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Sample records for biological concentration range

  1. Biological Effects of Osteoblast-Like Cells on Nanohydroxyapatite Particles at a Low Concentration Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells on nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA at the low concentration range (5–25 g/mL for 5 days was investigated. The results showed the viability and actin cytoskeleton of the cells descended with the increase of the concentration of n-HA, and the actin cytoskeleton of cells was depolymerised and became more disordered. Apoptotic rate of cells (1.85%, 1.99%, and 2.29% increased with the increase of n-HA concentration (5, 15, and 25 g/mL and become significantly higher than the control. Total intracellular protein content decreased with n-HA concentration increase, showing significant difference between 25 g/mL and the control, and no significant change of ALP activity was observed at the 5th day. The results revealed that the cell growth was inhibited by n-HA in a concentration-dependent manner, and the obvious biological effects of MG-63 cells on n-HA existed at the low concentration range from 5 to 25 g/mL.

  2. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  3. Determination of thorium in the range of low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.; Lieser, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for the determination of Th in the range of low concentrations are compiled and discussed. Application of spectrophotometry and voltammetry is investigated. Spectrophotometry is applicable down to concentrations of the order of 0.1 μg/l as long as the ratio U:Th is low. Voltammetric determination of Th is not possible in the presence of Al. (orig.)

  4. Normal lactate concentration range in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Aida, Noriko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Endo, Mamiko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Lactate peaks are occasionally observed during in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans of the neonatal brain, even in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of neonatal brain lactate concentration, as a definitive normal range would be clinically valuable. Using a clinical 3T scanner (echo/repetition times, 30/5000ms), single-voxel MRS data were obtained from the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) in 48 healthy neonates (postconceptional age (PCA), 30-43weeks), nine infants (age, 1-12months old), and 20 children (age, 4-15years). Lactate concentrations were calculated using an MRS signal quantification program, LCModel. Correlations between regional lactate concentration and PCA (neonates), or age (all subjects) were investigated. Absolute lactate concentrations of the BG and CS were as follows: neonates, 0.77mM (0-2.02) [median (range)] and 0.77 (0-1.42), respectively; infants, 0.38 (0-0.79) and 0.49 (0.17-1.17); and children, 0.17 (0-0.76) and 0.22 (0-0.80). Overall, subjects' lactate concentrations decreased significantly with age (Spearman: BG, n=61, ρ=-0.38, p=0.003; CS, n=68, ρ=-0.57, p<0.001). However, during the neonatal period no correlations were detected between lactate concentration in either region and PCA. We determined normal ranges of neonatal lactate concentration, which may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Further studies regarding changes in brain lactate concentration during development would help clarify the reasons for higher concentrations observed during the neonatal period, and contribute to improvements in diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam

  6. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  7. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-01-01

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10 4 Bq/ml - 5*10 8 Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10 -14 A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R 2 = 0.998

  8. Actinide concentrations in tissues from cattle grazing a contaminated range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Actinide concentrations in the tissues of beef animals periodically sacrificed and sampled during a 3-year grazing study on a plutonium-contaminated range of the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Actinide concentrations in the skeletons of the cows originally introduced into the study areas showed little increase with increased time of exposure, while those of animals born in the study areas showed a continued upward trend with time. Plutonium-239/americium-241 ratios in tissues and ingesta suggest little differentiation in the uptake of these radionuclides. However, the plutonium-239/plutonium-238 ratios indicate that plutonium-238 is more readily absorbed. The gonadal concentrations of the actinides were significantly higher than those of blood and muscle and approached those of bone. These data indicate that consideration should be given to the plutonium-239 dose to gonads as well as that to bone, liver, and lungs of man

  9. PERMITTIVITY RESEARCH OF BIOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS IN GIGAHERTZ FREQUENCY RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Demin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We present results of permittivity research in gigahertz frequency range for saline and glucose solutions used in medical practice. Experiment results are substantiated theoretically on the basis of Debye-Cole model. Method. Researches have been carried out on blood plasma of healthy donor, water, normal saline and glucose solutions with different concentration from 3 to 12 mmol/l. Experiments have been performed by an active nearfield method based on measuring the impedance of a plane air-liquid boundary with open end of coaxial waveguide in the frequency range from 1 to 12 GHz. Measurement results have been processed with the use of vector analyzer computer system from Rohde & Schwarz. Transmittance spectra have been determined by means of IR-spectrometer from TENZOR-Bruker. Main Results. Simulation results have shown good agreement between the experimental results and the model, as well as the choice of the main parameters of the Debye-Cole model in the studied frequency range for all media. It has been shown that the range of 3-6 GHz can be considered as the main one in the development of diagnostic sensors for the non-invasive analysis of the glucose concentration in the human blood. Practical Relevance. Electrodynamic models of test fluid replacing human blood give the possibility to simulate the sensor basic characteristics for qualitative and quantitative estimation of glucose concentration in human blood and can be used to create an experimental sample of a non- invasive glucometer.

  10. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  11. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  12. Studies on influence of biological factors on concentration of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137 Cs, 65 Zn, 131 I, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 144 Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137 Cs and 65 Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131 I, 60 Co and 54 Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85 Sr and 144 Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137 Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85 Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85 Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137 Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)

  13. Dependence of radiocaesium biological half-life in freshwater fish on water potassium concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreiro, M.C.V.; Corisco, J.A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term experiments (35-49 days) showed that the rate of cesium elimination from fish increases with increasing potassium concentration in water (the biological half-life decreases); this, however, is only true of the potassium concentration range of 0.35 to 3.5 ppm, whereas higher potassium concentrations do not seem to affect the elimination rate. Decrease in water temperature within the 20 degC to 5 degC range slows down the cesium elimination process. (P.A.)

  14. Determination of 18O concentrations in microsamples of biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bradshaw, S.D.; Bradshaw, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The 18 O(p, α) 15 N reaction has been developed for the analysis of microsamples of biological fluids containing 18 O-enriched water. Samples as small as 50 μl have been used. Well characterized Ta 2 O 5 targets were prepared from these fluids and irradiated with several hundred nA of protons from the 3 MV Van de Graaff at Lucas Heights. The broad (47 keV) 846 kV resonance in this reaction was used to measure 18 O concentrations down to natural backgrounds (0.2 at.%) in a few minutes of accelerator running time. Concentrations of 18 O from 0 to 5 at.% were measured in body fluids in small Australian lizards directly after doping with 18 O-enriched water and then again after several days of roaming around in their natural desert environments. The changes in these levels were related to the metabolic rates of these animals. (orig.)

  15. Optimization of free ammonia concentration for nitrite accumulation in shortcut biological nitrogen removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Shim, Hojae; Park, Seong-Jun; Kim, Seung-Jin; Bae, Wookeun

    2006-03-01

    A shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) utilizes the concept of a direct conversion of ammonium to nitrite and then to nitrogen gas. A successful SBNR requires accumulation of nitrite in the system and inhibition of the activity of nitrite oxidizers. A high concentration of free ammonia (FA) inhibits nitrite oxidizers, but unfortunately decreases the ammonium removal rate as well. Therefore, the optimal range of FA concentration is necessary not only to stabilize nitrite accumulation but also to achieve maximum ammonium removal. In order to derive such optimal FA concentrations, the specific substrate utilization rates of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were measured. The optimal FA concentration range appeared to be 5-10 mg/L for the adapted sludge. The simulated results from the modified inhibition model expressed by FA and ammonium/nitrite concentrations were shown very similar to the experimental results.

  16. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, Alžběta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  17. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-11-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels and electronics to fabricate devices that can perform complex analyses. A major task in such systems is to immobilize magnetic particles on top of the sensor surface, which is required to detect the particles\\' stray field. In the presented work, a bead concentrator, consisting of gold microstructures, at the bottom of a microchannel, is used to attract and move magnetic particles into a trap. The trap is made of a chamber with a gold microstructure underneath and is used to attract and immobilize a defined number of magnetic beads. In order to detect targets, two kinds of solutions were prepared; one containing only superparamagnetic particles, the other one containing beads with the protein Bovine serum albumin as the target and fluorescent markers. Due to the size difference between bare beads and beads with target, less magnetic beads were immobilized inside the volume chamber in case of magnetic beads with target as compared to bare magnetic beads. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

  18. Electrical resistivity of Y(Fe1-x Alx)2 in the spin glass concentration range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, S.F. da; Souza, G.P. de; Takeushi, A.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of the Y(Fe 1-x Al x ) 2 system (0.125 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) was measured. This system exhibits a minimum at low temperatures for the concentration range where the phase diagram presents a spin glass-ferromagnetic transition. A negative temperature coefficient is observed at high temperatures for x > 0.18 and was attributed to the high value of the electrical resistivity in this concentration range. (Author) [pt

  19. A magnetic method to concentrate and trap biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetoresistive sensors in combination with magnetic particles have been used in biological applications due to, e.g., their small size and high sensitivity. A growing interest is to integrate magnetoresistive sensors with microchannels

  20. Data to support "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations & Biological Condition"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets are included here to support the manuscript "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Condition". This...

  1. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg -1 for 234 U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the 236 U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.41-15.6 mBq l -1 for 234 U and 0.012-0.695 mBq l -1 for 235 U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants

  2. Application of Fourier transform infrared ellipsometry to assess the concentration of biological molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Drevillon, Bernard; De Martino, Antonello; Schwartz, Laurent

    2002-12-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a noninvasive optical characterization technique mainly used in the semiconductor field to characterize bare substrates and thin films. In particular, it allows the gathering of information concerning the physical structure of the sample, such as roughness and film thickness, as well as its optical response. In the mid-infrared (IR) range each molecule exhibits a characteristic absorption fingerprint, which makes this technique chemically selective. Phase-modulated IR ellipsometry does not require a baseline correction procedure or suppression of atmospheric CO2 and water-vapor absorption bands, thus greatly reducing the subjectivity in data analysis. We have found that ellipsometric measurements of thin films, such as the solid residuals left on a plane surface after evaporation of a liquid drop containing a given compound in solution, are particularly favorable for dosing purposes because the intensity of IR absorptions shows a linear behavior along a wide range of solution concentrations of the given compound. Our aim is to illustrate with a concrete example and to justify theoretically the linearity experimentally found between radiation absorption and molecule concentration. For the example, we prepared aqueous solutions of glycogen, a molecule of huge biological importance currently tested in biochemical analyses, at concentrations ranging from 1 mg/l to 1 g/l, which correspond to those found in physiological conditions. The results of this example are promising for the application of ellipsometry for dosing purposes in biochemistry and biomedicine.

  3. A study on the ranges of low energy ions in biological samples and its mechanism of biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ting; Xie Liqing; Li Junping; Xia Ji

    1993-01-01

    The seeds of wheat and bean are irradiated by iron ion beam with energy 100 keV. The RBS spectra of the samples are observed and the ranges and distributions of the iron ions in the wheat and bean are calculated theoretically by means of Monte Carlo method. The results of theory and experiment are compared and the mechanism of biological effects induced by ion is discussed

  4. An isotherm-based thermodynamic model of multicomponent aqueous solutions, applicable over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari S; Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S; Clegg, Simon L

    2013-04-18

    In previous studies (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 16474-16487; 2012, 116, 1850-1864), we derived equations for the Gibbs energy, solvent and solute activities, and solute concentrations in multicomponent liquid mixtures, based upon expressions for adsorption isotherms that include arbitrary numbers of hydration layers on each solute. In this work, the long-range electrostatic interactions that dominate in dilute solutions are added to the Gibbs energy expression, thus extending the range of concentrations for which the model can be used from pure liquid solute(s) to infinite dilution in the solvent, water. An equation for the conversion of the reference state for solute activity coefficients to infinite dilution in water has been derived. A number of simplifications are identified, notably the equivalence of the sorption site parameters r and the stoichiometric coefficients of the solutes, resulting in a reduction in the number of model parameters. Solute concentrations in mixtures conform to a modified Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule, and solute activity coefficients to a modified McKay-Perring relation, when the effects of the long-range (Debye-Hückel) term in the equations are taken into account. Practical applications of the equations to osmotic and activity coefficients of pure aqueous electrolyte solutions and mixtures show both satisfactory accuracy from low to high concentrations, together with a thermodynamically reasonable extrapolation (beyond the range of measurements) to extreme concentration and to the pure liquid solute(s).

  5. Fundamental host range of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent of Chinese privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Cera Jones; S. Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., is an invasive shrub within riparian areas of the southeastern United States. Biological control is considered the most suitable management option for Chinese privet. The potential host range of the lace bug, Leptoypha hospita Drake et...

  6. The dielectric constant and its role in the long range coherence in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.; Chatterjee, R.

    1984-01-01

    An expression for the dielectric constant has been derived, for the Froehlich model of long-range coherence in biological cells. These theoretical expressions are employed to interpret the observed rouleaux formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is concluded that this unusual behaviour of the erythrocytes can be interpreted satisfactorilly by the extended Froehlich model developed by us. (Author) [pt

  7. Cure of tuberculosis despite serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs below published reference ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Monica; Corti, Natascia; Müller, Daniel; Henning, Lars; Gutteck, Ursula; von Braun, Amrei; Weber, Rainer; Fehr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic target serum concentrations of first-line antituberculosis drugs have not been well defined in clinical studies in tuberculosis (TB) patients. We retrospectively investigated the estimated maximum serum concentrations (eC max) of antituberculosis drugs and clinical outcome of TB patients with therapeutic drug monitoring performed between 2010-2012 at our institution, and follow-up until March 2014. The eC max was defined as the highest serum concentration during a sampling period (2, 4 and 6 hours after drug ingestion). We compared the results with published eC max values, and categorised them as either "within reference range", "low eC max", or "very low eC max".Low/very low eC max-levels were defined as follows: isoniazid 2-3/max levels were classified as "low" or "very low". The eC max was below the relevant reference range in 80% of isoniazid, 95% of rifampicin, 30% of pyrazinamide, and 30% of ethambutol measurements. All but one patient were cured of tuberculosis. Although many antituberculosis drug serum concentrations were below the widely used reference ranges, 16 of 17 patients were cured of tuberculosis. These results challenge the use of the published reference ranges for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  8. Plasma lactate concentrations in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Henning A; Wenger, Sandra; Hvarnes, Silje; Os, Oystein; Rolandsen, Christer M; Solberg, Erling J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate plasma lactate concentrations of etorphine-immobilized moose in relation to environmental, temporal and physiological parameters. Prospective clinical study. Fourteen female and five male moose (Alces alces), estimated age range 1-7 years. The moose were darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg etorphine per animal using projectile syringes and a dart gun. Once immobilized, the moose were approached, a venous blood sample was obtained and vital signs including pulse oximetry were recorded. Diprenorphine was administered to reverse the effects of etorphine. Timing of events, ambient temperature and snow depth were recorded. Blood samples were cooled and centrifuged before plasma was harvested and frozen. The plasma was thawed later and lactate analysed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. All animals recovered uneventfully and were alive 12 weeks after immobilization. Mean +/- SD plasma lactate was found to be 9.2 +/- 2.1 mmol L(-1). Plasma lactate concentrations were related positively to snow depth and negatively to time from induction of immobilization to blood sampling. The model that best described the variability in plasma lactate concentrations used induction time (time from firing the dart to the moose being immobilized). The second best model included induction time and snow depth. Plasma lactate concentrations in these etorphine-immobilized moose were in the range reported for other immobilized wild ruminants. Decreasing induction time, which may be related to a more profound etorphine effect, and increasing snow depth possibly may increase plasma lactate concentrations in etorphine-immobilized moose.

  9. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  10. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  11. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  12. Automatic Echographic Detection of Halloysite Clay Nanotubes in a Low Concentration Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversano, Francesco; Pisani, Paola; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Leporatti, Stefano; Franchini, Roberto; Quarta, Alessandra; Gigli, Giuseppe; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-04-11

    Aim of this work was to investigate the automatic echographic detection of an experimental drug delivery agent, halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs), by employing an innovative method based on advanced spectral analysis of the corresponding "raw" radiofrequency backscatter signals. Different HNT concentrations in a low range (5.5-66 × 10 10 part/mL, equivalent to 0.25-3.00 mg/mL) were dispersed in custom-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms and imaged through a clinically-available echographic device at a conventional ultrasound diagnostic frequency (10 MHz). The most effective response (sensitivity = 60%, specificity = 95%), was found at a concentration of 33 × 10 10 part/mL (1.5 mg/mL), representing a kind of best compromise between the need of enough particles to introduce detectable spectral modifications in the backscattered signal and the necessity to avoid the losses of spectral peculiarity associated to higher HNT concentrations. Based on theoretical considerations and quantitative comparisons with literature-available results, this concentration could also represent an optimal concentration level for the automatic echographic detection of different solid nanoparticles when employing a similar ultrasound frequency. Future dedicated studies will assess the actual clinical usefulness of the proposed approach and the potential of HNTs for effective theranostic applications.

  13. Haptoglobin concentrations in free-range and temporarily captive juvenile steller sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomton, Jamie D; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2007-04-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver that circulates at elevated concentrations in response to tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection, and trauma. As part of a larger study, sera Hp concentrations were measured in temporarily captive (n = 21) and free-range (n = 38) western stock juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) sampled from 2003 to 2006. Baseline Hp concentration at time of capture was 133.3 +/- 17.4 mg/dl. Temporarily captive animals exhibited a 3.2-fold increase in Hp concentrations during the first 4 wk of captivity, followed by a return to entry levels by week 5. Haptoglobin levels were not influenced by age, season, or parasite load. There was a significant positive correlation between Hp concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and globulin levels (P < 0.001) and a negative correlation to red blood cell count and hematocrit (P < 0.001 for both). There was no correlation between Hp levels and platelet count (P = 0.095) or hemoglobin (P = 0.457). Routine blubber biopsies collected under gas anesthesia did not produce a measurable Hp response. One animal with a large abscess had an Hp spike of 1,006.0 mg/dl that returned to entry levels after treatment. In conclusion, serum Hp levels correlate to the stable clinical health status observed during captivity, with moderate Hp response during capture and initial acclimation to captivity and acute response to inflammation and infection.

  14. Wide-range particle characterization and elemental concentration in Beijing aerosol during the 2013 Spring Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Bai; Sun, Jialong; Chen, Rui; Gao, Yuxi; Chen, Chunying

    2014-09-01

    The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of macro nutrient concentration on biological N2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Nazalan Najimudin; Jong Bor Chyan; Latiffah Noordin; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Amir Hamzah Ahmad Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic changes of biological N 2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 under the influence of various macro nutrients, specifically phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), was investigated. In this attempt, Oryza sativa L. var. MR 219 was used as the model plant. Results obtained showed changes in the biological N 2 fixation activities with different macro nutrient(s) manipulations. The research activity enables optimisation of macro nutrients concentration for optimal/ enhanced biological N 2 fixation by A. vinelandii ATCC 12837. (author)

  16. Multi-scale variability and long-range memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana

    2014-05-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the signals' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some long-range correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental signals, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling

  17. Concentrations and biological availability of 238U and 230Th in the environs of a uranium milling operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Flot, S.; Whicker, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on a study whose objectives were to determine 238 U and 230 Th concentrations in soil and native plants from various sites around a conventional acid leach uranium milling operation in the Western US, and to estimate plant/soil concentration factors. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from exposed, weathered tailings; near the edge of a tailings pond; from a reclamation area; and at several native range background (control) locations. The results indicate that mean plant/soil concentration factors varied significantly among sites and between radionuclides, but no significant differences between plant groups were found. Concentration factors for 230 Th were greater than for 238 U for plants growing at the edge of the tailings pond. It is speculated that the lower concentration factors for uranium relative to thorium at this site may be due to the proportion of their contents in soil that is biologically available for plant uptake

  18. Behaviour of radionuclides in biological and non-biological processes at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnaeve, J.; Frissel, M.J.; Klugt, N. van der; Geijn, S.C. van de.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments using a 'biological exchange column', i.e. a cut papyrus stem were carried out. Prior to the passage of the labelled solution containing 250 μCi 137 Cs.l -1 , and 1 μCi 134 Cs.l -1 , the exchange sites of the stem were protonated. Two treatments were carried out, the first with 10 -4 M stable caesium in the labelled solution and the second with 10 -4 M potassium. After detection of the front of activity half way up the stem, 5 cm segments of the stem were cut and counted. (Auth.)

  19. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzi Cortez, Fernando, E-mail: lecotox@unisanta.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Dias Seabra Pereira, Camilo [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 11030-400 Santos, SP (Brazil); Ramos Santos, Aldo Ramos [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 11030-400 Santos, SP (Brazil); Martini, Gisela de Assis [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC{sub 50} = 0.490 mg L{sup -1}) and embryo-larval development (IC{sub 50} = 0.135 mg L{sup -1}) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L{sup -1}) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L{sup -1}, demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  20. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi Cortez, Fernando; Dias Seabra Pereira, Camilo; Ramos Santos, Aldo Ramos; Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Martini, Gisela de Assis; Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC 50 = 0.490 mg L −1 ) and embryo-larval development (IC 50 = 0.135 mg L −1 ) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L −1 ) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L −1 , demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: ► Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. ► Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. ► Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  1. Biological effects of tritiated water in low concentration of human lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kamada, N.; Sawaeda, S.

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the dose-response relationship of tritiated water (HTO) for chromosome aberration in the human lymphocytes, at low dose in vitro exposure ranging from 0.1-1 Gy. The Relative Biological Effectiveness values of HTO with respect to 60 Co gamma ray at a dose rate of 2 cGy/min(15 mCi/ml), at low dose range for the induction of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes were 2.7 in lymphocytes. Also lymphocytes were chronically exposed to HTO for 67 to 80 hrs at different lower dose rates (0.5 and 0.02 cGy/min). There was a 77% decrease in the yields of dicentrics and centric rings, at the dose rate of 0.02cGy/min of HTO, presenting a clear dose rate effect of HTO. The RBE value of HTO relative to 137 Cs gamma ray was 2.0 at the dose rate of 0.02cGy/min(0.15mCi/ml). This suggests that a higher dose rate of HTO exposure has a higher risk and a decrease of RBE value at low dose rate. These results provide useful information for the assessment of health risks in humans specially exposed to low concentration of HTO. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  2. Concentrations, input prediction and probabilistic biological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along Gujarat coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Haren B; Sachaniya, Bhumi K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to assess the levels of PAHs, their input prediction and potential risks to bacterial abundance and human health along Gujarat coastline. A total of 40 sediment samples were collected at quarterly intervals within a year from two contaminated sites-Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yard (ASSBRY) and Navlakhi Port (NAV), situated at Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, respectively. The concentration of ΣPAHs ranged from 408.00 to 54240.45 ng g -1  dw, indicating heavy pollution of PAHs at both the contaminated sites. Furthermore, isomeric ratios and principal component analysis have revealed that inputs of PAHs at both contaminated sites were mixed-pyrogenic and petrogenic. Pearson co-relation test and regression analysis have disclosed Nap, Acel and Phe as major predictors for bacterial abundance at both contaminated sites. Significantly, cancer risk assessment of the PAHs has been exercised based on incremental lifetime cancer risks. Overall, index of cancer risk of PAHs for ASSBRY and NAV ranged from 4.11 × 10 -6 -2.11 × 10 -5 and 9.08 × 10 -6 -4.50 × 10 -3 indicating higher cancer risk at NAV compared to ASSBRY. The present findings provide baseline information that may help in developing advanced bioremediation and bioleaching strategies to minimize biological risk.

  3. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ∼52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level

  4. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ˜52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level.

  5. Determination of mercury concentration in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain a confident analytical method for measuring the mercury concentration in biological materials. Destructive neutron activation analysis was used for this purpose and a radiochemical separation method was studied to isolate the mercury from its main interferences: sodium and phosphorus, because these elements in biological materials are in high concentrations. The method developed was based on the copper amalgamation under controlled conditions. Yield and reproductibility studies were performed using 203 Hg as radioactive tracer. Finally, food samples of regular consumption were analyzed and the results were compared with those recommended by FAO/WHO. (Author)

  6. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  7. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  8. The influence of biological and environmental factors on metallothionein concentration in the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Bizoń, Anna; Zalewska, Marta; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight protein, is regulated by many factors, primarily metals (zinc, cadmium, copper), cytokines, glucocorticoides and free radicals. These factors are determined by such aspects of human biology as gender, pregnancy and age, as well as by environmental factors including the use of oral contraceptives and cigarette smoking, all which may affect MT levels in the body. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these biological and environmental factors on MT concentrations in erythrocyte lysate and in plasma. MT concentrations were determined by a two-step direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Evaluation of exposure to cigarette smoking was performed by checking cotinine levels in the plasma of subjects. The studies showed higher MT concentrations in both the erythrocyte lysate and plasma of women when compared to men. Furthermore, pregnancy causes an increase of MT concentration in plasma, while oral contraceptives cause an elevated concentration of MT in erythrocyte lysate. Age impacts plasma MT concentrations in men, whereas it does not affect concentrations of MT in erythrocyte lysate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Front Range sources on reactive nitrogen concentrations and deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Benedict

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO. Due to ROMO’s protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July–August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ. Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, C1–C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx, NOy, and ammonia. A limited set of measurements was extended through October. Co-located measurements of a suite of volatile organic compounds provide information on source types impacting ROMO. Specifically, we use ethane as a tracer of oil and gas operations and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4 as an urban tracer to investigate their relationship with RN species and transport patterns. Results of this analysis suggest elevated RN concentrations are associated with emissions from oil and gas operations, which are frequently co-located with agricultural production and livestock feeding areas in the region, and from urban areas. There also are periods where RN at ROMO is impacted by long-range transport. We present an atmospheric RN budget and a nitrogen deposition budget with dry and wet components. Total deposition for the period (7/1–9/30 was estimated at 1.58 kg N/ha, with 87% from wet deposition during this period of above average precipitation. Ammonium wet deposition was the dominant contributor to total nitrogen deposition followed by nitrate wet deposition and total dry deposition. Ammonia was estimated to be the largest contributor to dry deposition followed by nitric acid and PAN (other species included alkyl nitrates, ammonium and nitrate. All three species are challenging to measure routinely, especially at high time resolution.

  10. Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis of peak radionuclide concentrations in randomly heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadini, F.; De Sanctis, J.; Cherubini, A.; Zio, E.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uncertainty quantification problem associated with the radionuclide migration. ► Groundwater transport processes simulated within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer. ► Development of an automatic sensitivity analysis for flow and transport parameters. ► Proposal of a Nominal Range Sensitivity Analysis approach. ► Analysis applied to the performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository. - Abstract: We consider the problem of quantification of uncertainty associated with radionuclide transport processes within a randomly heterogeneous aquifer system in the context of performance assessment of a near-surface radioactive waste repository. Radionuclide migration is simulated at the repository scale through a Monte Carlo scheme. The saturated groundwater flow and transport equations are then solved at the aquifer scale for the assessment of the expected radionuclide peak concentration at a location of interest. A procedure is presented to perform the sensitivity analysis of this target environmental variable to key parameters that characterize flow and transport processes in the subsurface. The proposed procedure is exemplified through an application to a realistic case study.

  11. X-ray microanalytical surveys of minor element concentrations in unsectioned biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, R. M. S.; Lefevre, H. W.; Overley, J. C.; Macdonald, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    Approximate concentration maps of small unsectioned biological samples are made using the pixel by pixel ratio of PIXE images to areal density images. Areal density images are derived from scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) proton energy-loss images. Corrections for X-ray production cross section variations, X-ray attenuation, and depth averaging are approximated or ignored. Estimates of the magnitude of the resulting error are made. Approximate calcium concentrations within the head of a fruit fly are reported. Concentrations in the retinula cell region of the eye average about 1 mg/g dry weight. Concentrations of zinc in the mandible of several ant species average about 40 mg/g. Zinc concentrations in the stomachs of these ants are at least 1 mg/g.

  12. Relationships between affiliative social behavior and hair cortisol concentrations in semi-free ranging rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooddell, Lauren J; Hamel, Amanda F; Murphy, Ashley M; Byers, Kristen L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-10-01

    Sociality is a fundamental aspect of human behavior and health. One benefit of affiliative social relationships is reduced short-term levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), which are indicative of physiological stress. Less is known, however, about chronic GC production in relation to affiliative social behavior. To address this issue, we studied a semi-free ranging troop of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and collected hair samples to measure hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), as a measure of chronic GC production, during routine biannual exams. We collected social behavior (both aggressive and affiliative) and hair samples for 32 adult female rhesus macaques over one year (Experiment 1). Our results indicated that adult females who initiated higher levels of social affiliation had significantly lower levels of HCCs. Neither the initiation nor the receipt of aggression were significantly related to HCCs in this study. In a second experiment we studied 28 mother-infant dyads for the first 90days postpartum to examine mother-infant facial interactions (i.e. mutual gazing). We analyzed HCCs during weaning approximately one year later, which is a major transitional period. We found that infants that engaged in higher levels of mutual gazing in the first 90days postpartum had significantly lower levels of HCCs during weaning. Finally, we studied 17 infant rhesus macaques (13 males) to examine whether social behavior (such as play) in the first five months of life correlated with infant HCCs over those months (Experiment 3). We found that infant males that engaged in more social play had significantly lower levels of HCCs. By relying on an animal model, our study shows that affiliative social traits are associated with lower long-term GC production. Future research should address the complex interactions between social behavior, chronic GC production, and mental and physical health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Set-up and calibration of a method to measure {sup 10}B concentration in biological samples by neutron autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadan, M.A. [National Commission for Atomic Energy (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S., E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.it [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Postuma, I. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Ballarini, F. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, A.; Zonta, C. [Department of Experimental Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-03-01

    A selective uptake of boron in the tumor is the base of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, which can destroy the tumor substantially sparing the normal tissue. In order to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor, keeping the dose absorbed by normal tissues below the tolerance level, it is mandatory to know the {sup 10}B concentration present in each kind of tissue at the moment of irradiation. This work presents the calibration procedure adopted for a boron concentration measurement method based on neutron autoradiography, where biological samples are deposited on sensitive films and irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor (University of Pavia). The latent tracks produced in the film by the charged particles coming from the neutron capture in {sup 10}B are made visible by a proper etching, allowing the measurement of the track density. A calibration procedure with standard samples provides curves of track density as a function of boron concentration, to be used in the measurement of biological samples. In this paper, the bulk etch rate parameter and the calibration curves obtained for both liquid samples and biological tissues with known boron concentration are presented. A bulk etch rate value of (1.64 {+-} 0.02) {mu}m/h and a linear dependence with etching time were found. The plots representing the track density versus the boron concentration in a range between 5 and 50 {mu}g/g (ppm) are linear, with an angular coefficient of (1.614 {+-} 0.169){center_dot}10{sup -3} tracks/({mu}m{sup 2} ppm) for liquids and (1.598 {+-} 0.097){center_dot}10{sup -2} tracks/({mu}m{sup 2} ppm) for tissues.

  14. Plutonium solution in concentration range from 8 to 17 G/liter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for a fundamental criticality study of low concentrations of plutonium solutions. Examples of the occurrence of such solutions, which are characteristic of waste, are cited. Due to the prevalence of decontaminating and decommissioning activities, low concentration solutions are expected to become an important concern. Technical deficiencies in previous calculations are also discussed as a reason for performing low concentration criticality studies. 3 refs.

  15. Plutonium solution in concentration range from 8 to 17 G/liter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for a fundamental criticality study of low concentrations of plutonium solutions. Examples of the occurrence of such solutions, which are characteristic of waste, are cited. Due to the prevalence of decontaminating and decommissioning activities, low concentration solutions are expected to become an important concern. Technical deficiencies in previous calculations are also discussed as a reason for performing low concentration criticality studies. 3 refs

  16. Delineation of concentration ranges and longitudinal changes of human plasma protein variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgica Trenchevska

    Full Text Available Human protein diversity arises as a result of alternative splicing, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and posttranslational modifications. Because of these processes, each protein can exists as multiple variants in vivo. Tailored strategies are needed to study these protein variants and understand their role in health and disease. In this work we utilized quantitative mass spectrometric immunoassays to determine the protein variants concentration of beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, retinol binding protein, and transthyretin, in a population of 500 healthy individuals. Additionally, we determined the longitudinal concentration changes for the protein variants from four individuals over a 6 month period. Along with the native forms of the four proteins, 13 posttranslationally modified variants and 7 SNP-derived variants were detected and their concentration determined. Correlations of the variants concentration with geographical origin, gender, and age of the individuals were also examined. This work represents an important step toward building a catalog of protein variants concentrations and examining their longitudinal changes.

  17. Complete Host Range Testing on Common Reed with Potential Biological Control Agents and Investigation into Biological Control for Flowering Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    CR-16-5 v Preface This report was prepared by Drs. Patrick Häfliger and Hariet Hinz, Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI...through Cornell University, the Washington Department of Agriculture , the Washington Department of Ecology, the Washington Department of Natural...capacity during biological invasion in an aquatic plant Butomus umbellatus (Butomaceae). American Journal of Botany 92:495–502. Dieckmann, L. 1983

  18. Investigation of the fluctuation range of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1985-01-01

    Daily and seasonal concentration fluctuations of short-lived Rn fission products observed and the seasonal and long-term concentration fluctuations of Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40 and Be-7 are discussed; the frequency distributions of the concentration values are illustrated. For a period of several years, the following mean values of activity concentrations were found (μBq/m 3 ): Pb-210: 600 Ra-226: 1.3 K-40: 13, Po-210: 33 Ra-228: 0.5 Be-7: 3700. In accordance with the origin from the soil, there is a significant correlation between the respective activity concentration and air-borne dust concentration for Ra-226, Ra-228, and K-40. The investigation revealed a most significant correlation between the Pb-210 concentration and the stagnancy index, the latter being a measure for the degree of blending of the surface layer of air. The resuspension factors found for Ra-226 and Pb-210 are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 0.48-93.9 Bq kg -1 for 234 U and 0.02-12.2 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, 236 U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of 234 U/ 238 U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 μBq m -3 for 238 U, 0.96-38.0 μBq m -3 for 234 U, and 0.05-1.83 μBq m -3 for 235 U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBq l -1 for 238 U, 0.27-28.1 mBq l -1 for 234 U, and 0.01-0.88 mBq l -1 for 235 U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of

  20. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in water, air and biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2005-09-01

    During the Balkan conflicts, in 1995 and 1999, depleted uranium (DU) rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Serbia and Montenegro, radiological surveys of DU in water, air and biological samples were carried out over the period 27 October-5 November 2001. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro, mainly lichens and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.67-704 Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, 0.48-93.9 Bqkg(-1) for (234)U and 0.02-12.2 Bqkg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control sites. Moreover, (236)U was detectable in some of the samples. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at all examined sites, especially in Montenegro, indicating widespread ground-surface DU contamination, albeit at very low level. The uranium isotopic concentrations in air obtained from the air filter samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 1.99-42.1 microBqm(-3) for (238)U, 0.96-38.0 microBqm(-3) for (234)U, and 0.05-1.83 microBqm(-3) for (235)U, being in the typical range of natural uranium values. Thus said, most of the air samples are DU positive, this fact agreeing well with the widespread DU contamination detected in the biological samples. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Serbia and Montenegro were found to be in the range of 0.40-21.9 mBql(-1) for (238)U, 0.27-28.1 mBql(-1) for (234)U, and 0.01-0.88 mBql(-1) for (235)U, these values being much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for drinking water. From a radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated

  1. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  2. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  3. Indoor concentrations of radon 222 and its daughters: sources, range, and environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The author here reviews what is presently known about factors affecting indoor concentrations of radon 222 and its daughters. In US single-family homes, radon concentrations are found to average about 1.5 pCi/1, but substantially higher concentrations occur frequently: perhaps a million US homes have concentrations exceeding 8 pCi/1 (from which occupants receive radiation doses comparable to those now experienced by uranium miners). The major contributor to indoor radon is ordinary soil underlying homes, with this radon being transported indoors primarily by the slight depressurization that occurs toward the bottom of a house interior (due to indoor-outdoor temperature differences and winds). Water from underground sources contributes significantly in a minority of cases, primarily residences with private wells, with public water supplies contributing only a few percent of indoor radon, even when drawn from wells. The strong variability in indoor concentrations is associated primarily with variability in the amount of radon entering homes from these various sources, and secondarily with differences in ventilation rates. However, for a given entry rate, the ventilation rate is the key determinant of indoor concentrations. Human doses are also influenced strongly by the chemical behavior of the daughters (i.e., decay products of radon), and considerable progress has been made recently in investigating a major aspect of this behavior, i.e., the manner in which daughters attach to airborne particles, to walls, and - indeed - to the lining of the lung itself, where the key radiation dose occurs

  4. Cystatin C and lactoferrin concentrations in biological fluids as possible prognostic factors in eye tumor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Dikovskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the possible role of cystatin C in eye biological fluids locally and in serum and lactoferrin revealing anti-tumor activity in eye tumor development. Background. The increased number of eye tumors was registered recently not only in the countries with high insolation, but also in the northern countries including Russia (11 cases per million of population. Search for new biological markers is important for diagnosis and prognosis in eye tumors. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, plays an important protective role in several tumors. Lactoferrin was shown to express anti-tumor and antiviral activities. It was hypothesized that cystatin C and lactoferrin could serve as possible biomarkers in the diagnosis of malignant and benign eye tumors. Study design. A total of 54 patients with choroidal melanoma and benign eye tumors were examined (part of them undergoing surgical treatment. Serum, tear fluid and intraocular fluid samples obtained from the anterior chamber of eyes in patients with choroidal melanoma were studied. Methods. Cystatin C concentration in serum and eye biological fluids was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia; lactoferrin concentration – by Lactoferrin-strip D 4106 ELISA test systems (Vector-BEST, Novosibirsk Region, Russia. Results. Cystatin C concentration in serum of healthy persons was significantly higher as compared to tear and intraocular fluids. In patients with choroidal melanoma, increased cystatin C concentration was similar in tear fluid of both the eyes. Lactoferrin level in tear fluid of healthy persons was significantly higher than its serum level. Significantly increased lactoferrin concentration in tear fluid was noted in patients with benign and malignant eye tumors. Conclusion. Increased level of cystatin C in tear fluid seems to be a possible diagnostic factor in the eye tumors studied. However, it does not allow us to differentiate

  5. Thermodynamic characteristics of solutions of Bu4NI in dimethylsulfoxide over a wide concentration range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonova, L.P.; Shmukler, L.Eh.; Kolker, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The integral heats of solution of Bu 4 NI in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were measured at 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15 K and concentrations from dilute to saturation. The standard enthalpies and heat capacities of solution and solvation of Bu 4 NI in DMSO at various temperatures and the C-bar p 0 (Bu 4 N + ) value at 298.15 K were calculated. The obtained and literature data were used to consider the influence of the nature of solvents on Δ sol H m (Bu 4 NI) and of the electrolyte on Δ sol H m in dimethylsulfoxide at 298.15 K. The dynamic viscosity and density of the Bu 4 NI-DMSO system were determined at various concentrations and temperatures. The Eyring equation was used to calculate the activation energy of viscous flow at all the concentrations studied [ru

  6. The thermodynamic characteristics of solutions of Bu4NI in dimethylsulfoxide over a wide concentration range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, L. P.; Shmukler, L. E.; Kolker, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    The integral heats of solution of Bu4NI in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were measured at 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15 K and concentrations from dilute to saturation. The standard enthalpies and heat capacities of solution and solvation of Bu4NI in DMSO at various temperatures and the bar C_p^o (Bu_4 N^ + ) value at 298.15 K were calculated. The obtained and literature data were used to consider the influence of the nature of solvents on Δsol H m (Bu4NI) and of the electrolyte on Δsol H m in dimethylsulfoxide at 298.15 K. The dynamic viscosity and density of the Bu4NI-DMSO system were determined at various concentrations and temperatures. The Eyring equation was used to calculate the activation energy of viscous flow at all the concentrations studied.

