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Sample records for biological classification bullet

  1. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  2. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  3. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barrett, Karen B. (Meridian, ID); Key, Diane E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens of the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  4. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2013-10-15

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  5. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barrett, Karen B. (Meridian, ID); Key, Diane E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  6. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2006-01-24

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  7. Classification of Recombinant Biologics in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Kevin; De Bruin, Marie L; Broekmans, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Biological medicinal products (biologics) are subject to specific pharmacovigilance requirements to ensure that biologics are identifiable by brand name and batch number in adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports. Since Member States collect ADR data at the national level...... before the data is aggregated at the European Union (EU) level, it is important that an unambiguous understanding of which medicinal products belong to the biological product category exists. This study aimed to identify the level of consistency between Member States regarding the classification...... of biologics by national authorities responsible for ADR reporting. METHODS: A sample list of recombinant biologics from the European Medicines Agency database of European Public Assessment Reports was created to analyze five Member States (Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) according...

  8. Segmentation and classification of biological objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    1995-01-01

    The present thesis is on segmentation and classification of biological objects using statistical methods. It is based on case studies dealing with different kinds of pork meat images, and we introduce appropriate statistical methods to solve the tasks in the case studies. The case studies concern...... classification of back bacon slices from images of back bacon, prediction of ham weight from images of the carcass, and estimation of meat percent from cross-sectional images of the carcass. The first case study investigates three different classifiers ability to classify the quality of back bacon slices....... The back bacon slices are classified into four ordered classes representing the quality, and we use the sizes of different meat and fat areas of the slices as variables. The classifiers are Bayesian discriminant functions, Classification and Regression Trees, and feed-forward neural networks with back...

  9. Saving our science from ourselves: the plight of biological classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte C. Ebach

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving our science from ourselves: the plight of biological classification. Biological classification ( nomenclature, taxonomy, and systematics is being sold short. The desire for new technologies, faster and cheaper taxonomic descriptions, identifications, and revisions is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation and understanding of classification. The problem of gadget-driven science, a lack of best practice and the inability to accept classification as a descriptive and empirical science are discussed. The worst cases scenario is a future in which classifications are purely artificial and uninformative.

  10. How Many Kingdoms? Current Views of Biological Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Lynn

    1981-01-01

    Argues for the acceptance and use of a five-kingdom classification system for biology comprised of monera, protoctista, fungi, animals, and plants. Justifies the new system based upon the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Outlines each kingdom and describes its members. (DC)

  11. A genetic and biologic classification of infantile spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Thio, Liu Lin; Dobyns, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms are an age-dependent epilepsy that are highly associated with cognitive impairment, autism, and movement disorders. Previous classification systems have focused on a distinction between symptomatic and cryptogenic etiologies, and have not kept pace with the recent discoveries of mutations in genes in key pathways of central nervous system development in patients with infantile spasms. Children with certain genetic syndromes are much more likely to have infantile spasms, and we review the literature to propose a genetic classification of these disorders. Children with these genetic associations with infantile spasms also have phenotypes beyond epilepsy that may be explained by recent advances in the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. We therefore also propose a biologic classification of the genes highly associated with infantile spasms, and articulate models for infantile spasms pathogenesis based on that data. The two best described pathways of pathogenesis are abnormalities in the gene regulatory network of GABAergic forebrain development, and abnormalities in molecules expressed at the synapse. We intend for these genetic and biologic classifications to be flexible, and hope that they will encourage much needed progress in syndrome recognition, clinical genetic testing, and ultimately the development of new therapies that target specific pathways of pathogenesis. PMID:22114996

  12. Literature classification for semi-automated updating of biological knowledgebases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Winther, Ole

    2013-01-01

    abstracts yielded classification accuracy of 0.95, thus showing significant value in support of data extraction from the literature. Conclusion: We here propose a conceptual framework for semi-automated extraction of epitope data embedded in scientific literature using principles from text mining...... types of biological data, such as sequence data, are extensively stored in biological databases, functional annotations, such as immunological epitopes, are found primarily in semi-structured formats or free text embedded in primary scientific literature. Results: We defined and applied a machine...... learning approach for literature classification to support updating of TANTIGEN, a knowledgebase of tumor T-cell antigens. Abstracts from PubMed were downloaded and classified as either "relevant" or "irrelevant" for database update. Training and five-fold cross-validation of a k-NN classifier on 310...

  13. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to answer at what angle does a gun marksman have to aim in order to hit the center of a target one meter off the ground and 1000 meters away? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target. It was found that a marksman shooting a target 1000 meters away and 1 meter off the ground has to aim the rifle 0.436° above horizontal to hit the center.

  14. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Young, Andrew N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  15. Unleaded shooting: hunters like copper bullets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Ammunition, Bismuth Cartridge Co. and Barnes Bullets to let hunters see if they worked. They did. Shot groups fired with the Barnes copper hollow point. Triple Shock X-Bullet were generally tighter than with conventional softpoint bullets. A test firing of the two types of bullets into plastic bins filled with wet.

  16. Conceptions of high school students on the theme Biological Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of forms and behaviors by the biodiversity is found fascinating for the human mind since immemorial times generating hypotheses about the relationship between living organisms and extinct. Today a part of biology works from the standpoint of constructing phylogenies, which is based on assumptions of evolutionary relatedness, knowledge that is very important with regard to the teaching of biology. We intend in this work to know the evolutionary conceptions which high school students use to explain the origin of diversity and its current classification. Typological explanations are the most frequent, but a phylogenetic speech seems to appear at certain times, which opens the possibility of exploring it’s pedagogical aspects by teachers.

  17. Classification of biological signals using linear and nonlinear features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, T; Palaniappan, R

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the characterization ability of linear and nonlinear features and proposes combining such features in order to improve the classification of biological signals, in particular single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data. For this purpose, three data sets composed of ECG, epileptic EEG and finger-movement EEG were utilized. The characterization ability of seven nonlinear features namely the approximate entropy, largest Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimension, nonlinear prediction error, Hurst exponent, higher order autocovariance and asymmetry due to time reversal are compared with two linear features namely the autoregressive (AR) reflection coefficients and AR model coefficients. The features were tested by their ability to differentiate between different classes of data using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method with tenfold cross-validation. The class separability of combined linear and nonlinear features was assessed using sequential floating forward search with linear discriminant analysis method (SFFS-LDA). The results demonstrated that linear and nonlinear features on their own provided comparable results for the ECG data set and the finger-movement EEG data set whilst the linear features provided a better class separability compared to nonlinear features for the epileptic EEG data set. Combining linear and nonlinear features demonstrated a significant improvement in the class separability for all of the data sets where an average improvement of 20.56% was obtained with the ECG data set, 7.45% with finger-movement data set and 6.62% with the epileptic EEG data set. Overall results suggest that the use of combined linear and nonlinear feature sets would be a better approach for the characterization and classification of biological signals such as EEG and ECG.

  18. 77 FR 40090 - Proposed Collection of Information; Comment Request: Biological Sciences Proposal Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposed Collection of Information; Comment Request: Biological Sciences Proposal Classification Form AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Biological Sciences has a continuing commitment to monitor its information collection in order to preserve...

  19. Bioethics. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy, Comp.; Cadoree, Michelle

    This guide lists published materials on many aspects of bioethics, the literature of which is varied and scattered. Related guides in the LC Science Tracer Bullet series are TB 80-9, Terminal Care, TB 80-11, Drug Research on Human Subjects, TB 83-4, Science Policy, and TB 84-7, Biotechnology. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this…

  20. Light bullets in transparent dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandidov, Valerii; Chekalin, Sergey; Kompanets, Victor; Dormidonov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    The state of research of the light bullets (LB) formation in the process of femtosecond laser pulse filamentation is presented. LB is a near single-cycle wave packet that is formed in the result of the light field self-organization in a nonlinear dispersive medium under matched spatiotemporal radiation self-compression in the regime of anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD). The formation of each LB is accompanied by the generation of a discrete portion of supercontinuum (SC) in the anti-Stokes region. LB is a short-lived robust object with parameters determined by fundamental properties of the medium and the laser pulse central wavelength.

  1. Classification of Recombinant Biologics in the EU: Divergence Between National Pharmacovigilance Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kevin; De Bruin, Marie L; Broekmans, Andre W; Stolk, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Biological medicinal products (biologics) are subject to specific pharmacovigilance requirements to ensure that biologics are identifiable by brand name and batch number in adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports. Since Member States collect ADR data at the national level before the data is aggregated at the European Union (EU) level, it is important that an unambiguous understanding of which medicinal products belong to the biological product category exists. This study aimed to identify the level of consistency between Member States regarding the classification of biologics by national authorities responsible for ADR reporting. A sample list of recombinant biologics from the European Medicines Agency database of European Public Assessment Reports was created to analyze five Member States (Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) according to which products were classified as biologics by each Member State. We calculated the Fleiss kappa value to analyze interrater reliability. A considerable divergence was identified regarding the classification of the 146 recombinant biologics from the sample list: one Member State classified 100 % of the recombinant biologics from the sample list as biologics, whereas the classification rates in the remaining four Member States ranged between 70 and 88 % for products available on the national market. The interrater reliability for 87 products available on the market in all five Member States was considered poor. Discrepancies exist between Member States in the classification of biologics; less divergence exists for common well-known biologics. These findings highlight the need to think about the best approaches to translate EU legislation into national practices. Additionally, we recommend a publicly available and frequently updated list of centrally authorized biologics.

