. M.; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik; Shah, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2013), s. 4096-4109. ISSN 1054-2523 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial agents * quantitative structure-activity relationship * genetic function approximation * quinazoline Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2012

  15. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae by Phytoseiulus macropilis and Macrolophus pygmaeus in tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigon, Vincent; Camps, Cédric; Le Corff, Josiane

    2016-01-01

    Biological control against phytophagous arthropods has been widely used under greenhouse conditions. Its success is dependent on a number of factors related to the abiotic conditions and to the interactions between pests and biological control agents. In particular, when multiple predator species are introduced to suppress one pest, competitive interactions might occur, including intraguild predation (IGP). In tomato crops, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a very problematic phytophagous mite and its control is not yet satisfactory. In 2012 and 2013, the ability of a potential new predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) was assessed, alone and in the presence of Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a polyphagous mirid supposed to predate on P. macropilis. Both years, under greenhouse conditions, the effectiveness of the two predators was compared between the following treatments: T. urticae, T. urticae + P. macropilis, T. urticae + M. pygmaeus, and T. urticae + P. macropilis + M. pygmaeus. The number of arthropods per tomato plant over time indicated that P. macropilis well-controlled the population of T. urticae, whereas M. pygmaeus had a very limited impact. Furthermore, there was no evidence of IGP between the two predators but in the presence of M. pygmaeus, P. macropilis tended to have a more clumped spatial distribution. Further studies should clarify the number and location of inoculation points to optimize the control of T. urticae by P. macropilis. PMID:26481345

  16. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  17. Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chaojen Wang; Yisheng Lin; Yinghong Lin; Wenhsin Chung

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from o...

  18. Torymus sinensis: a viable management option for the biological control of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Melanie; Schoenrogge, Karsten; Alma, Alberto; Melika, George; Quacchia, Ambra; Stone, Graham N.; Aebi, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a global pest of chestnut (Castanea spp). Established as a pest in the mid-twentieth century in Japan, Korea and North America, this species was first reported in Europe in 2002. Following the successful release of a biological control agent Torymus sinensis in Japan, this parasitoid species has been released in Italy since 2005. Here we discuss the potential of T. sinensis as a viable management option for the biological control of D. kuriphil...

  19. The Use of Software Agents for Autonomous Control of a DC Space Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan D.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable manned deep-space missions, the spacecraft must be controlled autonomously using on-board algorithms. A control architecture is proposed to enable this autonomous operation for an spacecraft electric power system and then implemented using a highly distributed network of software agents. These agents collaborate and compete with each other in order to implement each of the control functions. A subset of this control architecture is tested against a steadystate power system simulation and found to be able to solve a constrained optimization problem with competing objectives using only local information.

  20. An overview of coordinated control for multi-agent systems subject to input saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated control of multi-agent systems has widespread application in engineering such as unmanned aerial vehicles and unmanned ground vehicles. Due to the fact that input saturation can lead a control system to deterioration and instability, a lot of efforts have been devoted to investigating this subject of great importance. The present article offers a survey of recent developments on coordinated control of multi-agents systems subject to input saturation. Some preliminaries about graph theory, stability theory and input saturation are first provided, followed by some important results in the area, which are categorized into semi-global and global coordinated controls. Future research topics are finally discussed.