  7. [Effect of different oxygen concentrations on biological properties of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi-Ran; Ren, Si-Hua; He, Yu-Xin; Wang, Lin-Lin; Jin, Li; Hao, Yi-Wen

    2012-10-01

    This study purposed to investigate the effects of different oxygen concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the biological characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their possible mechanisms through simulating oxygen environment to which the peripheral blood HSC are subjected in peripheral blood HSCT. The proliferation ability, cell cycle, directed differentiation ability, ROS level and hematopoietic reconstitution ability of Lin(-)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) BMHSC were detected by using in vitro amplification test, directional differentiation test, cell cycle analysis, ROS assay and transplantation of Lin(-)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) HSC from sublethally irradiated mice respectively. The results showed that oxygen concentrations lower than normal oxygen concentration, especially in hypoxic oxygen environment, could reduce ROS generation and amplify more primitive CD34(+)AC133(+) HSC and active CD34(+) HSC, and maintain more stem cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase, which is more helpful to the growth of CFU-S and viability of mice. At the same time, BMHSC exposed to normal oxygen level or inconstant and greatly changed oxygen concentrations could produce a high level of ROS, and the above-mentioned features and functional indicators are relatively low. It is concluded that ROS levels of HSC in BMHSCT are closely related with the oxygen concentration surrounding the cells and its stability. Low oxygen concentration and antioxidant intervention are helpful to transplantation of BMHSC.

  8. Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Balakin, A V; Evdokimov, M G; Ozheredov, I A; Sapozhnikov, D A; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Esaulkov, M N; Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    This paper briefly examines methods for the generation of pulsed terahertz radiation and principles of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy, an advanced informative method for studies of complex biological and nanostructured systems. Some of its practical applications are described. Using a number of steroid hormones as examples, we demonstrate that terahertz spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics methods and computer simulation allows one to gain information about the structure of molecules in crystals. A 'terahertz colour vision' method is proposed for analysis of pulsed terahertz signals reflected from biological tissues and it is shown that this method can be effectively used to analyse the properties of biological tissues and for early skin cancer diagnosis. (laser biophotonics)

  9. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  10. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Enhancement of concentration range of chromatographically detectable components with array detector mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Christie

    2013-02-19

    Methods and instruments for high dynamic range analysis of sample components are described. A sample is subjected to time-dependent separation, ionized, and the ions dispersed with a constant integration time across an array of detectors according to the ions m/z values. Each of the detectors in the array has a dynamically adjustable gain or a logarithmic response function, producing an instrument capable of detecting a ratio of responses or 4 or more orders of magnitude.

  12. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  13. Dynamics of Intracellular Polymers in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes under Different Organic Carbon Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR may deteriorate or fail during low organic carbon loading periods. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs in EBPR were acclimated under both high and low organic carbon conditions, and then dynamics of polymers in typical cycles, anaerobic conditions with excess organic carbons, and endogenous respiration conditions were examined. After long-term acclimation, it was found that organic loading rates did not affect the yield of PAOs and the applied low organic carbon concentrations were advantageous for the enrichment of PAOs. A low influent organic carbon concentration induced a high production of extracellular carbohydrate. During both anaerobic and aerobic endogenous respirations, when glycogen decreased to around 80 ± 10 mg C per gram of volatile suspended solids, PAOs began to utilize polyphosphate significantly. Regressed by the first-order reaction model, glycogen possessed the highest degradation rate and then was followed by polyphosphate, while biomass decay had the lowest degradation rate.

  14. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables

  15. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges..., June 22, 2010, table C-1 to subpart C was revised, effective Aug. 23, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  16. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of nucleated red blood cells in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Henry, Erick; Andres, Robert L; Bennett, Sterling T

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported a relationship between high nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) in neonates and the development of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and/or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We sought to (1) establish reference ranges for NRBC in neonates based on a large data set, (2) compare NRBC from automated versus manual counts, (3) determine the effect of an elevated NRBC, on the day of birth, on the odds of developing grade ≥3 IVH or ROP. We analyzed all NRBC obtained during 8.5 years in a multihospital system, displaying the 5th and 95th percentile limits according to gestational age and postnatal age. NRBC counts were retrieved from 61,932 neonates, 26,536 of which were excluded from the data set. Comparing 9,000 samples run simultaneously on manual versus automated methods, the manual counts yielded slightly higher counts, but the difference is likely insignificant clinically. Altitude of the birth hospital did not correlate with NRBC, and no correlations were observed with cord pH or 1- or 5-min Apgar. An NRBC count >95th percentile limit was associated with higher odds of developing a grade ≥3 IVH (OR 4.28; 95% CI 3.17-5.77) and grade ≥3 ROP (OR 4.18; 95% CI 2.74-6.38). The figures of this report display reference ranges for NRBC according to gestational age and postnatal age. An NRBC count above the 95% limit at birth is associated with a higher risk of subsequently developing severe IVH and severe ROP. We speculate that this association is because an elevated NRBC count is a marker for prenatal hypoxia. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Solution growth of the Gd-Cu-Al systems in the low-gadolinium concentration range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlirova, Klara; Sechovsky, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Solution growth of Gd-Cu-Al resulted in the formation of single crystals of GdCu 4 Al 8 with tetragonal ThMn 12 -type structure (a = 8.751 Aa, c = 5.148 Aa), Gd 2 Cu 9.4-6.7 Al 7.6-10.3 with hexagonal Th 2 Zn 17 -type structure (a = 8.83 Aa c = 1.28 Aa), and Gd(Cu, Al) 4 with orthorhombic CeNi 2+x Sb 2-x -type structure. An antiferromagnetic ordering of GdCu 4 Al 8 was found below 35 K, which is in agreement with the previously reported T N = 35 K and T N = 32 K measured on polycrystalline samples. In the temperature range 50-320 K the magnetic susceptibility χ follows the Curie-Weiss law with μ eff = 7.8 μ B /f.u. and θ p = -17 K for B parallel c, μ eff = 7.9 μ B /f.u. and θ p = - 18 K for B perpendicular to c. The a-axis is the easy magnetization direction. The Gd(Cu, Al) 4 and Gd(Cu, Al) 4 compounds order antiferromagnetically below T N = 35 K and T N = 31 K, respectively. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis of 1-indanones with a broad range of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Turek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This comprehensive review describes methods for the preparation of 1-indanones published in original and patent literature from 1926 to 2017. More than 100 synthetic methods utilizing carboxylic acids, esters, diesters, acid chlorides, ketones, alkynes, alcohols etc. as starting materials, have been performed. This review also covers the most important studies on the biological activity of 1-indanones and their derivatives which are potent antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antibacterial and anticancer compounds. Moreover, they can be used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and as effective insecticides, fungicides and herbicides.

  19. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shin-Ming; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella's rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the "brake component" in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each "brake component" were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the "brake component". Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate "brake component" in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains.

  20. Engineering Bacteria to Search for Specific Concentrations of Molecules by a Systematic Synthetic Biology Design Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ming Tien

    Full Text Available Bacteria navigate environments full of various chemicals to seek favorable places for survival by controlling the flagella's rotation using a complicated signal transduction pathway. By influencing the pathway, bacteria can be engineered to search for specific molecules, which has great potential for application to biomedicine and bioremediation. In this study, genetic circuits were constructed to make bacteria search for a specific molecule at particular concentrations in their environment through a synthetic biology method. In addition, by replacing the "brake component" in the synthetic circuit with some specific sensitivities, the bacteria can be engineered to locate areas containing specific concentrations of the molecule. Measured by the swarm assay qualitatively and microfluidic techniques quantitatively, the characteristics of each "brake component" were identified and represented by a mathematical model. Furthermore, we established another mathematical model to anticipate the characteristics of the "brake component". Based on this model, an abundant component library can be established to provide adequate component selection for different searching conditions without identifying all components individually. Finally, a systematic design procedure was proposed. Following this systematic procedure, one can design a genetic circuit for bacteria to rapidly search for and locate different concentrations of particular molecules by selecting the most adequate "brake component" in the library. Moreover, following simple procedures, one can also establish an exclusive component library suitable for other cultivated environments, promoter systems, or bacterial strains.

  1. Primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Ehara, K.

    2011-02-01

    The national primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range has been developed at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. The standard consists of a total number counting type flow cytometer (T-FCM) and an electronic balance. The T-FCM is a commercial flow cytometer modified so that the total number of particles in an aqueous suspension sampled in a test tube can be counted, and the electronic balance is used to determine the mass of the suspension. This standard is intended to be used for calibrating commercial standard suspensions of monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) particles. The measurand in the calibration is the mass-based number concentration (the particle number in a unit mass of a suspension), and the calibration capability covers the concentration range from 5 × 102 to 2 × 106 particles g-1. When the concentration of the suspension is higher than 2 × 103 particles g-1, the suspension is first diluted to about 1 × 103 particles g-1 to suppress the coincidence loss in particle counting by the T-FCM. The validity of the calibration with the T-FCM was examined by comparison with an independent method in which a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the number concentration of particles deposited on a silicon wafer. For a suspension of 10 µm PSL particles with a concentration of approximately 1 × 106 particles g-1, the concentration values determined by the T-FCM and SEM methods were 1.042 × 106 and 1.035 × 106 particles g-1, respectively: The difference was less than 0.7%. The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurement by the T-FCM method with the coverage factor k = 2 was 4.4%.

  2. Primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, T; Ehara, K

    2011-01-01

    The national primary standard for the number concentration of liquid-borne particles in the 10 to 20 µm diameter range has been developed at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. The standard consists of a total number counting type flow cytometer (T-FCM) and an electronic balance. The T-FCM is a commercial flow cytometer modified so that the total number of particles in an aqueous suspension sampled in a test tube can be counted, and the electronic balance is used to determine the mass of the suspension. This standard is intended to be used for calibrating commercial standard suspensions of monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) particles. The measurand in the calibration is the mass-based number concentration (the particle number in a unit mass of a suspension), and the calibration capability covers the concentration range from 5 × 10 2 to 2 × 10 6 particles g −1 . When the concentration of the suspension is higher than 2 × 10 3 particles g −1 , the suspension is first diluted to about 1 × 10 3 particles g −1 to suppress the coincidence loss in particle counting by the T-FCM. The validity of the calibration with the T-FCM was examined by comparison with an independent method in which a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the number concentration of particles deposited on a silicon wafer. For a suspension of 10 µm PSL particles with a concentration of approximately 1 × 10 6 particles g −1 , the concentration values determined by the T-FCM and SEM methods were 1.042 × 10 6 and 1.035 × 10 6 particles g −1 , respectively: The difference was less than 0.7%. The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurement by the T-FCM method with the coverage factor k = 2 was 4.4%

  3. Decomposing the effects of ocean warming on chlorophyll a concentrations into physically and biologically driven contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olonscheck, D; Hofmann, M; Schellnhuber, H J; Worm, B

    2013-01-01

    Recently compiled observational data suggest a substantial decline in the global median chlorophyll a concentration over the 20th century, a trend that appears to be linked to ocean warming. Several modelling studies have considered changes in the ocean’s physical structure as a possible cause, while experimental work supports a biological mechanism, namely an observed increase in zooplankton grazing rate that outpaces phytoplankton production at higher temperatures. Here, we present transient simulations derived from a coupled ocean general circulation and carbon cycle model forced by atmospheric fields under unabated anthropogenic global warming (IPCC SRES A1FI scenario). The simulations account for both physical and biological mechanisms, and can reproduce about one quarter of the observed chlorophyll a decline during the 20th century, when using realistically parameterized temperature sensitivity of zooplankton metabolism (Q 10 between 2 and 4) and phytoplankton growth (Q 10 ∼ 1.9). Therefore, we have employed and re-calibrated the standard ecosystem model which assumes a lower temperature sensitivity of zooplankton grazing (Q 10 = 1.1049) by re-scaling phytoplankton growth rates and zooplankton grazing rates. Our model projects a global chlorophyll a decline of >50% by the end of the 21st century. While phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll a experience pronounced negative effects, primary production and zooplankton concentrations are less sensitive to ocean warming. Although changes in physical structure play an important role, much of the simulated change in chlorophyll a and productivity is related to the uneven temperature sensitivity of the marine ecosystem. (letter)

  4. Resonance absorption measurements of atom concentrations in reacting gas mixtures. II. Calibration of microwave sources over a wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.; Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to calibrate three different microwave discharge lamps for analysis for D or H atoms, using Lyman-α absorption. Known concentrations of D atoms were produced in a shock tube by the reaction of 0.05--4 ppm D 2 with N 2 O in argon at 1800--3000 K. H atoms were produced by dissociation of 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (10 ppm in argon) at 980--1140 K. These absorption data were compared with the absorption calculated from Lyman-α line shapes reported in an earlier paper, good agreement being found. These experiments provide a sound basis for obtaining the temperature and concentration dependence of the absorption coefficient over a wide temperature range, for H and D concentrations between 10 -12 and 10 -10 mole/cc

  5. The initial magnetic susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids: A comparison between experiment and theory over a wide range of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyova, Anna Y.; Goldina, Olga A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Lebedev, Aleksandr V.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependencies of the static initial magnetic susceptibility for ferrofluids at various concentrations are studied using experiment and statistical-mechanical theories. Magnetic susceptibility measurements are carried out for twelve samples of magnetite-based fluids stabilized with oleic acid over a wide range of temperatures (210 K ≲T ≲ 390 K); all samples have the same granulometric composition but different volume ferroparticle concentrations (0.2 ≲ φ ≲ 0.5). Experimental results are analyzed using three theories: the second-order modified mean-field theory (MMF2) [A. O. Ivanov and O. B. Kuznetsova, Phys. Rev. E 64, 41405 (2001)]; its correction for polydisperse ferrofluids arising from Mayer-type cluster expansion and taking into account the first terms of the polydisperse second virial coefficient [A. O. Ivanov and E. A. Elfimova, J. Magn. Magn. Mater 374, 327 (2015)]; and a new theory based on MMF2 combined with the first terms of the polydisperse second and third virial contributions to susceptibility. It turns out that the applicability of each theory depends on the experimental sample density. If twelve ferrofluid samples are split into three groups of strong, moderate, and low concentrated fluids, the temperature dependences of the initial magnetic susceptibility in each group are very precisely described by one of the three theories mentioned above. The determination of a universal formula predicting a ferrofluid susceptibility over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures remains as a challenge.

  6. The decline of cisco Coregonus artedi at its southern range extent: Stock biology and management implications

    OpenAIRE

    Honsey, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi is distributed throughout northern North America and is relegated to coldwater, oligotrophic systems. Populations of cisco located at the species' southern range extent, including northern Indiana and southern Michigan, have drastically declined over the past century, seemingly due to a combination of climate warming and exacerbation of hypolimnetic hypoxic conditions via intensive land-use and resulting increases in nutrient loading. Apart from their decline, infor...

  7. Biological concentration of radionuclides in plants and animals after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Ryo, Haruko; Nomura, Taisei; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tadashi; Yeliseeva, K.G.; Piskunov, V.S.; Krupnova, E.V.; Voitovich, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The 137 Cs radioactivity and its distribution in plants (trees, mushrooms, berries, duckweed, and etc.) and animals (insects, mice, fish, and etc.) were measured in contaminated areas of southern Belarus, which was highly polluted by radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine in 1986. Gamma spectrometry of 137 Cs was carried out, and a computer graphic imaging analysis was performed to visualize the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the organisms. The specimen was placed on the imaging plate, the plate was exposed for 20 h. High 137 Cs radioactivity was detected in both the animals (mice, moles, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and fish) and the plants (pine trees, oak leaves, mushrooms, berries, duckweed). The 137 Cs radioactivity in the organisms was proportional to the radioactivity in the soil. Assessment of its distribution showed that 137 Cs was highly concentrated in muscle, but there were no substantial differences in 137 Cs radioactivity according to organ or species. Computer graphic imaging analysis clearly revealed non-uniform distribution of 137 Cs radioactivity in the animals and plants. In pine trees, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the bark, and it decreased toward the center of the tree. In conclusion, the authors suggest that self-cleaning of the soil will require a very long time and that the biological concentrations will persist and increase in higher animals for a long time, resulting in accumulation of both external and internal radiation exposure in animals. (K.H.)

  8. Determination of sup 18 O concentrations in microsamples of biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D D [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Menai (Australia); Bradshaw, S D; Bradshaw, F J [University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia). Dept. of Zoology; Katsaros, A [Australian Inst. of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE), Menai (Australia)

    1990-04-01

    The {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction has been developed for the analysis of microsamples of biological fluids containing {sup 18}O-enriched water. Samples as small as 50 {mu}l have been used. Well characterized Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} targets were prepared from these fluids and irradiated with several hundred nA of protons from the 3 MV Van de Graaff at Lucas Heights. The broad (47 keV) 846 kV resonance in this reaction was used to measure {sup 18}O concentrations down to natural backgrounds (0.2 at.%) in a few minutes of accelerator running time. Concentrations of {sup 18}O from 0 to 5 at.% were measured in body fluids in small Australian lizards directly after doping with {sup 18}O-enriched water and then again after several days of roaming around in their natural desert environments. The changes in these levels were related to the metabolic rates of these animals. (orig.).

  9. Biological treatment and toxicity of low concentrations of oily wastewater (bilgewater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamper, D.M. [NAVSEA Carderrock Div., West Bethesda, MD (United States). Biological Sciences Group; Montgomery, M.T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Marine Biochemistry Section

    2008-08-15

    Oily waste water from ships occurs when materials leak, spill, or are washed off the decks and drain into the bilge compartments of ships. The wastes include diesel fuel, coolants, and engine, transmission, and hydraulic oils. Treatments for oily waste water in the United States Navy are based on a combination of density separation and ceramic membrane ultrafiltration techniques, which may not meet planned regulations that will require lower levels of oil pollutants. This study tested the biodegradability and toxicity of low concentrations of oily waste water in order to establish the feasibility of using a combined shipboard oily and sanitary waste water treatment system. The toxic effects of diesel fuel and other components of the waste water were also tested. The study showed that diluting the oily effluent with the sanitary waste stream resulted in waste water with low enough oil content to meet the anticipated changes in waste water regulations. The study also showed that the low concentrations of waste water were catabolized in the presence of the sanitary waste stream. A modified PolyTox assay was used to test the waste water samples. Results of the study showed that heterotrophic bacterial production rates did not show any toxic effects. The addition of detergent in the samples had no impact on toxicity levels. It was concluded that combining oil and sanitary waste water in a single biological treatment system is a feasible option for ensuring the future regulations are met. 37 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Environmental DNA in subterranean biology: range extension and taxonomic implications for Proteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorički, Špela; Stanković, David; Snoj, Aleš; Kuntner, Matjaž; Jeffery, William R.; Trontelj, Peter; Pavićević, Miloš; Grizelj, Zlatko; Năpăruş-Aljančič, Magdalena; Aljančič, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    Europe’s obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander’s exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro. Next, using specific molecular probes to discriminate the rare black morph of Proteus from the closely related white morph, we detected its eDNA at five new sites, thus more than doubling the known number of sites. In one of these we found both black and white Proteus eDNA together. This finding suggests that the two morphs may live in contact with each other in the same body of groundwater and that they may be reproductively isolated species. Our results show that the eDNA approach is suitable and efficient in addressing questions in biogeography, evolution, taxonomy and conservation of the cryptic subterranean fauna.

  11. Distribution of microbial arsenic reduction, oxidation and extrusion genes along a wide range of environmental arsenic concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V Escudero

    Full Text Available The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V to As (III in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III oxidation gene aioA and the As (III transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations.

  12. Digital ELISA for the quantification of attomolar concentrations of Alzheimer's disease biomarker protein Tau in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Decrop, Deborah; Ven, Karen; Tripodi, Lisa; Leirs, Karen; Rosseels, Joelle; van de Wouwer, Marlies; Geukens, Nick; De Vos, Ann; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Winderickx, Joris; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Spasic, Dragana

    2018-07-26

    The close correlation between Tau pathology and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression makes this protein a suitable biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of the disorder evolution. However, the use of Tau in diagnostics has been hampered, as it currently requires collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is an invasive clinical procedure. Although measuring Tau-levels in blood plasma would be favorable, the concentrations are below the detection limit of a conventional ELISA. In this work, we developed a digital ELISA for the quantification of attomolar protein Tau concentrations in both buffer and biological samples. Individual Tau molecules were first captured on the surface of magnetic particles using in-house developed antibodies and subsequently isolated into the femtoliter-sized wells of a 2 × 2 mm 2 microwell array. Combination of high-affinity antibodies, optimal assay conditions and a digital quantification approach resulted in a 24 ± 7 aM limit of detection (LOD) in buffer samples. Additionally, a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude was achieved by combining the digital readout with an analogue approach, allowing quantification from attomolar to picomolar levels of Tau using the same platform. This proves the compatibility of the presented assay with the wide range of Tau concentrations encountered in different biological samples. Next, the developed digital assay was applied to detect total Tau levels in spiked blood plasma. A similar LOD (55 ± 29 aM) was obtained compared to the buffer samples, which was 5000-fold more sensitive than commercially available ELISAs and even outperformed previously reported digital assays with 10-fold increase in sensitivity. Finally, the performance of the developed digital ELISA was assessed by quantifying protein Tau in three clinical CSF samples. Here, a high correlation (i.e. Pearson coefficient of 0.99) was found between the measured percentage of active particles and the reference protein Tau

  13. Purification and concentration of lead samples in biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahimi-Froushani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims:Lead is an important environmental constituent widely used in industrialprocesses for production of synthetic materials and therefore can be released in the environmentcausing public exposure especially around the industrial residence area. For evaluation of humanexposure to trace toxic metal of Pb (II, environmental and biological monitoring are essentialprocesses, in which, preparation of such samples is one of the most time-consuming and errorproneaspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertiletechnique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquidextraction (LLE. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing sample pretreatmentfor trace analysis of lead in biological samples for evaluation of occupational exposure.Method :To evaluate factors influencing quantitative analysis scheme of lead, solid phaseextraction using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized with regard to sample pH,ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume (up to 500 ml, elutionvolume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences.Results :Lead was retained on solid sorbent and eluted followed by simple determination ofanalytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of the metal ionwere more than 92%. The amount of the analyte detected after simultaneous pre-concentrationwas basically in agreement with the added amounts. The optimized procedure was also validatedwith three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over sixconsecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The developed method promised to beapplicable for evaluation of other metal ions present in different environmental and occupationalsamples as suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation (less than 10%.Conclusion:This optimized method can be considered to be

  14. Fluorescence/depolarization lidar for mid-range stand-off detection of biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczyk, Z.; Kopczyński, K.; Zygmunt, M.; Wojtanowski, J.; Młynczak, J.; Gawlikowski, A.; Młodzianko, A.; Piotrowski, W.; Gietka, A.; Knysak, P.; Drozd, T.; Muzal, M.; Kaszczuk, M.; Ostrowski, R.; Jakubaszek, M.

    2011-06-01

    LIDAR system for real-time standoff detection of bio-agents is presented and preliminary experimental results are discussed. The detection approach is based on two independent physical phenomena: (1) laser induced fluorescence (LIF), (2) depolarization resulting from elastic scattering on non-spherical particles. The device includes three laser sources, two receiving telescopes, depolarization component and spectral signature analyzing spectrograph. It was designed to provide the stand-off detection capability at ranges from 200 m up to several kilometers. The system as a whole forms a mobile platform for vehicle or building installation. Additionally, it's combined with a scanning mechanics and advanced software, which enable to conduct the semi-automatic monitoring of a specified space sector. For fluorescence excitation, 3-rd (355 nm) and 4-th (266 nm) harmonics of Nd:YAG pulsed lasers are used. They emit short (~6 ns) pulses with the repetition rate of 20 Hz. Collecting optics for fluorescence echo detection and spectral content analysis includes 25 mm diameter f/4 Newton telescope, Czerny Turner spectrograph and 32-channel PMT. Depending on the grating applied, the spectral resolution from 20 nm up to 3 nm per channel can be achieved. The system is also equipped with an eye-safe (1.5 μm) Nd:YAG OPO laser for elastic backscattering/depolarization detection. The optical echo signal is collected by Cassegrain telescope with aperture diameter of 12.5 mm. Depolarization detection component based on polarizing beam-splitter serves as the stand-off particle-shape analyzer, which is very valuable in case of non-spherical bio-aerosols sensing.

  15. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were 6 km.

  16. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black

  17. Long-range Transported African Dust in the Caribbean Region: Dust Concentrations and Water-soluble Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Figueroa, G.; Avilés-Piñeiro, G. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2017-12-01

    Long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) particles reach the Caribbean region every year during the summer months causing an increase in PM10 concentrations and by consequence degradation of air quality. During African dust (AD) incursions at the Caribbean region, PM10 concentration could exceeds the exposure limit of 50 µg/m³ 24-hour mean established by the World Health Organization (WHO). To have a better understanding of the impacts of AD particles to climate and public health at the Caribbean region it is necessary to study and determine the spatial and temporal distribution of dust particles. In order to address this, aerosols samples were collected during and absence of AD incursions during the summer of 2017 using a Hi-Volume (Hi-Vol) sampler for total suspended particles (TSP) at two sampling stations in Puerto Rico. The first station is a marine site located at Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ) Nature Reserve in Fajardo, and the second station is an urban site located at the Facundo Bueso (FB) building at the University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras. Aerosol samples were collected using Whatman 41 grade filters from which we determined the concentration of dust particles and the water-soluble ions (e.g., Na+, NH4+, Ca+2, Cl-, SO4-2) in the presence and absence of LRTAD particles. Saharan Air Layer (SAL) imagery, the results from the air mass backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), and the spectral coefficients from measurements at CSJ were used to monitor and confirm the presence of air masses coming from North Africa. Average dust concentrations using the Stacked-Filter Units (SFUs) at CSJ are around 4 μg/m3. LRTAD concentrations and ionic speciation results using the Hi-Vol for the marine and urban sites will be presented at the conference.

  18. Optimizing Taq polymerase concentration for improved signal-to-noise in the broad range detection of low abundance bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Spangler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR in principle can detect a single target molecule in a reaction mixture. Contaminating bacterial DNA in reagents creates a practical limit on the use of PCR to detect dilute bacterial DNA in environmental or public health samples. The most pernicious source of contamination is microbial DNA in DNA polymerase preparations. Importantly, all commercial Taq polymerase preparations inevitably contain contaminating microbial DNA. Removal of DNA from an enzyme preparation is problematical. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report demonstrates that the background of contaminating DNA detected by quantitative PCR with broad host range primers can be decreased greater than 10-fold through the simple expedient of Taq enzyme dilution, without altering detection of target microbes in samples. The general method is: For any thermostable polymerase used for high-sensitivity detection, do a dilution series of the polymerase crossed with a dilution series of DNA or bacteria that work well with the test primers. For further work use the concentration of polymerase that gave the least signal in its negative control (H(2O while also not changing the threshold cycle for dilutions of spiked DNA or bacteria compared to higher concentrations of Taq polymerase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is clear from the studies shown in this report that a straightforward procedure of optimizing the Taq polymerase concentration achieved "treatment-free" attenuation of interference by contaminating bacterial DNA in Taq polymerase preparations. This procedure should facilitate detection and quantification with broad host range primers of a small number of bona fide bacteria (as few as one in a sample.

  19. Photosynthetic capacity is negatively correlated with the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds across a range of different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbele, Sally; Fotelli, Mariangela N; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Tooulakou, Georgia; Liakoura, Vally; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Adams, Mark A; Karabourniotis, George

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are the most commonly studied of all secondary metabolites because of their significant protective-defensive roles and their significant concentration in plant tissues. However, there has been little study on relationships between gas exchange parameters and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds (total phenolics (TP) and condensed tannins (CT)) across a range of species. Therefore, we addressed the question: is there any correlation between photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) and TP and CT across species from different ecosystems in different continents? A plethora of functional and structural parameters were measured in 49 plant species following different growth strategies from five sampling sites located in Greece and Australia. The relationships between several leaf traits were analysed by means of regression and principal component analysis. The results revealed a negative relationship between TP and CT and A(max) among the different plant species, growth strategies and sampling sites, irrespective of expression (with respect to mass, area or nitrogen content). Principal component analysis showed that high concentrations of TP and CT are associated with thick, dense leaves with low nitrogen. This leaf type is characterized by low growth, A(max) and transpiration rates, and is common in environments with low water and nutrient availability, high temperatures and high light intensities. Therefore, the high TP and CT in such leaves are compatible with the protective and defensive functions ascribed to them. Our results indicate a functional integration between carbon gain and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds that reflects the trade-off between growth and defence/protection demands, depending on the growth strategy adopted by each species.

  20. [Relationship among the Oxygen Concentration, Reactive Oxygen Species and the Biological Characteristics of Mouse Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Si-Hua; He, Yu-Xin; Ma, Yi-Ran; Jin, Jing-Chun; Kang, Dan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of oxygen concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the biological characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and to analyzed the relationship among the oxygen concentration, ROS and the biological characteristics of mouse HSC through simulation of oxygen environment experienced by PB HSC during transplantation. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in vitro amplification, directional differentiation (BFU-E, CFU-GM, CFU-Mix), homing of adhesion molecules (CXCR4, CD44, VLA4, VLA5, P-selectin), migration rate, CFU-S of NOD/SCID mice irradiated with sublethal dose were performed to study the effect of oxgen concentration and reactive oxygen species on the biological characteristics of mouse BM-HSC and the relationship among them. The oxygen concentrations lower than normal oxygen concentration (especially hypoxic oxygen environment) could reduce ROS level and amplify more Lin(-) c-kit(+) Sca-1(+) BM HSC, which was more helpful to the growth of various colonies (BFU-E, CFU-GM, CFU-Mix) and to maintain the migratory ability of HSC, thus promoting CFU-S growth significantly after the transplantation of HSC in NOD/SCID mice irradiated by a sublethal dose. BM HSC exposed to oxygen environments of normal, inconstant oxygen level and strenuously thanging of oxygen concentration could result in higher level of ROS, at the same time, the above-mentioned features and functional indicators were relatively lower. The ROS levels of BM HSC in PB HSCT are closely related to the concentrations and stability of oxygen surrounding the cells. High oxygen concentration results in an high level of ROS, which is not helpful to maintain the biological characteristics of BM HSC. Before transplantation and in vitro amplification, the application of antioxidancs and constant oxygen level environments may be beneficial for transplantation of BMMSC.

  1. Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Naoki; Kuroda, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Katsushi; Kawato, Yoshimi; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

  2. Reversible chemical restraint of free-range cattle with a concentrated combination of tiletamine–zolazepam, ketamine, and detomidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Michela; Blanco-Murcia, Francisco J.; San Miguel, José Maria; Gómez de Segura, Ignacio A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a concentrated combination of tiletamine–zolazepam [TZ, 0.53 mg/kg body weight (BW)], ketamine (Ket, 0.53 mg/kg BW), and detomidine (Det, 0.04 mg/kg BW) in the immobilization of free-range cattle for clinical procedures. The combination was administered intramuscularly to 53 animals. Anesthesia was reversed with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. Locoregional anesthesia was provided with lidocaine when required. The TZKD combination induced suitable immobilization for minor surgical procedures or medical treatments. Anesthetic onset was rapid, taking a mean of 6.1 min [standard deviation (SD) 2.8 min]. The duration of anesthesia depended on the time of administration of the antagonist; the animals recovered in the standing position in 12.9 ± 8.9 min after the administration of atipamezole. The quality of anesthesia and analgesia were satisfactory. In conclusion, this TZKD combination can be used for both immobilization and minor surgical procedures in free-range cattle. PMID:24124271

  3. Reversible chemical restraint of free-range cattle with a concentrated combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and detomidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Michela; Blanco-Murcia, Francisco J; San Miguel, José Maria; Gómez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a concentrated combination of tiletamine-zolazepam [TZ, 0.53 mg/kg body weight (BW)], ketamine (Ket, 0.53 mg/kg BW), and detomidine (Det, 0.04 mg/kg BW) in the immobilization of free-range cattle for clinical procedures. The combination was administered intramuscularly to 53 animals. Anesthesia was reversed with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. Locoregional anesthesia was provided with lidocaine when required. The TZKD combination induced suitable immobilization for minor surgical procedures or medical treatments. Anesthetic onset was rapid, taking a mean of 6.1 min [standard deviation (SD) 2.8 min]. The duration of anesthesia depended on the time of administration of the antagonist; the animals recovered in the standing position in 12.9 ± 8.9 min after the administration of atipamezole. The quality of anesthesia and analgesia were satisfactory. In conclusion, this TZKD combination can be used for both immobilization and minor surgical procedures in free-range cattle.