  2. Integrative Chemical-Biological Read-Across Approach for Chemical Hazard Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yen; Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Golbraikh, Alexander; Whelan, Maurice; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Traditional read-across approaches typically rely on the chemical similarity principle to predict chemical toxicity; however, the accuracy of such predictions is often inadequate due to the underlying complex mechanisms of toxicity. Here we report on the development of a hazard classification and visualization method that draws upon both chemical structural similarity and comparisons of biological responses to chemicals measured in multiple short-term assays (”biological” similarity). The Chemical-Biological Read-Across (CBRA) approach infers each compound's toxicity from those of both chemical and biological analogs whose similarities are determined by the Tanimoto coefficient. Classification accuracy of CBRA was compared to that of classical RA and other methods using chemical descriptors alone, or in combination with biological data. Different types of adverse effects (hepatotoxicity, hepatocarcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and acute lethality) were classified using several biological data types (gene expression profiling and cytotoxicity screening). CBRA-based hazard classification exhibited consistently high external classification accuracy and applicability to diverse chemicals. Transparency of the CBRA approach is aided by the use of radial plots that show the relative contribution of analogous chemical and biological neighbors. Identification of both chemical and biological features that give rise to the high accuracy of CBRA-based toxicity prediction facilitates mechanistic interpretation of the models. PMID:23848138

  3. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p group may have scored higher on the posttest (M = 8.830 +/- .477 vs. M = 7.330 +/- .330; z =-1.729, p = .084) and the traditional group may have scored higher on the pretest than the posttest (M = 8.333 +/- .333 vs M = 7.333 +/- .333; z = -1.650 , p = .099). Two themes emerged after the interviews and instructor reflections: 1) After instruction students had a more extensive understanding of classification in three areas: vocabulary terms, physical characteristics, and types of evidence used to classify. Both groups extended their understanding, but only POGIL students could explain how molecular evidence is used in classification. 2) The challenges preventing students from understanding classification were: familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to

  4. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  5. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  6. Molecular biology of glioblastoma: Classification and mutational locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Shahid Hussain; Ting, Li Rui; Qing, Yang Yi; Ren, Mingxin

    2017-09-01

    Glioblastomas are regarded as the most common malignant brain tumours with great morphological and genetical heterogeneity. They comprise 12% to 15% of all intracranial tumours, with its peak observed in the 8th decade of life. The five-year survival is only 5%. Primary glioblastomas are more common in elders while secondary glioblastomas mostly involve younger people. Based upon gene expression profile, researchers have classified glioblastomas into several subtypes. Genetic mutations provide an advanced standard platform essential for diagnosis, therapeutic remedies and prognosis of glioblastomas. Common mutations observed in glioblastomas are loss of heterozygosity at 10q followed by epidermal growth factor receptor amplification (34%) and others. Vascular occlusion model and tumour stem cell model can explain the possible mechanism in glioblastomas pathogenesis. This review highlights glioblastomas' classifications, genetic mutations, pathogenesis and prognosis of different sub-types.

  7. Interaction of bullets with intermediate targets: material transfer and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Rijnders, Marco; Pieper, Pascal; Hermsen, Rob

    2012-11-30

    In complex shooting incidents, it is not always clear which bullet hit or eventually killed the victim and who fired it. The examination of traces of foreign material embedded in or adhered to bullets provides critical information in the trajectory reconstruction of spent bullets. Such a reconstruction can have considerable legal implications because it can prove that it was not someone's intention to kill. However, the microtraces that remain on spent bullets are often ignored. Microtraces on bullets, around bullet-holes and on ricochet marks were investigated using SEM/EDX for two different types of bullets: a relatively hard, full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet and a relatively soft, lead round-nose (LRN) bullet. A total of 179 bullets were fired into intermediate targets, sheets of 5 different materials (MDF, greenboard, gypsum fibreboard, glass and steel), at approximate incident angles of 90°, 10° and 5°. Of the 144 bullets fired at incident angles of 90°, 130 bullets perforated one of the materials, and 14 bullets perforated two of the materials. The 35 bullets fired at incident angles of 10° and 5° ricocheted off the intermediate targets, producing ricochet marks. In the majority of cases, traces from the target materials were found on the bullet, both after perforation and ricochet. The only exceptions were (1) the perforation of 9-mm sheets of MDF by FMJ bullets and (2) ricochet off glass when the glass did not break. Steel targets transfer small, but still detectable traces of iron to the bullet. The order in which targets are hit was reflected in the traces found on the bullets, i.e., materials from a secondary target were deposited on top of deposits from the primary target. This result implies that it is possible to determine the order of impact from the stratification of the material analysed. Traces from the bullets were found around all the bullet holes. Wipe-off from lead bullets is sometimes visible by the naked eye. Ricocheting bullets produce

  8. BIOCAT: a pattern recognition platform for customizable biological image classification and annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Lamichhane, Santosh; Sterne, Gabriella; Ye, Bing; Peng, Hanchuan

    2013-10-04

    Pattern recognition algorithms are useful in bioimage informatics applications such as quantifying cellular and subcellular objects, annotating gene expressions, and classifying phenotypes. To provide effective and efficient image classification and annotation for the ever-increasing microscopic images, it is desirable to have tools that can combine and compare various algorithms, and build customizable solution for different biological problems. However, current tools often offer a limited solution in generating user-friendly and extensible tools for annotating higher dimensional images that correspond to multiple complicated categories. We develop the BIOimage Classification and Annotation Tool (BIOCAT). It is able to apply pattern recognition algorithms to two- and three-dimensional biological image sets as well as regions of interest (ROIs) in individual images for automatic classification and annotation. We also propose a 3D anisotropic wavelet feature extractor for extracting textural features from 3D images with xy-z resolution disparity. The extractor is one of the about 20 built-in algorithms of feature extractors, selectors and classifiers in BIOCAT. The algorithms are modularized so that they can be "chained" in a customizable way to form adaptive solution for various problems, and the plugin-based extensibility gives the tool an open architecture to incorporate future algorithms. We have applied BIOCAT to classification and annotation of images and ROIs of different properties with applications in cell biology and neuroscience. BIOCAT provides a user-friendly, portable platform for pattern recognition based biological image classification of two- and three- dimensional images and ROIs. We show, via diverse case studies, that different algorithms and their combinations have different suitability for various problems. The customizability of BIOCAT is thus expected to be useful for providing effective and efficient solutions for a variety of biological

  9. SECLAF: A Webserver and Deep Neural Network Design Tool for Hierarchical Biological Sequence Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalkai, Balázs; Grolmusz, Vince

    2018-02-27

    Artificial intelligence (AI) tools are gaining more and more ground each year in bioinformatics. Learning algorithms can be taught for specific tasks by using the existing enormous biological databases, and the resulting models can be used for the high-quality classification of novel, un-categorized data in numerous areas, including biological sequence analysis. Here we introduce SECLAF, a webserver that uses deep neural networks for hierarchical biological sequence classification. By applying SECLAF for residue-sequences, we have reported (Methods (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2017.06.034) the most accurate multi-label protein classifier to date (UniProt -into 698 classes- AUC 99.99%; Gene Ontology -into 983 classes- AUC 99.45%). Our framework SECLAF can be applied for other sequence classification tasks, as we describe in the present contribution. The program SECLAF is implemented in Python, and is available for download, with example datasets at the website https://pitgroup.org/seclaf/. For Gene Ontology and UniProt based classifications a webserver is also available at the address above. grolmusz@pitgroup.org and szalkai@pitgroup.org.

  10. A Biologically Inspired Approach to Frequency Domain Feature Extraction for EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Gursel Ozmen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of electroencephalogram (EEG signal is important in mental decoding for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. We introduced a feature extraction approach based on frequency domain analysis to improve the classification performance on different mental tasks using single-channel EEG. This biologically inspired method extracts the most discriminative spectral features from power spectral densities (PSDs of the EEG signals. We applied our method on a dataset of six subjects who performed five different imagination tasks: (i resting state, (ii mental arithmetic, (iii imagination of left hand movement, (iv imagination of right hand movement, and (v imagination of letter “A.” Pairwise and multiclass classifications were performed in single EEG channel using Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machines. Our method produced results (mean classification accuracy of 83.06% for binary classification and 91.85% for multiclassification that are on par with the state-of-the-art methods, using single-channel EEG with low computational cost. Among all task pairs, mental arithmetic versus letter imagination yielded the best result (mean classification accuracy of 90.29%, indicating that this task pair could be the most suitable pair for a binary class BCI. This study contributes to the development of single-channel BCI, as well as finding the best task pair for user defined applications.

  11. An Evaluation of Peak Finding for DVR Classification of Biological Data

    KAUST Repository

    Knoll, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In medicine and the life sciences, volume data are frequently entropic, containing numerous features at different scales as well as significant noise from the scan source. Conventional transfer function approaches for direct volume rendering have difficulty handling such data, resulting in poor classification or undersampled rendering. Peak finding addresses issues in classifying noisy data by explicitly solving for isosurfaces at desired peaks in a transfer function. As a result, one can achieve better classification and visualization with fewer samples and correspondingly higher performance. This paper applies peak finding to several medical and biological data sets, particularly examining its potential in directly rendering unfiltered and unsegmented data.

  12. Biologic basis of TCM syndromes and the standardization of syndrome classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafeng Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome is an integral and essential component of TCM theory, and goes beyond philosophic concepts. This article reviews the concept of TCM syndromes and summarizes research findings on the biologic foundation of syndromes. In addition, insight is provided into the promotion of standardization of syndrome classification by enforcing uniformity of TCM terminology, applying standardized diagnostic criteria and operating procedures to minimize subjective effects. Also incorporating interdisciplinary approaches such as data mining and structure modeling, as well as integrating findings on biomarker research are discussed. Consideration is made of the fundamental TCM aspects of syndrome elements, symptoms, phenotypic features, as well as diseases, to form an integral process in the diagnostic path. We believe that better understanding of the biologic basis of the TCM syndrome and standardization of syndrome classification will improve diagnosis, which in turn will enhance therapeutic efficacy and disease prognosis.