  4. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J R; Laudenslager, Mark L; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  5. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  6. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  7. Use of a cocktail of spin traps for fingerprinting large range of free radicals in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Valérie; Charlier, Nicolas; Verrax, Julien; Buc-Calderon, Pedro; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the formation of radical species centered on various atoms is involved in the mechanism leading to the development of several diseases or to the appearance of deleterious effects of toxic molecules. The detection of free radical is possible using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trapping technique. The classical EPR spin-trapping technique can be considered as a "hypothesis-driven" approach because it requires an a priori assumption regarding the nature of the free radical in order to select the most appropriate spin-trap. We here describe a "data-driven" approach using EPR and a cocktail of spin-traps. The rationale for using this cocktail was that it would cover a wide range of biologically relevant free radicals and have a large range of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity in order to trap free radicals produced in different cellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we validated the ability of the system to measure a large variety of free radicals (O-, N-, C-, or S- centered) in well characterized conditions, and we illustrated the ability of the technique to unambiguously detect free radical production in cells exposed to chemicals known to be radical-mediated toxic agents.

  8. The Relationship between Aerosol Composition and Concentration and Visual Range on Barbados, West Indies: The Impact of African Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Prospero, J.; Zhang, C.; Arimoto, R.

    2006-12-01

    Visual Range (VR) measured at Grantley Adams Airport on Barbados shows a very strong annual cycle with the minimum VR values occurring in June or July. This cycle closely matches the annual cycle of African dust concentrations measured in the trade winds at Barbados (13°15'N, 59°30'W) where observations first began in 1965. In winter, monthly mean VR was typically around 30 km or greater while in summer it frequently dipped below 20 km. This same clear signal is observed in the VR records from near-by islands where the same seasonal cycle of dust would be expected: St. Lucia, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago. We examined the relationship between VR on Barbados and the concentrations of the three major aerosol constituents that we would expect to have the strongest influence on VR: mineral dust, sea salt, and non-sea- salt sulfate (nss-SO4^{=}). We used VR data for the period from 1973, when measurements first began, up to 2006. We found a large discrepancy between the observed VR at the airport and the VR derived from the Koschmieder equation using literature values for the optical properties of the aerosol components; this simple approach would require a much smaller constant than the commonly-used value, 3.912. We further explored the effects of particle size distribution and relative humidity. During boreal summer when VR is lowest, dust is the dominant supramicron aerosol component and it clearly is the major factor in controlling VR. Nonetheless the submicron fraction also has a comparable impact due to its significantly higher light scattering efficiency. During winter, when there is little or no dust, sea salt aerosol and sulfate are dominant. In this report we focus on the various factors that affect visibility on Barbados especially the role of aerosols dominated by supramicrometer particles. We also consider the effects of other factors such as wind speed and precipitation. Finally, we note that the close relationship between summertime VR and dust

  9. MRI Proton Density Fat Fraction Is Robust Across the Biologically Plausible Range of Triglyceride Spectra in Adults With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Mamidipalli, Adrija; Hooker, Jonathan C.; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Chen, Dennis H.; Dehkordy, Soudabeh Fazeli; Middleton, Michael S.; Reeder, Scott B.; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) estimation requires spectral modeling of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) signal. Deviations in the TG spectrum may occur, leading to bias in PDFF quantification. Purpose To investigate the effects of varying six-peak TG spectral models on PDFF estimation bias. Study Type Retrospective secondary analysis of prospectively acquired clinical research data. Population Forty-four adults with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Field Strength/Sequence Confounder-corrected chemical-shift-encoded 3T MRI (using a 2D multiecho gradient-recalled echo technique with magnitude reconstruction) and MR spectroscopy. Assessment In each patient, 61 pairs of colocalized MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF values were estimated: one pair used the standard six-peak spectral model, the other 60 were six-peak variants calculated by adjusting spectral model parameters over their biologically plausible ranges. MRI-PDFF values calculated using each variant model and the standard model were compared, and the agreement between MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF was assessed. Statistical Tests MRS-PDFF and MRI-PDFF were summarized descriptively. Bland–Altman (BA) analyses were performed between PDFF values calculated using each variant model and the standard model. Linear regressions were performed between BA biases and mean PDFF values for each variant model, and between MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF. Results Using the standard model, mean MRS-PDFF of the study population was 17.9±8.0% (range: 4.1–34.3%). The difference between the highest and lowest mean variant MRI-PDFF values was 1.5%. Relative to the standard model, the model with the greatest absolute BA bias overestimated PDFF by 1.2%. Bias increased with increasing PDFF (P hepatic fat content, PDFF estimation is robust across the biologically plausible range of TG spectra. Although absolute estimation bias increased with higher PDFF, its magnitude was small and unlikely to be clinically meaningful. Level of

  10. Definition of intrusion scenarios and example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of conducting performance assessments of its radioactive waste sites and disposal systems to ensure that public health and safety are protected, the environment is preserved, and that no remedial actions after disposal are required. Hanford Site low-level waste performance assessments are technical evaluations of waste sites or disposal systems that provide a basis for making decisions using established criteria. The purpose of this document is to provide a family of scenarios to be considered when calculating radionuclide exposure to individuals who may inadvertently intrude into near-surface waste disposal sites. Specific performance assessments will use modifications of the general scenarios described here to include additional site/system details concerning the engineering design, waste form, inventory, and environmental setting. This document also describes and example application of the Hanford-specific scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. 24 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Estimating concentrations of fine-grained and total suspended sediment from close-range remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Spicer, Kurt R.; Christianson, Tami; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    data range among sensors. Of greatest interest to many programs is a hysteresis in the relationship between turbidity and SSC, attributed to temporal variation of particle size distribution (Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). This phenomenon causes increased uncertainty in regression-estimated values of SSC, due to changes in nephelometric reflectance off the varying grain sizes in suspension (Uhrich et al., 2014). Here, we assess the feasibility and application of close-range remote sensing to quantify SSC and particle size distribution of a disturbed, and highly-turbid, river system. We use a consumer-grade digital camera to acquire imagery of the river surface and a depth-integrating sampler to collect concurrent suspended-sediment samples. We then develop two empirical linear regression models to relate image spectral information to concentrations of fine sediment (clay to silt) and total suspended sediment. Before presenting our regression model development, we briefly summarize each data-acquisition method.

  12. Effect of high calcium concentration influents on enhanced biological phosphorus removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Martinez, T.; Aguado Garcia, D.; Ferrer Polo, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the effect of calcium concentration in wastewater on the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) is investigated as well as its influence in PAO metabolism, specifically in the Y P O4 (ratio between phosphorus release and acetic acid uptake). For this study a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) anaerobic-aerobic was used, in which the PAO enriched biomass was exposed to different calcium concentrations in the influent wastewater. The results indicate that until a given calcium level in the influent wastewater (35 mg Ca/l) the metabolism is not affect, but higher calcium concentrations lead to significant Y P O4 decline. (Author) 18 refs.

  13. Employment of modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles using thermo-sensitive polymer for extraction and pre-concentration of cefexime in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Saman; Sahebi, Hamed

    2018-02-01

    Cefexime is a useful antibiotic that can be prescribed to treat bacterial infections. Nanoparticles have been widely marketed as a universal solution among scientists. Many studies have been performed to modify nanoparticles to make them functional as extraction and pre-concentration agents and drug carriers. Temperature-sensitive polymers belong to a group of substances that undergo a major change in their physical features in response to temperature. Recently developed polymers can be used in many different areas, including modification of nanoparticles. In order to modify this nanoparticle, grafting copolymerization of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was performed using poly (N-vinylcaprolactam) and 3-allyloxy-1,2-propanediol. The optimum conditions for pre-concentration of cefexime were studied. Under these optimum conditions, extraction recovery of biological samples in the range of 71-89% was obtained. The limit of detection and precision of proposed method were 4.5 × 10 -4  μg mL -1 and analysis of cefexime, in biological samples using the proposed method, the ability of this method to extract and pre-concentrate cefexime was confirmed. Also, satisfactory results from an in vitro study on drug release in simulated intestine media were obtained. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs

  15. Determination of element concentrations in biological reference materials by solid sampling and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauenburg, H.; Weigert, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using solid sampling with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), values for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in six biological reference materials were obtained from up to four laboratories participating in three collaborative studies. These results are compared with those obtained with other methods used in routine analysis from laboratories of official food control. Under certain conditions solid sampling with GFAAS seems to be suitable for routine analysis as well as conventional methods. (orig.)

  16. US Subseabed Disposal Program radioecological data base: summaries of available radionuclide concentration factors and biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive objective concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphical summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of inter-study variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). We discuss concentration factor data summaries for many elements. We also discuss summary material for biological half-life data. We discuss the results of our review with the estimates of mean concentration factors provided by the IAEA. It is proposed that this presentation scheme will enable those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 7 references

  17. Chlorophyll-a concentration estimation with three bio-optical algorithms: correction for the low concentration range for the Yiam Reservoir, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-optical algorithms have been applied to monitor water quality in surface water systems. Empirical algorithms, such as Ritchie (2008), Gons (2008), and Gilerson (2010), have been applied to estimate the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations. However, the performance of each algorithm severely degr...

  18. Evaluation of the biological effect of the concentration of ''CMU''on the leaves plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revilla Pedreira, R.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of CMU (3-p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea on the photosynthetic activity of six species of higher plants and on chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied. In the higher plants the absorption of CMU was studied using 14 C-CMU. The effect of different concentrations of this herbicide on the photosynthetic assimilation of CO 2 by the plant's leaves has also been determined. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the CMU on the Hill reaction of isolated chloroplasts has been studied. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the concentration of the herbicide and the degree of inhibition of photosynthesis for concentration between 10 -8 M and 10 -4 M. As a consequence of the results obtained, a biotest is proposed for the detection of residues of the photosynthesis inhibitors using the alga chlorella pyrenoidosa as the sensory element. (auth.)

  19. Ultra-wide detectable concentration range of GMR biosensors using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jie [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, Qiang [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zong, Weihua [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Yongcheng [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, Shandong, E-mail: lishd@qdu.edu.cn [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Exchange-biased GMR sensors were employed for biodetection using a DC in-plane measuring method and a magnetic label of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres. It was revealed that an ultra-wide concentration span covering five orders from 10 ng/mL to 1000 μg/mL was achieved in a home-made biodetection device. The concentration x dependence of output voltage difference |ΔV| between with and without magnetic labels, exhibits nonlinear futures, which undergoes two functions depending on the concentration region. For the low concentration region from 10 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL, a logarithmic relation of |ΔV|=26.3lgx+91.4 fits well, while for the high concentration region, a negative exponential function of |ΔV|=3113(1−e{sup −x/250}) describes the |ΔV|~x relation better. For the former, the “coffee ring” effect, formed during the solvent evaporation, was considered as the main reason for the nonlinear relation. While for the latter with high concentration, the overlap among the particles and the enhanced interaction of the magnetic dipole were responsible for the nonlinear |ΔV|~x relationship. Moreover, the calculated detectable concentration limit is agreed well with the experimental data. - Highlights: • Ultra-wide concentration span covering five orders from 0.01 to 1000 μg/mL. • A logarithmic function well describes the relation of |ΔV|~x at low concentration. • An exponential function well describes the relation of |ΔV|~x at high concentration.

  20. A Sensitive Cell-Based Assay to Measure the Doxycycline Concentration in Biological Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, Wendy; Zhou, Xue; Centlivre, Mireille; Legrand, Nicolas; Page, Mark; Almond, Neil; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2009-01-01

    Doxycycline (DOX) is widely used as a pharmacological agent and as an effector molecule in inducible gene expression systems. For most applications, it is important to determine whether the DOX concentration reaches the level required for optimal efficacy. We developed a sensitive bioassay for

  1. Compilation of elemental concentration data for NBS Biological and Environmental Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.

    1980-07-01

    Concentration data on up to 76 elementals in 19 NBS Standard Reference Materials have been collected from 325 journal articles and technical reports. These data are summarized into mean +- one standard deviation values and compared with available data from NBS and other review articles. Data are presented on the analytical procedures employed and all raw data are presented in appendixes

  2. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  3. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-02-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant sitexspecies interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings. - Site and species specific biological factors are important in determining contamination of biota.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of biological pretreated and membrane separated landfill leachate concentrates on boron doped diamond anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Bo, E-mail: 357436235@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wei, Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Long, HangYu, E-mail: 55686385@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xie, Youneng, E-mail: 1187272844@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yijia, E-mail: 503630433@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • High quality boron-doped diamond film electrodes were synthesized on Nb substrates. • Electrochemical oxidation on boron-doped diamond anode is an effective method for treating landfill leachate concentrates. • Optimal operating conditions for electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate concentrates is determined. • 87.5% COD removal and 74.06% NH{sub 3}−N removal were achieved after 6 h treatment. - Abstract: In the present study, the high quality boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with excellent electrochemical properties were deposited on niobium (Nb) substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. The electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate concentrates from disc tube reverse osmosis (DTRO) process over a BDD anode was investigated. The effects of varying operating parameters, such as current density, initial pH, flow velocity and cathode material on degradation efficiency were also evaluated following changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N). The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE) was used to appraise different operating conditions. As a result, the best conditions obtained were as follows, current density 50 mA cm{sup −2}, pH 5.16, flow velocity 6 L h{sup −1}. Under these conditions, 87.5% COD and 74.06% NH{sub 3}−N removal were achieved after 6 h treatment, with specific energy consumption of 223.2 kWh m{sup −3}. In short, these results indicated that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD/Nb anode is an effective method for the treatment of landfill leachate concentrates.

  5. Urinary androgen concentrations and social status in two species of free ranging zebra (Equus burchelli and E. grevyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, M; Ginsberg, J R

    1990-01-01

    In both species of zebra, breeding males had higher urinary androgen concentrations (ng androgens/mg Cr) than did non-breeding bachelor males (30.0 +/- 5.0 (N = 9) versus 11.4 +/- 2.8, (N = 7) in the plains zebra; 19.0 +/- 2.2 (N = 17) versus 10.7 +/- 1.2 (N = 14) in the Grevy's zebra). In the more stable family structure of the plains zebra (single male non-territorial groups) variations in androgen concentrations could not be ascribed to any measured variable. In the Grevy's zebra, androgen values were significantly lower in samples taken from territorial (breeding) males which had temporarily abandoned their territories (N = 4) and the urinary androgen concentration for a male on his territory was negatively correlated with the time since females last visited the territory.

  6. Element concentrations in candidate biological and environmental reference materials by k0-standardized INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    K 0 -Based Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 INAA) was used to analyze the candidate reference materials Apple Leaves and Peach Leaves, and Oriental Tobacco Leaves and Virginia Tobacco Leaves. Concentration values for 27 elements were measured. The accuracy was ascertained by analysis of two certified reference materials. NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves and 1573 Tomato Leaves. The homogeneity test of the IAEA Evernia prunastri candidate reference material in aliquots ≥ 100 mg is extended to the elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Th. (orig.)

  7. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  8. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  9. Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yunjie; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-04-16

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) are thought to compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. A laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for one year to test the hypothesis that PAOs have a competitive advantage at low acetate concentrations, with a focus on low pH conditions previously shown to favor GAOs. PAOs dominated the system under conventional SBR operation with rapid acetate addition (producing high in-reactor concentrations) and pH values of 7.4-8.4. GAOs dominated when the pH was decreased (6.4-7.0). Decreasing the acetate addition rate led to very low reactor acetate concentrations, and PAOs recovered, supporting the study hypothesis. When the acetate feed rate was increased, EBPR failed again. Dominant PAOs and GAOs were Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Defluviicoccus Cluster 2, respectively, according to fluorescent in situ hybridization and 454 pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, GAOs were not the immediate causes of PAO failures, based on functional and population measurements. Pyrosequencing results suggested Dechloromonas and Tetrasphaera spp. may have also been PAOs, and additional potential GAOs were also identified. Full-scale systems typically have lower in-reactor acetate concentrations than laboratory SBRs, and so, previous laboratory studies may have overestimated the practical importance of GAOs as causes of EBPR failure.

  10. Luminescent passive-oxidized silicon quantum dots as biological staining labels and their cytotoxicity effects at high concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Hanada, Sanshiro; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Hiruoka, Masaki; Sato, Keisuke; Hirakuri, Kenji; Miyasaka, Ryosuke; Tilley, Richard D; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) hold some advantages over conventional organic fluorescent dyes. Due to these advantages, they are becoming increasingly popular in the field of bioimaging. However, recent work suggests that cadmium based QDs affect cellular activity. As a substitute for cadmium based QDs, we have developed photoluminescent stable silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) with a passive-oxidation technique. Si-QDs (size: 6.5 ± 1.5 nm) emit green light, and they have been used as biological labels for living cell imaging. In order to determine the minimum concentration for cytotoxicity, we investigated the response of HeLa cells. We have shown that the toxicity of Si-QDs was not observed at 112 μg ml -1 and that Si-QDs were less toxic than CdSe-QDs at high concentration in mitochondrial assays and with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Especially under UV exposure, Si-QDs were more than ten times safer than CdSe-QDs. We suggest that one mechanism for the cytotoxicity is that Si-QDs can generate oxygen radicals and these radicals are associated with membrane damages. This work has demonstrated the suitability of Si-QDs for bioimaging in lower concentration, and their cytotoxicity and one toxicity mechanism at high concentration

  11. Atmospheric concentration of 210Pb in East Asia and its contribution to Japanese islands by long-range transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Taeko; Sato, Shin; Sato, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric 210 Pb is a long-lived progeny of 222 Rn generated from the earth's crust and exists as adsorbed onto the surface of aerosol particles. The distribution of atmospheric 210 Pb in East Asia reflects (1) the concentration levels in continental and maritime air masses and (2) the spatial extent of the continental air mass. This paper reviews the previously observed results on seasonal variation of 210 Pb concentration at several sites of Japan, Korea and China to evaluate the contribution of continental to Japanese atmosphere, and the specific activity of 210 Pb in the main components of aerosol samples and discusses from the view point of the Japanese islands. The authors conclude that aerosols from continental East Asia in winter contain more soil particles with low specific radioactivity of 210 Pb than the aerosols in Japan and that the natural radionuclide is extremely useful tracer for researches on meteorological phenomena and global transfer of environmental pollution. (S. Ohno)

  12. [Biologic effects of different concentrations of putrescine on human umbilical vein endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxia; Rong, Xinzhou; Fan, Guicheng; Li, Songze; Zhang, Tao; Li, Qinghui

    2015-12-01

    To explore the effects of different concentrations of putrescine on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were routinely cultured in vitro. The 3rd to the 5th passage of HUVECs were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into 500, 1 000, and 5 000 µg/mL putrescine groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method was used for following grouping), with 3 wells in each group, which were respectively cultured with complete culture solution containing putrescine in the corresponding concentration for 24 h. Morphology of cells was observed by inverted optical microscope. (2) Cells were divided into 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0, 500.0, 1 000.0 µg/mL putrescine groups, and control group, with 4 wells in each group. Cells in the putrescine groups were respectively cultured with complete culture solution containing putrescine in the corresponding concentration for 24 h, and cells in control group were cultured with complete culture solution with no additional putrescine for 24 h. Cell proliferation activity (denoted as absorption value) was measured by colorimetry. (3) Cells were divided (with one well in each group) and cultured as in experiment (2), and the migration ability was detected by transwell migration assay. (4) Cells were divided (with one flask in each group) and cultured as in experiment (2), and the cell apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometer. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Dunnett test. (1) After 24-h culture, cell attachment was good in 500 µg/mL putrescine group, and no obvious change in the shape was observed; cell attachment was less in 1 000 µg/mL putrescine group and the cells were small and rounded; cells in 5 000 µg/mL putrescine group were in fragmentation without attachment. (2) The absorption values of cells in 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0, 500.0, 1 000.0 µg/mL putrescine groups

  13. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  14. A biological indicator of inorganic arsenic exposure using the sum of urinary inorganic arsenic and monomethylarsonic acid concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akihisa; Kurosawa, Hidetoshi; Endo, Yoko; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Fujitani, Noboru; Endo, Ginji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) concentrations is used for the biological monitoring of occupational iAs exposure. Although DMA is a major metabolite of iAs, it is an inadequate index because high DMA levels are present in urine after seafood consumption. We estimated the urinary iAs+MMA concentration corresponding to iAs exposure. Methods: We used data from two arsenic speciation analyses of urine samples from 330 Bangladeshi with oral iAs exposure and 172 Japanese workers without occupational iAs exposure using high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: iAs, MMA, and DMA, but not arsenobetaine (AsBe), were detected in the urine of the Bangladeshi subjects. The correlation between iAs+MMA+DMA and iAs+MMA was obtained as log (iAs+MMA) = 1.038 log (iAs+MMA+DMA) -0.658. Using the regression formula, the iAs+MMA value was calculated as 2.15 and 7.5 μg As/l, corresponding to 3 and 10 μg As/m3 of exposures, respectively. In the urine of the Japanese workers, arsenic was mostly excreted as AsBe. We used the 95th percentile of iAs+MMA (12.6 μg As/l) as the background value. The sum of the calculated and background values can be used as a biological indicator of iAs exposure. Conclusion: We propose 14.8 and 20.1 μg As/l of urinary iAs+MMA as the biological indicators of 3 and 10 μg As/m3 iAs exposure, respectively. PMID:27010090

  15. Biological nitrogen and carbon removal in a gravity flow biomass concentrator reactor for municipal sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Hidaka, Taira; Campo, Pablo; Kleiner, Eric; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    A novel membrane system, the Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR), was evaluated as an alternative technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Because the BCR is equipped with a membrane whose average poresize is 20 μm (18-28 μm), the reactor requires low-pressure differential to operate (gravity). The effectiveness of this system was evaluated for the removal of carbon and nitrogen using two identical BCRs, identified as conventional and hybrid, that were operated in parallel. The conventional reactor was operated under full aerobic conditions (i.e., organic carbon and ammonia oxidation), while the hybrid reactor incorporated an anoxic zone for nitrate reduction as well as an aerobic zone for organic carbon and ammonia oxidation. Both reactors were fed synthetic wastewater at a flow rate of 71 L d(-1), which resulted in a hydraulic retention time of 9 h. In the case of the hybrid reactor, the recycle flow from the aerobic zone to the anoxic zone was twice the feed flow rate. Reactor performance was evaluated under two solids retention times (6 and 15 d). Under these conditions, the BCRs achieved nearly 100% mixed liquor solids separation with a hydraulic head differential of less than 2.5 cm. The COD removal efficiency was over 90%. Essentially complete nitrification was achieved in both systems, and nitrogen removal in the hybrid reactor was close to the expected value (67%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  17. Molecular comparison of cattle fever ticks from native and introduced ranges with insights into optimal search areas for classical biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control using specialist parasitoids, predators and/or nematodes from the native ranges of cattle fever ticks could complement existing control strategies for this livestock pest in the transboundary region between Mexico and Texas. DNA fingerprinting tools were used to compare ...

  18. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p

  19. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  20. Biological and life-history factors affecting total mercury concentrations in Arctic charr from Heintzelman Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Shannon van der; Reist, James D.; Babaluk, John A.; Power, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A snapshot sample of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Heintzelman Lake (81°42′N, 66°56′W), Ellesmere Island, Canada was used to elucidate the biological and life-history factors potentially influencing individual total mercury (THg) concentrations. Migratory history was significant, with anadromous fish having a lower mean THg concentration (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous Arctic charr (117 μg/kg ww). The increase in individual THg concentration with age was shown to be independent of length-at-age when large and small individuals within the same age groups were compared. Similarly, the diets of individual Arctic charr were comparable regardless of size, and there was no apparent ontogenetic shift in diet that could explain differences in length-at-age or THg concentration among fast- and slow-growing groups of fish (i.e., fish of the same age but differing sizes). Maturity state was also not related to THg concentration, but appears to be related to differences in length-at-age, with slow-growing fish allocating more energy to reproduction than fast-growing conspecifics. The differences in THg concentration among individual Arctic charr were best explained by fish age. We suggest that the increase in mercury concentration with age can be altered by a shift in diet (e.g., to piscivory) or habitat (e.g., anadromy), but is otherwise unaffected by changes in size or length-at-age. -- Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in Arctic charr from a single lake in the Canadian high Arctic. ► Anadromous Arctic charr had a significantly lower mean [THg] (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous fish (117 μg/kg ww). ► Length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) was not related to mean [THg] when same-age groups were compared. ► Prey resource use, determined by δ 13 C and δ 15 N isotopes and gut contents, was similar among fast- and slow-growing fish. ► Maturity state was not related to [THg], but the slow

  1. Tertiary treatment of textile wastewater with combined media biological aerated filter (CMBAF) at different hydraulic loadings and dissolved oxygen concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Zhao Chaocheng; Zhao Dongfeng; Liu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    An up-flow biological aerated filter packed with two layers media was employed for tertiary treatment of textile wastewater secondary effluent. Under steady state conditions, good performance of the reactor was achieved and the average COD, NH 4 + -N and total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent were 31, 2 and 8 mg/L, respectively. For a fixed dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, an increase of hydraulic loading resulted in a decrease in substrate removal. With the increase of hydraulic loadings from 0.13 to 0.78 m 3 /(m 2 h), the removal efficiencies of COD, NH 4 + -N and TN all decreased, which dropped from 52 to 38%, from 90 to 68% and from 45 to 33%, respectively. In addition, the results also confirmed that the increase of COD and NH 4 + -N removal efficiencies resulted from the increase of DO concentrations, but this variation trend was not observed for TN removal. With the increase of DO concentrations from 2.4 to 6.1 mg/L, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH 4 + -N were 39-53% and 64-88%, whenas TN removal efficiencies increased from 39 to 42% and then dropped to 35%

  2. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleiro, Marina; Mc Kay, Fernando; Wheeler, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    During surveys for natural enemies that could be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper), the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the shrub in South America. The biology and larval and adult host range of this species were examined to determine the insect's suitability for biological control of this invasive weed in North America and Hawaii. Biological observations indicate that the larvae have five instars. When disturbed, the late instar larvae emit formic acid from a prothoracic gland that may protect larvae from generalist predators. Larval host range tests conducted both in South and North America indicated that this species feeds and completes development primarily on members of the Anacardiaceae within the tribe Rhoeae. Oviposition tests indicated that when given a choice in large cages the adults will select the target weed over Pistacia spp. However, considering the many valued plant species in its host range, especially several North American natives, this species will not be considered further for biological control of S. terebinthifolius in North America.

  3. Assessment of the effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes over a broad range of biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B; Shuster, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six biology courses showed that strong majorities of students had favorable overall impressions of the use of student response systems and also thought that the technology improved their interest in the course, attendance, and understanding of course content. Students in lower-division courses had more strongly positive overall impressions than did students in upper-division courses. To assess the effects of the response systems on student learning, the number of in-class questions was varied within each course throughout the semester. Students' performance was compared on exam questions derived from lectures with low, medium, or high numbers of in-class questions. Increased use of the response systems in lecture had a positive influence on students' performance on exam questions across all six biology courses. Students not only have favorable opinions about the use of student response systems, increased use of these systems increases student learning.

  4. Sodium fire test at broad ranges of temperature and oxygen concentration. 4. Low temperature sodium spray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2005-08-01

    Sodium spray fire tests at the initial sodium temperature of 250degC were conducted under the atmospheric conditions of air and 3% oxygen containing nitrogen to determine the sodium burning rate and the aerosol release fraction and compare them with the test results at the initial sodium temperature of 500degC in air atmosphere. In the tests, sodium was supplied using a commercial spray nozzle into a stainless steel vessel of 100 m 3 volume (SOLFA-2). The sodium burning rate was calculated from two independent methods: the consumption rate of oxygen in the vessel and the enthalpy change of vessel components during the test. The aerosol release fraction was determined from the comparison between the measured aerosol concentrations and the calculated ones by the ABC-INTG code. The main conclusions were as follows, (1) In air atmosphere, a) sodium droplets ignited instantaneously and the spray fire was observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 440 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was about 70%. (2) In 3% oxygen containing nitrogen, a) ignition of sodium droplets was not observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 44 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was less than 10%. (author)

  5. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period defined from over 63 000 records in a multihospital health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R D; Jensen, J; Maheshwari, A; Henry, E

    2010-08-01

    Blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes are part of the complete blood count. Reference ranges for these concentrations during the neonatal period, established by very large sample sizes and modern methods, are needed for identifying abnormally low or high values. We constructed reference ranges for eosinophils per microl and monocytes per microl among neonates of 22 to 42 weeks of gestation, on the day of birth, and also during 28 days after birth. Data were obtained from archived electronic records over an eight and one-half-year period in a multihospital health-care system. In keeping with the reference range concept, values were excluded from neonates with a diagnosis of infection or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Eosinophils and monocytes per microl of blood were electronically retrieved from 96 162 records, of which 63 371 that lacked a diagnosis of infection or NEC were included in this reference range report. The mean value for eosinophils per microl on the day of birth increased linearly between 22 and 42 weeks of gestation, as did the 5 and 95% values. The reference range at 40 weeks was 140 to 1300 microl(-1) (mean 550 microl(-1)). Similarly, the mean value for monocytes increased linearly over this interval, with a reference range at 40 weeks of 300 to 3300 microl(-1) (mean 1400 microl(-1)). Over the first 4 weeks after birth, no appreciable change was observed in 5% limit and mean eosinophil count, with a slight increase in the 95% limit in week 4. A slight increase in monocyte count was observed during the first 2 weeks after birth. The results of this analysis describe reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period. Additional study is needed for determining the relevance of values falling outside the reference range.

  6. N,N'-Dimethylthiourea dioxide formation from N,N'-dimethylthiourea reflects hydrogen peroxide concentrations in simple biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.E.; Muldrow, M.E.; Parker, N.B.; Barkley, R.; Linas, S.L.; Repine, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that measurement of a specific product from reaction of N,N'-dimethylthiourea (Me 2 TU) and H 2 O 2 would provide a good indication of the H 2 O 2 scavenging and protection seen after addition of Me 2 TU to biological systems. They found that addition of H 2 O 2 to Me 2 TU yielded a single stable product, Me 2 TU dioxide. Me 2 TU dioxide formation correlated with Me 2 TU consumption as a function of added H 2 O 2 concentration and was prevented by simultaneous addition of catalase (but not boiled catalase), superoxide dismutase, dimethyl sulfoxide, mannitol, or sodium benzoate. Me 2 TU dioxide formation, Me 2 TU consumption, and H 2 O 2 concentration increases occurred in mixtures containing phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and normal human neutrophils but not in mixtures containing PMA and neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease or in mixtures containing PMA and normal neutrophils and catalase. Me 2 TU dioxide formation also occurred in isolated rat lungs perfused with Me 2 TU and H 2 O 2 but not in lungs perfused with Me 2 TU and elastase, histamine, or oleic acid. In contrast, Me 2 TU dioxide formation did not occur after exposure of Me 2 TU to 60 Co-generated hydroxyl radical or hypochlorous acid in the presence of catalase. The results indicate that reaction of Me 2 TU with H 2 O 2 selectively forms Me 2 TU may be useful for assessing the presence and significance of H 2 O 2 in biological systems

  7. MAK and BAT values list 2016. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2016 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  8. MAK and BAT values list 2017. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2017 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  9. Estimating background denudation rates and delivery of landslide sediment from a time series of 10Be concentrations in landslide dominated basins in the southern Central Range of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Willett, S.; West, A. J.; Dadson, S. J.; Hovius, N.; Christl, M.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    The southern Central Range of Taiwan is located at a tectonic transition zone between an oceanic subduction zone and the arc-continent collision forming the Taiwan orogen. The rapidly evolving tectonic setting, tropical climate and frequent typhoons result in a complex uplift pattern, transient landscapes and extensive landslides. For this study, we obtained a series of 10Be concentrations over the last decade for 13 major drainage basins in the southern Central Range, bracketing the occurrence of a major typhoon, Morakot, which hit Taiwan in 2009 and triggered thousands of landslides. This time series allows us to simultaneously estimate the background erosion rate and assess the impact of Morakot-triggered landslides on 10Be concentrations. The time series of 10Be concentrations shows temporally lower concentrations of 10Be indicating dilution following the Morakot event in most basins. The diluted 10Be concentrations imply erosion rates up to three times higher than the lowest measured rates in the same basins. We constructed a simple sediment-mixing model parameterized by a sudden input of sediment supplied from landslides superimposed on a background denudation rate. This model was calibrated to measured landslide inventories and the series of 10Be data. We obtain a range of permissible background erosion rate and fraction of landslide sediments over time for each basin. The inferred background erosion rate reveals a northward increasing trend, reflecting the initial stage of the mountain building and indicating tectonic forcing is the main driver of the landscape evolution in the southern Central Range. The temporal changes in fraction of landslide sediments show that the available landslide material generated by the Morakot event is decreasing over time with a timescale of several years.

  10. Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Valérie A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA capped have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly

  11. Long-term exposure of CdTe quantum dots on PC12 cellular activity and the determination of optimum non-toxic concentrations for biological use

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2010-03-25

    Abstract Background The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs) have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs (gelatinised and non-gelatinised Thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped) have been investigated with pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. In conjunction to their analysis by confocal microscopy, the QD - cell interplay was explored as the QD concentrations were varied over extended (up to 72 hours) co-incubation times. Coupled to this investigation, cell viability, DNA quantification and cell proliferation assays were also performed to compare and contrast the various factors leading to cell stress and ultimately death. Results Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilised CdTe QDs (gel and non - gel) were co-incubated with PC12 cells and investigated as to how their presence influenced cell behaviour and function. Cell morphology was analysed as the QD concentrations were varied over co-incubations up to 72 hours. The QDs were found to be excellent fluorophores, illuminating the cytoplasm of the cells and no deleterious effects were witnessed at concentrations of ~10-9 M. Three assays were utilised to probe how individual cell functions (viability, DNA quantification and proliferation) were affected by the presence of the QDs at various concentrations and incubation times. Cell response was found to not only be concentration dependant but also influenced by the surface environment of the QDs. Gelatine capping on the surface acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic atoms, thus reducing the negative impact of the QDs. Conclusion This study has shown that under the correct conditions, QDs can be routinely used for the imaging of PC12 cells with minimal adverse effects. We have found that PC12 cells are highly susceptible to

  12. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Persistent after-effects of heavy rain on concentrations of ice nuclei and rainfall suggest a biological cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, E. K.; Soubeyrand, S.; Morris, C. E.

    2015-03-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important aspects of climate, but the extent to which atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) influence its formation, quantity, frequency, and location is not clear. Microorganisms and other biological particles are released following rainfall and have been shown to serve as efficient IN, in turn impacting cloud and precipitation formation. Here we investigated potential long-term effects of IN on rainfall frequency and quantity. Differences in IN concentrations and rainfall after and before days of large rainfall accumulation (i.e., key days) were calculated for measurements made over the past century in southeastern and southwestern Australia. Cumulative differences in IN concentrations and daily rainfall quantity and frequency as a function of days from a key day demonstrated statistically significant increasing logarithmic trends (R2 > 0.97). Based on observations that cumulative effects of rainfall persisted for about 20 days, we calculated cumulative differences for the entire sequence of key days at each site to create a historical record of how the differences changed with time. Comparison of pre-1960 and post-1960 sequences most commonly showed smaller rainfall totals in the post-1960 sequences, particularly in regions downwind from coal-fired power stations. This led us to explore the hypothesis that the increased leaf surface populations of IN-active bacteria due to rain led to a sustained but slowly diminishing increase in atmospheric concentrations of IN that could potentially initiate or augment rainfall. This hypothesis is supported by previous research showing that leaf surface populations of the ice-nucleating bacterium Pseudomonas syringae increased by orders of magnitude after heavy rain and that microorganisms become airborne during and after rain in a forest ecosystem. At the sites studied in this work, aerosols that could have initiated rain from sources unrelated to previous rainfall events (such as power stations) would

  14. Nicotine dose-concentration relationship and pregnancy outcomes in rat: Biologic plausibility and implications for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Jabeen; Farkas, Svetlana; MacKinnon, Yolanda; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure during pregnancy can lead to profound adverse effects on fetal development. Although CS contains several thousand chemicals, nicotine has been widely used as its surrogate as well as in its own right as a neuroteratogen. The justification for the route and dose of nicotine administration is largely based on inferential data suggesting that nicotine 6 mg/kg/day infused continuously via osmotic mini pumps (OMP) would mimic maternal CS exposure. We provide evidence that 6 mg/kg/day nicotine dose as commonly administered to pregnant rats leads to plasma nicotine concentrations that are 3-10-fold higher than those observed in moderate to heavy smokers and pregnant mothers, respectively. Furthermore, the cumulative daily nicotine dose exceeds by several hundred fold the amount consumed by human heavy smokers. Our study does not support the widely accepted notion that regardless of the nicotine dose, a linear nicotine dose-concentration relationship exists in a steady-state OMP model. We also show that total nicotine clearance increases with advancing pregnancy but no significant change is observed between the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Furthermore, nicotine infusion even at this extremely high dose has little effect on a number of maternal and fetal biologic variables and pregnancy outcome suggesting that CS constituents other than nicotine mediate the fetal growth restriction in infants born to smoking mothers. Our current study has major implications for translational research in developmental toxicology and pharmacotherapy using nicotine replacement treatment as an aid to cessation of cigarette smoking in pregnant mothers

  15. Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of the effects of different concentrations of Copper on the chemical composition and biological activity of basil essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Ayub, Muhammad Adnan; Ishtiaq, Faiqa; Kanwal, Nazish; Rashid, Nosheen; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2017-10-01

    The present study is performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Cu as fertilizer on the chemical composition of basil essential oil and its biological activity including antioxidant and antifungal activities by employing Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of Cu is also determined on the vegetative growth and essential oil yield. Both, antifungal and antioxidant activities were found to be maximum with essential oils obtained at 0.04 mg/l concentration of Cu fertilizer. The results of the GC-MS and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that the linalool and estragole are found to be as a major chemical compound in basil essential oil. The Raman spectral changes associated with these biological components lead to the conclusion that estragole seems to have dominating effect in the biological activities of the basil essential oil as compared to linalool although the latter is observed in greater concentration.

  16. Interactions between cadmium and lead with acidic soils: Experimental evidence of similar adsorption patterns for a wide range of metal concentrations and the implications of metal migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, O.S.; Probst, A.; Leviel, E.; Liao, B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adsorption experiments of Cd and Pb in acid soils (China, France). ► Large pH conditions and large range of metal concentrations were considered. ► Similar dependencies between metals concentration in solution and metal adsorbed on the surface were predicted using Langmuir and Freundlich equations and surface complexation model (SCM). ► No competition between Cd and Pb detected at pH 5. ► Metal adsorption capacity is two orders of magnitude higher than limit value for soil protection. - Abstract: The importance of high- and low-affinity surface sites for cadmium and lead adsorption in typical European and Asian soils was investigated. Adsorption experiments on surface and deep horizons of acidic brown (Vosges, France) and red loess soils (Hunan, China) were performed at 25 °C as a function of the pH (3.5–8) and a large range of metal concentrations in solution (10 −9 –10 −4 mol l −1 ). We studied the adsorption kinetics using a Cd 2+ -selective electrode and desorption experiments as a function of the solid/solution ratio and pH. At a constant solution pH, all samples exhibited similar maximal adsorption capacities (4.0 ± 0.5 μmol/g Cd and 20 ± 2 μmol/g Pb). A constant slope of adsorbed–dissolved concentration dependence was valid over 5 orders of magnitude of metal concentrations. Universal Langmuir and Freundlich equations and the SCM formalism described the adsorption isotherms and the pH-dependent adsorption edge over very broad ranges of metal concentrations, indicating no high- or low-affinity sites for metal binding at the soil surface under these experimental conditions. At pH 5, Cd and Pb did not compete, in accordance with the SCM. The metal adsorption ability exceeded the value for soil protection by two orders of magnitude, but only critical load guarantees soil protection since metal toxicity depends on metal availability.

  17. Concentration and temperature dependence of short-range order in Ni-Ta solid solution using X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.; Alam, A.

    1980-09-01

    Diffuse X-ray scattering investigations about the existence of short-range order (SRO) have been carried out in the Ni-Ta system for different concentrations and annealing temperatures. It is observed that the values of the SRO parameters for the first co-ordination shell have anomalously large negative values for all the samples studied. These values of the α 1 depend upon the annealing temperatures and the concentration of Ta atoms in the Ni-Ta system. The results of the theoretical predictions of the ordering potential obtained using the formulae of the electronic theory of SRO, confirm the existence of very strong attractive correlation between the atoms of the different species in this system. (author)

  18. A shortcut to wide-ranging biological actions of dietary polyphenols: modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Nunes, Carla; Pereira, Cassilda; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2014-08-01

    Dietary polyphenols are complex, natural compounds with recognized health benefits. Initially attractive to the biomedical area due to their in vitro antioxidant properties, the biological implications of polyphenols are now known to be far from their acute ability to scavenge free radicals but rather to modulate redox signaling pathways. Actually, it is now recognized that dietary polyphenols are extensively metabolized in vivo and that the chemical, biophysical and biological properties of their metabolites are, in most cases, quite different from the ones of the parent molecules. Hence, the study of the metabolic, absorptive and signaling pathways of both phenolics and derivatives has become a major issue. In this paper we propose a short-cut for the systemic effects of polyphenols in connection with nitric oxide (˙NO) biology. This free radical is a ubiquitous signaling molecule with pivotal functions in vivo. It is produced through an enzymatic pathway and also through the reduction of dietary nitrate and nitrite in the human stomach. At acidic gastric pH, dietary polyphenols, in the form they are conveyed in foods and at high concentration, not only promote nitrite reduction to ˙NO but also embark in a complex network of chemical reactions to produce higher nitrogen oxides with signaling functions, namely by inducing post-translational modifications. Modified endogenous molecules, such as nitrated proteins and lipids, acquire important physiological functions. Thus, local and systemic effects of ˙NO such as modulation of vascular tone, mucus production in the gut and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury are, in this sense, triggered by dietary polyphenols. Evidence to support the signaling and biological effects of polyphenols by modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway will be herein provided and discussed. General actions of polyphenols encompassing absorption and metabolism in the intestine/liver are short-cut via the production of

  19. A systematic Monte Carlo simulation study of the primitive model planar electrical double layer over an extended range of concentrations, electrode charges, cation diameters and valences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiskó, Mónika; Kristóf, Tamás; Gillespie, Dirk; Boda, Dezső

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide data for the primitive model of the planar electrical double layer, where ions are modeled as charged hard spheres, the solvent as an implicit dielectric background (with dielectric constant ɛ = 78.5), and the electrode as a smooth, uniformly charged, hard wall. We use canonical and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to compute the concentration profiles, from which the electric field and electrostatic potential profiles are obtained by solving Poisson's equation. We report data for an extended range of parameters including 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 electrolytes at concentrations c = 0.0001 - 1 M near electrodes carrying surface charges up to σ = ±0.5 Cm-2. The anions are monovalent with a fixed diameter d- = 3 Å, while the charge and diameter of cations are varied in the range z+ = 1, 2, 3 and d+ = 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 Å (the temperature is 298.15 K). We provide all the raw data in the supplementary material (ftp://ftp.aip.org/epaps/aip_advances/E-AAIDBI-8-084802">supplementary material).

  20. A systematic Monte Carlo simulation study of the primitive model planar electrical double layer over an extended range of concentrations, electrode charges, cation diameters and valences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónika Valiskó

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide data for the primitive model of the planar electrical double layer, where ions are modeled as charged hard spheres, the solvent as an implicit dielectric background (with dielectric constant ϵ = 78.5, and the electrode as a smooth, uniformly charged, hard wall. We use canonical and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to compute the concentration profiles, from which the electric field and electrostatic potential profiles are obtained by solving Poisson’s equation. We report data for an extended range of parameters including 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 electrolytes at concentrations c = 0.0001 − 1 M near electrodes carrying surface charges up to σ = ±0.5 Cm−2. The anions are monovalent with a fixed diameter d− = 3 Å, while the charge and diameter of cations are varied in the range z+ = 1, 2, 3 and d+ = 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 Å (the temperature is 298.15 K. We provide all the raw data in the supplementary material.

  1. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schultealbert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR. For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude for four different reducing gases (CO, H2, ammonia and benzene using randomized gas exposures.

  2. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultealbert, Caroline; Baur, Tobias; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-03-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude) for four different reducing gases (CO, H₂, ammonia and benzene) using randomized gas exposures.

  3. Evolution of critical day length for diapause induction enables range expansion of Diorhabda carinulata, a biological control agent against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Dan W; Dalin, Peter; Dudley, Tom L

    2012-07-01

    In classical weed biological control, small collections of arthropods are made from one or a few sites in the native range of the target plant and are introduced to suppress the plant where it has become invasive, often across a wide geographic range. Ecological mismatches in the new range are likely, and success using the biocontrol agent may depend on postrelease evolution of beneficial life history traits. In this study, we measure the evolution of critical day length for diapause induction (day length at which 50% of the population enters dormancy), in a beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) introduced into North America from China to control an exotic shrub, Tamarix spp. Beetle populations were sampled from four sites in North America 7 years after introduction, and critical day length was shown to have declined, forming a cline over a latitudinal gradient At one field site, decreased critical day length was correlated with 16 additional days of reproductive activity, resulting in a closer match between beetle life history and the phenology of Tamarix. These findings indicate an enhanced efficacy and an increasingly wider range for D. carinulata in Tamarix control.

  4. Remote Sensing of Sub-Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration by Using the Range Bias of Green Surface Point of Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs have been retrieved accurately and effectively through waveform methods by using green-pulse waveforms of airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB. However, the waveform data are commonly difficult to analyze. Thus, this paper proposes a 3D point-cloud method for remote sensing of SSCs in calm waters by using the range biases of green surface points of ALB. The near water surface penetrations (NWSPs of green lasers are calculated on the basis of the green and reference surface points. The range biases (ΔS are calculated by using the corresponding NWSPs and beam-scanning angles. In situ measured SSCs (C and range biases (ΔS are used to establish an empirical C-ΔS model at SSC sampling stations. The SSCs in calm waters are retrieved by using the established C-ΔS model. The proposed method is applied to a practical ALB measurement performed by Optech Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging LiDAR. The standard deviations of the SSCs retrieved by the 3D point-cloud method are less than 20 mg/L.

  5. The dynamic ocean biological pump: Insights from a global compilation of particulate organic carbon, CaCO3, and opal concentration profiles from the mesopelagic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Doney, Scott C.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2011-09-01

    We have compiled a global data set of 62 open ocean profiles of particulate organic carbon (POC), CaCO3, and opal concentrations collected by large volume in situ filtration in the upper 1000 m over the last 30 years. We define concentration-based metrics for the strength (POC concentration at depth) and efficiency (attenuation of POC with depth in the mesopelagic) of the biological pump. We show that the strength and efficiency of the biological pump are dynamic and are characterized by a regime of constant and high transfer efficiency at low to moderate surface POC and a bloom regime where the height of the bloom is characterized by a weak deep biological pump and low transfer efficiency. The variability in POC attenuation length scale manifests in a clear decoupling between the strength of the shallow biological pump (e.g., POC at the export depth) and the strength of the deep biological pump (POC at 500 m). We suggest that the paradigm of diatom-driven export production is driven by a too restrictive perspective on upper mesopelagic dynamics. Indeed, our full mesopelagic analysis suggests that large, blooming diatoms have low transfer efficiency and thus may not export substantially to depth; rather, our analysis suggests that ecosystems characterized by smaller cells and moderately high %CaCO3 have a high mesopelagic transfer efficiency and can have higher POC concentrations in the deep mesopelagic even with relatively low surface or near-surface POC. This has negative implications for the carbon sequestration prospects of deliberate iron fertilization.

  6. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....

  7. Methods for preparation of mixtures of gases in air at the parts-per-billion to parts-per-million concentration range for calibration of monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpas, Z.; Melloul, S.; Pollevoy, Y.; Matmor, A.

    1992-05-01

    Static and dynamic methods for generating mixture of gases and vapors in air at the parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) concentration range were surveyed. The dynamic methods include: a dynamic flow and mixing system; injection of samples into large volumes of air; exponential dilution; permeation and diffusion tubes; and generation of the target gas by chemical reaction or electrolysis. The static methods include preparation of mixtures by weighing the components, by volumetric mixing and by partial pressure method. The principles governing the utilization of these methods for the appropriate applications were discussed, and examples in which they were used to calibrate an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) were given. (authors)

  8. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and other refrigerants) and is particularly suitable for reactive gas species and/or at concentration ranges which are unstable when stored in pressurised cylinders. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union

  9. Irradiation of biological molecules (DNA and RNA bases) by proton impact in the velocity range of the Bragg peak (20-150 keV/amu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, J.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ionization of DNA and RNA base molecules by proton impact at energies between 20 and 150 keV/amu. The experiments developed over the course of this project made it possible not only to study the fragmentation of uracil, thymine, adenine, and cytosine, but also to measure absolute cross sections for different ionization processes initiated by proton interactions with these important biological molecules. Firstly, the experimental system enabled the contributions of two key ionization processes to be separated: direct ionization and electron capture. The corresponding mass spectra were measured and analyzed on an event-by-event basis. For uracil, the branching ratios for these two processes were measured as function of the projectile velocity. Secondly, we have developed a system to measure absolute cross sections for the electron capture process. The production rate of neutral atoms compared to protons was measured for the four biological molecules: uracil, cytosine, thymine, and adenine at different vaporization temperatures. This production rate varies as a function of the thickness of the target jet traversed by the protons. Accordingly, a deposit experiment was developed in order to characterize the density of molecules in the targeted gas jets. Theoretical and experimental study of the total effusion and density-profile of the gaseous molecular beams enabled us to deduce the thickness of the target jets traversed by the protons. Thus it was possible to determine absolute cross sections for the ionization of each of the four isolated biological molecules by 80 keV protons impact. To our knowledge, this work provides the first experimental absolute cross sections for DNA and RNA base ionization processes initiated by proton impact in the velocity range corresponding to the Bragg peak. (author)

  10. Lessons learned from a review of post-accident sampling systems, high range effluent monitors and high concentration particulate iodine samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.; Knox, W.H.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Post-accident sampling systems (PASS), high range gaseous effluent monitors and sampling systems for particulates and iodine in high concentrations have been reviewed at twenty-one licensee sites in Region I of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission which includes fifteen BWR's and fourteen PWR's. Although most of the installed PASS met the criteria, the highest operational readiness was found in on-line systems that were also used for routine sampling and analysis. The detectors used in the gaseous effluent monitors included external ion chambers, GM tubes, organic scintillators and Cd-Te solid state crystals. Although all were found acceptable, each had its own inherent limitations in the conversion of detector output to the time varying concentration of a post-accident mixture of noble gases. None of the installed particulate and iodine samplers fully met all of the criteria. Their principal limitations included a lack of documentation showing that they could obtain a representative sample and that many of them would collect of an excessive amount of activity at the design criteria. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Development of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Detection of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates in a Range of Biological Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Al Kadhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now well-established that perturbations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle play an important role in the metabolic transformation occurring in cancer including that of the prostate. A method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of TCA cycle intermediates in body fluids, tissues, and cultured cell lines of human origin was developed using a common C18 reversed-phase column by LC-MS/MS technique. This LC-MS/MS method for profiling TCA cycle intermediates offers significant advantages including simple and fast preparation of a wide range of human biological samples. The analytical method was validated according to the guideline of the Royal Society of Chemistry Analytical Methods Committee. The limits of detection were below 60 nM for most of the TCA intermediates with the exception of lactic and fumaric acids. The calibration curves of all TCA analytes showed linearity with correlation coefficients r2>0.9998. Recoveries were >95% for all TCA analytes. This method was established taking into consideration problems and limitations of existing techniques. We envisage that its application to different biological matrices will facilitate deeper understanding of the metabolic changes in the TCA cycle from in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies.

  12. Effects of age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of human nucleus pulposus cells on selecting age range for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Lee, S M; Jeong, S W; Sung, Y G; Lee, J H; Kim, K W

    2016-07-01

    Autologous disc cell implantation, growth factors and gene therapy appear to be promising therapies for disc regeneration. Unfortunately, the replicative lifespan and growth kinetics of human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells related to host age are unclear. We investigated the potential relations among age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of NP cells, and determined the age range that is suitable for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases. We used NP tissues classified by decade into five age groups: 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s. The mean cumulative population doubling level (PDL) and population doubling rate (PDR) of NP cells were assessed by decade. We also investigated correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR decreased significantly in patients in their 60s. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR in the younger groups (30s, 40s and 50s) were significantly higher than those in the older groups (60s and 70s). There also were significant negative correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. We found that the replicative lifespan and growth rate of human NP cells decreased with age. The replicative potential of NP cells decreased significantly in patients 60 years old and older. Young individuals less than 60 years old may be suitable candidates for NP cell-based biological therapies for treating degenerative disc diseases.

  13. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  14. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of "1"4C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and "1"4C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the "1"4C concentration in "1"4C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of "1"4C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a "1"4C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. "1"4C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean "1"4C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of "1"4C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, "1"4C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. "1"4C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; "1"4C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and {sup 14}C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko, E-mail: tteiko@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the {sup 14}C concentration in {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of {sup 14}C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a {sup 14}C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. {sup 14}C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean {sup 14}C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of {sup 14}C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, {sup 14}C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. {sup 14}C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; {sup 14}C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  16. Heterogeneous processing of biomass burning aerosol proxies by OH radicals for a wide range of OH concentrations and detection of volatilization products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J. H.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) constitutes the majority of primary organic aerosol found in the atmosphere, with emission rates comparable to fossil-fuel burning. BBA affects earth's radiative budget directly through absorption and scattering of radiation or indirectly by modifying cloud radiative properties, and impacts air quality. Quantifying BBA source strength and thus its effects on air quality, human health, and climate can be difficult since these organic particles can chemically transform during atmospheric transport, a process also termed aging, due to heterogeneous reactions with oxidants and radicals such as OH. In this work we investigate the reactive uptake of OH radicals by typical BBA compounds that also serve as molecular markers for source apportionment studies. Organic substrates of cellulose pyrolysis products such as levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-glucopyranose, C6H10O5), resin acids such as abietic acid (1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, C20H30O2), and lignin decomposition products such as 5-nitroguaiacol (2-methoxy-5-nitrophenol, C7H7NO4) have been exposed to a wide range of OH concentrations (~107-1011 cm-3), in presence of O2 in a rotating wall flow reactor operated at 2-6 mbar coupled to a custom built chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). OH radicals were generated through H2 dissociation in an Evenson microwave resonant cavity operated at 2.45 GHz followed by reaction with O2 or NO2. In addition, potential volatilization of organic material due to heterogeneous oxidation by OH has been determined in-situ by monitoring the volatile organic compounds using a high resolution-proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (HR-PTR-ToF-MS). The volatilization studies are conducted at 1 atm and OH is generated by O3 photolysis in the presence of H2O vapor and quantified using a photochemical box model as well as through reaction with a known concentration of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C5H8). Reactive uptake validation

  17. Reference Ranges of Serum Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine Concentration and Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Kidneys in Term Healthy Newborns in the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute kidney injury is an important problem in neonates. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study to determine normal serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine reference ranges and ranges of ultrasonographic measurement of kidneys in healthy term newborns. Study Design: Blood samples were collected from total 357 healthy newborns at birth (n=45, 1st (n=30, 3rd (n=61, 7th (n=34, 10th (n=132, 14th (n=36, and 28th (n=19 days of life. Renal ultrasonographic was performed by the same two radiologists on 81 newborns aged 10 days. Results: Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations have reached to the highest level at the first day of life and have returned to cord level at the third day of life. There were gradually decrease in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels after the first day of life. There were significant difference in both right and left renal length, width, and volumes in terms of gender and these parameters were statistically higher in boys than girls (p<0.05. Birth weight of the boys (3548±539g was statistically higher than girls (3307±405 g (p=0.028. There was a positive correlation between birth weight and right (r=0.38, p=0.000 and left kidney volumes (r=0.44, p=0.000. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measured blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels changed in accordance with postnatal days and there was a positive correlation between kidney volume and birth weight of newborns. We concluded that these findings are important for evaluation of acute kidney injury and for screening of for urinary tract anomalies in neonates

  18. A Case Study On the Relative Influence of Free Tropospheric Subsidence, Long Range Transport and Local Production in Modulating Ozone Concentrations over Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis; Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) operates a network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) around the Doha metropolitan area and an ozonesonde station with regular weekly launches and occasional higher frequency launch experiments (HFLE). Six ozonesondes were launched at 0700 LT/0400 UTC and 1300 LT/1000 UTC over a three day period between 10-12 September, 2013. We present the analysis of the ozonesonde data coupled with regional chemical transport modeling over the same time period using WRF-Chem validated against both the ozonesonde and surface AQMS measurements. The HFLE and modeling show evidence of both subsidence and transboundary transport of ozone during the study period, coupled with a strong sea breeze circulation on the 11th of September resulting in elevated ozone concentrations throughout the boundary layer. The development of the sea breeze during the course of the day and influence of the early morning residual layer versus daytime production is quantified. The almost complete titration of ozone in the morning hours of 11 September, 2013 is attributed to local vehicular emissions of NOx and stable atmospheric conditions prevailing over the Doha area. The relative contribution of long range transport of ozone along the Arabian Gulf coast and local urban emissions are discussed.

  19. Biological removal of sulfur from coal flotation concentrate by culture isolated from coal washery plant tailing dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorjani, E. [Azad University, Tehran (Iran). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2005-10-15

    A combination of flotation and microbial leaching processes was used to achieve acceptable level of sulfur and ash in Tabas coal sample of Iran. Representative sample of the minus 500 micron size fraction was subjected to flotation separation for the removal of ash and sulfur. The final concentrate with recovery, combustion value and sulfur content of 86.03, 86.45 and 1.35% respectively was achieved at pH 8 and following reagent dosage and operating conditions: collector: diesel oil (1200 g/ton), frother: MIBC (5%) + pine oil (95%) with concentration of 120 (g/ton), depressant: sodium silicate (1000 g/ton), particle size: {lt} 500 {mu} m and pulp density: 7%. Because of fine distribution of sulfur on Tabas coal macerals and lithotypes, high percentage of total sulfur (79.9%) is distributed in flotation concentrate and only 20.1% is yielded in the tails. So microbial leaching using a species isolated from coal washery plant tailing dump was used in batch system to remove sulfur from flotation concentrate. The conditions were optimized for the maximum removal of sulfur. These conditions were found to be pH of 2, particle size less than 0.18 mm; pulp density: 8%, temperature: 30 {sup o}C, shaking rate: 150 rpm conditions. Total sulfur and ash content was reduced by bioleaching from 13.55 and 1.35 in flotation concentrate to 9.47 and 0.55 in the final leached concentrate, a reduction of 35 and 61.9% respectively. Sterilization of coal adversely affects the sulfur reduction. The results suggest that the isolated culture is sufficiently effective for depyritization of Tabas coal flotation concentrate in stirred system.

  20. Biological variables and health status affecting inorganic element concentrations in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from Portugal (western Iberian Peninsula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Marisa; Monteiro, Silvia S.; Torres, Jordi; Oliveira, Isabel; Sequeira, Marina; López, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The coastal preferences of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) intensify their exposure to human activities. The harbour porpoise Iberian population is presently very small and information about the threats it endures is vital for the conservation efforts that are being implemented to avoid local extinction. The present study explored the possible relation between the accumulation of trace elements by porpoises and their sex, body length, nutritional state, presence of parasites and gross pathologies. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) were evaluated in 42 porpoises stranded in Portugal between 2005 and 2013. Considering European waters, porpoises stranded in Portugal present the highest Hg concentrations and the lowest Cd concentrations, which may reflect dietary preferences and the geographic availability of these pollutants. While no effect of sex on trace element concentrations was detected, there was a positive relationship between porpoise body length and the concentration of Cd, Hg and Pb. Animals in worse nutritional condition showed higher levels of Zn. Harbour porpoises with high parasite burdens showed lower levels of Zn and As in all analysed tissues and also lower levels of renal Ni, while those showing gross pathologies presented higher Zn and Hg levels. This is the first data on the relationship between trace elements and health-related variables in porpoises from southern European Atlantic waters, providing valuable baseline information about the contamination status of this vulnerable population. - Highlights: • High levels of mercury in harbour porpoises from Portugal. • Evidence of bioaccumulation of non-essential trace elements. • Presence of parasites influenced some essential trace elements. • Evidence of nutritional state effect on Zn levels. • Presence of gross pathologies influenced Zn and Hg levels. - The small harbour

  1. Foraging and fasting can influence contaminant concentrations in animals: an example with mercury contamination in a free-ranging marine mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2018-01-01

    Large fluctuations in animal body mass in relation to life-history events can influence contaminant concentrations and toxicological risk. We quantified mercury concentrations in adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) before and after lengthy at sea foraging trips (n = 89) or fasting periods on land (n = 27), and showed that mercury concentrations in blood and muscle changed in response to these events. The highest blood mercury concentrations were observed after the breeding fast, whereas the highest muscle mercury concentrations were observed when seals returned to land to moult. Mean female blood mercury concentrations decreased by 30% across each of the two annual foraging trips, demonstrating a foraging-associated dilution of mercury concentrations as seals gained mass. Blood mercury concentrations increased by 103% and 24% across the breeding and moulting fasts, respectively, demonstrating a fasting-associated concentration of mercury as seals lost mass. In contrast to blood, mercury concentrations in female's muscle increased by 19% during the post-breeding foraging trip and did not change during the post-moulting foraging trip. While fasting, female muscle mercury concentrations increased 26% during breeding, but decreased 14% during moulting. Consequently, regardless of exposure, an animal's contaminant concentration can be markedly influenced by their annual life-history events.

  2. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in Baden-Württemberg (SW Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, Jürgen; Holz, Ingo; Zipperle, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    nutrients C, N, S, P, Ca, K and Mg and the metals Mn, Cd, Pb, Al, Cu, Ni and Hg. Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariate statistics and maps were produced to identify regional differences in pollutant deposition. Out of the elements analysed, lead and sulphur concentrations showed the most pronounced downward trends over time in tree foliage and grassland samples with the largest decreases observed in the early 1990 s. Both the reduced lead and sulphur levels in the biomonitors reflect the successful implementation of clean air policies, i.e. the introduction of unleaded gasoline, the availability of desulphurisation technologies and the economic transition of Eastern European heavy industries. However, the decrease in sulphur concentrations was lower in beech foliage from SW Germany as compared to beech leaves from six German national parks suggesting regional differences in sulphur deposition and trends thereof. At the same time, sulphur concentrations declined more strongly in the grassland samples indicating that much of the deposited sulphur remains in the forest ecosystems while in the grassland ecosystems it is gradually removed by the frequent cutting and grazing. During the time series, the decrease in sulphur deposition coincided with a marked increase in rain pH. At the same time, the increasing nitrogen concentrations observed over time in beech leaves suggest that emissions of oxidised and reduced nitrogen are still adding to the large-scale eutrophication of SW German forests. However, N concentrations in both the tree foliage and in the bulk grassland samples were unrelated to the modelled N deposition. When also considering macronutrient concentrations and N:P and N:K ratios, the results point to serious nutrient imbalances in many beech forests, which may reduce plant vitality and tree growth in the long run. Biological monitoring using plants is an effective tool to address changes in the environmental quality over time and space. The success

  4. Biological control of short-term variations in the concentration of DMSP and DMS during a Phaeocystis spring bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duyl, FC; Gieskes, WWC; Kop, AJ; Lewis, WE

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1995. short-term variations in the concentration of particulate and dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) were monitored in the western Wadden Sea, a shallow coastal region in open connection with the North Sea. Significant correlations were found

  5. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  8. Measurement of Androgen and Estrogen Concentrations in Cord Blood: Accuracy, Biological Interpretation and Applications to Understanding Human Behavioural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P Hollier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring hormone exposure during prenatal life presents a methodological challenge and there is currently no ‘gold standard’ approach. Ideally, circulating fetal hormone levels would be measured at repeated time points during pregnancy. However, it is not currently possible to obtain fetal blood samples without significant risk to the fetus, and therefore surrogate markers of fetal hormone levels must be utilized. Umbilical cord blood can be readily obtained at birth and largely reflects fetal circulation in late gestation. This review examines the accuracy and biological interpretation of the measurement of androgens and estrogens in cord blood. The use of cord blood hormones to understand and investigate human development is then discussed.

  9. Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (northwestern Mediterranean Sea: use as a biological monitor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Marc

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within semi-closed areas like the Mediterranean Sea, anthropic wastes tend to concentrate in the environment. Metals, in particular, are known to persist in the environment and can affect human health due to accumulation in the food chain. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely found in Mediterranean coastal waters, has been chosen as a "sentinel" to quantify the distribution of such pollutants within the marine environment. Using a technique similar to dendrochronology in trees, it can act as an indicator of pollutant levels over a timeframe of several months to years. In the present study, we measured and compared the levels of eight trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, and Pb in sheaths dated by lepidochronology and in leaves of shoots sampled from P. oceanica meadows collected from six offshore sites in northern Corsica between 1988 and 2004; in the aim to determine 1 the spatial and 2 temporal variations of these metals in these areas and 3 to compared these two types of tissues. Results We found low trace metal concentrations with no increase over the last decade, confirming the potential use of Corsican seagrass beds as reference sites for the Mediterranean Sea. Temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in sheaths were not significant for Cr, Ni, Cu, As or Se, but Zn, Cd, and Pb levels decreased, probably due to the reduced anthropic use of these metals. Similar temporal trends between Cu levels in leaves (living tissue and in sheaths (dead tissue demonstrated that lepidochronology linked with Cu monitoring is effective for surveying the temporal variability of this metal. Conclusion Leaves of P. oceanica can give an indication of the metal concentration in the environment over a short time period (months with good accuracy. On the contrary, sheaths, which gave an indication of changes over long time periods (decades, seem to be less sensitive to variations in the metal concentration in the environment

  10. In vivo degradation behavior and biological activity of some new Mg-Ca alloys with concentration's gradient of Si for bone grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Fântânariu, Mircea; Solcan, Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Burtan, Liviu; Acatrinei, Dumitru Mihai; Stanciu, Sergiu; Istrate, Bogdan; Munteanu, Corneliu

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium based alloys, especially Mg-Ca alloys, are biocompatible substrates with mechanical properties similar to those of bones. The biodegradable alloys of Mg-Ca provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers and also they avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. The main issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca alloy is the fast degradation in the aggressive physiological environment of the body. The alloy's corrosion is proportional with the dissolution of the Mg in the body: the reaction with the water generates magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen. The accelerated corrosion will lead to early loss of the alloy's mechanical integrity. The degradation rate of an alloy can be improved mainly through tailoring the composition and by carrying out surface treatments. This research focuses on the ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys by an original method and studies the biological activity of the resulted specimens. A new Mg-Ca alloy, with a Si gradient concentration from the surface to the interior of the material, was obtained. The surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffraction (X'Pert equipment) and energy dispersive X-ray (Bruker EDS equipment). In vivo degradation behavior, biological compatibility and activity of Mg-Ca alloys with/without Si gradient concentration were studied with an implant model (subcutaneous and bony) in rats. The organism response to implants was characterized by using radiological (plain X-rays and computed tomography), biochemical and histological methods of investigation. The results sustained that Si gradient concentration can be used to control the rate of degradation of the Mg-Ca alloys for enhancing their biologic activity in order to facilitate bone tissue repair.

  11. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite with different crystallinities by controlling the concentration of recombinant CEMP1 for biological application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaofeng [Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Liu, Yu, E-mail: lyvette@163.com [Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Yang, Jie; Wu, Wenlei; Miao, Leiying; Yu, Yijun [Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Yang, Xuebin [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Sun, Weibin, E-mail: wbsun@nju.edu.cn [Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) has been reported to be cementum specific and it plays a role in the properties and structure of cementum mineralization. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that, CEMP1 had the capacity to guide ordered HA formation as it accumulated at targeting site. Crystals induced by protein were prepared by biomimetic method. The effects of CEMP1 concentrations (0–100 μg/ml) on the rate of calcium phosphate precipitation was monitored during 48 h, while the formed mineral phases were assessed utilizing transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that recombinant cementum protein 1 (rhCEMP1) affected the crystal nucleation and growth. At lower rhCEMP1 concentrations (0–50 μg/ml), limited mineral formation occurred and only small bundles of HA crystals were found. However, with 100 μg/ml of rhCEMP1, a predominance of organized linear needle-like HA crystals was observed. FTIR revealed the characteristic bands of HA appearing at 1106 cm{sup −1}, 557 cm{sup −1}, and 598 cm{sup −1}. Therefore, increasing the concentration of rhCEMP1 can lead to the formation of ordered bundles of HA crystals in vitro. - Highlights: • We produce recombinant human cementum protein 1 (rhCEMP1). • We synthesize hydroxyapatite/rhCEMP1 with different crystallinities. • Increase of rhCEMP1 leads to the formation of ordered bundles of HA crystals.

  12. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  13. A Standard Addition Method to Assay the Concentration of Biologically Interesting Polyphenols in Grape Berries by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkos A. Haroutounian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase HPLC method which allows the simultaneous assay of (+- catechin, (–-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and quercetin glycosides in grape berries is described. Kromasil 100 served as stationary phase and a gradient of acetic acid, water and methanol was used. The analytical run requires 42 min for complete sample elution. Satisfactory peak resolution was achieved following a novel extraction process and direct injection of a 20 μL sample. The method was used for the analyses of eighteen samples. Linearities were in the range of 0.98 to 0.999 regression coefficient, for all phenolics, while detection limits ranged from 30 μg mL–1 for trans-resveratrol to 1.5 mg mL–1 for (+-catechin. Recoveries ranged from 95.1 to 98.7% while the method provided good precision, with standard deviations between 3.5 and 6.1%, n=5.

  14. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some biologically important compounds containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1330 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunathaguru, V; Umesh, T K

    2006-01-01

    A semi-empirical relation which can be used to determine the total attenuation cross sections of samples containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145-1332 keV has been derived based on the total attenuation cross sections of several sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. The cross sections have been measured by performing transmission experiments in a narrow beam good geometry set-up by employing a high-resolution hyperpure germanium detector at seven energies of biological importance such as 145.4 keV, 279.2 keV, 514 keV, 661.6 keV, 1115.5 keV, 1173.2 keV and 1332.1 keV. The semi-empirical relation can reproduce the experimental values within 1-2%. The total attenuation cross sections of five elements carbon, aluminium, titanium, copper and zirconium measured in the same experimental set-up at the energies mentioned above have been used in a new matrix method to evaluate the effective atomic numbers and the effective electron densities of samples such as cholesterol, fatty acids, sugars and amino acids containing H, C, N and O atoms from their effective atomic cross sections. The effective atomic cross sections are the total attenuation cross sections divided by the total number of atoms of all types in a particular sample. Further, a quantity called the effective atomic weight was defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of a sample to the total number of atoms of all types in it. The variation of the effective atomic number was systematically studied with respect to the effective atomic weight and a new semi-empirical relation for Z eff has been evolved. It is felt that this relation can be very useful to determine the effective atomic number of any sample having H, C, N and O atoms in the energy range 145-1332 keV irrespective of its chemical structure

  15. Mercury concentrations in Alaska Pacific halibut muscle relative to stable isotopes of C and N and other biological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Rebecca; Castellini, J. Margaret; Gerlach, Robert; Dykstra, Claude; O'Hara, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]), δ 15 N and δ 13 C values were determined in muscle of 693 Pacific halibut caught in International Pacific Halibut Commission setline surveys in Alaska (2002 − 2011). Project goals were to evaluate whether 1) δ 15 N and δ 13 C varied with region, age, sex and length of halibut, and 2) muscle [THg] varied with δ 15 N and δ 13 C (feeding ecology) while accounting for sex, length, and region. Variation in [THg] was explained, in part, by halibut feeding ecology as [THg] increased with trophic position (increasing δ 15 N). Halibut from the western Aleutian Island region were the exception, with overall lower δ 15 N values and significantly higher [THg] than halibut from other Alaskan waters. This [THg] pattern has been observed in other Aleutian biota, possibly the result of northeasterly atmospheric movement of mercury emissions from Asia and/or other local sources and processes. The significantly lower δ 15 N values for these halibut warrants further investigation of halibut prey. - Highlights: • Mercury, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C were determined in muscle of 693 Pacific halibut in Alaska. • Variation in muscle mercury level was explained, in part, by halibut feeding ecology. • Muscle mercury concentration generally increased with relative trophic position (δ 15 N). • Western Aleutian halibut had lower δ 15 N and higher mercury than other regions. • Assessment of mercury and trophic relationships accounted for sex, size, and region.