  13. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  14. Effective automated feature construction and selection for classification of biological sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Kamath

    Full Text Available Many open problems in bioinformatics involve elucidating underlying functional signals in biological sequences. DNA sequences, in particular, are characterized by rich architectures in which functional signals are increasingly found to combine local and distal interactions at the nucleotide level. Problems of interest include detection of regulatory regions, splice sites, exons, hypersensitive sites, and more. These problems naturally lend themselves to formulation as classification problems in machine learning. When classification is based on features extracted from the sequences under investigation, success is critically dependent on the chosen set of features.We present an algorithmic framework (EFFECT for automated detection of functional signals in biological sequences. We focus here on classification problems involving DNA sequences which state-of-the-art work in machine learning shows to be challenging and involve complex combinations of local and distal features. EFFECT uses a two-stage process to first construct a set of candidate sequence-based features and then select a most effective subset for the classification task at hand. Both stages make heavy use of evolutionary algorithms to efficiently guide the search towards informative features capable of discriminating between sequences that contain a particular functional signal and those that do not.To demonstrate its generality, EFFECT is applied to three separate problems of importance in DNA research: the recognition of hypersensitive sites, splice sites, and ALU sites. Comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms show that the framework is both general and powerful. In addition, a detailed analysis of the constructed features shows that they contain valuable biological information about DNA architecture, allowing biologists and other researchers to directly inspect the features and potentially use the insights obtained to assist wet-laboratory studies on retainment or modification

  15. Rifle bullet penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Jin, Yongxi; Batra, R C

    2017-03-01

    The penetration of a rifle bullet into a block of ballistic gelatin is experimentally and computationally studied for enhancing our understanding of the damage caused to human soft tissues. The gelatin is modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous elastic-plastic linearly strain-hardening material that obeys a polynomial equation of state. Effects of numerical uncertainties on penetration characteristics are found by repeating simulations with minute variations in the impact speed and the angle of attack. The temporary cavity formed in the gelatin and seen in pictures taken by two high speed cameras is found to compare well with the computed one. The computed time histories of the hydrostatic pressure at points situated 60 mm above the line of impact are found to have "two peaks", one due to the bullet impact and the other due to the bullet tumbling. Contours of the von Mises stress and of the effective plastic strain in the gelatin block imply that a very small region adjacent to the cavity surface is plastically deformed. The angle of attack is found to noticeably affect the penetration depth at the instant of the bullet tumbling through 90°. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  17. Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A unique ultra-fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials. which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the specified wavelengths. these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-propagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each others' directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waveguide. and further includes two central channels and a plurality of lateral channels for guiding the light bullets into and out of the waveguide. An advantage of the present all-optical switching device lies in its practical use of light bullets, thus preventing the degeneration of the pulses due to dispersion and diffraction at the front and back of the pulses. Another advantage of the switching device is the relative insensitivity of the collision process to the time difference in which the counter-propagating pulses enter the waveguide. since. contrary to conventional co-propagating spatial solitons, the relative phase of the colliding pulses does not affect the interaction of these pulses. Yet another feature of the present all-optical switching device is the selection of the light pulse parameters which enables the generation of light bullets in nonlinear optical materials. including highly nonlinear optical glasses and semiconductor materials such as semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials.

  18. Combining angular response classification and backscatter imagery segmentation for benthic biological habitat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Hasan, Rozaimi; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Backscatter information from multibeam echosounders (MBES) have been shown to contain useful information for the characterisation of benthic habitats. Compared to backscatter imagery, angular response of backscatter has shown advantages for feature discrimination. However its low spatial resolution inhibits the generation of fine scale habitat maps. In this study, angular backscatter response was combined with image segmentation of backscatter imagery to characterise benthic biological habitats in Discovery Bay Marine National Park, Victoria, Australia. Angular response of backscatter data from a Reson Seabat 8101 MBES (240 kHz) was integrated with georeferenced underwater video observations for constructing training data. To produce benthic habitat maps, decision tree supervised classification results were combined with mean shift image segmentation for class assignment. The results from mean angular response characteristics show effects of incidence angle at the outer angle for invertebrates (INV) and mixed red and invertebrates (MRI) classes, whilst mixed brown algae (MB) and mixed brown algae and invertebrates (MBI) showed similar responses independent from incidence angle. Automatic segmentation processing produce over segmented results but showed good discrimination between heterogeneous regions. Accuracy assessment from habitat maps produced overall accuracies of 79.6% (Kappa coefficient = 0.66) and 80.2% (Kappa coefficient = 0.67) for biota and substratum classifications respectively. MRI and MBI produced the lowest average accuracy while INV the highest. The ability to combine angular response and backscatter imagery provides an alternative approach for investigating biological information from acoustic backscatter data.

  19. Immunoconjugates: Magic Bullets for Cancer Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Daniel R.; Spiegel, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Conjugating cytotoxic agents to antibodies allows for site-specific delivery of the agent to tumor cells and should provide increased efficacy and reduced non-specific toxicity. These site-specific cytotoxic agents are known as immunoconjugates or 'magic bullets' and have demonstrated great promise as therapeutic agents for cancer and other diseases. The historical developments and future potential of this new approach to cancer therapy are reviewed.

  20. A method for testing bullets at reduced velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of shooting events occasionally requires testing of bullets at velocities significantly below the typical muzzle velocity of cartridge arms. Trajectory, drag, and terminal performance depend strongly on velocity, and realistic results require accurately reconstructing the velocity. A method is presented for testing bullets at reduced velocities by loading the bullet into a sabot and firing from a muzzle loading rifle with a suitably reduced powder charge. Powder charges can be ...

  1. Safety aspects in biotechnology. Classifications and safety precautions for handling of biological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, W; Krämer, P

    1990-07-01

    The term "biotechnology" is today used much more widely than 10 years ago. According to the modern definition, biotechnology represents the "conveyor belt" which brings advances in the fields of molecular biology, cell biology, molecular genetics, microbiology, biochemistry and process engineering, etc., into the areas of application. It is attempted to indicate the development of safety standards concerning biotechnology. This development is in a state of flux, and the finding that the risks in handling r-DNA organisms are not larger than those arising when handling the known pathogens is becoming more accepted. Accordingly, these r-DNA organisms can also be classified into the known risk groups I-IV and handled under the corresponding safety conditions according to this classification: In the laboratory under the laboratory safety measures L1-L4 described in the BMFT-Guidelines or guidelines for occupational health and hygiene (UVV Biotechnologie) and on a process scale under the process safety measures described in the OECD report. The discussion of aspects on waste disposal, education/training and public perception in the field of biological safety completes the report.

  2. OBSERVING CASCADES OF SOLAR BULLETS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scullion, E.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der, E-mail: scullie@tcd.ie [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-12-01

    High resolution observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope revealed bright, discrete, blob-like structures (which we refer to as solar bullets) in the Hα 656.28 nm line core that appear to propagate laterally across the solar atmosphere as clusters in active regions (ARs). These small-scale structures appear to be field aligned and many bullets become triggered simultaneously and traverse collectively as a cluster. Here, we conduct a follow-up study on these rapidly evolving structures with coincident observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. With the co-aligned data sets, we reveal (a) an evolving multithermal structure in the bullet cluster ranging from chromospheric to at least transition region temperatures, (b) evidence for cascade-like behavior and corresponding bidirectional motions in bullets within the cluster, which indicate that there is a common source of the initial instability leading to bullet formation, and (c) a direct relationship between co-incident bullet velocities observed in Hα and He ii 30.4 nm and an inverse relationship with respect to bullet intensity in these channels. We find evidence supporting that bullets are typically composed of a cooler, higher density core detectable in Hα with a less dense, hotter, and fainter co-moving outer sheath. Bullets unequivocally demonstrate the finely structured nature of the AR corona. We have no clear evidence for bullets being associated with locally heated (or cooled), fast flowing plasma. Fast MHD pulses (such as solitons) could best describe the dynamic properties of bullets whereas the presence of a multithermal structure is new.

  3. Availability of MudPIT data for classification of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Dario Di; Zoppis, Italo; Brambilla, Francesca; Bellettato, Valeria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Mauri, Pierluigi

    2013-01-14

    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical tool for clinical proteomics. Primarily employed for biomarker discovery, it is increasingly used for developing methods which may help to provide unambiguous diagnosis of biological samples. In this context, we investigated the classification of phenotypes by applying support vector machine (SVM) on experimental data obtained by MudPIT approach. In particular, we compared the performance capabilities of SVM by using two independent collection of complex samples and different data-types, such as mass spectra (m/z), peptides and proteins. Globally, protein and peptide data allowed a better discriminant informative content than experimental mass spectra (overall accuracy higher than 87% in both collection 1 and 2). These results indicate that sequencing of peptides and proteins reduces the experimental noise affecting the raw mass spectra, and allows the extraction of more informative features available for the effective classification of samples. In addition, proteins and peptides features selected by SVM matched for 80% with the differentially expressed proteins identified by the MAProMa software. These findings confirm the availability of the most label-free quantitative methods based on processing of spectral count and SEQUEST-based SCORE values. On the other hand, it stresses the usefulness of MudPIT data for a correct grouping of sample phenotypes, by applying both supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms. This capacity permit the evaluation of actual samples and it is a good starting point to translate proteomic methodology to clinical application.

  4. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  5. Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzini Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. It is currently primarily handled using alignments. However, the alignment methods seem inadequate for post-genomic studies since they do not scale well with data set size and they seem to be confined only to genomic and proteomic sequences. Therefore, alignment-free similarity measures are actively pursued. Among those, USM (Universal Similarity Metric has gained prominence. It is based on the deep theory of Kolmogorov Complexity and universality is its most novel striking feature. Since it can only be approximated via data compression, USM is a methodology rather than a formula quantifying the similarity of two strings. Three approximations of USM are available, namely UCD (Universal Compression Dissimilarity, NCD (Normalized Compression Dissimilarity and CD (Compression Dissimilarity. Their applicability and robustness is tested on various data sets yielding a first massive quantitative estimate that the USM methodology and its approximations are of value. Despite the rich theory developed around USM, its experimental assessment has limitations: only a few data compressors have been tested in conjunction with USM and mostly at a qualitative level, no comparison among UCD, NCD and CD is available and no comparison of USM with existing methods, both based on alignments and not, seems to be available. Results We experimentally test the USM methodology by using 25 compressors, all three of its known approximations and six data sets of relevance to Molecular Biology. This offers the first systematic and quantitative experimental assessment of this methodology, that naturally complements the many theoretical and the preliminary experimental results available. Moreover, we compare the USM methodology both with methods based on alignments and not. We may group our experiments into two sets. The first one, performed via ROC

  6. Magnetic Bead—Magic Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ruffert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics is assumed to be one of the leading and most promising areas of research since the early 1990s. In microfluidic systems, small spherical magnetic particles with superparamagnetic properties, called magnetic beads, play an important role in the design of innovative methods and tools, especially in bioanalysis and medical sciences. The intention of this review paper is to address main aspects from the state-of-the-art in the area of magnetic bead research, while demonstrating the broad variety of applications and the huge potential to solve fundamental biological and medical problems in the fields of diagnostics and therapy. Basic issues and demands related to the fabrication of magnetic particles and physical properties of nanosize magnets are discussed in Section 2. Of main interest are the control and adjustment of the nanoparticles’ properties and the availability of adequate approaches for particle detection via their magnetic field. Section 3 presents an overview of magnetic bead applications in nanomedicine. In Section 4, practical aspects of sample manipulation and separation employing magnetic beads are described. Finally, the benefits related to the use of magnetic bead-based microfluidic systems are summarized, illustrating ongoing questions and open tasks to be solved on the way to an approaching microfluidic age.