  16. In vivo degradation behavior and biological activity of some new Mg–Ca alloys with concentration's gradient of Si for bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, No. 3, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Fântânariu, Mircea, E-mail: mfantanariu@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, No. 8, 700489 Iasi (Romania); Solcan, Carmen, E-mail: csolcan@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, No. 8, 700489 Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina Elena, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, No. 3, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Burtan, Liviu, E-mail: lburtan@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, No. 8, 700489 Iasi (Romania); Acatrinei, Dumitru Mihai, E-mail: dacatrinei@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Str. Aleea M. Sadoveanu, No. 8, 700489 Iasi (Romania); Stanciu, Sergiu, E-mail: sergiustanciu2003@yahoo.com [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Str. Prof. D. Mangeron, No. 67, 700050 Iasi (Romania); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Mg–Ca alloy with Si concentration gradient was obtained as bone graft material. • Degradation rate of the Mg–Ca–Si alloy was investigated by SEM and EDAX techniques. • Subcutaneous and tibiae implants in rats were monitored by Biochemical, histological, RX and CT investigations monitored implant's evolution. • Si concentration gradient decreased the alloy degradation rate during bone healing. - Abstract: Magnesium based alloys, especially Mg–Ca alloys, are biocompatible substrates with mechanical properties similar to those of bones. The biodegradable alloys of Mg–Ca provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers and also they avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. The main issue facing a biodegradable Mg–Ca alloy is the fast degradation in the aggressive physiological environment of the body. The alloy's corrosion is proportional with the dissolution of the Mg in the body: the reaction with the water generates magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen. The accelerated corrosion will lead to early loss of the alloy's mechanical integrity. The degradation rate of an alloy can be improved mainly through tailoring the composition and by carrying out surface treatments. This research focuses on the ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg–Ca alloys by an original method and studies the biological activity of the resulted specimens. A new Mg–Ca alloy, with a Si gradient concentration from the surface to the interior of the material, was obtained. The surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (VegaTescan LMH II, SE detector, 30 kV), X-ray diffraction (X’Pert equipment) and energy dispersive X-ray (Bruker EDS equipment). In vivo degradation behavior, biological compatibility and activity of Mg–Ca alloys with/without Si gradient concentration were studied with an implant model (subcutaneous

  17. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  18. MAK and BAT values list 2013. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2013. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2013 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  19. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2015. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  20. Synthesis and biological studies of highly concentrated lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles for CT tracking of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William E.; Aras, Omer; Fleiter, Thorsten; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2011-05-01

    For patients with a history of heart attack or stroke, the prevention of another cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event is crucial. The development of cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis has been associated with overexpression of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown great potential as X-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents. Since lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor, it has been used as coating on GNPs for targeted imaging of tissue ACE in prevention of fibrosis. Herein, lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles (LIS-GNPs) were synthesized up to a concentration of 55 mgAu/mL. Their contrast was measured using CT and the results were compared to Omnipaque, a commonly used iodine-based contrast agent. The targeting ability of these LIS-GNPs was also assessed.

  1. Relationship of Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Allostatic Load as a Measure of Cumulative Biological Risk among the US Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Frei

    Full Text Available The allostatic load (AL index is a multi-systemic measure of physiologic dysregulation known to be associated with chronic exposure to stress and adverse health outcomes. We examined the relationship between AL and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration in non-institutionalized US adults.Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94 were used to calculate two versions of AL including 9 biomarkers and another two with 14 biomarkers (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, serum cholesterol, serum HDL-cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, sex-specific waist-to-hip ratio, serum albumin, and serum C-reactive protein for AL1, and, additionally body mass index, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, and serum herpes I & II antibodies for AL2, each set defined by predefined cut-offs or by quartiles. Serum vitamin D concentration was ranked into quartiles. Logistic regression, Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine the association of serum 25(OHD concentrations on AL, after adjusting for biological, physiological, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health variables.Odds Ratios (OR for high AL of the lowest 25(OHD serum quartile were between 1.45 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.67 and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.39, 2.32 for the fully adjusted model, depending on AL version. Inverse relationships between vitamin D serum concentrations were observed for all AL versions and every adjustment. This relationship was consistent after stratification by sex, age or ethnic background. Sensitivity to low 25(OHD concentrations was highest among the youngest group (20-39 years with an OR of 2.11 (95% CI: 1.63, 2.73 for the lowest vitamin D quartile Q1.Vitamin D had a consistent and statistically significant inverse association with all tested models of high AL, which remained consistent after adjusting for biological, socioeconomic, lifestyle and health variables. Our study adds evidence linking low 25(OHD

  2. Passive dosing of triclosan in multi-generation tests with copepods - Stable exposure concentrations and effects at the low µg l-1 range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribbenstedt, Anton; Mustajärvi, Lukas; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    to test the applicability of passive dosing to maintain stable concentrations of the organochlorine bacteriocide triclosan in the water phase during a 6-week multi-generation population development test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. Triclosan was loaded into silicone (1000 mg), which...... was used as passive dosing phase in the exposure vials. The distribution ratio for triclosan between silicone and water (Dsilicone-water ) was 10466 ± 1927. A population development test was conducted at three concentration levels of triclosan that were measured to be 3-5 µg L(-1) , 7-11 µg L(-1) and 16...... exerted on juvenile development. Progressively lower development index values in the populations exposed to increasing triclosan concentrations suggest developmental retardation. Our results further stress the need for chronic exposure during ecotoxicity testing in chemical risk assessment as even...

  3. Accuracy evaluation of contour next compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems across a wide range of blood glucose concentrations occurring in a clinical research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaff, Leslie J; Brazg, Ronald; Hughes, Kristen; Tideman, Ann M; Schachner, Holly C; Stenger, Patricia; Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of Contour(®) Next (CN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) across a wide range of clinically occurring blood glucose levels. Subjects (n=146) were ≥ 18 years and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Subjects' glucose levels were safely lowered or raised to provide a wide range of glucose values. Capillary blood samples were tested on six BGMSs and a YSI glucose analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) as the reference. Extreme glucose values were achieved by glucose modification of the blood sample. System accuracy was assessed by mean absolute difference (MAD) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) across several glucose ranges, with glucose range (Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc., Alameda, CA), 2.77 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Ultra(®) 2 (LifeScan, Inc., Milpitas, CA), 10.20 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Verio(®) Pro (LifeScan, Inc.), 4.53 mg/dL; and Truetrack(®) (Nipro Diagnostics, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, FL), 11.08 mg/dL. The lowest MAD in the low glucose range, from CN, was statistically significantly lower than those of the other BGMSs with the exception of the FSL. CN also had a statistically significantly lower MARD than all other BGMSs in the low glucose range. In the overall glucose range (21-496 mg/dL), CN yielded the lowest MAD and MARD values, which were statistically significantly lower in comparison with the other BGMSs. When compared with other BGMSs, CN demonstrated the lowest mean deviation from the reference value (by MAD and MARD) across multiple glucose ranges.

  4. Concentration levels of rare-earth elements and thorium on plants from the Morro de Ferro environment as an indicator for the biological availability of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miekeley, N.; Casartelli, E.A.; Dotto, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Plants and soils from a natural thorium and rare-earth element occurrence (Morro do Ferro, Brazil) were analyzed by alpha spectrometry (Th) and ICP-AES (REE), after pre-concentration of the elements by solvent extraction, co-precipitation and ion exchange procedures. Leaching experiments with humic acid solutions and different soils were performed to estimate the fraction of elements biologically available. High concentrations of the light rare-earth elements (LREE) and of Th, reaching some hundreds of μg/g-ash, were measured in plant leaves from the areas of the highest concentration of these elements in soil and in near-surface waters. Chondrite normalized REE plots of plant leaves and corresponding soils are very similar, suggesting that there is no significant fractionation between the REE during uptake from the soil solution and incorporation into the leaves. However, Ce-depletion was observed for some plant species, increasing for Solanum ciliatum in the sequence: leaves -3 to 10 -2 . Leaching experiments confirmed the importance of humic acid complexation for the bio-uptake of Th and REE and further showed that only a very small fraction of these elements in soil is leachable. The implications of these results on the calculated CR's will be discussed. (author) 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Comparing on-road real-time simultaneous in-cabin and outdoor particulate and gaseous concentrations for a range of ventilation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Reed, Nathan; Patel, Sameer; Bradley, Kevin; Kulkarni, Pramod; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-10-01

    Advanced automobile technology, developed infrastructure, and changing economic markets have resulted in increasing commute times. Traffic is a major source of harmful pollutants and consequently daily peak exposures tend to occur near roadways or while travelling on them. The objective of this study was to measure simultaneous real-time particulate matter (particle numbers, lung-deposited surface area, PM2.5, particle number size distributions) and CO concentrations outside and in-cabin of an on-road car during regular commutes to and from work. Data was collected for different ventilation parameters (windows open or closed, fan on, AC on), whilst travelling along different road-types with varying traffic densities. Multiple predictor variables were examined using linear mixed-effects models. Ambient pollutants (NOx, PM2.5, CO) and meteorological variables (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, dew point) explained 5-44% of outdoor pollutant variability, while the time spent travelling behind a bus was statistically significant for PM2.5, lung-deposited SA, and CO (adj-R2 values = 0.12, 0.10, 0.13). The geometric mean diameter (GMD) for outdoor aerosol was 34 nm. Larger cabin GMDs were observed when windows were closed compared to open (b = 4.3, p-value = <0.01). When windows were open, cabin total aerosol concentrations tracked those outdoors. With windows closed, the pollutants took longer to enter the vehicle cabin, but also longer to exit it. Concentrations of pollutants in cabin were influenced by outdoor concentrations, ambient temperature, and the window/ventilation parameters. As expected, particle number concentrations were impacted the most by changes to window position/ventilation, and PM2.5 the least. Car drivers can expect their highest exposures when driving with windows open or the fan on, and their lowest exposures during windows closed or the AC on. Final linear mixed-effects models could explain between 88 and 97% of cabin pollutant

  6. Validation of odor concentration from mechanical-biological treatment piles using static chamber and wind tunnel with different wind speed values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyłak-Szydłowski, Mirosław

    2017-09-01

    The basic principle of odor sampling from surface sources is based primarily on the amount of air obtained from a specific area of the ground, which acts as a source of malodorous compounds. Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often the only available, direct method of evaluating the odor fluxes from small area sources. There are currently no widely accepted chamber-based methods; thus, there is still a need for standardization of these methods to ensure accuracy and comparability. Previous research has established that there is a significant difference between the odor concentration values obtained using the Lindvall chamber and those obtained by a dynamic flow chamber. Thus, the present study compares sampling methods using a streaming chamber modeled on the Lindvall cover (using different wind speeds), a static chamber, and a direct sampling method without any screens. The volumes of chambers in the current work were similar, ~0.08 m 3 . This study was conducted at the mechanical-biological treatment plant in Poland. Samples were taken from a pile covered by the membrane. Measured odor concentration values were between 2 and 150 ou E /m 3 . Results of the study demonstrated that both chambers can be used interchangeably in the following conditions: odor concentration is below 60 ou E /m 3 , wind speed inside the Lindvall chamber is below 0.2 m/sec, and a flow value is below 0.011 m 3 /sec. Increasing the wind speed above the aforementioned value results in significant differences in the results obtained between those methods. In all experiments, the results of the concentration of odor in the samples using the static chamber were consistently higher than those from the samples measured in the Lindvall chamber. Lastly, the results of experiments were employed to determine a model function of the relationship between wind speed and odor concentration values. Several researchers wrote that there are no widely accepted chamber-based methods. Also, there is still a

  7. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L A; Ikenaka, Y; Yohannes, Y B; van Vuren, J J; Wepener, V; Smit, N J; Darwish, W S; Nakayama, S M M; Mizukawa, H; Ishizuka, M

    2017-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,p'-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,p'-DDT and then p,p'-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risk.

  8. Mass flows in N2 - Ar - O2 mixture for a temperature range of 80 K to 100 K in presence of concentration gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, I.; Peculea, M.; Serban, I.

    1992-01-01

    In separation processes of multicomponent mixtures by cryogenic distillation, out of mass transfer at liquid-vapor interface, an essential part is played by Fick diffusion of the two phases. In the present study we have developed a calculus of the generalized diffusion coefficients based on the Chapman-Cowling theory, and we applied it for the N 2 - Ar - O 2 mixture in vapor phase. After computing Fick's law of diffusion for a tri-component nonreactive mixture in which diffusion is occurring in x -direction only, under constant pressure, we have established the time variation of the N 2 , Ar, and O 2 concentrations, taking into account the initial distribution of concentrations and boundary conditions. (Author)

  9. Influence of long-range atmospheric transport pathways and climate teleconnection patterns on the variability of surface 210Pb and 7Be concentrations in southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C; Ballester, J; Serrano, I; Galmarini, S; Camacho, A; Curcoll, R; Morguí, J A; Rodò, X; Duch, M A

    2016-12-01

    The variability of the atmospheric concentration of the 7 Be and 210 Pb radionuclides is strongly linked to the origin of air masses, the strength of their sources and the processes of wet and dry deposition. It has been shown how these processes and their variability are strongly affected by climate change. Thus, a deeper knowledge of the relationship between the atmospheric radionuclides variability measured close to the ground and these atmospheric processes could help in the analysis of climate scenarios. In the present study, we analyze the atmospheric variability of a 14-year time series of 7 Be and 210 Pb in a Mediterranean coastal city using a synergy of different indicators and tools such as: the local meteorological conditions, global and regional climate indexes and a lagrangian atmospheric transport model. We particularly focus on the relationships between the main pathways of air masses and sun spots occurrence, the variability of the local relative humidity and temperature conditions, and the main modes of regional climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO). The variability of the observed atmospheric concentrations of both 7 Be and 210 Pb radionuclides was found to be mainly positively associated to the local climate conditions of temperature and to the pathways of air masses arriving at the station. Measured radionuclide concentrations significantly increase when air masses travel at low tropospheric levels from central Europe and the western part of the Iberian Peninsula, while low concentrations are associated with westerly air masses. We found a significant negative correlation between the WeMO index and the atmospheric variability of both radionuclides and no significant association was observed for the NAO index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schultealbert; Tobias Baur; Andreas Schütze; Tilman Sauerwald

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can ...

  11. Systems Biology Reveals Cigarette Smoke-Induced Concentration-Dependent Direct and Indirect Mechanisms That Promote Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Laurent, Alexandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) affects the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, a critical step in atherogenesis. Using an in vitro adhesion assay together with innovative computational systems biology approaches to analyze omics data, our study aimed at investigating CS-induced mechanisms by which monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion is promoted. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated for 4 h with (1) conditioned media of human monocytic Mono Mac-6 (MM6) cells preincubated with low or high concentrations of aqueous CS extract (sbPBS) from reference cigarette 3R4F for 2 h (indirect treatment, I), (2) unconditioned media similarly prepared without MM6 cells (direct treatment, D), or (3) freshly generated sbPBS (fresh direct treatment, FD). sbPBS promoted MM6 cells-HCAECs adhesion following I and FD, but not D. In I, the effect was mediated at a low concentration through activation of vascular inflammation processes promoted in HCAECs by a paracrine effect of the soluble mediators secreted by sbPBS-treated MM6 cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a major inducer, was actually shed by unstable CS compound-activated TNFα-converting enzyme. In FD, the effect was triggered at a high concentration that also induced some toxicity. This effect was mediated through an yet unknown mechanism associated with a stress damage response promoted in HCAECs by unstable CS compounds present in freshly generated sbPBS, which had decayed in D unconditioned media. Aqueous CS extract directly and indirectly promotes monocytic cell-endothelial cell adhesion in vitro via distinct concentration-dependent mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. MAK and BAT values list 2017. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2017. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The MAK and BAT values list 2017 includes the maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials. The following working materials are covered: carcinogenic working materials, sensitizing materials and aerosols. The report discusses the restriction of exposure peaks, skin resorption, MAK (maximum working place concentration) values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens and specific working materials. Importance and application of BAT (biological working material tolerance) values, list of materials, carcinogens, biological guide values and reference values are also included.

  13. The "long tail" of the protein tumbling correlation function: observation by (1)H NMR relaxometry in a wide frequency and concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Matthias; Hofmann, Marius; Link, Susanne; Ott, Maria; Balbach, Jochen; Rössler, Ernst; Saalwächter, Kay; Krushelnitsky, Alexey

    2015-12-01

    Inter-protein interactions in solution affect the auto-correlation function of Brownian tumbling not only in terms of a simple increase of the correlation time, they also lead to the appearance of a weak slow component ("long tail") of the correlation function due to a slowly changing local anisotropy of the microenvironment. The conventional protocol of correlation time estimation from the relaxation rate ratio R1/R2 assumes a single-component tumbling correlation function, and thus can provide incorrect results as soon as the "long tail" is of relevance. This effect, however, has been underestimated in many instances. In this work we present a detailed systematic study of the tumbling correlation function of two proteins, lysozyme and bovine serum albumin, at different concentrations and temperatures using proton field-cycling relaxometry combined with R1ρ and R2 measurements. Unlike high-field NMR relaxation methods, these techniques enable a detailed study of dynamics on a time scale longer than the normal protein tumbling correlation time and, thus, a reliable estimate of the parameters of the "long tail". In this work we analyze the concentration dependence of the intensity and correlation time of the slow component and perform simulations of high-field (15)N NMR relaxation data demonstrating the importance of taking the "long tail" in the analysis into account.

  14. Evaluating vertical concentration profile of carbon source released from slow-releasing carbon source tablets and in situ biological nitrate denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J. H.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Slow-releasing carbon source tablets were manufactured during the design of a small-scale in situ biological denitrification system to reduce high-strength nitrate (> 30 mg N/L) from a point source such as livestock complexes. Two types of slow-releasing tablets, precipitating tablet (PT, apparent density of 2.0 g/mL) and floating tablet (FT), were prepared to achieve a vertically even distribution of carbon source (CS) in a well and an aquifer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to control the release rate, and microcrystalline cellulose pH 101 (MCC 101) was added as a binder. The #8 sand was used as a precipitation agent for the PTs, and the floating agents for the FTs were calcium carbonate and citric acid. FTs floated within 30 min. and remained in water because of the buoyance from carbon dioxide, which formed during the acid-base reaction between citric acid and calcium carbonate. The longevities of PTs with 300 mg of HPMC and FTs with 400 mg of HPMC were 25.4 days and 37.3 days, respectively. We assessed vertical CS profile in a continuous flowing physical aquifer model (release test, RT) and its efficiency on biological nitrate denitrification (denitrification test, DT). During the RT, PTs, FTs and a tracer (as 1 mg rhodamine B/L) were initially injected into a well of physical aquifer model (PAM). Concentrations of CS and the tracer were monitored along the streamline in the PAM to evaluate vertical profile of CS. During the DT, the same experiment was performed as RT, except continuous injection of solution containing 30 mg N/L into the PAM to evaluate biological denitrification activity. As a result of RT, temporal profiles of CS were similar at 3 different depths of monitoring wells. These results suggest that simultaneous addition of PT and FT be suitable for achieving a vertically even distribution of the CS in the injection well and an aquifer. In DT, similar profile of CS was detected in the injection well, and nitrate was biologically

  15. Radio-Wave Tomography of Inhomogeneities in Biological Media with Multi-Frequency Sounding in the Range 2-8 GHZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipilov Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for detecting and mapping inhomogeneities in biological tissues using the radio-wave tomosynthesis method is presented. The proposed method of radio-wave tomosynthesis allows us to calculate the three-dimensional distribution of the permittivity of the space under study and, thereby, to detect tissue inhomogeneities and to determine their location and size. Due to their harmlessness for humans, these methods are suitable for dynamic observation of changes in the size of formation, in contrast to x-ray methods, for which regular doses of ionizing radiation are contraindicated. Therefore, the development of non-invasive methods for the search for inhomogeneities in biological media based on radio-wave sounding, which makes it possible to identify pathological formations, is now very relevant.

  16. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  17. Beta-defensin-2 protein is a serum biomarker for disease activity in psoriasis and reaches biologically relevant concentrations in lesional skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A M Jansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have extensively documented antimicrobial and chemotactic activities of beta-defensins. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2 is strongly expressed in lesional psoriatic epidermis, and recently we have shown that high beta-defensin genomic copy number is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. It is not known, however, if biologically and pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of hBD-2 protein are present in vivo, which could support an antimicrobial and proinflammatory role of beta-defensins in lesional psoriatic epidermis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that systemic levels of hBD-2 showed a weak but significant correlation with beta defensin copy number in healthy controls but not in psoriasis patients with active disease. In psoriasis patients but not in atopic dermatitis patients, we found high systemic hBD-2 levels that strongly correlated with disease activity as assessed by the PASI score. Our findings suggest that systemic levels in psoriasis are largely determined by secretion from involved skin and not by genomic copy number. Modelling of the in vivo epidermal hBD-2 concentration based on the secretion rate in a reconstructed skin model for psoriatic epidermis provides evidence that epidermal hBD-2 levels in vivo are probably well above the concentrations required for in vitro antimicrobial and chemokine-like effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Serum hBD-2 appears to be a useful surrogate marker for disease activity in psoriasis. The discrepancy between hBD-2 levels in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis could explain the well known differences in infection rate between these two diseases.

  18. The Cotesia sesamiae story: insight into host-range evolution in a Hymenoptera parasitoid and implication for its use in biological control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L; Dupas, S; Branca, A; Herniou, E A; Clarke, C W; Capdevielle Dulac, C; Obonyo, J; Benoist, R; Gauthier, J; Calatayud, P A; Silvain, J F; Le Ru, B P

    2017-12-01

    This review covers nearly 20 years of studies on the ecology, physiology and genetics of the Hymenoptera Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitoid of Lepidoptera that reduces populations of common maize borers in East and South Africa. The first part of the review presents studies based on sampling of C. sesamiae from maize crops in Kenya. From this agrosystem including one host plant and three main host borer species, studies revealed two genetically differentiated populations of C. sesamiae species adapted to their local host community, and showed that their differentiation involved the joint evolution of virulence genes and sensory mechanisms of host acceptance, reinforced by reproductive incompatibility due to Wolbachia infection status and natural inbreeding. In the second part, we consider the larger ecosystem of wild Poales plant species hosting many Lepidoptera stem borer species that are potential hosts for C. sesamiae. The hypothesis of other host-adapted C. sesamiae populations was investigated based on a large sampling of stem borer larvae on various Poales across sub-Saharan Africa. The sampling provided information on the respective contribution of local hosts, biogeography and Wolbachia in the genetic structure of C. sesamiae populations. Molecular evolution analyses highlighted that several bracovirus genes were under positive selection, some of them being under different selection pressure in C. sesamiae populations adapted to different hosts. This suggests that C. sesamiae host races result from co-evolution acting at the local scale on different bracovirus genes. The third part considers the mechanisms driving specialization. C. sesamiae host races are more or less host-specialized. This character is crucial for efficient and environmentally-safe use of natural enemies for biological control of pests. One method to get an insight in the evolutionary stability of host-parasite associations is to characterize the phylogenetic relationships between

  19. Effects of concentration of Ag nanoparticles on surface structure and in vitro biological responses of oxide layer on pure titanium via plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Ryong; Kim, Yeon Sung; Kim, Gye Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hae Woong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young Gun, E-mail: younggun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Hyuk, E-mail: dhshin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were embedded into the oxide surface without any compositional changes. • Oxide layer from the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles could disinfect all bacteria. • With increasing Ag nanoparticles, bone-forming ability and cell proliferation rate decrease. - Abstract: This study was to investigate how Ag nanoparticles with various concentrations affect the surface structure and in vitro biological properties of oxide layers on the pure titanium produced by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. For this aim, PEO processes were carried out at an AC current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} for 300 s in potassium pyrophosphate (K{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) electrolytes containing 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Structural investigations using scanning electron microscopy evidenced that the oxide layers showed the successful incorporation of Ag nanoparticles, and the topographical deformation of the porous surface was found when the concentration of Ag nanoparticles was more than 0.1 g/l. Based on the anti-bacterial activity of all oxide layers, the Ag nanoparticles uniformly spread were of considerable importance in triggering the disinfection of E. coli bacteria. The bone forming abilities and cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation rates of oxide layers produced in electrolytes containing 0 and 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles were higher than those containing 0.3 and 0.5 g/l Ag nanoparticles. Consequently, the oxide layer on pure titanium via PEO process in the electrolyte with 0.1 g/l Ag nanoparticles exhibited better the bioactivity accompanying the anti-bacterial activity.

  20. Red wine consumption may affect sperm biology: the effects of different concentrations of the phytoestrogen myricetin on human male gamete function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; Santoro, Marta; De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Perrotta, Ida; Sisci, Diego; Morelli, Catia

    2013-02-01

    Myricetin is a natural flavonoid, particularly enriched in red wines, whose occurrence is widespread among plants. Despite extensive research, the beneficial effects of Myricetin on human health are still controversial. Here, we tested the estrogen-like effect of the phytoestrogen Myricetin on human ejaculated sperm biology. To this aim, human normozoospermic samples were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, and 1 µM) of Myricetin. Motility, viability, capacitation-associated biochemical changes (i.e., cholesterol efflux and tyrosine phosphorylation), acrosin activity, as well as glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation (i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism) were all significantly increased by low doses of Myricetin. Importantly, both estrogen receptors α and β (ERs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are activated in the presence of Myricetin since these were both abrogated by specific inhibitors of each pathway. Our results show how Myricetin, through ERs and PI3K/AKT signalings, potentiates sperm function. This effect is dose-dependent at low concentrations of Myricetin (up to 100 nM), whereas higher amounts do not seem to improve any further sperm motility, viability, or other tested features, and, in some cases, they reduced or even abrogated the efficacy exerted by lower doses. Further studies are needed to elucidate if high levels of Myricetin, which could be attained even with moderate wine consumption, could synergize with endogenous estrogens in the female reproductive tract, interfering with the physiological sperm fertilization process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Criterion 1: Conservation of biological diversity - Indicator 8: The number of forest dependent species that occupy a small portion of their former range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Michael S. Knowles; Jason McNees

    2003-01-01

    This indicator measures the portion of a species' historical distribution that is currently occupied as a surrogate measure of genetic diversity. Based on data for 1,642 terrestrial animals associated with forests, most species (88 percent) were found to fully occupy their historic range - at least as measured by coarse state-level occurrence patterns. Of the 193...

  2. Landscape biology of western white pine: implications for conservation of a widely-distributed five-needle pine at its southern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Maloney; Andrew Eckert; Detlev Vogler; Camille Jensen; Annette Delfino Mix; David Neale

    2016-01-01

    Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics...

  3. Effect of Different Fertilization Systems (Chemical, Biological and Integrated( on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration, Biochemical Attributes and Sepals Dry Weight of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a subtropical medicinal plant belongs to the Malvaceae family. Roselle sepals are valuable due to its therapeutic properties and culinary uses. During past decades rising cost of chemical inputs and overusing them in conventional farming have caused various environmental issues such as soil and water resources contamination, reduction in food quality production, decreasing soil fertility and biological imbalance in the soil that they impose irreparable damage to ecosystems. Sustainable agriculture which is based on the use of bio-fertilizers with the aim of eliminating or considerably reducing the use of chemical inputs is the optimal solution to overcome these problems. Abo-Baker and Gehan (2011 in their study on the effect of bio-fertilizers in combination with different rates of chemical fertilizers on growth characters, yield component and chemical constituents of roselle demonstrated that the inoculation with the mixture of bio-fertilizers combined with 50 or 100% chemical fertilizers improved, in most cases, growth characters and increased sepal yield or at least did not differ significantly from the control (full recommended dose of NPK alone. These researchers stated that applying 50% of the recommended dose of NPK plus the mixture of bio-fertilizer can save half of the quantity of chemical fertilizers, decrease the production cost and obtain high quality product. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers in combination with different doses of chemical fertilizers on the element concentrations, biochemical properties and yield of roselle to find the appropriate integration of them. Material and Methods This experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, at the Research Station, University of Zabol, during growing season of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Experimental treatments were plant nutrition with NPK (220, 130

  4. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (citri poses negligible environmental risk.

  5. Landscape Biology of Western White Pine: Implications for Conservation of a Widely-Distributed Five-Needle Pine at Its Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Maloney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics and genetic diversity in 10 populations of western white pine in upper montane forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin. We documented negative population trends for three of the 10 populations. These populations exhibited low estimated growth rates (λ, moderate to high incidences of WPBR and mountain pine beetle (MPB, and high levels of mortality. In contrast, seven populations appear to be stable (λ ≥ 1.0, with low to moderate disease and insect incidence, and evidence for genetic resistance to WPBR. Genetic diversity (HE for a set of 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms was in the range of 0.245–0.272 across populations, and population-specific estimates of FST ranged from 0.0062 to 0.0244. Allele frequency of the Cr2 gene, which confers complete resistance to C. ribicola in western white pine, was low, averaging 0.009 for all populations sampled. However, a low frequency of pollen receptors (i.e., susceptible maternal parents pollinated by a local resistant parent was found in nine of 10 populations. A moderate and negative relationship was found between the frequency of pollen receptors in a population and the incidence of WPBR (r2 = 0.32. In the context of an introduced pathogen, climate driven outbreaks of MPB, fire exclusion, and prolonged drought, conservation and management strategies are warranted for this species in the Lake Tahoe Basin and likely other locations in California. These strategies include gene conservation of western white pine, WPBR resistance screening, and forest restoration treatments.

  6. Divergence of host range and biological properties between natural isolate and full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Beet mild yellowing virus 2ITB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elodie; Brault, Véronique; Klein, Delphine; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Gilmer, David

    2014-01-01

    Plant infection by poleroviruses is restricted to phloem tissues, preventing any classical leaf rub inoculation with viral RNA or virions. Efficient virus inoculation to plants is achieved by viruliferous aphids that acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants. The use of promoter-driven infectious cDNA is an alternative means to infect plants and allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. Using Beet mild yellowing virus isolate 2ITB (BMYV-2ITB), we produced a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the virus (named BMYV-EK) placed under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters. Infectivity of the engineered BMYV-EK virus was assayed in different plant species and compared with that of the original virus. We showed that in vitro- or in planta-derived transcripts were infectious in protoplasts and in whole plants. Importantly, the natural aphid vector Myzus persicae efficiently transmitted the viral progeny produced in infected plants. By comparing agroinoculation and aphid infection in a host range assay, we showed that the engineered BMYV-EK virus displayed a similar host range to BMYV-2ITB, except for Nicotiana benthamiana, which proved to be resistant to systemic infection with BMYV-EK. Finally, both the BMYV-EK P0 and the full-length clone were able to strongly interfere with post-transcriptional gene silencing. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Measurement of bulk etch rates for poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate (PADC) and cellulose nitrate in a broad range of concentration and temperature of NaOH etching solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsdorf, D.; Hunger, M.; Starke, S.; Weickert, F.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the dependence of the bulk etch rate v B for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) on the concentration c and the temperature T of the NaOH etching solution has been studied for material types PADC and cellulose nitrate. As commonly applied exponents of PADC and cellulose nitrate material, the commercial products CR-39 and LR-115 were investigated. The concentration and temperature have been varied in the ranges 0.5moll -1 -1 and 313 -1 and T between 313 and 333K for cellulose nitrate, respectively. The application of a simple Arrhenius-law of chemical reactions fails in the interpretation of the dependence on the concentration. A constant activation energy cannot describe the behaviour of v B (c,T) over the whole range of concentration. To understand the deviation, more qualified models treating the superposition of chemical and physical processes including reaction kinetics and material transport phenomena by diffusion have to be developed and tested

  8. Intrinsic vs. spurious long-range memory in high-frequency records of environmental radioactivity. Critical re-assessment and application to indoor 222Rn concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, R. V.; Potirakis, S. M.; Barbosa, S. M.; Matos, J. A. O.; Pereira, A. J. S. C.; Neves, L. J. P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the environmental radioactivity fluctuations has recently attracted considerable interest. Among a multiplicity of practically relevant applications, identifying and disentangling the environmental factors controlling the variable concentrations of the radioactive noble gas radon is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we present a critical re-assessment of a multiplicity of complementary methods that have been previously applied for evaluating the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling in environmental radon variations with a particular focus on the specific properties of the underlying time series. As an illustrative case study, we subsequently re-analyze two high-frequency records of indoor radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several weeks of continuous measurements at a high temporal resolution of five minutes.Our results reveal that at the study site, radon concentrations exhibit complex multi-scale dynamics with qualitatively different properties at different time-scales: (i) essentially white noise in the high-frequency part (up to time-scales of about one hour), (ii) spurious indications of a non-stationary, apparently long-range correlated process (at time scales between some hours and one day) arising from marked periodic components, and (iii) low-frequency variability indicating a true long-range dependent process. In the presence of such multi-scale variability, common estimators of long-range memory in time series are prone to fail if applied to the raw data without previous separation of time-scales with qualitatively different dynamics.

  9. Intrinsic vs. spurious long-range memory in high-frequency records of environmental radioactivity - Critical re-assessment and application to indoor 222Rn concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Barbosa, Susana M.; Matos, Jose A. O.

    2015-04-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in environmental radioactivity fluctuations has recently attracted considerable interest. Among a multiplicity of practically relevant applications, identifying and disentangling the environmental factors controlling the variable concentrations of the radioactive noble gas Radon is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we present a critical re-assessment of a multiplicity of complementary methods that have been previously applied for evaluating the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling in environmental Radon variations with a particular focus on the specific properties of the underlying time series. As an illustrative case study, we subsequently re-analyze two high-frequency records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements at a high temporal resolution of five minutes. Our results reveal that at the study site, Radon concentrations exhibit complex multi-scale dynamics with qualitatively different properties at different time-scales: (i) essentially white noise in the high-frequency part (up to time-scales of about one hour), (ii) spurious indications of a non-stationary, apparently long-range correlated process (at time scales between hours and one day) arising from marked periodic components probably related to tidal frequencies, and (iii) low-frequency variability indicating a true long-range dependent process, which might be dominated by a response to meteorological drivers. In the presence of such multi-scale variability, common estimators of long-range memory in time series are necessarily prone to fail if applied to the raw data without previous separation of time-scales with qualitatively different dynamics. We emphasize that similar properties can be found in other types of geophysical time series (for

  10. CSDA range, stopping power and mean penetration depth energy relationships in some hydrocarbons and biologic materials for 10 eV to 100 MeV with the modified Rohrlich-Carlson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, Hasan [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Samsun (Turkey); Bentabet, Abdelouahab [Bordj Bou Arreridj University, LCVRN, SNVSTU Faculty, El Anasser (Algeria)

    2017-05-15

    In this study, for some hydrocarbons and biological compounds, stopping power formula are presented, being valid for low and intermediate electron energies. In addition, calculation of the continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA range) from the stopping power is also made. Calculation of the CSDA range for some hydrocarbons: C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (ethane), C{sub 4}H{sub 10} (butane), C{sub 6}H{sub 14} (hexane) C{sub 8}H{sub 18} (octane), C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5} (adenine) and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}O (guanine) have been introduced for incident electrons in the energy range 30 eV to 1 MeV. The range of electrons has been calculated within the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) using modified Rohrlich and Carlson formula of stopping power. Besides, we have calculated the mean penetration depths using a spherical geometric model developed by Bentabet (Vacuum 86:1855-1859, 35). The results have been compared with the other theoretical results, Monte Carlo code such as PENELOPE predictions and semi-empirical results. The calculated results of CSDA ranges for electrons in the energy range from 20 eV to 100 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 10% with available date. (orig.)

  11. POPs in free-ranging pilot whales, sperm whales and fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea: Influence of biological and ecological factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzone, Marianna [Laboratory of Oceanology, MARE Centre, B6c, University of Liege, B6c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Budzinski, Hélène [ISM/LPTC, Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Chemistry, University of Bordeaux I, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Bordeaux (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Tasciotti, Aurélie; Ody, Denis [WWF-France, 6 Rue des Fabres, 13001 Marseille France (France); Lepoint, Gilles; Schnitzler, Joseph [Laboratory of Oceanology, MARE Centre, B6c, University of Liege, B6c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Scholl, George [CART, Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry LSM, University of Liege, B6C, Allée du 6 Août, 4000, Liege (Belgium); Thomé, Jean-Pierre [CART, Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Ecotoxicology LEAE, University of Liege, B6c, Allée du 6 Août 11, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Tapie, Nathalie [ISM/LPTC, Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Chemistry, University of Bordeaux I, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Bordeaux (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33400 Talence (France); Eppe, Gauthier [CART, Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry LSM, University of Liege, B6C, Allée du 6 Août, 4000, Liege (Belgium); Das, Krishna, E-mail: krishna.das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Oceanology, MARE Centre, B6c, University of Liege, B6c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    The pilot whale Globicephala melas, the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, and the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are large cetaceans permanently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. These species are subjected to numerous anthropogenic threats such as exposure to high levels of contaminants. Therefore, selected persistent organic pollutants POPs (29 PCBs, 15 organochlorine compounds, 9 PBDEs and 17 PCDD/Fs) were analysed in blubber biopsies of 49 long-finned pilot whales, 61 sperm whales and 70 fin whales sampled in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) from 2006 to 2013. Contamination profile and species feeding ecology were then combined through the use of stable isotopes. δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N values and POPs levels were assessed through IR-MS and GC–MS respectively. To assess the toxic potency of the dioxin-like compounds, the TEQ approach was applied. δ{sup 15}N values were 12.2±1.3‰ for sperm whales, 10.5±0.7‰ for pilot whales and 7.7±0.8‰ in fin whales, positioning sperm whales at higher trophic levels. δ{sup 13}C of the two odontocetes was similar and amounted to −17.3±0.4‰ for sperm whales and −17.8±0.3‰ for pilot whales; whilst fin whales were more depleted (−18.7±0.4‰). This indicates a partial overlap in toothed-whales feeding habitats, while confirms the differences in feeding behaviour of the mysticete. Pilot whales presented higher concentrations than sperm whales for ΣPCBs (38,666±25,731 ng g{sup −1} lw and 22,849±15,566 ng g{sup −1} lw respectively), ΣPBDEs (712±412 ng g{sup −1} lw and 347±173 ng g{sup −1} lw respectively) and ΣDDTs (46,081±37,506 ng g{sup −1} lw and 37,647±38,518 ng g{sup −1} lw respectively). Fin whales presented the lowest values, in accordance with its trophic position (ΣPCBs: 5721±5180 ng g{sup −1} lw, ΣPBDEs: 177±208 ng g{sup −1} lw and ΣDDTs: 6643±5549 ng g{sup −1} lw). Each species was characterized by large inter-individual variations that are more

  12. POPs in free-ranging pilot whales, sperm whales and fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea: Influence of biological and ecological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzone, Marianna; Budzinski, Hélène; Tasciotti, Aurélie; Ody, Denis; Lepoint, Gilles; Schnitzler, Joseph; Scholl, George; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Tapie, Nathalie; Eppe, Gauthier; Das, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The pilot whale Globicephala melas, the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, and the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are large cetaceans permanently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. These species are subjected to numerous anthropogenic threats such as exposure to high levels of contaminants. Therefore, selected persistent organic pollutants POPs (29 PCBs, 15 organochlorine compounds, 9 PBDEs and 17 PCDD/Fs) were analysed in blubber biopsies of 49 long-finned pilot whales, 61 sperm whales and 70 fin whales sampled in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) from 2006 to 2013. Contamination profile and species feeding ecology were then combined through the use of stable isotopes. δ 13 C, δ 15 N values and POPs levels were assessed through IR-MS and GC–MS respectively. To assess the toxic potency of the dioxin-like compounds, the TEQ approach was applied. δ 15 N values were 12.2±1.3‰ for sperm whales, 10.5±0.7‰ for pilot whales and 7.7±0.8‰ in fin whales, positioning sperm whales at higher trophic levels. δ 13 C of the two odontocetes was similar and amounted to −17.3±0.4‰ for sperm whales and −17.8±0.3‰ for pilot whales; whilst fin whales were more depleted (−18.7±0.4‰). This indicates a partial overlap in toothed-whales feeding habitats, while confirms the differences in feeding behaviour of the mysticete. Pilot whales presented higher concentrations than sperm whales for ΣPCBs (38,666±25,731 ng g −1 lw and 22,849±15,566 ng g −1 lw respectively), ΣPBDEs (712±412 ng g −1 lw and 347±173 ng g −1 lw respectively) and ΣDDTs (46,081±37,506 ng g −1 lw and 37,647±38,518 ng g −1 lw respectively). Fin whales presented the lowest values, in accordance with its trophic position (ΣPCBs: 5721±5180 ng g −1 lw, ΣPBDEs: 177±208 ng g −1 lw and ΣDDTs: 6643±5549 ng g −1 lw). Each species was characterized by large inter-individual variations that are more related to sex than trophic level, with males presenting higher

  13. Seasonal timing of diapause induction limits the effective range of Diorhabda elongata deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological control agent for tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Keller, Julie C

    2007-02-01

    The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brullé subspecies deserticola Chen, collected in northwestern China, has been released in the western United States to control tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). While beetle establishment and saltcedar defoliation have been noted at northern study sites, this species has not established at latitudes south of the 38th parallel. Critical daylength for diapause induction was measured in the laboratory and ranged between 14 h 50 min to 15 h 08 min, depending on temperature, and adults were shown to cease reproduction and enter diapause at daylengths of 14 h 30 min or less. Critical daylength in the field was measured at approximately 14 h 39 min and occurred 13 d before 50% of the population reached diapause. South of 36 degrees 20' N, the longest days of the year are shorter than 14 h 39 min, making the beetles univoltine in the southern United States. North of 36 degrees 20' N, a window of reproductive activity opens 13 d after the critical daylength is reached in the spring and closes 13 d after it is passed in the summer, allowing at least a partial second summer generation. It is predicted that south of the 38th parallel, premature diapause will increase mortality and disrupt synchrony between the life cycle of the beetle and host plant availability. This could hinder establishment and help explain the failure of this population south of the 38th parallel, providing a rationale for testing other populations of D. elongata in the southern range of Tamarix in North America.

  14. Tropospheric Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical and Concentration Properties in the Frame of the Hygra-CD Campaign (Athens, Greece 2014: A Case Study of Long-Range Transport of Mixed Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar and sun photometry measurements were performed during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece during May-June 2014. The retrieved aerosol optical properties (3 aerosol backscatter at 355-532-1064 nm and 2 aerosol extinction profiles at 355-532 nm were used as input to an inversion code to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties (effective radius reff and number concentration N using regularization techniques. Additionally, the volume concentration profile was derived for fine particles using the LIRIC code. In this paper we selected a complex case study of long-range transport of mixed aerosols (biomass burning particles mixed with dust arriving over Athens between 10-12 June 2014 in the 1.5-4 km height. Between 2-3 km height we measured mean lidar ratios (LR ranging from 45 to 58 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, while the Ångström exponent (AE aerosol extinction-related values (355nm/532nm ranged between 0.8-1.3. The retrieved values of reff and N ranged from 0.19±0.07 to 0.22±0.07 μm and 460±230 to 2200±2800 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm was lower than 5-7% (except for the Saharan dust cases, where δ~10-15%.

  15. Temperature dependence of the short-range order parameter and the concentration dependence of the order disorder temperature for Ni-Pt and Ni-Fe systems in the improved statistical pseudopotential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.

    1980-08-01

    The calculations for the temperature dependence of the first shell short-range order (SRO) parameter for Ni 3 Fe using the cubic approximation of Tahir Kheli, and the concentration dependence of order-disorder temperature Tsub(c) for Ni-Fe and Ni-Pt systems using the linear approximation, have been carried out in the framework of pseudopotential theory. It is shown that the cubic approximation yields a good agreement between the theoretical prediction of the α 1 and the experimental data. Results for the concentration dependence of the Tsub(c) show that improvements in the statistical pseudo-potential approach are essential to achieve a good agreement with experiment. (author)

  16. The effect of long-range air mass transport pathways on PM10 and NO2 concentrations at urban and rural background sites in Ireland: Quantification using clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife A; Broderick, Brian M; Misstear, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) quantify the effects of various long range transport pathways nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) concentrations in Ireland and identify air mass movement corridors which may lead to incidences poor air quality for application in forecasting; (ii) compare the effects of such pathways at various sites; (iii) assess pathways associated with a period of decreased air quality in Ireland. The origin of and the regions traversed by an air mass 96h prior to reaching a receptor is modelled and k-means clustering is applied to create air-mass groups. Significant differences in air pollution levels were found between air mass cluster types at urban and rural sites. It was found that easterly or recirculated air masses lead to higher NO2 and PM10 levels with average NO2 levels varying between 124% and 239% of the seasonal mean and average PM10 levels varying between 103% and 199% of the seasonal mean at urban and rural sites. Easterly air masses are more frequent during winter months leading to higher overall concentrations. The span in relative concentrations between air mass clusters is highest at the rural site indicating that regional factors are controlling concentration levels. The methods used in this paper could be applied to assist in modelling and forecasting air quality based on long range transport pathways and forecast meteorology without the requirement for detailed emissions data over a large regional domain or the use of computationally demanding modelling techniques.

  17. Maternal exposure to metals—Concentrations and predictors of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, A.C.; Hinwood, A.L.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07 µg/L, range <0.01–0.25 µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018 µg/g creatinine, range <0.01–0.199 µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. -- Highlights: • High concentrations of uranium with respect to international literature. • Environmental concentrations of Al, Cu and Li influenced urinary concentrations. • Exposure to mechanics/welding hobbies increased blood Mn concentrations. • Iron/Folic acid supplements reduced biological concentrations of Al, Ni and Mn

  18. Maternal exposure to metals—Concentrations and predictors of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, A.C., E-mail: a.callan@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Hinwood, A.L.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07 µg/L, range <0.01–0.25 µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018 µg/g creatinine, range <0.01–0.199 µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. -- Highlights: • High concentrations of uranium with respect to international literature. • Environmental concentrations of Al, Cu and Li influenced urinary concentrations. • Exposure to mechanics/welding hobbies increased blood Mn concentrations. • Iron/Folic acid supplements reduced biological concentrations of Al, Ni and Mn.

  19. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  20. Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area and hydraulic loading on the treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter. Sesshoku bakkiho no shori koritsu ni taisuru kishitsu nodo, hihyo menseki oyobi suiryo fuka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyo, T; Ono, S; Yoshino, T [Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Science

    1991-06-10

    Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading, which are major factors influencing treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter, were analyzed through the test with a special apparatus. In the test, the wall of the submerged biological filter was regarded as the contact material, and the specific surface area was changed by adjusting the sectional form of the filter. Using specimens from actual plant reservoirs, treatment efficiency for each case of three kinds of substrate concentration and hydraulic loading was measured. BOD removal rate was lower with smaller specific surface area. It was conspicuous particularly with higher BOD concentration in influent water. After the multiple regression analysis of the test results, the multiple regression equation to estimate BOD residual rate from three variates such as BOD concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading was obtained. When 200mg l as BOD concentration and 50m{sup 2} m{sup {minus}3} as specific surface area were applied in this equation, the result almost agreed with the tendency obtained from data of actual plants. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  2. Concentration of biologically active polyamines in meat and liver of sheep and lambs after slaughter and their changes in mutton during storage and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadáková, Eva; Pelikánová, Tamara; Kalač, Pavel

    2011-02-01

    Putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) concentrations using a UPLC method, in chilled mutton, lamb and livers 24 h after slaughter were determined. PUT concentrations were quantifiable only in some samples. Mean SPD concentrations were 4-6, 13.5 and 16.8 mg kg-1 in the meats, sheep and lamb livers, respectively. The respective SPM concentrations were 17-25, 128 and 79 mg kg-1. SPD and SPM losses of about one fifth and half of the initial level, respectively, were apparent in mutton loins stored at -18°C for 6 months. Significant losses of SPD and SPM were found in mutton loins stored aerobically, vacuum-packaged or in a modified atmosphere at +2°C. Boiling and stewing of mutton legs caused SPD and SPM losses of about 40% and roasting of about 60% of the initial content. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological AMS at Uppsala University: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    In January 2007 a new research program was initiated at Uppsala University focusing on the biological applications of AMS. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron Tandem accelerator to study biological samples. With Microdosing applications in mind, a variety of measurements have been performed on human blood, plasma and urine that have been labeled with a 14 C-labeled pharmaceutical drug covering a concentration range, spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, by studying small sample amounts and low concentrations, we have demonstrated sensitivity in the hundred zeptomole range for a small pharmaceutical substance in human blood. Another application of interest, based on the enhanced 14 C activity from the cold war bomb-peak, is dating of DNA molecules providing fundamental data for the regenerative medicine and stem cell research community. We show data on a sensitive carrier method for measuring the isotopic ratio of small biological sample in the few μgC range.

  4. Autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. A case study: Concentrations of metals and PCDD/Fs in subjects living near a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; García, Francisco; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Human biomonitoring is of tremendous importance to prevent potential adverse effects derived from human exposure to chemicals. Blood and urine are among the biological monitors more frequently used. However, biological matrices such as breast milk, hair, nails, saliva, feces, teeth, and expired air are also often used. In addition, and focused mainly on long-term exposure, adipose tissue and other human tissues like bone, liver, brain or kidney, are also used as biological monitors of certain substances, especially for long-term biomonitoring. However, for this kind of tissues sampling is always a limiting factor. In this paper, we have examined the role of autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. For it, we have used a case study conducted near a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia (Spain), in which the concentrations of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), have been periodically determined in autopsy tissues of subjects living in the area under potential influence of the facility. This case study does not show advantages -in comparison to other appropriate biomonitors such as blood- in using autopsy tissues in the monitoring of long-term exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ESR low-temperature investigations on water-containing biological substances to determine type, concentration and kinetics of the free radicals induced by irradiation with X-rays and β-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the present work, ESR investigations on pure water and further biological interesting substances with high water content were carried out. In order to stabilize the free primary radicals occurring after irradiation, it was necessary to cool down the samples to the temperature of liquid helium. Methods were developed which enabled irradiation of the pure sample substance at this temperature to be performed. Two different kinds of radiation were applied, X-ray and β-radiation, and the results were compared with one another. The problem of transporting the irradiated sample from the place of irradiation to the measuring position maintaining 4.2 K was solved. A device was constructed to study the radical kinetics with whose assistance the samples can be brought to a pre-chosen temperature for a certain time. A calibration of the ESR spectrometer as well as the use of a secondary standard was necessary for the quantitative determination of the radical concentration. The type and concentration of the primary radicals occurring were investigated in the measured samples as well as the reduction of the radical concentration with increasing temperature determined. The measured values were compared with theoretical considerations. The effect of the radicals on biological systems at various temperatures was discussed. (orig./LH) [de

  6. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  7. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Bird, Julia K

    2017-08-05

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18-30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%). At baseline, the average age ( n = 834) was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8%) than women (5.2%), as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ( p omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d ( p omega-3 index (+0.21, p omega-3 supplement.

  8. Impact of Biological Feedback and Incentives on Blood Fatty Acid Concentrations, Including Omega-3 Index, in an Employer-Based Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. McBurney

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 are important fatty acids for the retina and brain. More than 95% of Americans have suboptimal EPA + DHA blood concentrations. This cross-sectional employer-based study assessed whole blood fatty acid levels of volunteers participating in an onsite wellness biometric screening program and was designed to determine if an incentive, a $5 coupon for a 90-day supply of fish oil supplement typically costing $18–30, stimulated incremental dietary behavior change relative to nutritional status assessment alone to increase EPA + DHA concentrations. Volunteers completed a dietary survey and finger stick blood samples were collected to be analyzed for fatty acid composition. In addition, 636 individuals participated in the initial onsite biometric screening. Three months later, and without prior knowledge, all employees were invited to a second screening. At the second screening, 198 employees volunteered for the first time and 149 employees had a second test (17.9%. At baseline, the average age (n = 834 was 45 year and omega-3 index was 5.0% with 41% female. EPA + DHA concentration, i.e., omega-3 index, was significantly lower in men (4.8% than women (5.2%, as were DHA and linoleic acid (LA concentrations (p < 0.05. Baseline omega-3 index was positively and linearly associated with omega-3 intake. Only 4% of volunteers had an omega-3 index >8% on initial screening. Among the 149 individuals with two measurements, omega-3 intake from supplements, but not food, increased significantly from 258 to 445 mg/d (p < 0.01 at the second test as did the omega-3 index (+0.21, p < 0.02. In this employed population, only 1% redeemed a coupon for an omega-3 supplement.

  9. Magnetic movement of biological fluid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Antonio A.; Egatz-Gomez, Ana; Lindsay, Solitaire A.; Dominguez-Garcia, P.; Melle, Sonia; Marquez, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A.; Picraux, S.T.; Yang, Dongqing; Aella, P.; Hayes, Mark A.; Gust, Devens; Loyprasert, Suchera; Vazquez-Alvarez, Terannie; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to control the movement of aqueous drops on non-patterned, silicon nanowire superhydrophobic surfaces. Drops of aqueous and biological fluids are controlled by introducing magnetizable carbonyl iron microparticles into the liquid. Key elements of operations such as movement, coalescence, and splitting of water and biological fluid drops, as well as electrochemical measurement of an analyte are demonstrated. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth systems followed by coating with a perfluorinated hydrocarbon molecule. Drops were made from aqueous and biological fluid suspensions with magnetizable microparticle concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 wt%

  10. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  11. Study of the correlation between the concentration of potassium in an extract of Aferontany and its biological effect on an isolated heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANOELA, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the elemental quality of the extract of the malagasy medicinal plant, named Aferontany (Mollugo Nudicaulis), in particular the content of potassium in order to measure its contribution to cause heart hazardous. Decoction was used for plant extraction purposes. Total Refection X ray fluorescence analytical method was employed for the quantitative analysis. Organ isolated test method was applied to evaluate the impact of potassium in the extract on heart. The analytical results showed that Aferontany plant contains potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), rubidium (Rb), barium (Ba), strontium (Sr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb).Their concentration varies with the collecting sites, the conservation duration, the age and the type of plant used organ. The potassium content of the plant is high and varies between 0.016 and 0.064%. The obtained results showed that the elemental concentrations in the decoction increase with the amount of used plant, the temperature and the duration. The concentration value of strontium is lower than 14 μg/L (MDL). The toxic elements concentrations measured in the decoction are low and in the order of 160 μg/L, 6.45 μg/L for the barium and the lead respectively (1g of decocted plant for 100 mL of water). The same decoction contains 5.59 mg/L of calcium, 346 μg/L of manganese 4.05 mg/L of Iron and 130 μg/L of copper. When using the ordinary posology, these elements do not present theoretically any problem on heart function. Besides, the decoction has 520 mg/L of potassium. This high content of potassium may cause heart problem. According to the experimentation carried out on the frog heart, cardiac stopping may occur if the potassium concentration value is in the order of 1100 mg/L. Therefore, The plant decoction would have mortal effect in the case of over uptake. Nevertheless, the intoxication is reversible [fr

  12. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipović, Josip [Town Office for Physical Planning and Environmental Protection, Velika Gorica County, Trg kralja Tomislava 34, 10410 Velika Gorica (Croatia); Grčić, Ivana, E-mail: igrcic@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bermanec, Vladimir [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kniewald, Goran [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  13. Microbiological control of sterilization efficiency by irradiation. Biological indicators. [Medical supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C [Institut National des Radioelements, Brussels (Belgium)

    1977-01-01

    The microbiological efficiency of the radiosterilization process was tested by means of biological indicators such as Micrococcus radiodurans R1 and Bacillus pumilus E601 for gamma and electron radiation doses ranging from 0.5 to 6 Mrad. The response of the biological indicators was studied in terms of conservation time, initial concentration of biological material, and sources of used radiation. Both the biological dosimetry of the process and the sterility after treatment were studied on the basis of inactivation curves.

  14. Effects of glycerol upon the biological actions of near-ultraviolet light: spectra and concentration dependence for transforming DNA and for Escherichia coli B/r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J.; Foote, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration dependence for the protection of isolated transforming DNA and Escherichia coli by glycerol against 365-nm monochromatic near-ultraviolet light (UV) was measured. Glycerol protection saturates at a concentration of about 0.1 M for DNA and 1.0 M for E. coli. Action spectra for glycerol protection of transforming DNA (tryptophan and histidine markers) are similar to those obtained previously for diazobicyclo[2.2.2.]octane (DABCO) protection, with protection reaching a maximum near 350-nm UV and decreasing rapidly at wavelengths above and below 350 nm. However, glycerol protects against near-UV about twice as efficiently as DABCO. The action spectrum for protection of E. coli by glycerol against the lethal effects of near-UV was not the same as the spectrum for DNA since glycerol sensitized the cells, but not the DNA, at wavelengths longer than about 380 nm. A possible role of hydroxyl or other radicals was supported by the observation that benzoate also protected DNA against inactivation by 334-nm UV. (author)

  15. 2004 list of MAK (maximum work place concentration) and BAT (biological workplace tolerance) values; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The MAK value (maximum workplace concentration) is the highest permissible concentration of a working material occurring in the ambient air of the workplace as a gas or vapour or in suspended form which according to the present state of knowledge does not, in general, impair the health of or pose an unreasonable molestation (for example through repulsive odour) to employees even in the case of repeated, long-term exposure, that is as a rule 8 hours daily, assuming an average working week of no more than 40 hours. As a rule, MAK values are quoted as average values over a time period of up to one working day or shift. They are primarily defined in consideration of effect characteristics of the substances in question, but also - as far as possible - of the practical conditions attending the work processes or the exposure patterns which they entail. This is done on the basis of scientifically founded criteria of health protection, not on whether providing such protection is technically or economically feasible. In addition, substances are assessed in terms of carcinogenicity, sensitising effects, any contribution to systemic toxicity following cutaneous resorption, hazards for pregnancy and germ cell mutagenicity and are classified or marked accordingly. The Commission's procedures in assessing substances with respect to these criteria are described in corresponding sections of the MAK and BAT list of values, in the ''Toxicological and occupational medical explanations of MAK values'' and in scientific journals.

  16. The impact of furfural concentrations and substrate-to-biomass ratios on biological hydrogen production from synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate using mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobi, Chinaza; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of furfural (a furan derivative) on hydrogen production rates and yields at initial substrate-to-microorganism ratios (S°/X°) of 4, 2, 1, and 0.5gCOD/gVSS and furfural concentrations of 4, 2, 1, and 0.5g/L. Fermentation studies were carried out in batches using synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate as substrate and mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge as seed. Contrary to other literature studies where furfural was inhibitory, this study showed that furfural concentrations of up to 1g/L enhanced hydrogen production with yields as high as 19% from the control (batch without furfural). Plots of hydrogen yields against gfurfural/gsugars and hydrogen yields versus gfurfural/gbiomass showed negative linear correlation indicating that these parameters influence biohydrogen production. Regression analysis indicated that gfurfural/gsugars initial exerted a greater effect on the degree of inhibition of hydrogen production than gfurfural/gVSS final . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of temperature, plant configuration and loading on the effluent concentration of biological sewage treatment plants; Einfluss von Temperatur, Anlagenkonfiguration und Auslastung auf die Ablaufkonzentration bei der biologischen Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durth, A.

    2000-07-01

    The design of wastewater treatment plants is generally based on the maximum growth rate of the nitrifiers, which is smaller and shows a stronger dependency on temperature than the growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria. This 'kinetic temperature influence' is usually described by exponential equations with a temperature coefficient {theta}. Using these equations for the design of treatment plants results in large volumes of the aeration basin, followed by high investment cost and consumption of large space. On the other hand, long-term effluent data from various plants reveal a small or even no temperature influence on the effluent concentrations. This effect has to be attributed to other influences, which can only be taken into account by modelling the process as a whole. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the temperature influence on the effluent concentration of biological treatment by modelling the entire treatment process. (orig.)

  18. Determination of trace aluminum concentration and homogeneity in biological material TORT-1 by instrumental neutron activation and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochvil, B.; Motkosky, N.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1987-01-01

    The biological reference material TORT-1, lobster hepatopancreas, was analyzed for aluminum by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). After correction of the INAA results for interferences from 28 Al produced by 31 P(n,α) 28 Al and 28 (n,p) 28 Al reactions, and use of HNO 3 plus HF for sample dissolution for the GFAAS analyses, the methods gave similar results of 43 ± 3 and 42 ± 2 μg/g respectively for 200 to 300-mg test portions. Analysis of six portions from each of six bottles of TORT-1 showed no statistical difference at the 95% confidence level for the between and within bottle variances. Therefore, The material can be considered homogeneous for aluminum if 200- to 300-mg test portions are taken. The variance was greater and the average lower when 30-mg test portions were analyzed for aluminum by GFAAS. The pattern of the results, together with the need for HF in the dissolution procedure, suggests the presence of aluminum-containing microparticulate mineral matter, perhaps silicate material, in the material

  19. Determination of trace aluminum concentration and homogeneity in biological material TORT-1 by instrumental neutron activation and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, B; Motkosky, N; Duke, M J.M.; Ng, D

    1987-05-01

    The biological reference material TORT-1, lobster hepatopancreas, was analyzed for aluminum by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). After correction of the INAA results for interferences from /sup 28/Al produced by /sup 31/P(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 28/Al and /sup 28/(n,p)/sup 28/Al reactions, and use of HNO/sub 3/ plus HF for sample dissolution for the GFAAS analyses, the methods gave similar results of 43 +- 3 and 42 +- 2 ..mu..g/g respectively for 200 to 300-mg test portions. Analysis of six portions from each of six bottles of TORT-1 showed no statistical difference at the 95% confidence level for the between and within bottle variances. Therefore, The material can be considered homogeneous for aluminum if 200- to 300-mg test portions are taken. The variance was greater and the average lower when 30-mg test portions were analyzed for aluminum by GFAAS. The pattern of the results, together with the need for HF in the dissolution procedure, suggests the presence of aluminum-containing microparticulate mineral matter, perhaps silicate material, in the material.

  20. Effect of TiO2 Nanofiller Concentration on the Mechanical, Thermal and Biological Properties of HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Mohammad Sayem; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Mairpady, Anusha; Pervez, Hifsa; Haque, Md Emdadul

    2018-05-01

    The necessity for advanced and effective biomimetic tissue engineering materials has increased massively as bone diseases such as osteoporosis and bone cancer have become a major public health problem. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-enriched high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites that could serve as potential biomaterials. HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites with varying TiO2 nanoparticles content were fabricated by using injection molding technique and were subjected to mechanical, thermal and biological characterization. SEM-EDS analysis confirmed even dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles into the HDPE matrix. It was observed from the mechanical testing that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles to HDPE noticeably improved the stiffness (from 345 to 378 MPa) while maintaining almost similar yield strength of pure HDPE. The thermal analyses revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles inclusion to HDPE matrix enhanced the thermal stability of nanocomposites, as the overall rate of crystallization increased by almost 4%. Furthermore, biocompatibility of nanocomposites was also studied by means of various cell culture experiments; human osteoblasts (hFOB) were seeded on the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites and were visualized through SEM after 72 h of incubation; surface morphology revealed normal cell growth and spreading with more attachment on PNC-10 that contains 10 wt.% of TiO2. Moreover, cell viability assays (i.e., MTT and cell attachment) revealed consistent increase in cell count and metabolic activity when triplicate cultures were incubated for 1, 3 and 7 days.

  1. Effect of TiO2 Nanofiller Concentration on the Mechanical, Thermal and Biological Properties of HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Mohammad Sayem; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Mairpady, Anusha; Pervez, Hifsa; Haque, Md Emdadul

    2018-03-01

    The necessity for advanced and effective biomimetic tissue engineering materials has increased massively as bone diseases such as osteoporosis and bone cancer have become a major public health problem. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-enriched high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites that could serve as potential biomaterials. HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites with varying TiO2 nanoparticles content were fabricated by using injection molding technique and were subjected to mechanical, thermal and biological characterization. SEM-EDS analysis confirmed even dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles into the HDPE matrix. It was observed from the mechanical testing that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles to HDPE noticeably improved the stiffness (from 345 to 378 MPa) while maintaining almost similar yield strength of pure HDPE. The thermal analyses revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles inclusion to HDPE matrix enhanced the thermal stability of nanocomposites, as the overall rate of crystallization increased by almost 4%. Furthermore, biocompatibility of nanocomposites was also studied by means of various cell culture experiments; human osteoblasts (hFOB) were seeded on the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites and were visualized through SEM after 72 h of incubation; surface morphology revealed normal cell growth and spreading with more attachment on PNC-10 that contains 10 wt.% of TiO2. Moreover, cell viability assays (i.e., MTT and cell attachment) revealed consistent increase in cell count and metabolic activity when triplicate cultures were incubated for 1, 3 and 7 days.

  2. Effect of sample preparation techniques on the concentrations and distributions of elements in biological tissues using µSRXRF: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ebraheem, A; Dao, E; Desouza, E; McNeill, F E; Farquharson, M J; Li, C; Wainman, B C

    2015-01-01

    Routine tissue sample preparation using chemical fixatives is known to preserve the morphology of the tissue being studied. A competitive method, cryofixation followed by freeze drying, involves no chemical agents and maintains the biological function of the tissue. The possible effects of both sample preparation techniques in terms of the distribution of bio-metals (calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) specifically) in human skin tissue samples was investigated. Micro synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) was used to map bio-metal distribution in epidermal and dermal layers of human skin samples from various locations of the body that have been prepared using both techniques. For Ca, Cu and Zn, there were statistically significant differences between the epidermis and dermis using the freeze drying technique (p = 0.02, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). Also using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique the levels of Ca, Cu and Zn, were significantly different between the epidermis and dermis layers (p = 0.03, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). However, the difference in levels of Fe between the epidermis and dermis was unclear and further analysis was required. The epidermis was further divided into two sub-layers, one mainly composed of the stratum corneum and the other deeper layer, the stratum basale. It was found that the difference between the distribution of Fe in the two epidermal layers using the freeze drying technique resulted in a statistically significant difference (p = 0.012). This same region also showed a difference in Fe using the formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique (p < 0.01). The formalin fixed, paraffin embedded technique also showed a difference between the deeper epidermal layer and the dermis (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that studies involving Ca, Cu and Zn might show similar results using both sample preparation techniques, however studies involving Fe would need more

  3. Biologics in spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Abhishek; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Hsu, Wellington K

    2015-06-01

    Spine fusion is a tool used in the treatment of spine trauma, tumors, and degenerative disorders. Poor outcomes related to failure of fusion, however, have directed the interests of practitioners and scientists to spinal biologics that may impact fusion at the cellular level. These biologics are used to achieve successful arthrodesis in the treatment of symptomatic deformity or instability. Historically, autologous bone grafting, including iliac crest bong graft harvesting, had represented the gold standard in spinal arthrodesis. However, due to concerns over potential harvest site complications, supply limitations, and associated morbidity, surgeons have turned to other bone graft options known for their osteogenic, osteoinductive, and/or osteoconductive properties. Current bone graft selection includes autograft, allograft, demineralized bone matrix, ceramics, mesenchymal stem cells, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein. Each pose their respective advantages and disadvantages and are the focus of ongoing research investigating the safety and efficacy of their use in the setting of spinal fusion. Rh-BMP2 has been plagued by issues of widespread off-label use, controversial indications, and a wide range of adverse effects. The risks associated with high concentrations of exogenous growth factors have led to investigational efforts into nanotechnology and its application in spinal arthrodesis through the binding of endogenous growth factors. Bone graft selection remains critical to successful fusion and favorable patient outcomes, and orthopaedic surgeons must be educated on the utility and limitations of various biologics in the setting of spine arthrodesis.

  4. Effect of eyestalk extirpation on haemolymph ionic concentration of Metapenaeus monoceros

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Abhilash, K.R.

    _________________________________________________________ Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences http://www.jebas.org KEYWORDS Metapenaeus monoceros Prawn Haemolymph Ionic concentration Eyestalk extirpation Osmoregulation ABSTRACT Metapenaeus monoceros in the size range 65... September 20, 2013. EFFECT OF EYESTALK EXTIRPATION ON HAEMOLYMPH IONIC CONCENTRATION OF Metapenaeus monoceros E-mail: kvjayaparam@yahoo.co.in (Jayalakshmy KV) Peer review under responsibility of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural...

  5. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  6. MAK- and BAT values list 2003. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials; MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2003. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und Biologische Arbeitsstofftoleranzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The importance, application and derivation of the maximum concentrations at the workplace is explained. A material's list contains the presently valid maximum concentration values supplemented by a list of materials for which no such values were determined as yet. Furthermore there is a list of working materials clearly identified as carcinogenic, and of working materials with a sensitizing effect, aerosols and some specific working materials are discussed. Finally, the importance and the application of biological tolerance values is explained, supplemented by a materials list. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden neuesten Ausgabe werden erneut Bedeutung, Benutzung und Ableitung der MAK-Werte (maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen) erlaeutert. Eine Stoffliste enthaelt die derzeit gueltigen MAK-Werte, ergaenzt durch eine Aufzaehlung von Stoffen, fuer die noch keine MAK-Werte aufgestellt werden koennen. Es folgt eine Auflistung der Arbeitsstoffe, die bereits eindeutig als krebserregend ausgewiesen wurden, sowie der sensibilisierenden Arbeitsstoffe, Aerosole und einige besondere Arbeitsstoffe. Abschliessend wird die Bedeutung und Benutzung der BAT-Werte erlaeutert, ergaenzt durch eine Stoffliste. (orig.)

  7. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  8. Energy dependence of effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and photon interaction: Studies of some biological molecules in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, Z(PEA,eff), and for photon interaction, Z(PI,eff), have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for biological molecules, such as fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic......, linolenic, arachidonic, and arachidic acids), nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine), and carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch). The Z(PEA, eff) and Z(PI, eff) values have been found to change with energy and composition of the biological molecules. The energy...

  9. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptosp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree (“melaleuca”), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree’s biological attributes along with favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate ...

  10. Biological efficiency of Agaricus brasiliensis cultivated in compost with nitrogen concentrations Eficiência biológica de Agaricus brasiliensis em composto com concentrações de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix G de Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of compost is one of the most important steps for the cultivation of any species of mushroom. For the Agaricus species, this step is even more complex because it depends on the performance of different microorganisms that act on the substrate, turning it into selective compost that promotes the growth of the fungus to be cultivated. Among the various factors that affect the microbial activity, the initial concentration of nitrogen is considered one of the most important. Due to the lack of conclusive studies about that, the aim of this study was to evaluate the productivity and biological efficiency of Agaricus brasiliensis in compost prepared with different initial concentrations of nitrogen, according to the composting methodology and to the conventional pasteurization techniques (phase I and II. Three initial nitrogen concentrations (w/w (T1= 1.0%; T2= 1.5%; and T3= 2.0% were tested and mycelial growth was determined in terms of mm/day for all treatments. The productivity and biological efficiency were also determined. The most efficient initial concentrations of nitrogen were of 1.0% and 1.5%. This concentration of N in the compost permitted a faster development of the mushroom with higher productivity when compared to the results obtained with the application of 2% of nitrogen.A produção do composto é uma das etapas mais importantes para o cultivo de qualquer espécie de cogumelo. Para as espécies Agaricus, essa etapa é ainda mais complexa, porque depende da atuação de diferentes microrganismos que atuam sobre o substrato, transformando-o em um composto seletivo que favorece o crescimento do fungo a ser cultivado. Dentre os diversos fatores que afetam essa atividade microbiana, a concentração inicial de nitrogênio é considerada uma das mais importantes. Em função da falta de estudos conclusivos a respeito, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a produtividade e eficiência biológica de Agaricus brasiliensis em

  11. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  12. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  13. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  14. Biological Potential in Serpentinizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of the microbial substrate hydrogen during serpentinization, the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks, has focused interest on the potential of serpentinizing systems to support biological communities or even the origin of life. However the process also generates considerable alkalinity, a challenge to life, and both pH and hydrogen concentrations vary widely across natural systems as a result of different host rock and fluid composition and differing physical and hydrogeologic conditions. Biological potential is expected to vary in concert. We examined the impact of such variability on the bioenergetics of an example metabolism, methanogenesis, using a cell-scale reactive transport model to compare rates of metabolic energy generation as a function of physicochemical environment. Potential rates vary over more than 5 orders of magnitude, including bioenergetically non-viable conditions, across the range of naturally occurring conditions. In parallel, we assayed rates of hydrogen metabolism in wells associated with the actively serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite, which includes conditions more alkaline and considerably less reducing than is typical of serpentinizing systems. Hydrogen metabolism is observed at pH approaching 12 but, consistent with the model predictions, biological methanogenesis is not observed.