  7. Using Variable Precision Rough Set for Selection and Classification of Biological Knowledge Integrated in DNA Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Dmgz D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA microarrays have contributed to the exponential growth of genomic and experimental data in the last decade. This large amount of gene expression data has been used by researchers seeking diagnosis of diseases like cancer using machine learning methods. In turn, explicit biological knowledge about gene functions has also grown tremendously over the last decade. This work integrates explicit biological knowledge, provided as gene sets, into the classication process by means of Variable Precision Rough Set Theory (VPRS. The proposed model is able to highlight which part of the provided biological knowledge has been important for classification. This paper presents a novel model for microarray data classification which is able to incorporate prior biological knowledge in the form of gene sets. Based on this knowledge, we transform the input microarray data into supergenes, and then we apply rough set theory to select the most promising supergenes and to derive a set of easy interpretable classification rules. The proposed model is evaluated over three breast cancer microarrays datasets obtaining successful results compared to classical classification techniques. The experimental results shows that there are not significat differences between our model and classical techniques but it is able to provide a biological-interpretable explanation of how it classifies new samples.

  8. Progressive Propaganda Critics and the Magic Bullet Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Examines the development and historical inaccuracies of the "magic bullet" interpretation of American propaganda studies, which asserts that propaganda critics between the world wars treated messages as "magic bullets" directly and powerfully infused into passive receivers. Considers why this misconception of the progressive…

  9. iTools: a framework for classification, categorization and integration of computational biology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Rubin, Daniel; Lorensen, William; Dugan, Jonathan; Ma, Jeff; Murphy, Shawn; Kirschner, Beth; Bug, William; Sherman, Michael; Floratos, Aris; Kennedy, David; Jagadish, H V; Schmidt, Jeanette; Athey, Brian; Califano, Andrea; Musen, Mark; Altman, Russ; Kikinis, Ron; Kohane, Isaac; Delp, Scott; Parker, D Stott; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-05-28

    The advancement of the computational biology field hinges on progress in three fundamental directions--the development of new computational algorithms, the availability of informatics resource management infrastructures and the capability of tools to interoperate and synergize. There is an explosion in algorithms and tools for computational biology, which makes it difficult for biologists to find, compare and integrate such resources. We describe a new infrastructure, iTools, for managing the query, traversal and comparison of diverse computational biology resources. Specifically, iTools stores information about three types of resources--data, software tools and web-services. The iTools design, implementation and resource meta-data content reflect the broad research, computational, applied and scientific expertise available at the seven National Centers for Biomedical Computing. iTools provides a system for classification, categorization and integration of different computational biology resources across space-and-time scales, biomedical problems, computational infrastructures and mathematical foundations. A large number of resources are already iTools-accessible to the community and this infrastructure is rapidly growing. iTools includes human and machine interfaces to its resource meta-data repository. Investigators or computer programs may utilize these interfaces to search, compare, expand, revise and mine meta-data descriptions of existent computational biology resources. We propose two ways to browse and display the iTools dynamic collection of resources. The first one is based on an ontology of computational biology resources, and the second one is derived from hyperbolic projections of manifolds or complex structures onto planar discs. iTools is an open source project both in terms of the source code development as well as its meta-data content. iTools employs a decentralized, portable, scalable and lightweight framework for long-term resource management

  10. iTools: a framework for classification, categorization and integration of computational biology resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo D Dinov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of the computational biology field hinges on progress in three fundamental directions--the development of new computational algorithms, the availability of informatics resource management infrastructures and the capability of tools to interoperate and synergize. There is an explosion in algorithms and tools for computational biology, which makes it difficult for biologists to find, compare and integrate such resources. We describe a new infrastructure, iTools, for managing the query, traversal and comparison of diverse computational biology resources. Specifically, iTools stores information about three types of resources--data, software tools and web-services. The iTools design, implementation and resource meta-data content reflect the broad research, computational, applied and scientific expertise available at the seven National Centers for Biomedical Computing. iTools provides a system for classification, categorization and integration of different computational biology resources across space-and-time scales, biomedical problems, computational infrastructures and mathematical foundations. A large number of resources are already iTools-accessible to the community and this infrastructure is rapidly growing. iTools includes human and machine interfaces to its resource meta-data repository. Investigators or computer programs may utilize these interfaces to search, compare, expand, revise and mine meta-data descriptions of existent computational biology resources. We propose two ways to browse and display the iTools dynamic collection of resources. The first one is based on an ontology of computational biology resources, and the second one is derived from hyperbolic projections of manifolds or complex structures onto planar discs. iTools is an open source project both in terms of the source code development as well as its meta-data content. iTools employs a decentralized, portable, scalable and lightweight framework for long

  11. Application of Machine Learning to Proteomics Data: Classification and Biomarker Identification in Postgenomics Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Anna Louise; Mobasheri, Ali; Allaway, David; Liddell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for the characterization of biological samples and is increasingly used in omics studies because of its targeted, nontargeted, and high throughput abilities. However, due to the large datasets generated, it requires informatics approaches such as machine learning techniques to analyze and interpret relevant data. Machine learning can be applied to MS-derived proteomics data in two ways. First, directly to mass spectral peaks and second, to proteins identified by sequence database searching, although relative protein quantification is required for the latter. Machine learning has been applied to mass spectrometry data from different biological disciplines, particularly for various cancers. The aims of such investigations have been to identify biomarkers and to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of specific diseases. This review describes how machine learning has been applied to proteomics tandem mass spectrometry data. This includes how it can be used to identify proteins suitable for use as biomarkers of disease and for classification of samples into disease or treatment groups, which may be applicable for diagnostics. It also includes the challenges faced by such investigations, such as prediction of proteins present, protein quantification, planning for the use of machine learning, and small sample sizes. PMID:24116388

  12. Linking Biological Responses of Terrestrial N Eutrophication to the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. D.; Clark, C.; Blett, T.

    2015-12-01

    The response of a biological indicator to N deposition can indicate that an ecosystem has surpassed a critical load and is at risk of significant change. The importance of this exceedance is often difficult to digest by policy makers and public audiences if the change is not linked to a familiar ecosystem endpoint. A workshop was held to bring together scientists, resource managers, and policy makers with expertise in ecosystem functioning, critical loads, and economics in an effort to identify the ecosystem services impacted by air pollution. This was completed within the framework of the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) Classification System to produce a product that identified distinct interactions between society and the effects of nitrogen pollution. From each change in a biological indicator, we created multiple ecological production functions to identify the cascading effects of the change to a measureable ecosystem service that a user interacts with either by enjoying, consuming, or appreciating the good or service, or using it as an input in the human economy. This FEGS metric was then linked to a beneficiary group that interacts with the service. Chains detailing the links from the biological indicator to the beneficiary group were created for aquatic and terrestrial acidification and eutrophication at the workshop, and here we present a subset of the workshop results by highlighting for 9 different ecosystems affected by terrestrial eutrophication. A total of 213 chains that linked to 37 unique FEGS metrics and impacted 15 beneficiary groups were identified based on nitrogen deposition mediated changes to biological indicators. The chains within each ecosystem were combined in flow charts to show the complex, overlapping relationships among biological indicators, ecosystem services, and beneficiary groups. Strength of relationship values were calculated for each chain based on support for the link in the scientific literature. We produced the

  13. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  14. Performance analysis of bullet trajectory estimation: Approach, simulation, and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Karr, T.J.

    1994-11-08

    This paper describes an approach to estimate a bullet`s trajectory from a time sequence of angles-only observations from a high-speed camera, and analyzes its performance. The technique is based on fitting a ballistic model of a bullet in flight along with unknown source location parameters to a time series of angular observations. The theory is developed to precisely reconstruct, from firing range geometry, the actual bullet trajectory as it appeared on the focal plane array and in real space. A metric for measuring the effective trajectory track error is also presented. Detailed Monte-Carlo simulations assuming different bullet ranges, shot-angles, camera frame rates, and angular noise show that angular track error can be as small as 100 {mu}rad for a 2 mrad/pixel sensor. It is also shown that if actual values of bullet ballistic parameters were available, the bullet s source location variables, and the angles of flight information could also be determined.

  15. BClass: A Bayesian Approach Based on Mixture Models for Clustering and Classification of Heterogeneous Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Medrano-Soto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on mixture models, we present a Bayesian method (called BClass to classify biological entities (e.g. genes when variables of quite heterogeneous nature are analyzed. Various statistical distributions are used to model the continuous/categorical data commonly produced by genetic experiments and large-scale genomic projects. We calculate the posterior probability of each entry to belong to each element (group in the mixture. In this way, an original set of heterogeneous variables is transformed into a set of purely homogeneous characteristics represented by the probabilities of each entry to belong to the groups. The number of groups in the analysis is controlled dynamically by rendering the groups as 'alive' and 'dormant' depending upon the number of entities classified within them. Using standard Metropolis-Hastings and Gibbs sampling algorithms, we constructed a sampler to approximate posterior moments and grouping probabilities. Since this method does not require the definition of similarity measures, it is especially suitable for data mining and knowledge discovery in biological databases. We applied BClass to classify genes in RegulonDB, a database specialized in information about the transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The classification obtained is consistent with current knowledge and allowed prediction of missing values for a number of genes. BClass is object-oriented and fully programmed in Lisp-Stat. The output grouping probabilities are analyzed and interpreted using graphical (dynamically linked plots and query-based approaches. We discuss the advantages of using Lisp-Stat as a programming language as well as the problems we faced when the data volume increased exponentially due to the ever-growing number of genomic projects.

  16. Fungal inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes: classification, properties, possible biological roles, and perspectives for practical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaevsky, Y E; Popova, V V; Semenova, T A; Beliakova, G A; Belozersky, M A

    2014-06-01

    Peptidase inhibitors are ubiquitous regulatory proteins controlling catalytic activity of proteolytic enzymes. Interest in these proteins increased substantially after it became clear that they can be used for therapy of various important diseases including cancer, malaria, and autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we summarize available data on peptidase inhibitors from fungi, emphasizing their properties, biological role, and possible practical applications of these proteins in the future. A number of fungal peptidase inhibitors with unique structure and specificity of action have no sequence homology with other classes of peptidase inhibitors, thus representing new and specific candidates for therapeutic use. The main classifications of inhibitors in current use are considered. Available data on structure, mechanisms and conditions of action, and diversity of functions of peptidase inhibitors of fungi are analyzed. It is mentioned that on one side the unique properties of some inhibitors can be used for selective inhibition of peptidases responsible for initiation and development of pathogenic processes. On the other side, general inhibitory activity of other inhibitors towards peptidases of various catalytic classes might be able to provide efficient defense of transgenic plants against insect pests by overcoming compensatory synthesis of new peptidases by these pests in response to introduction of a fungal inhibitor. Together, the data analyzed in this review reveal that fungal inhibitors extend the spectrum of known peptidase inhibitors potentially suitable for use in medicine and agriculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Classification Framework and Chemical Biology of Tetracycline-Structure-Based Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Fuoco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available By studying the literature about tetracyclines (TCs, it becomes clearly evident that TCs are very dynamic molecules. In some cases, their structure-activity-relationship (SAR are well known, especially against bacteria, while against other targets, they are virtually unknown. In other diverse fields of research—such as neurology, oncology and virology—the utility and activity of the tetracyclines are being discovered and are also emerging as new technological fronts. The first aim of this paper is to classify the compounds already used in therapy and prepare the schematic structure that includes the next generation of TCs. The second aim of this work is to introduce a new framework for the classification of old and new TCs, using a medicinal chemistry approach to the structure of those drugs. A fully documented Structure-Activity-Relationship (SAR is presented with the analysis data of antibacterial and nonantibacterial (antifungal, antiviral and anticancer tetracyclines. The lipophilicity and the conformational interchangeability of the functional groups are employed to develop the rules for TC biological activity.