  15. Fine-mapping of qRL6.1, a major QTL for root length of rice seedlings grown under a wide range of NH4+ concentrations in hydroponic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Wataru; Ebitani, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Tadashi; Yamaya, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Root system development is an important target for improving yield in cereal crops. Active root systems that can take up nutrients more efficiently are essential for enhancing grain yield. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in root system development by measuring root length of rice seedlings grown in hydroponic culture. Reliable growth conditions for estimating the root length were first established to renew nutrient solutions daily and supply NH4+ as a single nitrogen source. Thirty-eight chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between ‘Koshihikari’, a japonica variety, and ‘Kasalath’, an indica variety, were used to detect QTL for seminal root length of seedlings grown in 5 or 500 μM NH4+. Eight chromosomal regions were found to be involved in root elongation. Among them, the most effective QTL was detected on a ‘Kasalath’ segment of SL-218, which was localized to the long-arm of chromosome 6. The ‘Kasalath’ allele at this QTL, qRL6.1, greatly promoted root elongation under all NH4+ concentrations tested. The genetic effect of this QTL was confirmed by analysis of the near-isogenic line (NIL) qRL6.1. The seminal root length of the NIL was 13.5–21.1% longer than that of ‘Koshihikari’ under different NH4+ concentrations. Toward our goal of applying qRL6.1 in a molecular breeding program to enhance rice yield, a candidate genomic region of qRL6.1 was delimited within a 337 kb region in the ‘Nipponbare’ genome by means of progeny testing of F2 plants/F3 lines derived from a cross between SL-218 and ‘Koshihikari’. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1328-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20390245

  16. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  17. Modeling of the Process of Three-Isotope (H, D, T) Exchange Between Hydrogen Gas and Water Vapour on Pt-SDBC Catalyst over a Wide Range of Deuterium Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Alekseev, I.A.; Tchijov, A.S.; Uborsky, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The large scale studies of Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process in Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute showed a complicated influence of various factors on the process caused by the presence of two simultaneous isotope exchange sub processes: counter-current phase exchange (between liquid water and water vapour) and co-current catalytic exchange (between hydrogen gas and water vapour). A laboratory scale set-up of glass made apparatuses was established in such a way that it allows us to study phase and catalytic exchange apart. A computer model of the set-up has been developed.The catalytic isotope exchange model formulation is presented. A collection of reversible chemical reactions is accompanied by diffusion of the gaseous reactants and reaction products in the pores of catalyst carrier. This has some interesting features that are demonstrated. Thus it was noted that the flow rates ratio (gas to vapour - λ = G/V) as well as the concentrations of reactants exert influence on the process efficiency

  18. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  19. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  20. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  1. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  2. Effects of hydrologic, biological, and environmental processes on sources and concentrations of fecal bacteria in the Cuyahoga River, with implications for management of recreational waters in Summit and Cuyahoga Counties, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, Donna S.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges of fecal bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli ) to the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River from storm water, combined sewers, and incompletely disinfected wastewater have resulted in frequent exceedances of bacteriological water-quality standards in a 23-mile reach of the river that flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. Contamination of the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River by bacteria of fecal origin and subsequent transport to downstream areas where water-contact recreation is an important use of the river are a concern because of the potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Independent field investigations of bacterial decay, dilution, dispersion, transport, and sources, and bacterial contamination of streambed sediments, were completed in 1991-93 during periods of rainfall and runoff. The highest concentration of fecal coliform bacteria observed in the middle main stem during three transport studies exceeded the single-sample fecal coliform standard applicable to primary-contact recreation by a factor of approximately 1,300 and exceeded the Escherichia coli standard by a factor of approximately 8,000. The geometric-mean concentrations of fecal bacteria in the middle main stem were 6.7 to 12.3 times higher than geometric-mean concentrations in the monitored tributaries, and 1.8 to 7.0 times larger than the geometric-mean concentrations discharged from the Akron Water Pollution Control Station. Decay rates of fecal bacteria measured in field studies in 1992 ranged from 0.0018 per hour to 0.0372 per hour for fecal coliform bacteria and from 0.0022 per hour to 0.0407 per hour for Escherichia coli. Most of the decay rates measured in June and August were significantly higher than decay rates measured in April and October. Results of field studies demonstrated that concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria were 1.2 to 58 times higher in streambed sediments than in the overlying

  3. S-Nitrosothiol measurements in biological systems⋄

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Andrew; Doctor, Allan; Mannick, Joan; Gaston, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    S-Nitrosothiol (SNO) cysteine modifications are regulated signaling reactions that dramatically affect, and are affected by, protein conformation. The lability of the S-NO bond can make SNO-modified proteins cumbersome to measure accurately. Here, we review methodologies for detecting SNO modifications in biology. There are three caveats. 1) Many assays for biological SNOs are used near the limit of detection: standard curves must be in the biologically relevant concentration range. 2) The assays that are most reliable are those that modify SNO protein or peptide chemistry the least. 3) Each result should be quantitatively validated using more than one assay. Improved assays are needed and are in development. PMID:17379583

  4. Biological variation of total prostate-specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söletormos, Georg; Semjonow, Axel; Sibley, Paul E C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine whether a single result for total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) can be used confidently to guide the need for prostate biopsy and by how much serial tPSA measurements must differ to be significant. tPSA measurements include both...... analytical and biological components of variation. The European Group on Tumor Markers conducted a literature survey to determine both the magnitude and impact of biological variation on single, the mean of replicate, and serial tPSA measurements. METHODS: The survey yielded 27 studies addressing the topic......, and estimates for the biological variation of tPSA could be derived from 12 of these studies. RESULTS: The mean biological variation was 20% in the concentration range 0.1-20 microg/L for men over 50 years. The biological variation means that the one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the dispersion...

  5. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  6. Verification of the differential biological effectiveness of photons in the energy range of 10 keV - 6 MeV based on oncogenic transformation rates in mouse embryofibroblasts and in the human CGL 1-hybrid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, E.

    2005-01-01

    Working on observations of neoplastic transformation in human hybrid CGL1 cells, Frankenberg et al. (Radiat.Res. 157, 99-105, 2002) recently reported a relative biological effectiveness (RBE M ) of 4.3 for mammography X-rays (29 kV) relative to 200 kV X-rays. With reference to data in the literature, they inferred a factor of about 8 relative to 60 Co y-rays and concluded that this result is relevant to risk estimation. However, these conclusions do not appear to be valid. The data from the transformation study exhibit uncertainties in the statistical analysis that preclude any generalisation of the inferred RBE M . The data selected or inferred from the literature are likewise insufficient to support the stated RBEs. We therefore designed a study to repeat, under well-defined irradiation and culture conditions, this earlier investigation and to assess the validity of the high RBE values of 29 kV X-rays that had ben reported. Neoplastic transformation of human CGL1 cell hybrids was examined after exposure to 29 kV X-rays (mammography X-rays) and conventional 220 kV X-rays. The experiments with the two types of X-rays were performed simultaneously and shared the same controls.The transformation yields with both radiation qualities were fitted to the linear-quadratic dependence on absorbed dose, and a corresponding analysis was performed for the data earlier obtained by Frankenberg et al. The transformation yields in the present study exceed those in the earlier investigations substantially and it appears that the difference reflects inadequate feeding conditions of the cell cultures in the early experiments. The standard error bands are derived and are seen to be considerably more narrow than in the present results

  7. Subattomole sensitivity in biological accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Possnert, Göran; Bryhni, Helge

    2008-05-15

    The Uppsala University 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has been used to study (14)C-labeled biological samples utilizing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technology. We have adapted a sample preparation method for small biological samples down to a few tens of micrograms of carbon, involving among others, miniaturizing of the graphitization reactor. Standard AMS requires about 1 mg of carbon with a limit of quantitation of about 10 amol. Results are presented for a range of small sample sizes with concentrations down to below 1 pM of a pharmaceutical substance in human blood. It is shown that (14)C-labeled molecular markers can be routinely measured from the femtomole range down to a few hundred zeptomole (10 (-21) mol), without the use of any additional separation methods.

  8. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  9. Towards a Unified Understanding of Lithium Action in Basic Biology and its Significance for Applied Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Eric; Argüello-Miranda, Orlando; Chiu, See-Wing; Fazal, Zeeshan; Kruczek, James; Nunez-Corrales, Santiago; Pandit, Sagar; Pritchet, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic. There is no consensus regarding optimum levels of lithium intake for populations or individuals-with the single exception that lithium is a generally accepted first-line therapy for bipolar disorder, and specific dosage guidelines for sufferers of that condition are generally agreed on. Epidemiological evidence correlating various markers of social dysfunction and disease vs. lithium level in drinking water suggest benefits of moderately elevated lithium compared to average levels of lithium intake. In contrast to other biologically significant ions, lithium is unusual in not having its concentration in fluids of multicellular animals closely regulated. For hydrogen ions, sodium ions, potassium ions, calcium ions, chloride ions, and magnesium ions, blood and extracellular fluid concentrations are closely and necessarily regulated by systems of highly selective channels, and primary and secondary active transporters. Lithium, while having strong biological activity, is tolerated over body fluid concentrations ranging over many orders of magnitude. The lack of biological regulation of lithium appears due to lack of lithium-specific binding sites and selectivity filters. Rather lithium exerts its myriad physiological and biochemical effects by competing for macromolecular sites that are relatively specific for other cations, most especially for sodium and magnesium. This review will consider what is known

  10. The reference range of serum magnesium substance concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation, with only a small proportion of the body's content being in the extracellular fluid. It is required for the active transport of other cations such as calcium, sodium and potassium across the membrane by active transport system. It is also needed for many ...

  11. Synthetic Biology: Putting Synthesis into Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways, and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself – encompassing many branches of science, and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine the customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery – a self-replicating organism – is being pursued at this moment. It is the purpose of this review to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture. PMID:21064036

  12. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  13. Electromagnetic effects - From cell biology to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W; Monsees, Thomas; Ozkucur, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    In this review we compile and discuss the published plethora of cell biological effects which are ascribed to electric fields (EF), magnetic fields (MF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF). In recent years, a change in paradigm took place concerning the endogenously produced static EF of cells and tissues. Here, modern molecular biology could link the action of ion transporters and ion channels to the "electric" action of cells and tissues. Also, sensing of these mainly EF could be demonstrated in studies of cell migration and wound healing. The triggers exerted by ion concentrations and concomitant electric field gradients have been traced along signaling cascades till gene expression changes in the nucleus. Far more enigmatic is the way of action of static MF which come in most cases from outside (e.g. earth magnetic field). All systems in an organism from the molecular to the organ level are more or less in motion. Thus, in living tissue we mostly find alternating fields as well as combination of EF and MF normally in the range of extremely low-frequency EMF. Because a bewildering array of model systems and clinical devices exits in the EMF field we concentrate on cell biological findings and look for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action. As an outlook for future research topics, this review tries to link areas of EF, MF and EMF research to thermodynamics and quantum physics, approaches that will produce novel insights into cell biology.

  14. Métodos de extração e/ou concentração de compostos encontrados em fluidos biológicos para posterior determinação cromatográfica Methods of extraction and/or concentration of compounds found in biological fluids for subsequent chromatographic determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. N. Queiroz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available When organic compounds present in biological fluids are analysed by chromatographic methods, it is generally necessary to carry out a prior sample preparation due the high complexity of this type of sample, especially when the compounds to be determinated are found in very low concentrations. This article describes some of the principal methods for sample preparation in analyses of substances present in biological fluids. The methods include liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and extraction using solid and liquid membranes. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed.

  15. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  16. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  17. Biological potential of Stillingia oppositifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Barros Cota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts from leaves and stems of Stillingia oppositifolia Baill. ex Müll. Arg., Euphorbiaceae, were screened for antifungal and cytotoxic properties. The extracts presented Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values around 250 µg.mL-1 against Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, and around 63 µg.mL-1 for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. They were tested on three human cell lines (UACC-62, MCF-7, and TK-10, disclosing GI50 values, (concentration able to inhibit 50% of the cell growth ranging from 50 to 100 µg.mL-1. Organic extract from stems furnished hexanic, dichloromethanic and aqueous phases after partition. Chromatographic fractionation of the hexanic soluble phase of the stems yielded aleuritolic acid 3-acetate, β-sitosterol, 3-epi-β-amyrin, β-amyrone and palmitic acid. These compounds showed antifungal and cytotoxic activities in the same range as the organic crude extract and low toxic effect against mononuclear cells obtained from human peripheral blood. This is the first report on chemical and biological potential of S. oppositifolia.

  18. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  19. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  20. Quantifying Protein Concentrations Using Smartphone Colorimetry: A New Method for an Established Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Clifford T.; Kehoe, Eric; Pomerantz, William C. K.; Penn, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are involved in nearly every biological process, which makes them of interest to a range of scientists. Previous work has shown that hand-held cameras can be used to determine the concentration of colored analytes in solution, and this paper extends the approach to reactions involving a color change in order to quantify protein…

  1. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  2. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  3. Exotic biological control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Hurley, Brett P.; Kenis, Marc; Garnas, Jeffrey R.; Bush, Samantha J.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Lenteren, van Joop C.; Cock, Matthew J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control is a valuable and effective strategy for controlling arthropod pests and has been used extensively against invasive arthropods. As one approach for control of invasives, exotic natural enemies from the native range of a pest are introduced to areas where control is needed.

  4. [Cybernetics and biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F

    2013-01-01

    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  5. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  6. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule across a whole solid solution range in a series of gamma-brasses in Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga, Ni-Zn and Co-Zn alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, U.; Noritake, T.; Ohsuna, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to examine if the Hume-Rothery stabilisation mechanism holds across whole solid solution ranges in a series of gamma-brasses with especial attention to the role of vacancies introduced into the large unit cell. The concentration dependence of the number of atoms in the unit cell, N, for gamma-brasses in the Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga, Ni-Zn and Co-Zn alloy systems was determined by measuring the density and lattice constants at room temperature. The number of itinerant electrons in the unit cell, e/uc, is evaluated by taking a product of N and the number of itinerant electrons per atom, e/a, for the transition metal element deduced earlier from the full-potential linearised augmented plane wave (FLAPW)-Fourier analysis. The results are discussed within the rigid-band model using as a host the density of states (DOS) derived earlier from the FLAPW band calculations for the stoichiometric gamma-brasses Cu5Zn8, Cu9Al4 and TM2Zn11 (TM = Co and Ni). A solid solution range of gamma-brasses in Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga and Ni-Zn alloy systems is found to fall inside the existing pseudogap at the Fermi level. This is taken as confirmation of the validity of the Hume-Rothery stability mechanism for a whole solute concentration range of these gamma-brasses. An exception to this behaviour was found in the Co-Zn gamma-brasses, where orbital hybridisation effects are claimed to play a crucial role in stabilisation.

  8. Quantum biological gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopvillem, U.Kh.

    1985-01-01

    A possibility of producing biological detectors of gravitational waves is considered. High sensitivity of biological systems to outer effects can be ensured by existence of molecule subgroups in Dicke states. Existence of clusters in Dicke state-giant electric dipoles (GED) is supposed in the Froehlich theory. Comparison of biological and physical detectors shows that GED systems have unique properties for detection of gravitational waves if the reception range is narrow

  9. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling: ensuring continued growth and future leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Rietman, Edward A; Wu, Rongling

    2013-07-11

    Theoretical biology encompasses a broad range of biological disciplines ranging from mathematical biology and biomathematics to philosophy of biology. Adopting a broad definition of "biology", Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, an open access journal, considers original research studies that focus on theoretical ideas and models associated with developments in biology and medicine.

  10. From Biology to Quality (BQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    2011-01-01

    “Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skilful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives.” (William A. Foster) The quality of fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological ...

  11. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  12. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  13. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  14. /sup 210/Po in marine organisms: a wide range of natural radiation dose domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F P

    1988-01-01

    Marine biota is able to concentrate /sup 210/Po to high levels, as 10/sup 3/-10/sup 5/ relative to sea water concentration. /sup 210/Po concentrations in mixed zooplankton reaches 34-51 Bq.kg/sup -1/ (fresh wt), special groups such as copepods reaching even higher concentrations /similar to/ 90 Bq.kg/sup -1/, whereas gelatinous zooplankton display /similar to/ 1 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Epipelagic teleosts feeding on plankton displayed the highest concentrations found in fish muscle, 2-21 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Contrasting with this, demersal teleosts and elasmobranchs display lower /sup 210/Po concentrations, in the ranges 0.5-7 Bq.kg/sup -1/ and 0.2-1.7 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. Much higher concentrations can, however, be measured in fish liver, gonad, bone and piloric caecca, and small mesopelagic fish can reach /similar to/ 800 Bq.kg/sup -1/ on a whole-body basis. Due to these /sup 210/Po activity concentrations, dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in marine organisms can vary widely, from 0.4 mSv.y/sup -1/ in gelatinous plankton up to 5.6 x 10/sup 3/ mSv.y/sup -1/ in the gut wall of sardines. It is concluded that in organisms living in the same ocean layer a wide range of internal radiation doses exists and it is essentially sustained by /sup 210/Po food-chain transfer. (author).

  15. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  16. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  17. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  18. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  19. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  20. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  1. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  2. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. Development of a rechargeable optical hydrogen peroxide sensor - sensor design and biological application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koren, Klaus; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and readout strategy, H2O2 can be measured with high spatial (∼500 μm) and temporal (∼30 s) resolution. The sensor has a broad applicability both in complex environmental and biomedical systems, as demonstrated by (i) H2O2 concentration profile measurements in natural photosynthetic biofilms under light....... Quantifying H2O2 within biological samples is challenging and often not possible. Here we present a quasi-reversible fiber-optic sensor capable of measuring H2O2 concentrations ranging from 1-100 μM within different biological samples. Based on a Prussian blue/white redox cycle and a simple sensor recharging...

  4. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  5. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  6. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  7. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  8. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  9. Scientific considerations on the improvement of the range of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides the results of the investigation of biological effectiveness and the development of the regulations on the use of new agents for the improvement and expansion of the range of herbicides for the protection of sunflower crops. Keywords: range of pesticides, herbicides, sunflower, weeds, biological ...

  10. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  11. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  12. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  13. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanetti, Anna; Fesenko, Sergey; Cozzella, Maria L.; Asencio, Lisbet D.; Sansone, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg -1 . Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  14. [Possibility of the spectral analysis of heterogeneous biological systems. The determination of the mycelium concentration of Actinomyces aureofaciens, a producer of tetracycline, cultured on a medium with corn meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Slugina, M D; Makarevich, V G; Telegin, N L

    1979-03-01

    A possibility of using spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection in the IR region for analysis of the heterogenic system consisting of the microorganisms and plant cells is discussed. The method of spectroscopy is proposed for estimating the mycelium concentration of Act. aureofaciens producing tetracycline in the presence of corn meal in the medium. The experimental data confirming this possibility are presented. The peculiar properties of the spectral analysis under these particular conditions are discussed. It is supposed that the method may be used for analysis of heterogenous systems including other microorganisms.

  15. Quantum Mechanics predicts evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S

    2018-07-01

    Nowhere are the shortcomings of conventional descriptive biology more evident than in the literature on Quantum Biology. In the on-going effort to apply Quantum Mechanics to evolutionary biology, merging Quantum Mechanics with the fundamentals of evolution as the First Principles of Physiology-namely negentropy, chemiosmosis and homeostasis-offers an authentic opportunity to understand how and why physics constitutes the basic principles of biology. Negentropy and chemiosmosis confer determinism on the unicell, whereas homeostasis constitutes Free Will because it offers a probabilistic range of physiologic set points. Similarly, on this basis several principles of Quantum Mechanics also apply directly to biology. The Pauli Exclusion Principle is both deterministic and probabilistic, whereas non-localization and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle are both probabilistic, providing the long-sought after ontologic and causal continuum from physics to biology and evolution as the holistic integration recognized as consciousness for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  17. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  18. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  19. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  20. Purified deoxynivalenol or feed restriction reduces mortality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with experimental bacterial coldwater disease but biologically relevant concentrations of deoxynivalenol do not impair the growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerse, I A; Hooft, J M; Bureau, D P; Hayes, M A; Lumsden, J S

    2015-09-01

    Diets containing deoxynivalenol (DON) were fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) for 4 weeks followed by experimental infection (intraperitoneal) with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (4.1 × 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] mL(-1) ). Mortality of rainbow trout fed either 6.4 mg kg(-1) DON or trout pair-fed the control diet was significantly reduced (P trout fed the control diet to apparent satiation (trout were fed one of three experimental diets; a control diet, a diet produced with corn naturally contaminated with DON (3.3 mg kg(-1) DON) or a diet containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ); however, these fish were not experimentally infected. The presence of DON resulted in significant reduction (P trout fed diets containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 35 day post-exposure compared with controls. The antimicrobial activity of DON was examined by subjecting F. psychrophilum in vitro to serial dilutions of the chemical. Complete inhibition occurred at a concentration of 75 mg L(-1) DON, but no effect was observed below this concentration (0-30 mg L(-1) ). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  2. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  3. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  4. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  5. Volume higher; spot price ranges widen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October 1994 uranium market summary. During this reporting period, volume on the spot concentrates market doubled. Twelve deals took place: three in the spot concentrates market, one in the medium and long-term market, four in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. The restricted price range widened due to higher prices at the top end of the range, while the unrestricted price range widened because of lower prices at the bottom end. Spot conversion prices were higher, and enrichment prices were unchanged

  6. One-carbon (bio ?) Geochemistry in Subsurface Waters of the Serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Mccollom, Tom; Schrenk, Matt; Cardace, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Serpentinization - the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks - typically imparts a highly reducing and alkaline character to the reacting fluids. In turn, these can influence the speciation and potential for metabolism of one-carbon compounds in the system. We examined the aqueous geochemistry and assessed the biological potential of one-carbon compounds in the subsurface of the McLaughlin Natural Reserve (Coast Range Ophiolite, California, USA). Fluids from wells sunk at depths of 25-90 meters have pH values ranging from 9.7 to 11.5 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations) generally below 60 micromolar. Methane is present at concentrations up to 1.3 millimolar (approximately one-atmosphere saturation), and hydrogen concentrations are below 15 nanomolar, suggesting active consumption of H2 and production of CH4. However, methane production from CO2 is thermodynamically unfavorable under these conditions. Additionally, the speciation of DIC predominantly into carbonate at these high pH values creates a problem of carbon availability for any organisms that require CO2 (or bicarbonate) for catabolism or anabolism. A potential alternative is carbon monoxide, which is present in these waters at concentrations 2000-fold higher than equilibrium with atmospheric CO. CO is utilized in a variety of metabolisms, including methanogenesis, and bioavailability is not adversely affected by pH-dependent speciation (as for DIC). Methanogenesis from CO under in situ conditions is thermodynamically favorable and would satisfy biological energy requirements with respect to both Gibbs Energy yield and power.

  7. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  8. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  9. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  10. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  11. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  12. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  13. A dual small-molecule rheostat for precise control of protein concentration in Mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu Hsuan; Pratt, Matthew R

    2014-04-14

    One of the most successful strategies for controlling protein concentrations in living cells relies on protein destabilization domains (DD). Under normal conditions, a DD will be rapidly degraded by the proteasome. However, the same DD can be stabilized or "shielded" in a stoichiometric complex with a small molecule, enabling dose-dependent control of its concentration. This process has been exploited by several labs to post-translationally control the expression levels of proteins in vitro as well as in vivo, although the previous technologies resulted in permanent fusion of the protein of interest to the DD, which can affect biological activity and complicate results. We previously reported a complementary strategy, termed traceless shielding (TShld), in which the protein of interest is released in its native form. Here, we describe an optimized protein concentration control system, TTShld, which retains the traceless features of TShld but utilizes two tiers of small molecule control to set protein concentrations in living cells. These experiments provide the first protein concentration control system that results in both a wide range of protein concentrations and proteins free from engineered fusion constructs. The TTShld system has a greatly improved dynamic range compared to our previously reported system, and the traceless feature is attractive for elucidation of the consequences of protein concentration in cell biology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  15. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  16. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  17. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  18. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  19. Nanoscale technology in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Ralph S; Smith, R Lane

    2004-01-01

    Reviewing recent accomplishments in the field of nanobiology Nanoscale Technology in Biological Systems introduces the application of nanoscale matrices to human biology. It focuses on the applications of nanotechnology fabrication to biomedical devices and discusses new physical methods for cell isolation and manipulation and intracellular communication at the molecular level. It also explores the application of nanobiology to cardiovascular diseases, oncology, transplantation, and a range of related disciplines. This book build a strong background in nanotechnology and nanobiology ideal for

  20. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  1. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  2. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  3. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  4. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  5. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  6. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  7. Ordinary differential equations with applications in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

    2012-01-01

    Differential equations are of basic importance in molecular biology mathematics because many biological laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of a differential equation. In this article we presented some applications of mathematical models represented by ordinary differential equations in molecular biology. The vast majority of quantitative models in cell and molecular biology are formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of concentrations of molecular species. Assuming that the diffusion in the cell is high enough to make the spatial distribution of molecules homogenous, these equations describe systems with many participating molecules of each kind. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for biological phospholipid pathway. All the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. If we reduce the size of the solution region the same small epsilon will result in a different condition number. It is clear that the solution for a smaller region is less difficult. We introduce the mathematical technique known as boundary function method for singular perturbation system. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. In general, the solutions of such equations exhibit multiscale phenomena. Singularly perturbed problems form a special class of problems containing a small parameter which may tend to zero. Many molecular biology processes can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations. Mathematical cell biology is a very active and fast growing interdisciplinary area in which mathematical concepts, techniques, and models are applied to a variety of problems in developmental medicine and bioengineering. Among the different modeling approaches, ordinary differential equations (ODE) are particularly important and have led to significant advances

  8. Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronhofer, E A; Gut, S; Altermatt, F

    2017-12-01

    Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. Although it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of increased movement at low densities at range margins using highly replicated and controlled range expansion experiments across multiple genotypes of the protist model system Tetrahymena thermophila. Although rare, we found evolutionary changes during range expansions even in the absence of initial standing genetic variation. Range expansions led to the evolution of negatively density-dependent movement at range margins. In addition, we report the evolution of increased intrastrain competitive ability and concurrently decreased population growth rates in range cores. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding movement and dispersal as evolving reaction norms and plastic life-history traits of central relevance for range expansions, biological invasions and the dynamics of spatially structured systems in general. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Isolation of Crude Oil from Polluted Waters Using Biosurfactants Pseudomonas Bacteria: Assessment of Bacteria Concentration Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khalifeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological decomposition techniques and isolation of environmental pollutions using biosurfactants bacteria are effective methods of environmental protection. Surfactants are amphiphilic compounds that are produced by local microorganisms and are able to reduce the surface and the stresses between surfaces. As a result, they will increase solubility, biological activity, and environmental decomposition of organic compounds. This study analyzes the effects of biosurfactants on crude oil recovery and its isolation using pseudomonas sea bacteria species. Preparation of biosurfactants was done in glass flasks and laboratory conditions. Experiments were carried out to obtain the best concentration of biosurfactants for isolating oil from water and destroying oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions in two pH ranges and four saline solutions of different concentrations. The most effective results were gained when a concentration of 0.1% biosurfactants was applied.

  10. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  11. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  12. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  13. Biological variation of cystatin C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Erlandsen, Erland; Randers, Else

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cystatin C has been investigated as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the biological variation of cystatin C. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological variation of cystatin C...... in comparison to creatinine. Methods: Eight weekly morning blood samples were taken from twenty healthy volunteers (13 females, 7 males) aged 25-61 years. Mean creatinine clearance was 99.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 (range 61.8-139.5) and mean body mass index 23.9 kg/m2 (range 20.3-28.7). A total of 155 samples were...

  14. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  15. Long range global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

  16. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K.; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J.

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity. PMID:27992457

  17. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity.

  18. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekha, D.; Krishnapriya, B.; Subrahmanyam, P.; Reddyprasad, P.; Dilip Kumar, J.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    The method is based on oxidation of p-nitro aniline by vanadium (V) followed by coupling reaction with N-(1-naphthalene-1-y1)ethane-1, 2-diaminedihydrochloride (NEDA) in basic medium of pH 8 to give purple colored derivative. The derivative having an λ max 525nm is stable for 10 days. Beer's law is obeyed for vanadium (V) in the concentration range of 0.03-4.5 μg ml -1 . The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vanadium in environmental and biological samples. (author)

  20. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  1. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  2. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  3. The relativity of biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  4. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reflective measurement of water concentration using millimeter wave illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Shijun; Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-04-01

    THz and millimeter wave technology have shown the potential to become a valuable medical imaging tool because of its sensitivity to water and safe, non-ionizing photon energy. Using the high dielectric constant of water in these frequency bands, reflectionmode THz sensing systems can be employed to measure water content in a target with high sensitivity. This phenomenology may lead to the development of clinical systems to measure the hydration state of biological targets. Such measurements may be useful in fast and convenient diagnosis of conditions whose symptoms can be characterized by changes in water concentration such as skin burns, dehydration, or chemical exposure. To explore millimeter wave sensitivity to hydration, a reflectometry system is constructed to make water concentration measurements at 100 GHz, and the minimum detectable water concentration difference is measured. This system employs a 100 GHz Gunn diode source and Golay cell detector to perform point reflectivity measurements of a wetted polypropylene towel as it dries on a mass balance. A noise limited, minimum detectable concentration difference of less than 0.5% by mass can be detected in water concentrations ranging from 70% to 80%. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect hydration changes caused by many diseases and pathologies and may be useful in the future as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of burns and other surface pathologies.

  6. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  7. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  8. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  9. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  10. Mathematical methods in biology and neurobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to meet many of the challenges and opportunities offered by modern biology. The description of biological phenomena requires a range of mathematical theories. This is the case particularly for the emerging field of systems biology. Mathematical Methods in Biology and Neurobiology introduces and develops these mathematical structures and methods in a systematic manner. It studies:   • discrete structures and graph theory • stochastic processes • dynamical systems and partial differential equations • optimization and the calculus of variations.   The biological applications range from molecular to evolutionary and ecological levels, for example:   • cellular reaction kinetics and gene regulation • biological pattern formation and chemotaxis • the biophysics and dynamics of neurons • the coding of information in neuronal systems • phylogenetic tree reconstruction • branching processes and population genetics • optimal resource allocation • sexual recombi...

  11. Effects of different temperature treatments on biological ice nuclei in snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazutaka; Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Matsuki, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    The heat tolerance of biological ice nucleation activity (INA) depends on their types. Different temperature treatments may cause varying degrees of inactivation on biological ice nuclei (IN) in precipitation samples. In this study, we measured IN concentration and bacterial INA in snow samples using a drop freezing assay, and compared the results for unheated snow and snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C. At a measured temperature of -7 °C, the concentration of IN in untreated snow was 100-570 L-1, whereas the concentration in snow treated at 40 °C and 90 °C was 31-270 L-1 and 2.5-14 L-1, respectively. In the present study, heat sensitive IN inactivated by heating at 40 °C were predominant, and ranged 23-78% of IN at -7 °C compared with untreated samples. Ice nucleation active Pseudomonas strains were also isolated from the snow samples, and heating at 40 °C and 90 °C inactivated these microorganisms. Consequently, different temperature treatments induced varying degrees of inactivation on IN in snow samples. Differences in the concentration of IN across a range of treatment temperatures might reflect the abundance of different heat sensitive biological IN components.

  12. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, allowing many more experiments than before to be done and yielding much new practical information. The Soils Section is now working to extend the use of the technique to other nitrogen-fixing symbioses.

  13. Air sampler performance at Ford's farm range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Johnston, J.W.

    1984-07-01

    An air-sampling system for a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator firing range was tested. The objectives of the test were: to determine the bias between the monitoring readings and DU concentrations; and to determine if the target bay real-time monitor (RTM) tracks the decaying dust concentration. The test procedure was to operate total and respirable airborne particle samplers adjacent to the target bay monitors. A series of air samples was also taken after the test firings adjacent to the target bay RTM. Exhaust particle samples were analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta and uranium content. The target bay RTM correlated well (0.977) with the sequential samples. Average concentration from the RTM did not correlate with either the long-term total or respirable sampler DU concentrations. The monitor used to confirm a low dust concentration when the door is open correlated well (0.810) with the RTM; the other bay monitor did not. In the ventilation discharge, the long-term average monitor readings did not correlate with DU concentrations, probably due to levels near lower detection limits. Smearable surface-contamination samples showed highest contamination on the equipment, gravel floor and exhaust intake. The location air-intake contamination increased over the first 3 rounds. Contamination was reduced by a low-pressure water spray washdown to about the same concentration as often the second round, then remained at about twice the level. 2 references, 18 figures, 16 tables. (MF)

  14. Temporal stability of blood lead concentrations in adults exposed only to environmental lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delves, H T; Sherlock, J C; Quinn, M J

    1984-08-01

    The temporal stability of blood lead concentrations of 21 health adults (14 men and 7 women) exposed only to environmental lead was assessed by analysis of 253 blood specimens collected serially over periods from 7 to 11 months. The women had lower blood lead concentrations (mean 8.5, range 7.4-10.8 micrograms/100 ml) than did the men (mean 12.2, range 8.6-15.8 micrograms/100 ml). These are within the expected ranges for non-occupationally exposed persons. Blood lead concentrations in the serial specimens from both men and women changed very little over the study period, with standard deviations of less than 0.5 micrograms/100 ml for the majority of individual mean concentrations: for all except low subjects the standard deviations were less than 0.8 micrograms/100 ml. Two subjects showed significant changes in blood lead concentrations during the study. A temporary increase in oral lead intake was identified for one of these subjects. In the absence of substantial changes in lead exposure blood lead levels in adults are remarkably stable and for their environmental monitoring a single blood lead concentration is an excellent biological indicator.

  15. Study of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB Concentrations in Postmortem Blood and Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda M Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is present in blood and urine of the general population as an endogenous compound. The published concentrations in postmortem blood ranged from 0-168 mg/L in cases with no previous history of GHB use. Interpretation of GHB results should be carefully considered due to the wide distribution of endogenous concentrations. The objectives of this study are to evaluate and verify the accuracy of a proposed published (50 mg/L cut-off in 120 blood and 64 urine samples in postmortem cases selected randomly, and to identify GHB-related fatalities. GHB was determined by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC–MS after extraction of the blood and urine in the presence of the internal standard GHB-D6.  The GHB concentration in majority of the blood samples (95% was ≤ 50 mg/L, while in 81% it ranged from 10-50 mg/L. In 95% of the urine samples, the GHB concentration ranged from 10-20 mg/L while 82% of the samples had a concentration of 500 mg/L. The proposed published GHB concentration of 50 mg/L may be used as a cut-off to distinguish between natural endogenous concentrations and exogenous use, but this is not sufficient by itself. The detected GHB concentrations, both in vivo and in postmortem samples, require careful interpretation, not only due to its endogenous nature, but also due to the possibility of postmortem production and also due to its rapid metabolism and excretion.In order to distinguish the endogenous GHB concentration from those reflecting abusive GHB levels, defining a specific cut-off value in biological samples is very crucial. Other matrices, such as vitreous humour, femoral blood and hair must also be considered when interpreting postmortem GHB concentrations.