  18. CellProfiler Analyst: interactive data exploration, analysis and classification of large biological image sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, David; Fraser, Adam N; Hung, Jane; Ljosa, Vebjorn; Singh, Shantanu; Carpenter, Anne E

    2016-10-15

    CellProfiler Analyst allows the exploration and visualization of image-based data, together with the classification of complex biological phenotypes, via an interactive user interface designed for biologists and data scientists. CellProfiler Analyst 2.0, completely rewritten in Python, builds on these features and adds enhanced supervised machine learning capabilities (Classifier), as well as visualization tools to overview an experiment (Plate Viewer and Image Gallery). CellProfiler Analyst 2.0 is free and open source, available at http://www.cellprofiler.org and from GitHub (https://github.com/CellProfiler/CellProfiler-Analyst) under the BSD license. It is available as a packaged application for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows and can be compiled for Linux. We implemented an automatic build process that supports nightly updates and regular release cycles for the software. anne@broadinstitute.orgSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Physicomathematical Simulation Analysis for Small Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Margaris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A full six degrees of freedom (6-DOF flight dynamics model is proposed for the accurate prediction of short and long-range trajectories of small bullets via atmospheric flight to final impact point. The mathematical model is based on the full equations of motion set up in the no-roll body reference frame and is integrated numerically from given initial conditions at the firing site. The projectile maneuvering motion depends on the most significant force and moment variations, in addition to gravity and Magnus effect. The computational flight analysis takes into consideration the Mach number and total angle of attack effects by means of the variable aerodynamic coefficients. For the purposes of the present work, linear interpolation has been applied for aerodynamic coefficients from the official tabulated database. The developed computational method gives satisfactory agreement with published data of verified experiments and computational codes on atmospheric projectile trajectory analysis for various initial firing flight conditions.

  20. Unusual route of a bullet: From scapula to eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Demirkilinc Biler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, an awkward case of globe perforation with a bullet-entering from the right posterior scapular region and leaving the body from the right orbit through the eye - is reported. Route of the bullet could be devastating - as it passed through the neck and the maxillofacial region-however by chance no vital damage occurred. Its path was assessed by plain radiography and computed tomography scans. Sometimes prediction of the trajectory is very difficult without additional radiological investigations. Especially, in the case of any high velocity projectile wounding, physician must be aware of the fact that the bullet's course will not be a linear but most probably a complicated one. Prognosis of the injury depends on the path of the bullet or shrapnel fragment, close clinical observation, an open-minded approach, and the multidisciplinary care. Moreover, even the crime investigation might be needed.

  1. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  2. MO-DE-207B-03: Improved Cancer Classification Using Patient-Specific Biological Pathway Information Via Gene Expression Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M; Craft, D [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an efficient, pathway-based classification system using network biology statistics to assist in patient-specific response predictions to radiation and drug therapies across multiple cancer types. Methods: We developed PICS (Pathway Informed Classification System), a novel two-step cancer classification algorithm. In PICS, a matrix m of mRNA expression values for a patient cohort is collapsed into a matrix p of biological pathways. The entries of p, which we term pathway scores, are obtained from either principal component analysis (PCA), normal tissue centroid (NTC), or gene expression deviation (GED). The pathway score matrix is clustered using both k-means and hierarchical clustering, and a clustering is judged by how well it groups patients into distinct survival classes. The most effective pathway scoring/clustering combination, per clustering p-value, thus generates various ‘signatures’ for conventional and functional cancer classification. Results: PICS successfully regularized large dimension gene data, separated normal and cancerous tissues, and clustered a large patient cohort spanning six cancer types. Furthermore, PICS clustered patient cohorts into distinct, statistically-significant survival groups. For a suboptimally-debulked ovarian cancer set, the pathway-classified Kaplan-Meier survival curve (p = .00127) showed significant improvement over that of a prior gene expression-classified study (p = .0179). For a pancreatic cancer set, the pathway-classified Kaplan-Meier survival curve (p = .00141) showed significant improvement over that of a prior gene expression-classified study (p = .04). Pathway-based classification confirmed biomarkers for the pyrimidine, WNT-signaling, glycerophosphoglycerol, beta-alanine, and panthothenic acid pathways for ovarian cancer. Despite its robust nature, PICS requires significantly less run time than current pathway scoring methods. Conclusion: This work validates the PICS method to improve

  3. Aerial firing and stray bullet injuries: a rising tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Asad; Tahir, Syed Mohammad; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Siddique, Akmal Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Aerial firing is shooting, using fire arm, into the air usually during a celebration. This observational study aimed to quantify magnitude and impact of stray bullet injuries by aerial firing at surgical emergencies of the Liaquat University Hospital (a university hospital), Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from January 2009 to December 2010 (2 years). During the study period, 144 firearm injuries due to stray bullet reported to the A and E departments of the university hospital. All patients referred to surgical unit providing emergency cover on that day irrespective of the severity of the injury for medico-legal reasons. For this study, the cases were divided into those having trivial injury and do not require any active surgical intervention and those having serious injury mandating surgical intervention. One hundred and two cases of stray bullet injury sustained trivial injury and followed as outpatients after an overnight period of indoor hospitalization; however, 42 patients with stray bullet injuries requiring surgical intervention were hospitalized. The most common events leading to aerial firing and stray bullet injuries were marriage ceremonies, followed by a political rallies and New Year celebrations. Stray bullet injury also reported after aerial firing on cricket/hockey team victories, Pakistan Independence Day (14th August), cultural day in Sindh and Basant (Kite) festival in Punjab. The most frequent sites with serious stray bullet injury were chest (15), head and neck (10), abdomen (9) and limbs (8), respectively. Surgical interventions performed included chest intubation, exploration of wound tract to retrieve bullet if lodged superficially and was palpable, laparotomy to managed intra-abdominal injury, reduction of fracture site followed by reconstruction, flap reconstruction and graft for nonhealing wound. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19 days. No mortality was observed in this series of patients. We conclude that the prevalence of aerial

  4. Stray bullet: An accidental killer during riot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Abrar A; Ramzan, Altaf U; Shoib, Yawar; Malik, Nayil K; Nizami, Furqan A; Dhar, Anil; Alam, Shafiq

    2011-01-01

    The use of force to control public uprisings, riots, unruly mobs is an important tool in any administrative setup. Law enforcement agencies often resort to aerial firing, which can be responsible for unintended injuries due to stray bullets.This study was designed to study the pattern of stray bullet injuries and to generate awareness about the hazards related to the use of live ammunition during riot control. This study was conducted in our unit of the neurosurgery department over a period of 18 months, from June 2008 to December 2010. We enrolled all patients who had head or spine injuries caused by stray bullets from firing during riot control far away from the site of injury. We had two patients with head injury and two with spinal injury sustained because of stray bullets. One of the patients with head injury was operated and the other one was managed conservatively; the latter died on the third day of injury, while the former is surviving with some residual neurological deficit. Amongst the patients with spinal injury, neurological deficits persist till date. None of the patients were aware that they had sustained a bullet injury, and it was only after inquiry that we came to know that the police had resorted to aerial firing for controlling public agitation in nearby areas. Aerial firing of live cartridges is generally considered an 'innocuous' method; however, in view of the potential for injury to innocent bystanders, we recommend that the use of live cartridges during aerial firing be banned.

  5. Classification in conservation biology: A comparison of five machine-learning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampichler, C.; Wieland, R.; Calmé, S.; Weissenberger, H.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is one of the most widely applied tasks in ecology. Ecologists have to deal with noisy, highdimensional data that often are non-linear and do not meet the assumptions of conventional statistical procedures. To overcome this problem, machine-learning methods have been adopted as

  6. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    -mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked

  7. Management of Bullet Emboli to the Heart and Great Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Brian; Grasso, Samuel; Hofmann, Luke J

    2018-04-06

    Firearm-related injuries account for 20% of all injury-related deaths and are responsible for 105,000 injuries annually. The occurrence of bullet emboli to the heart is exceedingly rare. Given the rarity of emboli, controversy exists over management. The primary endpoint of this study is to establish a management algorithm for venous bullet emboli to the heart. A literature search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar with the following search terms: cardiac bullet embolus, cardiac missile embolus, and bullet embolus. Any discoverable case report(s) or series after 1960 were included in the review. The following data points were collected: age, sex, presentation, imaging, foreign body entry site, foreign body destination site, management, and outcomes. Fifty-four articles met our search criteria. A total of 62 patients with thoracic venous bullet emboli were identified with the following distributions: right atrium (9.7%), right ventricle (54.8%), pulmonary arterial tree (32.3%), and intra-thoracic inferior vena cava (3.2%). Only 11.3% of patients had symptoms directly related to the cardiac venous emboli; however, all patients with acute symptoms underwent immediate intervention. Of those patients with bullet emboli to the pulmonary arterial tree, 45% were observed; whereas, only 20% with emboli to the right heart were observed. Those without signs or symptoms usually underwent an intervention (72.7%). Endovascular retrieval was successful in 53% of attempts. Of the endovascular attempts that failed, 28.6% were observed and 71.4% underwent open retrieval. Those who were asymptomatic and observed had no reported adverse sequelae during the follow-up. No mortalities were discovered in this review. Bullet emboli can prove to be a clinical challenge. Adjuncts such as X-ray, computed tomography, transthoracic, and/or transesophageal echocardiography help establish the emboli location. While observation in the asymptomatic patient is reasonable in some

  8. Diet-derived microRNAs: unicorn or silver bullet?

    OpenAIRE

    Witwer, Kenneth W.; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    In ancient lore, a bullet cast from silver is the only effective weapon against monsters. The uptake of active diet-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in consumers may be the silver bullet long sought after in nutrition and oral therapeutics. However, the majority of scientists consider the transfer and regulation of consumer?s gene activity by these diet-derived miRNAs to be a fantasy akin to spotting a unicorn. Nevertheless, groups like Dr. Chen-Yu Zhang?s lab in Nanjing University have stockpiled ...