  16. Exemplary Programs in Secondary School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.; Penick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes 10 exemplary programs which address topics on individualized biology, a modified team approach, limnology, physical anthropology, the relevance of biology to society, ecology, and health. Provides names and addresses of contact persons for further information. Units cover a broad range of abilities and activities. (RT)

  17. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  18. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  19. Statistical investigations of SO2 and O3 concentrations in polluted areas in Southern Saxonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, W.; Ratzlaff, U.

    1991-01-01

    By means of some measuring values, mean hourly values of ozone and sulfur dioxide concentrations in the form of exponential-type probability density distributions are presented. This has essential advantages as compared to the usual form of indicating environmental data. Obtained is a mathematical ''formula'' describing a course in the entire range of the measured values and which can be integrated, for instance, within computer programs modelling propagation and conversion processes (especially also for sensitivity analyses). Any given percentile values can be calculated by approximation, or the probability of the incidence of extreme values of particualr biological relevance (concentration or dose) is estimated. Extreme values are also calculated by means of extremum statistics according to GUMBEL. The paper demonstrates the achievable degree of adaptation and possible applications in biology and ecology. (orig./UWA) [de

  20. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  1. Turing patterns and biological explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    , promoting theory exploration, and acting as constitutive parts of empirically adequate explanations of naturally occurring phenomena, such as biological pattern formation. Focusing on the roles that minimal model explanations play in science motivates the adoption of a broader diachronic view of scientific......Turing patterns are a class of minimal mathematical models that have been used to discover and conceptualize certain abstract features of early biological development. This paper examines a range of these minimal models in order to articulate and elaborate a philosophical analysis...

  2. Patterns of radiocesium contamination in eggs of free-ranging wood ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennamer, R.A.; McCreedy, C.D.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of biological consequences of nuclear industrial contaminants in the environment increase in importance as the potential for exposure of wildlife populations rises. Thus, we examined levels of radiocesium (cesium-137) contamination in wood duck eggs from a Department of Energy nuclear facility in South Carolina during 1990. Radiocesium levels in individual eggs from 5 locations on the site ranged from below detectable concentrations to a maximum of 2.21 Bq/g wet mass. Eggs from an abandoned reactor cooling reservoir contained the greatest burdens; mean egg concentrations there were more than an order of magnitude higher than those from other locations studied. Eggs from a second radionuclide releases, all contained similar low radiocesium levels that were, on average, below detection limits. Variation in radiocesium concentrations of eggs from the most contaminated cooling reservoir was partitioned into within- and among-clutch variation. Approximately 33% of the variation in radiocesium content occurred among eggs laid by the same female, and may have resulted because females fed in both contaminated and uncontaminated habitats during egg formation. Radiation dose rates to developing wood duck embryos, resulting from internal and external sources examined in this study, were below those expected to affect hatchability or any other aspect of the breeding biology of these birds. Wood ducks and their eggs may be useful as bioindicators of radiocesium uptake, but we caution that local foraging patterns could cause variation in contaminant deposition within clutches. 45 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  4. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  5. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    .... From bench to bedside, Dynein: Structure, Biology and Disease offers research on fundamental cellular processes to researchers and clinicians across developmental biology, cell biology, molecular biology, biophysics, biomedicine...

  6. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  7. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  8. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some nonlinear challenges in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Francesco; Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent; Bensimon, David

    2008-01-01

    Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'. (open problem)

  10. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  11. Examining fluvial fish range loss with SDMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Papeş, Monica; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Fluvial fishes face increased imperilment from anthropogenic activities, but the specific factors contributing most to range declines are often poorly understood. For example, the range of the fluvial‐specialist shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) continues to decrease, yet how perceived threats have contributed to range loss is largely unknown. We used species distribution models to determine which factors contributed most to shoal bass range loss. We estimated a potential distribution based on natural abiotic factors and a series of currently occupied distributions that incorporated variables characterizing land cover, non‐native species, and river fragmentation intensity (no fragmentation, dams only, and dams and large impoundments). We allowed interspecific relationships between non‐native congeners and shoal bass to vary across fragmentation intensities. Results from the potential distribution model estimated shoal bass presence throughout much of their native basin, whereas models of currently occupied distribution showed that range loss increased as fragmentation intensified. Response curves from models of currently occupied distribution indicated a potential interaction between fragmentation intensity and the relationship between shoal bass and non‐native congeners, wherein non‐natives may be favored at the highest fragmentation intensity. Response curves also suggested that >100 km of interconnected, free‐flowing stream fragments were necessary to support shoal bass presence. Model evaluation, including an independent validation, suggested that models had favorable predictive and discriminative abilities. Similar approaches that use readily available, diverse, geospatial data sets may deliver insights into the biology and conservation needs of other fluvial species facing similar threats.

  12. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  13. Improved ATIR concentrator photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Paul M.; Mao, Erwang

    2013-09-01

    Novel aggregated total internal reflection (ATIR) concentrator photovoltaic module design comprises 2-D shaped primary and secondary optics that effectively combine optical efficiency, low profile, convenient range of acceptance angles, reliability, and manufacturability. This novel optical design builds upon previous investigations by improving the shapes of primary and secondary optics to enable improved long-term reliability and manufacturability. This low profile, low concentration (5x to 10x) design fits well with one-axis trackers that are often used for flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in large scale ground mount installations. Standard mounting points, materials, and procedures apply without changes from flat plate modules.

  14. Tritium biological effects and perspective of the biological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi

    1998-01-01

    Since tritium is an emitter of weak β-rays (5.7keV) and is able to bind to DNA, i.e., the most important genome component, the biological effects should be expected to be more profound than that of X-rays and γ-rays. When carcinogenesis, genetical effects and the detriments for fetus and embryo were used as a biological endpoint, most of tritium RBE (relative biological effectiveness) ranged from 1 to 2. The tritium risk in man could be calculated from these RBEs and γ-ray risk for human exposure, which are obtained mainly from the data on Atomic Bomb survivors. However, the exposure modality from environmental tritium should be a chronic irradiation with ultra low dose rate or a fractionated irradiation. We must estimate the tritium effect in man based on biological experiments alone, due to lack of such epidemiological data. Low dose rate experiment should be always accompanied by the statistical problem of data, since their biological effects are fairy low, and they should involve a possible repair system, such as adaptive response (or hormesis effect) and 'Kada effect' observed in bacteria. Here we discuss future works for the tritium assessment in man, such as (1) developing a high radiation sensitive assay system with rodent hybrid cells containing a single human chromosome and also (2) study on mammal DNA repair at molecular levels using a radiosensitive hereditary disease, Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. (author)

  15. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Phing-How; Hansen, Birgit S; Olsen, Preben H; Tullin, Søren; Murphy, Michael P; Brand, Martin D

    2007-10-01

    We have discovered that some weak uncouplers (typified by butylated hydroxytoluene) have a dynamic range of more than 10(6) in vitro: the concentration giving measurable uncoupling is less than one millionth of the concentration causing full uncoupling. They achieve this through a high-affinity interaction with the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase that causes significant but limited uncoupling at extremely low uncoupler concentrations, together with more conventional uncoupling at much higher concentrations. Uncoupling at the translocase is not by a conventional weak acid/anion cycling mechanism since it is also caused by substituted triphenylphosphonium molecules, which are not anionic and cannot protonate. Covalent attachment of the uncoupler to a mitochondrially targeted hydrophobic cation sensitizes it to membrane potential, giving a small additional effect. The wide dynamic range of these uncouplers in isolated mitochondria and intact cells reveals a novel allosteric activation of proton transport through the adenine nucleotide translocase and provides a promising starting point for designing safer uncouplers for obesity therapy.

  16. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  17. Radionuclide biological half-life values for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Burgos, J.; Cujic, M.; Fesenko, S.; Kryshev, A.; Pachal, N.; Real, A.; Su, B.S.; Tagami, K.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Wells, C.; Wood, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium concentration ratio is typically the parameter used to estimate organism activity concentrations within wildlife dose assessment tools. Whilst this is assumed to be fit for purpose, there are scenarios such as accidental or irregular, fluctuating, releases from licensed facilities when this might not be the case. In such circumstances, the concentration ratio approach may under- or over-estimate radiation exposure depending upon the time since the release. To carrying out assessments for such releases, a dynamic approach is needed. The simplest and most practical option is representing the uptake and turnover processes by first-order kinetics, for which organism- and element-specific biological half-life data are required. In this paper we describe the development of a freely available international database of radionuclide biological half-life values. The database includes 1907 entries for terrestrial, freshwater, riparian and marine organisms. Biological half-life values are reported for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine = 9, freshwater = 10, terrestrial = 7 and riparian = 3 groups). Potential applications and limitations of the database are discussed. - Highlights: • 1907 biological half-life values have been collated for wildlife species. • Data cover 52 elements. • 27 marine, freshwater, riparian and terrestrial organisms are included.

  18. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other monosa...

  19. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  20. Radiation biology for the non-biologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    This colloquium introduces some of the general concepts used in cell biology and in the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms. The present research activities in radiation biology in the Biology Branch at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories cover a broad range of interests in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into significant biological effects, including the eventual production of cancers and hereditary defects. The main theme of these research activities is an understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation damage to DNA (the carrier of hereditary information in all living organisms) can be actively repaired by the living cell. Advances in our understanding of these processes have broad implications for other areas of biology but also bear directly on the assessment of the biological hazards of ionizing radiation. The colloquium concludes with a brief discussion of the hazards of low-level radiation. (author)

  1. Ionic interactions in biological and physical systems: a variational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is about chemical reactions. Chemistry is about electrons changing their configurations as atoms and molecules react. Chemistry has for more than a century studied reactions as if they occurred in ideal conditions of infinitely dilute solutions. But most reactions occur in salt solutions that are not ideal. In those solutions everything (charged) interacts with everything else (charged) through the electric field, which is short and long range extending to the boundaries of the system. Mathematics has recently been developed to deal with interacting systems of this sort. The variational theory of complex fluids has spawned the theory of liquid crystals (or vice versa). In my view, ionic solutions should be viewed as complex fluids, particularly in the biological and engineering context. In both biology and electrochemistry ionic solutions are mixtures highly concentrated (to approximately 10 M) where they are most important, near electrodes, nucleic ids, proteins, active sites of enzymes, and ionic channels. Ca2+ is always involved in biological solutions because the concentration (really free energy per mole) of Ca2+ in a particular location is the signal that controls many biological functions. Such interacting systems are not simple fluids, and it is no wonder that analysis of interactions, such as the Hofmeister series, rooted in that tradition has not succeeded as one would hope. Here, we present a variational treatment of ard spheres in a frictional dielectric with the hope that such a treatment of an lectrolyte as a complex fluid will be productive. The theory automatically extends to spatially nonuniform boundary conditions and the nonequilibrium systems and flows they produce. The theory is unavoidably self-consistent since differential equations are derived (not assumed) from models of (Helmholtz free) nergy and dissipation of the electrolyte. The origin of the Hofmeister series is (in my view) an inverse problem that becomes well posed when

  2. The Effects Of Physical And Biological Cohesion On Bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Schindler, R.; Baas, J.; Hope, J. A.; Malarkey, J.; Paterson, D. M.; Peakall, J.; Manning, A. J.; Ye, L.; Aspden, R.; Alan, D.; Bass, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Most coastal sediments consist of complex mixtures of cohesionless sands, physically-cohesive clays and extra cellular polymeric substances (EPS) that impart biological cohesion. Yet, our ability to predict bedform dimensions in these substrates is reliant on predictions based exclusively on cohesionless sand. We present findings from the COHBED project - which explicitly examines how bedform dynamics are modified by natural cohesion. Our experimental results show that for ripples, height and length are inversely proportional to initial clay content and bedforms take longer to appear, with no ripples when clay content exceeds 18%. When clay is replaced by EPS the development time and time of first appearance of ripples both increase by two orders of magnitude, with no bedforms above 0.125% EPS. For dunes, height and length are also inversely proportional to initial substrate clay content, resulting in a transition from dunes to ripples normally associated with velocity decreases. Addition of low EPS concentrations into the substrate results in yet smaller bedforms at the same clay contents and at high EPS concentrations, biological cohesion supersedes all electrostatic bonding, and bedform size is no longer related to mud content. The contrast in physical and biological cohesion effects on bedform development result from the disparity between inter-particle electrostatic bonding of clay particles and EPS grain coating and strands that physically link sediments together, which effects winnowing rates as bedforms evolve. These findings have wide ranging implications for bedform predictions in both modern and ancient environments. Coupling of biological and morphological processes not only requires an understanding of how bedform dimensions influence biota and habitat, but also how benthic species can modify bedform dimensions. Consideration of both aspects provides a means in which fluid dynamics, sediment transport and ecosystem energetics can be linked to yield

  3. Biomagnetic Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution: A Review of Magnetic Signatures from Biological Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Maher, Barbara A; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Wuyts, Karen; Castanheiro, Ana; Samson, Roeland

    2017-06-20

    Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ("sensors") used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes. Our work addresses the following: the range of magnetic properties reported for lichens, mosses, leaves, bark, trunk wood, insects, crustaceans, mammal and human tissues; their associations with atmospheric pollutant species (PM, NO x , trace elements, PAHs); the pros and cons of biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution; current challenges for large-scale implementation of biomagnetic monitoring; and future perspectives. A summary table is presented, with the aim of aiding researchers and policy makers in selecting the most suitable biological sensor for their intended biomagnetic monitoring purpose.

  4. Meteorological perspective on intermediate range atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoven, I.

    1981-01-01

    The intermediate range of atmospheric transport and diffusion is defined as those dispersion processes which take place at downwind distances of 10 to 100 kilometers from pollutant sources. Meteorologists often define this range as the mesoscale. It is the range of distances where certain environmental assessments are of concern such as the determination of significant deterioration of visibility, the effect of effluent releases from tall stacks, and the effect of pollutant sources in rural settings upon the more distant urban centers. Atmospheric diffusion theory is based on steady state conditions and spatial homogeniety. Techniques must be developed to measure the inhomogenieties, models must be devised to account for the complexities, and a data base consisting of appropriate measured meteorological parameters concurrent with tracer gas concentrations should be collected

  5. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  6. Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Karwowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps is an attempt to discuss difficult issues of human sexuality and sexually marked behaviors in the context of the concentration camps, and their descriptions in the memoirs of the survivors. Using notions and concepts of the so called "black American feminism" the author (referring extensively to books by Stanisław Grzesiuk and Zofia Romanowiczowa shows how in the concentration camp the human body became the only space of a relative privacy of the prisoner. At the same time the body becomes a territory on which all - both biological and socially constructed - human fates cross.

  7. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  8. Particulate air pollution and increased mortality: Biological plausibility for causal relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, a number of epidemiological studies have concluded that ambient particulate exposure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity at PM concentrations well below those previously thought to affect human health. These studies have been conducted in several different geographical locations and have involved a range of populations. While the consistency of the findings and the presence of an apparent concentration response relationship provide a strong argument for causality, epidemiological studies can only conclude this based upon inference from statistical associations. The biological plausibility of a causal relationship between low concentrations of PM and daily mortality and morbidity rates is neither intuitively obvious nor expected based on past experimental studies on the toxicity of inhaled particles. Chronic toxicity from inhaled, poorly soluble particles has been observed based on the slow accumulation of large lung burdens of particles, not on small daily fluctuations in PM levels. Acute toxicity from inhaled particles is associated mainly with acidic particles and is observed at much higher concentrations than those observed in the epidemiology studies reporting an association between PM concentrations and morbidity/mortality. To approach the difficult problem of determining if the association between PM concentrations and daily morbidity and mortality is biologically plausible and causal, one must consider (1) the chemical and physical characteristics of the particles in the inhaled atmospheres, (2) the characteristics of the morbidity/mortality observed and the people who are affected, and (3) potential mechanisms that might link the two

  9. Monitoring stress in captive and free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Weyde, L K; Martin, G B; Paris, M C J

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of stress physiology is important for species management because high levels of stress can hamper reproduction and affect an individual's ability to cope with threats to their survival, such as disease and human-wildlife conflict. A commonly used indicator of stress, faecal concentrations of cortisol metabolites (FCM), can be used to assess the impact of social, biological and environmental factors. Measurements of FCM are particularly valuable for endangered species that are logistically challenging to study and where non-invasive techniques are preferred. As the second most endangered canid in Africa, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) has been the focus of considerable conservation research, yet there is still little understanding of factors associated with stress, in either captive or free-ranging populations. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether stress levels differ between captive and free-ranging populations, and to detect social, biological and environmental factors that are stressful in these populations. Faecal samples were collected from 20 captive and 62 free-ranging animals. Within free-ranging populations, the sexes differed significantly, but there was no effect of social status, age or breeding period for either sex. Captive females had higher FCM concentrations than free-ranging females. In captive populations, FCM concentrations differed among zoos and with reproductive status in females, but were not related to age class or group-housing structure. In conclusion, FCM is a useful indicator of stress and should be considered an integrative aspect of management, for both in situ and ex situ African wild dog populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 7746 CONCENTRATIONS OF FORMALDEHYDE IN RAIN WATERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... The chromotropic acid method described by the. National Institute for ... concentration range of the formaldehyde in the rain waters varied from month to month throughout the six ... vicinity of vegetation [3]. Formaldehyde is the ...

  11. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  12. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  13. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  14. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  15. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  16. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  17. Biological basis of detoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John; Jakoby, William B

    1983-01-01

    This volume considers that premise that most of the major patterns of biological conversion of foreign compounds are known and may have predictive value in assessing the biological course for novel compounds...

  18. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  19. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  20. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  1. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  2. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  3. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  4. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  5. Introductory Biology Labs... They Just Aren't Sexy Enough!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Gallup, Gordon G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The typical introductory biology curriculum includes the nature of science, evolution and genetics. Laboratory activities are designed to engage students in typical subject areas ranging from cell biology and physiology, to ecology and evolution. There are few, if any, laboratory classes exploring the biology and evolution of human sexual…

  6. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  7. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  8. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  9. General Biology Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Scott; Watthews, Thomas

    This syllabus has been developed as an alternative to Regents biology and is intended for the average student who could benefit from an introductory biology course. It is divided into seven major units dealing with, respectively: (1) similarities among living things; (2) human biology (focusing on nutrition, transport, respiration, excretion, and…

  10. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  11. Chemistry and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  12. Target concentration intervention: beyond Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, N H

    2001-01-01

    Target concentration intervention (TCI) is proposed as an alternative conceptual strategy to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). It is argued that the idea of a therapeutic range has limited the interpretation of measured drug concentrations and diminished the anticipated clinical benefit to patients by use of an oversimplified pharmacodynamic model. TCI on the other hand embraces pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts and uses the idea of a target effect and associated target concentration to make rational individual dose decisions.

  13. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Dissipative structures and biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, Albert

    2017-10-01

    Sustained oscillations abound in biological systems. They occur at all levels of biological organization over a wide range of periods, from a fraction of a second to years, and with a variety of underlying mechanisms. They control major physiological functions, and their dysfunction is associated with a variety of physiological disorders. The goal of this review is (i) to give an overview of the main rhythms observed at the cellular and supracellular levels, (ii) to briefly describe how the study of biological rhythms unfolded in the course of time, in parallel with studies on chemical oscillations, (iii) to present the major roles of biological rhythms in the control of physiological functions, and (iv) the pathologies associated with the alteration, disappearance, or spurious occurrence of biological rhythms. Two tables present the main examples of cellular and supracellular rhythms ordered according to their period, and their role in physiology and pathophysiology. Among the rhythms discussed are neural and cardiac rhythms, metabolic oscillations such as those occurring in glycolysis in yeast, intracellular Ca++ oscillations, cyclic AMP oscillations in Dictyostelium amoebae, the segmentation clock that controls somitogenesis, pulsatile hormone secretion, circadian rhythms which occur in all eukaryotes and some bacteria with a period close to 24 h, the oscillatory dynamics of the enzymatic network driving the cell cycle, and oscillations in transcription factors such as NF-ΚB and tumor suppressors such as p53. Ilya Prigogine's concept of dissipative structures applies to temporal oscillations and allows us to unify within a common framework the various rhythms observed at different levels of biological organization, regardless of their period and underlying mechanism.

  15. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  16. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  17. Resonant long-range interactions between polar macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preto, Jordane; Pettini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by its prospective biological relevance, the issue of resonant long-range interactions between two molecules displaying oscillating dipole moments is reinvestigated within the framework of classical electrodynamics. In particular, our findings shed new light on Fröhlich's theory of selective long-range interactions between biomolecules. First, terms of a very long-range kind – which have never been reported so far – are found in the interaction potential, due to field retardation. Second, at variance with a long-standing belief, it is shown that sizable resonant long-range interactions may exist only if the interacting system is out of thermal equilibrium.

  18. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  19. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  20. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  1. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  2. Doped silicene: Evidence of a wide stability range

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    to the carrier concentration, it is stable in a wide doping range. The frequencies of the E2g-Γ and A′-K Raman modes can be used to probe the carrier concentration. In addition, the phonon dispersion displays Kohn anomalies at the Γ and K points which are reduced

  3. Design of fluidized-bed, biological denitrification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, B.D.; Hancher, C.W.; Pitt, W.W.; Walker, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Many commercial processes yield nitrate-containing wastewaters that are being discharged to the environment because traditional recovery or disposal methods are economically unacceptable. The anticipated discharge limits (i.e., 10 to 20 g (NO 3 - )/m 3 ) being considered by many states will not allow continued release of these wastewaters. The new discharge standards can be met economically by use of the fluidizied-bed, biological denitrification process. Research and development studies were conducted with 0.05-, 0.10-, 0.20-, and 0.50-m-diam fluidized-bed bioreactor systems. Feed nitrate concentrations were in the 0 to 10,000 g (NO 3 - )/m 3 range. Using the data from these studies, rate expressions were developed for the destruction of nitrate as a function of nitrate concentration. Methods were also developed for sizing bioreactors and biomass control systems. The sizing methods for fluidized-bed denitrification systems are described, and support systems such as sampling and analysis, instrumentation and controls, utilities, and bacteria storage are discussed. Operation of the process is also briefly discussed to aid the designer. Using the methods presented in this report, fluidized-bed, biological denitrification systems can be designed to treat nitrate wastewater streams

  4. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  5. Concentrated sunlight for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . A high solar intensity study of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells is presented. Performance peak positions were found to be in the range of 1-5 suns, with smaller cells peaking at higher solar concentrations. Additionally, concentrated sunlight is demonstrated as a practical tool for accelerated stability...... were degraded resulting in acceleration factors in the range of 19-55. This shows that concentrated sunlight can be used as qualitatively to determine the lifetime of polymers under highly accelerated conditions....

  6. A study of the biological effects of rare earth elements at cellular level using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhihui; Wang Xi; Zhang Sunxi; An Lizhi; Zhang Jingxia; Yao Huiying

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological effects and the effecting mechanisms of rare earth elements La, Gd and Ce on cultured rat cells. Methods: The biological effects of La 3+ on cultured rat cells and the subcellular distribution of La and Gd and Ce, and the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and total cellular calcium were measured by isotopic tracing, Proton Induced X Ray Emission Analysis (PIXE) and the techniques of biochemistry and cellular biology. Results: La 3+ at the concentration of 10- 10( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L significantly increased quantity of incorporation of 3 H-TdR into DNA, total cellular protein and the activity of succinic dehydrogenase of mitochondria. The cell cycle analysis showed that the proportions of cells in S phase were accordingly increased acted by La 3+ at above range of concentration. But these values were significantly decreased when concentration of La 3+ raised to 10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L. It was further discovered that La, Gd and Ce distributed mostly in the nuclei, and then in membranes. Gd and Ce also promoted the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and increased the total calcium content in cells. Conclusions: 1) La 3+ at a wide concentration range of 10 -10 ( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L promotes proliferation of cultured rat cells, but at even higher concentration (10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L) shows cellular toxicity, and there is a striking dose-effect relationship. 2) La, Gd and Ce can enter the cells and mainly distribute in the nuclei. 3) Gd and Ce can promote the inflow of extracellular Ca 2+ into the cells and increase total cellular calcium

  7. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  8. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  9. The Importance of Biological Databases in Biological Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, Andreas D; Bateman, Alex

    2015-06-19

    Biological databases play a central role in bioinformatics. They offer scientists the opportunity to access a wide variety of biologically relevant data, including the genomic sequences of an increasingly broad range of organisms. This unit provides a brief overview of major sequence databases and portals, such as GenBank, the UCSC Genome Browser, and Ensembl. Model organism databases, including WormBase, The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), and those made available through the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource, are also covered. Non-sequence-centric databases, such as Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), the Protein Data Bank (PDB), MetaCyc, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Gallium determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulzaft, O.; Maziere, B.; Ly, S.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive, simple and time-saving method has been developed for the neutron activation analysis of gallium at concentrations around 10 -4 ppm in biological tissues. After a 24-hour irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 2.8x10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 and a purification by ion-exchange chromatography to eliminate troublesome elements such as sodium, iron and copper, the 72 Ga activity is measured with enough accuracy for the method to be applicable in animal physiology and clinical toxicology. (author)

  11. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  12. Molecular biology of potyviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revers, Frédéric; García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Positioning genomics in biology education: content mapping of undergraduate biology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Naomi L B; Ndung'u, Eric; Haughton, Dominique; Ledley, Fred D

    2014-12-01

    Biological thought increasingly recognizes the centrality of the genome in constituting and regulating processes ranging from cellular systems to ecology and evolution. In this paper, we ask whether genomics is similarly positioned as a core concept in the instructional sequence for undergraduate biology. Using quantitative methods, we analyzed the order in which core biological concepts were introduced in textbooks for first-year general and human biology. Statistical analysis was performed using self-organizing map algorithms and conventional methods to identify clusters of terms and their relative position in the books. General biology textbooks for both majors and nonmajors introduced genome-related content after text related to cell biology and biological chemistry, but before content describing higher-order biological processes. However, human biology textbooks most often introduced genomic content near the end of the books. These results suggest that genomics is not yet positioned as a core concept in commonly used textbooks for first-year biology and raises questions about whether such textbooks, or courses based on the outline of these textbooks, provide an appropriate foundation for understanding contemporary biological science.

  14. The basic science of bone marrow aspirate concentrate in chondral injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been great interest in bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC as a cost effective method in delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to aid in the repair and regeneration of cartilage defects. Alongside MSCs, BMAC contains a range of growth factors and cytokines to support cell growth following injury. However, there is paucity of information relating to the basic science underlying BMAC and its exact biological role in supporting the growth and regeneration of chondrocytes. The focus of this review is the basic science underlying BMAC in relation to chondral damage and regeneration.

  15. CADMIUM AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HAIR AFTER OF ADULTS MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a biological zinc antagonist and may interfere with metabolic zinc-regulated or zincdependent processes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cadmium and zinc concentrations in the hair of adults after oral supplementation with magnesium. Material and methods: The levels of elements in the hair were determined by the inverse voltammetry. The analysis was performed on the hair of 32 people from the study group and 10 from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag B6. Results: Cadmium concentration in the study group before supplementation ranged from indeterminable levels, to 1,92 µg per gram of dry matter. The range of cadmium concentration after supplementation was between the indeterminable level, and 0,45 µg per gram of dry matter. Based on the statistical analysis, we found that cadmium concentration was significantly lower after magnesium supplementation with a significance level of p*0,02. Zinc level before supplementation was between 11,66 and 250,48 µg per gram of dry matter, and after supplementation between 68,31 and 185,24 µg per gram of dry matter. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that supplementation with magnesium contributed to the lowering of cadmium concentration in the hair of the people examined.

  16. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  17. Viscoelastic characterization of soft biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Vinod Timothy

    elastic material. The effects of sample stiffness were evaluated by testing both the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical properties of different concentration agar samples, ranging from 0.5% to 5.0%. The dynamic nanoindentation protocol showed some sensitivity to sample stiffness, but characterization remained consistently applicable to soft biological materials. Comparative experiments were performed on both 0.5% and 5.0% agar as well as porcine eye tissue samples using published dynamic macrocompression standards. By comparing these new tests to those obtained with nanoindentation, the effects due to length-scale, stiffness, size, viscoelastic, and methodological conditions are evaluated. Both testing methodologies can be adapted for the environmental and mounting conditions, but the limitations of standardized macro-scale tests are explored. The factors affecting mechanical characterization of soft and thin viscoelastic biological materials are researched and a comprehensive protocol is presented. This work produces material mechanical properties for use in improving future medical implant designs on a wide variety of biological tissue and materials.

  18. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  19. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  20. Standard Biological Parts Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate “promoter” parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible. PMID:21390321

  1. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  2. Synthetic Biology to Engineer Bacteriophage Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita Costa, Ana; Milho, Catarina; Azeredo, Joana; Pires, Diana Priscila

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in the synthetic biology field have enabled the development of new molecular biology techniques used to build specialized bacteriophages with new functionalities. Bacteriophages have been engineered towards a wide range of applications including pathogen control and detection, targeted drug delivery, or even assembly of new materials.In this chapter, two strategies that have been successfully used to genetically engineer bacteriophage genomes are addressed: a yeast-based platform and bacteriophage recombineering of electroporated DNA.

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry of small biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2008-12-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique for isotopic ratio measurements. In the biomedical field, AMS can be used to measure femtomolar concentrations of labeled drugs in body fluids, with direct applications in early drug development such as Microdosing. Likewise, the regenerative properties of cells which are of fundamental significance in stem-cell research can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by AMS analysis of human DNA. However, AMS nominally requires about 1 mg of carbon per sample which is not always available when dealing with specific body substances such as localized, organ-specific DNA samples. Consequently, it is of analytical interest to develop methods for the routine analysis of small samples in the range of a few tens of microg. We have used a 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator to study small biological samples using AMS. Different methods are presented and compared. A (12)C-carrier sample preparation method is described which is potentially more sensitive and less susceptible to contamination than the standard procedures.

  4. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  5. Systems Biology of the Fluxome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Aon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of high throughput -omics has made the accumulation of comprehensive data sets possible, consisting of changes in genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Systems biology-inspired computational methods for translating metabolomics data into fluxomics provide a direct functional, dynamic readout of metabolic networks. When combined with appropriate experimental design, these methods deliver insightful knowledge about cellular function under diverse conditions. The use of computational models accounting for detailed kinetics and regulatory mechanisms allow us to unravel the control and regulatory properties of the fluxome under steady and time-dependent behaviors. This approach extends the analysis of complex systems from description to prediction, including control of complex dynamic behavior ranging from biological rhythms to catastrophic lethal arrhythmias. The powerful quantitative metabolomics-fluxomics approach will help our ability to engineer unicellular and multicellular organisms evolve from trial-and-error to a more predictable process, and from cells to organ and organisms.

  6. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  7. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relative biological effectiveness of antiprotons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Alsner, Jan; Bassler, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aside from the enhancement of physical dose deposited by antiprotons annihilating in tissue-like material compared to protons of the same range a further increase of biological effective dose has been demonstrated. This enhancement can be expressed in an increase of the re......Background and purpose: Aside from the enhancement of physical dose deposited by antiprotons annihilating in tissue-like material compared to protons of the same range a further increase of biological effective dose has been demonstrated. This enhancement can be expressed in an increase...... of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of antiprotons near the end of range. We have performed the first-ever direct measurement of the RBE of antiprotons both at rest and in flight. Materials and methods: Experimental data were generated on the RBE of an antiproton beam entering a tissue-like target...

  9. Standards for heavy water concentration determinations in light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, M.; Steflea, D.; Pavelescu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a method to prepare heavy water -light water standards within the range 144 ppm - 1%. A formula for computing standards concentration based on initial concentration of D 2 O and distilled water is given

  10. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  11. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  12. Network biology: Describing biological systems by complex networks. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by M. Gosak et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    I enjoyed reading Gosak et al. review on analysing biological systems from network science perspective [1]. Network science, first started within Physics community, is now a mature multidisciplinary field of science with many applications ranging from Ecology to biology, medicine, social sciences, engineering and computer science. Gosak et al. discussed how biological systems can be modelled and described by complex network theory which is an important application of network science. Although there has been considerable progress in network biology over the past two decades, this is just the beginning and network science has a great deal to offer to biology and medical sciences.

  13. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  14. Exploring Nectar Biology To Learn about Pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBare, Kelly M.; Broyles, Steven B.; Klotz, R. Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of studying nectar biology. Describes how to extract nectar from various flowers, measure nectar volume, determine sugar concentration, and determine caloric value per nectar sample. These data are then related to hummingbird energetics to determine how many flowers are required to supply the pollinator with its caloric…

  15. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  16. Space Synthetic Biology (SSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project focused on employing advanced biological engineering and bioelectrochemical reactor systems to increase life support loop closure and in situ resource...

  17. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  18. Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Roseli R P; Souto, Raimundo N P; Bastos, Cleber N; da Silva, Milton H L; Maia, José G S

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils of the specimens of Piper aduncum that occur in deforested areas of Brazilian Amazon, North Brazil, are rich in dillapiole (35-90%), a derivative of phenylpropene, to which are attributed biological properties. On the other hand, the oils of the specimens with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest, and Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil, do not contain dillapiole, but only terpene compounds such as (E)-nerolidol and linalool. One specimen existing in the Amazon was hydrodistilled. The obtained oil was fractioned on a silica chromatographic column, resulting in fractions rich in dillapiole (95.0-98.9%) utilized for analyses by GC and GC/MS, structural characterization by NMR, confirmation of their biological properties, and to obtain the isomer isodillapiole. Dillapiole showed a fungicide action against the fungus Clinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom) by inhibition of its basidiospores, in concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 ppm. The larvicide and insecticide actions of dillapiole were tested against the larvae and the adult insects of Anopheles marajoara and Aedes aegypti (malaria and dengue mosquitoes), resulting in mortality of the larvae (48 h, 100%) at a concentration of 100 ppm, and mortality of the insects (30 min, 100%) at a concentration of 600 ppm. The isomeric isodillapiole showed no significant activity in the same biological tests.

  19. Advanced oxidation process-biological system for wastewater containing a recalcitrant pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W; Pérez-Estrada, L A

    2007-01-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), ozonation and photo-Fenton, combined with a pilot aerobic biological reactor at field scale were employed for the treatment of industrial non-biodegradable saline wastewater (TOC around 200 mgL(-1)) containing a biorecalcitrant compound, alpha-methylphenylglycine (MPG), at a concentration of 500 mgL(-1). Ozonation experiments were performed in a 50-L reactor with constant inlet ozone of 21.9 g m(-3). Solar photo-Fenton tests were carried out in a 75-L pilot plant made up of four compound parabolic collector (CPC) units. The catalyst concentration employed in this system was 20 mgL(-1) of Fe2+ and the H2O2 concentration was kept in the range of 200-500mgL(-1). Complete degradation of MPG was attained after 1,020 min of ozone treatment, while only 195 min were required for photo-Fenton. Samples from different stages of both AOPs were taken for Zahn-Wellens biocompatibility tests. Biodegradability enhancement of the industrial saline wastewater was confirmed (>70% biodegradability). Biodegradable compounds generated during the preliminary oxidative processes were biologically mineralised in a 170-L aerobic immobilised biomass reactor (IBR). The global efficiency of both AOP/biological combined systems was 90% removal of an initial TOC of over 500 mgL(-1).

  20. Cytotoxic Effect on Cancerous Cell Lines by Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Kulandaivelu

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as an environmental friendly and cost effective alternative to chemical and physical methods. Silver nanoparticles are biologically synthesized and characterized were used in the study. The invitro cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles against MCF-7 cancer cell lines were assessed. The cytotoxic effects of the silver nanoparticles could significantly inhibited MCF-7 cancer cell lines proliferation in a time and concentration-dependent manner by MTT assay. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of silver nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL. At 100 μg/mL concentration, the silver nanoparticles exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays. Western blot analysis has revealed that nanoparticle was able to induce cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, which was initiated by the inhibition of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles might be used to treat breast cancer. The present studies suggest that these nanoparticles could be a new potential adjuvant chemotherapeutic and chemo preventive agent against cytotoxic cells. However, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as anticancer agents.