  9. Automated Processing of Imaging Data through Multi-tiered Classification of Biological Structures Illustrated Using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative imaging has become a vital technique in biological discovery and clinical diagnostics; a plethora of tools have recently been developed to enable new and accelerated forms of biological investigation. Increasingly, the capacity for high-throughput experimentation provided by new imaging modalities, contrast techniques, microscopy tools, microfluidics and computer controlled systems shifts the experimental bottleneck from the level of physical manipulation and raw data collection to automated recognition and data processing. Yet, despite their broad importance, image analysis solutions to address these needs have been narrowly tailored. Here, we present a generalizable formulation for autonomous identification of specific biological structures that is applicable for many problems. The process flow architecture we present here utilizes standard image processing techniques and the multi-tiered application of classification models such as support vector machines (SVM. These low-level functions are readily available in a large array of image processing software packages and programming languages. Our framework is thus both easy to implement at the modular level and provides specific high-level architecture to guide the solution of more complicated image-processing problems. We demonstrate the utility of the classification routine by developing two specific classifiers as a toolset for automation and cell identification in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To serve a common need for automated high-resolution imaging and behavior applications in the C. elegans research community, we contribute a ready-to-use classifier for the identification of the head of the animal under bright field imaging. Furthermore, we extend our framework to address the pervasive problem of cell-specific identification under fluorescent imaging, which is critical for biological investigation in multicellular organisms or tissues. Using these examples as a

  10. Comparison of Principal Component Analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis applied to classification of excitation-emission matrices of the selected biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leśkiewicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality of two linear methods (PCA and LDA applied to reduce dimensionality of feature analysis is compared and efficiency of their algorithms in classification of the selected biological materials according to their excitation-emission fluorescence matrices is examined. It has been found that LDA method reduces the dimensions (or a number of significant variables more effectively than PCA method. A relatively good discrimination within the examined biological material has been obtained with the use of LDA algorithm.[b]Keywords[/b]: Feature Analysis, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Biological Material Classification

  11. Objective classification of latent behavioral states in bio-logging data using multivariate-normal hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joe Scutt; Patterson, Toby A; Leroy, Bruno; Pilling, Graham M; Nicol, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    many different types of noisy autocorrelated data, as typically found across a range of ecological systems. Summarizing time-series data into a multivariate assemblage of dimensions relevant to the desired classification provides a means to examine these data in an appropriate behavioral space. We discuss how outputs of these models can be applied to bio-logging and other imperfect behavioral data, providing easily interpretable models for hypothesis testing.

  12. Commercialization of Technologies to Lower Defense Costs. Final Demonstration/Validation Report for STAPP Bullet Catcher Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tumblin, Bill

    2006-01-01

    .... All on-target bullets fired upon the Bullet Catcher installed at Fort A.P. Hill's Range 4 were stopped and contained within the bullet trap itself and no bullets/lead or lead contaminated water were introduced to the environment...

  13. Simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-10wt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Mas Irfan P.; Widyastuti, Simaremare, Peniel

    2018-04-01

    Frangible bullet is designed to disintegrate upon impact against a hard target. Understanding the impact response and performance of frangible bullet is therefore of highly interest. In this paper, simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-IOwt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is presented. The frangible bullet is impacted against a hard, cylindrical stainless steel target. Effect of variability of the frangible bullet material properties due to the variation of sintering temperature in its manufacturing process to the bullet frangibility factor (FF) is investigated numerically. In addition, the bullet kinetic energy during impact as well as its ricochet and fragmentation are also examined and simulated. Failure criterion based upon maximum strain is employed in the simulation. It is shown that the SPH simulation can produce good estimation for kinetic energy of bullet after impact, thus giving the FF prediction with respect to the variation of frangible bullet material properties. In comparison to explicit finite element (FE) simulation, in which only material/element deletion is shown, convenience in showing frangible bullet fragmentation is shown using the SPH simulation. As a result, the effect of sintering temperature to the way of the frangible bullet fragmented can be also observed clearly.

  14. A Bullet-Block Experiment that Explains the Chain Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleone, J.; Smith, R.

    2018-05-01

    It is common in science for two phenomena to appear to be very different, but in fact follow from the same basic principles. Here we consider such a case, the connection between the chain fountain and a bullet-block collision experiment. When an upward moving bullet strikes a wooden block resting on a horizontal table, the block will rise to a higher height when the bullet strikes near the end of the block. This is because the quickly rotating block experiences an additional upward "reaction" force from its contact with the table. Such a reaction force also explains the chain fountain. When a chain falls from a pile in a container to the floor below, the chain rises up above the container. This rise occurs because the quickly rotating links in the container push off of the surface beneath them. We derive a model that accurately describes our measurements in the bullet-block experiment, and then use this same model to calculate an approximate expression for the distance the chain rises above the container. More extensive discussions of the chain fountain are available elsewhere.

  15. Case Report: Bullet in heart removed from knee | King | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Bullet in heart removed from knee. M King. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v27i3.10 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  16. Fragment volume determination in bullet/armor holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Watts, David B.; Marsh, James S.; Gordon, Joseph E.; Anderson, Christopher S.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents automatic data reduction techniques for determining bullet and fragment volumes, positions, and momenta from holograms of bullets penetrating armor. The holography technique and the computer data reduction methods are described. Initial results are shown and sources of error in the technique are described. 2D digital images of the hologram are computationally combined by running a backprojection algorithm to produce a 3D array that represents the space containing the bullet and fragments. Thresholding the numbers in this space from the backprojection algorithm produces a representation of the bullet and fragments. Methods of automatically counting the voxels (3D picture elements) that occur in separated fragments have been programmed. These programs also find the centroids and shapes of the fragments and determine velocity using timing information. Volume errors are 40% in current results. These errors could be reduced to less than 3% if the described error sources were eliminated. Future work to improve the algorithms and the holographic process is described.

  17. Atypical gunshot wound: Bullet trajectory analyzed by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: If an abnormal trajectory is maintained, it is possible for a bullet to traverse half the length of the body without the patient realizing it. Accurate CT analysis and quick decisions in surgical and medical management are critical takeaways to provide quality care to patients with these injuries.

  18. Bullet Points, New Writing, and the Marketization of Public Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Bullet lists epitomize both new writing practices, which are promoted through ubiquitous software such as Microsoft's PowerPoint, and the marketization of public discourse. The argument is illustrated with an analysis of the recontextualization of the Australian Treasurer's Budget speech...... into a brochure promoting the Government's economic policies....

  19. Does suggestive information cause a confirmation bias in bullet comparisons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Eikelboom, A.; Dijkman, T.; Stoel, R.; Hermsen, R.; Leuven, B. van

    2010-01-01

    Several researchers have argued that the confirmation bias, the tendency to selectively gather and process information such that it fits existing beliefs, is a main threat to objective forensic examinations. The goal of the present study was to empirically investigate whether examiners making bullet

  20. Propagation of plasma bullet in U-shape tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, to better understand the propagation mechanism of plasma bullets in capillary tubes, the propagation of plasma stream in a special designed U-shape tube is investigated. First, it’s observed that the smaller the distance d between the bended tubes is, the shorter the total length of the plasma stream is. Second, when d is reduced to 1 mm, the plasma stream in the lower part of the tube propagates along the upper inner surface of the tube rather than propagating in the whole tube uniformly. Third, high-speed photographs show that the plasma bullet starts to accelerate as soon as the secondary discharge is ignited, and propagating along the upper inner surface of the lower part of the tube. Such behavior is totally different with the propagation of plasma streams in straight tube. According to these results, we can conclude that the surface discharge plays an important role in the propagation of the plasma bullet and the conductivity of the plasma channel is relatively low, which is important for understanding the plasma bullet behavior.

  1. Case Report: Bullet in heart removed from knee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... wounds, constrictive pericarditis, and drainage of pericardial effusions through the diaphragm. I now have a scar like Richard's. Luckily my mitral valve prolapse and tissue valve replacement occurred in Cambridge. I have searched the internet for cases similar to Richard's. Metal bullets and fragments have ...

  2. A self-adherent, bullet-shaped microneedle patch for controlled transdermal delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Keum-Yong; Seo, Min-Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Sreenan, Seamus; Karp, Jeffrey M; Yang, Seung Yun

    2017-11-10

    Proteins are important biologic therapeutics used for the treatment of various diseases. However, owing to low bioavailability and poor skin permeability, transdermal delivery of protein therapeutics poses a significant challenge. Here, we present a new approach for transdermal protein delivery using bullet-shaped double-layered microneedle (MN) arrays with water-swellable tips. This design enabled the MNs to mechanically interlock with soft tissues by selective distal swelling after skin insertion. Additionally, prolonged release of loaded proteins by passive diffusion through the swollen tips was obtained. The bullet-shaped MNs provided an optimal geometry for mechanical interlocking, thereby achieving significant adhesion strength (~1.6Ncm -2 ) with rat skin. By harnessing the MN's reversible swelling/deswelling property, insulin, a model protein drug, was loaded in the swellable tips using a mild drop/dry procedure. The insulin-loaded MN patch released 60% of insulin when immersed in saline over the course of 12h and approximately 70% of the released insulin appeared to have preserved structural integrity. An in vivo pilot study showed a prolonged release of insulin from swellable MN patches, leading to a gradual decrease in blood glucose levels. This self-adherent transdermal MN platform can be applied to a variety of protein drugs requiring sustained release kinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidation of tryptophan and N-methylindole by N3sm-bullet, Br2sm-bullet-, and (SCN)2sm-bullet- radicals in light- and heavy-water solutions: A pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar, S.; Getoff, N.; Surdhar, P.S.; Armstrong, D.A.; Singh, A.

    1991-01-01

    Reactions of N 3 sm-bullet , Br 2 sm-bullet- , and (SCN) 2 sm-bullet- with tryptophan (TRPH) and N-methylindole (NMI) have been investigated in H 2 O and D 2 O solutions. The main transients produced were the TRP sm-bullet radical and the TRPH sm-bullet+ radical cation from TRPH and the NMI sm-bullet+ radical cation from NMI. Their extinction coefficients (ε) as well as the rate constants for their formation and decay were determined in the pH range 3-10. The pK of the TRPH sm-bullet+ radical cation was confirmed to be 4.2 ± 0.1. These rate constants were within experimental error, independent of pH, and the differences between the rate constants in H 2 O and D 2 O were small. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that of the two possible reactions - electron or hydrogen atom transfer - the data are more consistent with electron transfer in all cases. However, secondary acid-base reactions have an important effect on the overall redox equilibria, especially with N 3 sm-bullet . Experimental data on these effects have also been obtained

  4. Combining biological gene expression signatures in predicting outcome in breast cancer: An alternative to supervised classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyten, Dimitry S. A.; Hastie, Trevor; Chi, Jen-Tsan Ashley; Chang, Howard Y.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Gene expression profiling has been extensively used to predict outcome in breast cancer patients. We have previously reported on biological hypothesis-driven analysis of gene expression profiling data and we wished to extend this approach through the combinations of various gene

  5. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  6. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  7. Artificial intelligence in label-free microscopy biological cell classification by time stretch

    CERN Document Server

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces time-stretch quantitative phase imaging (TS-QPI), a high-throughput label-free imaging flow cytometer developed for big data acquisition and analysis in phenotypic screening. TS-QPI is able to capture quantitative optical phase and intensity images simultaneously, enabling high-content cell analysis, cancer diagnostics, personalized genomics, and drug development. The authors also demonstrate a complete machine learning pipeline that performs optical phase measurement, image processing, feature extraction, and classification, enabling high-throughput quantitative imaging that achieves record high accuracy in label -free cellular phenotypic screening and opens up a new path to data-driven diagnosis. • Demonstrates how machine learning is used in high-speed microscopy imaging to facilitate medical diagnosis; • Provides a systematic and comprehensive illustration of time stretch technology; • Enables multidisciplinary application, including industrial, biomedical, and artificial intell...

  8. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  9. The 'antisocial' person: an insight in to biology, classification and current evidence on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse Senaka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review analyses and summarises the recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of violence and empathy, taxonomical issues on defining personality disorders characterised by disregard for social norms, evidence for efficacy of different treatment modalities and ethical implications in defining 'at-risk' individuals for preventive interventions. Methods PubMed was searched with the keywords 'antisocial personality disorder', 'dissocial personality disorder' and 'psychopathy'. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999 to 2009 Results Both diagnostic manuals used in modern psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and the International Classification of Diseases published by the World Health Organization, identify a personality disorder sharing similar traits. It is termed antisocial personality disorder in the diagnostic and statistical manual and dissocial personality disorder in the International Classification of Diseases. However, some authors query the ability of the existing manuals to identify a special category termed 'psychopathy', which in their opinion deserves special attention. On treatment-related issues, many psychological and behavioural therapies have shown success rates ranging from 25% to 62% in different cohorts. Multisystemic therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy have been proven efficacious in many trials. There is no substantial evidence for the efficacy of pharmacological therapy. Currently, the emphasis is on early identification and prevention of antisocial behaviour despite the ethical implications of defining at-risk children. Conclusions Further research is needed in the areas of neuroendocrinological associations of violent behaviour, taxonomic existence of psychopathy and efficacy of treatment modalities.

  10. Application of multivariate analysis and vibrational spectroscopy in classification of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A.; Shufan, E.; Lapidot, I.; Tsror, L.; Zeiri, L.; Sahu, R. K.; Moreh, R.; Mordechai, S.; Huleihel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies have emerged as powerful tools for chemical analysis. This is due to their ability to provide detailed information about the spatial distribution of chemical composition at the molecular level. A biological sample, i.e. bacteria or fungi, has a typical spectrum. This spectral fingerprint, characterizes the sample and can therefore be used for differentiating between biology samples which belong to different groups, i.e., several different isolates of a given fungi. When the spectral differences between the groups are minute, multivariate analysis should be used to provide a good differentiation. We hereby review several results which demonstrate the differentiation success obtained by combining spectroscopy measurements and multivariate analysis.

  11. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jagadeesha; Landheer, Dirk; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2012-01-10

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile that is to be defeated. Typically, for certification, consistency of bullets is assumed. Therefore, practical variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, internal dimensions could only be analysed by cutting bullets which rules out any subsequent ballistic assessment. Therefore, the use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method is explored in this paper. A set of 10 bullets (9 mm DM11) was taken for analysing both intra and inter bullet jacket thickness variation. CT measurements of jacket thickness were validated with high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. An image based analysis methodology has been developed to extract the jacket thickness map and the centre of gravity. Thickness variations of the order of 200 μm were found commonly across all the bullets along the length and an angular variation of up to 100 μm was found in a few bullets. Jacket thickness and centre of gravity were also calculated for the same bullets after impact and the variations between the pre- and post-impacted bullets were compared, by establishing a common physical reference. The results show that the proposed CT scanning approach and subsequent image analysis method can bring out the statistical variations in bullet geometry pre- and post impact effectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...... under human rights law. Surprisingly, the legal challenges arising from their potential use in modern military operations have so far received only limited scholarly attention. This article tries to fill that gap and endeavours to contribute to the broader debate on the interplay between human rights...... and humanitarian law in (international) military operations. Drawing on the relevant preparatory works as well as subsequent practice and recent jurisprudence, this article shows that the humanitarian law rules on the use of riot control agents, expanding bullets and plain-clothed personnel provide...

  13. Diet-derived microRNAs: unicorn or silver bullet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Kenneth W; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    In ancient lore, a bullet cast from silver is the only effective weapon against monsters. The uptake of active diet-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in consumers may be the silver bullet long sought after in nutrition and oral therapeutics. However, the majority of scientists consider the transfer and regulation of consumer's gene activity by these diet-derived miRNAs to be a fantasy akin to spotting a unicorn. Nevertheless, groups like Dr. Chen-Yu Zhang's lab in Nanjing University have stockpiled breathtaking amounts of data to shoot down these naysayers. Meanwhile, Dr. Ken Witwer at John Hopkins has steadfastly cautioned the field to beware of fallacies caused by contamination, technical artifacts, and confirmation bias. Here, Dr. Witwer and Dr. Zhang share their realities of dietary miRNAs by answering five questions related to this controversial field.

  14. Measurement of Damage Velocities in Bullet Impacts of Transparent Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles; Bigger, Rory; Weiss, Carl

    2013-06-01

    A series of impact experiments have been conducted to examine the response of transparent material to ballistic impact. The experiments consisted of impacting 15 mm of borosilicate glass back by 9.5 mm of Lexan. The projectile was a 0.30-cal hard steel bullet designed specifically for the experiments. Residual velocities and the residual length of the bullets (which were soft-recovered in a catch box) were measured as a function of impact velocity. High-speed imaging of the impact event and post-test analysis has permitted quantification of damage propagation and the rate of propagation. The results of several experiments are presented and compared to edge-on impact experiments that have been conducted by Strassburger et al..

  15. A bullet shaped tip for the circular stapling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodman, H R; Brodman, R F

    1984-06-01

    A stainless steel bullet shaped tip has been designed for attachment to the shaft of the circular stapling device. It is useful when the shaft of this circular stapling device must transverse a viscus wall. This modification of the circular stapler has been used in vertical stapling of the stomach for morbid obesity, in low intestinal anastomoses using the side-to-end technique and in re-establishing intestinal continuity after a Hartmann procedure.

  16. MODIFICATION RECYCLE JUTE FIBRE WASTE FOR BULLET PROOF VESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Suliyanthini, Dewi; Jonathan, Riza Wiryawan; Nursetiawaty, siti; Amaningsih, Aam

    2014-01-01

    This research uses experimental methods to find a formula modifications pure jute (Corchorus capsularis) and Javajute for textile composition strong and resistant to bullets, with the use of resin carbonanotubes (CNT) and tensile strength testing of physical evaluation and test-fired a fabric that can be accounted for laboratory. With methodology Kuantitatif Research and Develipment (R and D). Experiment by processing waste recycling Jute / Javajute into textile products. Jute / Javajute are ...

  17. A Measuring Method About the Bullet Velocity in Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The operating principle of electromagnetic rail gun by store capacitor was analyzed. A simulation model about the bullet velocity in the electromagnetic rail gun was built. The results of computer simulation experiment showed the relationships between the bullet velocity and the capacitor charging voltage and the pellet mass. By ten coil targets, a new kind of measuring method for the bullet velocity in electromagnetic rail gun was presented. The results of the actual experiment were analyzed. The improving method for measuring bullet velocity was put forward.

  18. Classification of biological cells using a sound wave based flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric M.; Gnyawali, Vaskar; Van De Vondervoort, Mia; Daghighi, Yasaman; Tsai, Scott S. H.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    A flow cytometer that uses sound waves to determine the size of biological cells is presented. In this system, a microfluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was developed to hydrodynamically flow focus cells in a single file through a target area. Integrated into the microfluidic device was an ultrasound transducer with a 375 MHz center frequency, aligned opposite the transducer was a pulsed 532 nm laser focused into the device by a 10x objective. Each passing cell was insonfied with a high frequency ultrasound pulse, and irradiated with the laser. The resulting ultrasound and photoacoustic waves from each cell were analyzed using signal processing methods, where features in the power spectra were compared to theoretical models to calculate the cell size. Two cell lines with different size distributions were used to test the system: acute myeloid leukemia cells (AML) and melanoma cells. Over 200 cells were measured using this system. The average calculated diameter of the AML cells was 10.4 +/- 2.5 μm using ultrasound, and 11.4 +/- 2.3 μm using photoacoustics. The average diameter of the melanoma cells was 16.2 +/- 2.9 μm using ultrasound, and 18.9 +/- 3.5 μm using photoacoustics. The cell sizes calculated using ultrasound and photoacoustic methods agreed with measurements using a Coulter Counter, where the AML cells were 9.8 +/- 1.8 μm and the melanoma cells were 16.0 +/- 2.5 μm. These results demonstrate a high speed method of assessing cell size using sound waves, which is an alternative method to traditional flow cytometry techniques.

  19. Nanobody: the "magic bullet" for molecular imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases.

  20. Intra-myocardial Bullet causing heart block in a patient with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consolidation and bullet lodged above the diaphragm. The chest radiograph showed bullet lodged above the diaphragm. ARDS resolved markedly over the following. 7 days. However, there were persistent bronchial breath sounds in the left lower lung with purulent secretions and collapse with consolidation. CT scan of the ...

  1. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC, peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  2. Viability of Bismuth as a Green Substitute for Lead in Jacketed .357 Magnum Revolver Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joel

    In seeking to develop environmentally friendly lead-free non-toxic bullets, the research ballistically evaluated the performance of copper-jacketed handgun bullets containing a pure bismuth core. The lead was first removed from 140 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM bullets of 38 caliber (.357 diameter) by melting. The empty jackets were then refilled with pure bismuth, including the forming of a correctly sized hollow-point cavity. Due to the lower density of bismuth as compared to lead, the bismuth-cored bullets consistently weighed 125 gains. Conveniently this allowed direct comparison to commercially available 125 grain Hornady(TM) XTPRTM lead-cored bullets of 38 caliber. Both bismuth-cored and lead-cored versions of the 125 grain bullets had identical nose dimensions and jacket material, the only dimensional difference being the bullet length below the cannelure. Shooting took place at an outdoor range using a 357 Magnum Ruger(TM) SP101RTM revolver with 3" barrel as the test weapon. FBI protocols were followed when firing through clothing, wallboard, plywood, steel plates and laminated glass. Wound paths and bullets were captured in ballistic gelatin, with data collected for velocity, penetration, expansion, and weight retention. Bismuth compared favorably with lead in all but the laminated glass test, where it under penetrated due to jacket separation.

  3. Electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Schans (Marc); P. Böhm (Patrick); H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); S. Nijdam (Sander); W. IJzerman (Wilbert); U. Czarnetzki

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric pressure plasma jets generated by kHz nanosecond voltage pulses typically consist of guided streamer discharges called plasma bullets. In this work, plasma bullets are generated in a pulsed plasma jet using N2 as feed gas and their electric field distribution is investigated

  4. Caffeine citrate - Is it a silver bullet in neonatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikash; Jawa, Gaurav

    2017-10-01

    Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a "silver bullet" in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Learning game physics with Bullet Physics and OpenGL

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive set of straight-forward, easy-to-follow tutorials in OpenGL and Bullet Physics that will teach you how modern game physics and 3D graphics work.If you're a beginner or intermediate programmer with a basic understanding of 3D mathematics, and you want a stronger foundation in 3D graphics and physics, then this book is perfect for you! You'll even learn some of the fundamental concepts in 3D mathematics and software design that lies beneath them both, discovering some techniques and tricks in graphics and physics that you can use in any game development project.

  6. A high-speed study of the dynamic bullet-body interactions produced by grazing gunshots with full metal jacketed and lead projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, M J; Kneubuehl, B P; Zollinger, U; Dirnhofer, R

    2003-03-27

    Experimenting upon a synthetic, non-biological Skull-Brain Model, our goal was to document and study the bullet-body interaction of grazing (glancing, tangential) gunshots. Thanks to the high-speed study of the dynamic bullet-body interaction it was possible to document the glancing behavior of projectiles with a resolution of 50 million pictures per second. It was possible to demonstrate the differing deformation and fragmentation patterns between the 9mm Luger full metal jacketed projectile and the 38 Smith & Wesson (S & W) lead round nose projectile. In a true-to-life manner the morphologic fracture systems could be documented by utilization of the model in dependence of the projectile's behavior, deformation, and fragmentation. Based on these experimental studies with body models, conclusions could be drawn for surgical and reconstructive forensic questions in real cases. In summary, model substitutes offer a suitable basis for the study of the bullet-body interaction because the experiments are reproducible, totally independent of the biological variances of corpse and animal experiments, and are harmless from the ethical perspective.

  7. Classification of biological agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein MR; LIS; cib

    2012-01-01

    Deze rapportage omvat een inventarisatie van de problematiek rond de classificatie van biologische agentia, die ziekte bij de mens kunnen veroorzaken.

    De constatering is dat de Europese lijst met classificaties verouderd is en geactualiseerd en uitgebreid zou moeten worden. De lijst bevat

  8. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for classification of primary biological aerosol using a new UV-LIF spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruske, Simon; Topping, David O.; Foot, Virginia E.; Kaye, Paul H.; Stanley, Warren R.; Crawford, Ian; Morse, Andrew P.; Gallagher, Martin W.

    2017-03-01

    Characterisation of bioaerosols has important implications within environment and public health sectors. Recent developments in ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) detectors such as the Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Spectrometer (WIBS) and the newly introduced Multiparameter Bioaerosol Spectrometer (MBS) have allowed for the real-time collection of fluorescence, size and morphology measurements for the purpose of discriminating between bacteria, fungal spores and pollen.This new generation of instruments has enabled ever larger data sets to be compiled with the aim of studying more complex environments. In real world data sets, particularly those from an urban environment, the population may be dominated by non-biological fluorescent interferents, bringing into question the accuracy of measurements of quantities such as concentrations. It is therefore imperative that we validate the performance of different algorithms which can be used for the task of classification.For unsupervised learning we tested hierarchical agglomerative clustering with various different linkages. For supervised learning, 11 methods were tested, including decision trees, ensemble methods (random forests, gradient boosting and AdaBoost), two implementations for support vector machines (libsvm and liblinear) and Gaussian methods (Gaussian naïve Bayesian, quadratic and linear discriminant analysis, the k-nearest neighbours algorithm and artificial neural networks).The methods were applied to two different data sets produced using the new MBS, which provides multichannel UV-LIF fluorescence signatures for single airborne biological particles. The first data set contained mixed PSLs and the second contained a variety of laboratory-generated aerosol.Clustering in general performs slightly worse than the supervised learning methods, correctly classifying, at best, only 67. 6 and 91. 1 % for the two data sets respectively. For supervised learning the gradient boosting algorithm was

  9. Armor-piercing bullet: 3-T MRI findings and identification by a ferromagnetic detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacozoff, Alexandra M; Pekmezci, Murat; Shellock, Frank G

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues at 3 T for an armor-piercing bullet and to determine if this item could be identified using a ferromagnetic detection system. An armor-piercing bullet (.30 caliber, 7.62 × 39, copper-jacketed round, steel core; Norinco) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was assessed with the bullet in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive radio frequency body coil at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9 W/kg for 15 minutes. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. In addition, a special ferromagnetic detection system (Ferroguard Screener; Metrasens, Lisle, Illinois) was used in an attempt to identify this armor-piercing bullet. The findings indicated that the armor-piercing bullet showed substantial magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive. Artifacts were large and may create diagnostic problems if the area of interest is close to this bullet. The ferromagnetic detection system yielded a positive result. We concluded that this armor-piercing bullet is MR unsafe. Importantly, this ballistic item was identified using the particular ferromagnetic detection system utilized in this investigation, which has important implications for MRI screening and patient safety. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  11. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-01-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact

  12. Deforming post-mortem radiograph images to reconstruct a bullet path through stock CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxwala, Aziz; Oliver, William R.

    1994-09-01

    An earlier study investigated a technique to reconstruct in three-dimensions, the path of a bullet through a skull, using the post-mortem X-rays of the victim and stock computed tomography (CT) data. This paper describes the addition of image deformation methods in order to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction technique. The skull X-ray images of the victim were warped to match the shape of the skull in the CT. The warping was done by a thin-plate spline deformation algorithm. The bullet path was again reconstructed using the warped X-ray images as the source of information for the bullet entry and exit wound. The difference in the angle of the bullet paths in the two reconstructions was 6.9 degrees.

  13. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet That Migrated to the Third Ventricle Causing Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoseli, Aydın; Unal, Tugrul Cem; Aras, Yavuz; Sabanci, Pulat Akın; Altunrende, Emre; Izgi, Nail

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocephalus caused by an intraventricular bullet is a rare event. We report a case of endoscopic removal of an intraventricular bullet. A 66-year-old man was admitted with a gunshot wound to the head after a suicide attempt. The bullet migrated from the frontal parenchyma to the third ventricle day 4 of admission. On day 21 of admission, the patient developed hydrocephalus with obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct. The bullet was accessed through an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and removed using an endoscope. Hydrocephalus may develop in patients with intraventricular foreign objects. When such objects must be removed, the endoscopic approach is a safe, efficient, and minimally invasive procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of foreign object removal from the ventricle via a transcortical endoscopic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of human decomposition on test fired bullet – An experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2016-03-01

    The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths.

  15. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  16. 18 GHz SZ Measurements of the Bullet Cluster Siddharth S. Malu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1E0657-56, known as the 'Bullet cluster', is one of the hottest known clusters. It is a cluster collision/merger event at z ∼0.296, with the larger, westward cluster being ∼10 times the mass of the smaller 'bullet'. It is known to have a strong radio halo (Liang et al. 2000), and the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (Andreani et al. 1999;.

  17. 'Bacilli and bullets': William Osler and the antivaccination movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S B

    2000-08-01

    Public discourse concerning current vaccination recommendations has dramatically increased. The current battle is not new, having had a lengthy foreshadowing during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Over a 30-year period, a concerted effort to limit the use of smallpox vaccine grew at the very time typhoid vaccines were being developed and advocated for widespread prevention. As a long time advocate for widespread smallpox vaccination and a supporter of the newly tested typhoid vaccine, Sir William Osler entered the public debate at the beginning of World War I. Osler was asked to address the officers and men in the British army on the need for typhoid vaccination. His speech entitled "Bacilli and Bullets" outlined the medical reasons for getting inoculated against typhoid. Osler's strong support for typhoid vaccination of the British troops was met by opposition in Parliament but not by most of the troops. Osler's arguments in support of vaccination failed to respond to the concept of "conscientious objection," which was central to the antivaccinationists' argument. Similar arguments are being propounded by current antivaccination groups.

  18. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  19. Classification of the micro and nanoparticles and biological agents by neural network analysis of the parameters of optical resonance of whispering gallery mode in dielectric microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    A novel technique for the label-free analysis of micro and nanoparticles including biomolecules using optical micro cavity resonance of whispering-gallery-type modes is being developed. Various schemes of the method using both standard and specially produced microspheres have been investigated to make further development for microbial application. It was demonstrated that optical resonance under optimal geometry could be detected under the laser power of less 1 microwatt. The sensitivity of developed schemes has been tested by monitoring the spectral shift of the whispering gallery modes. Water solutions of ethanol, ascorbic acid, blood phantoms including albumin and HCl, glucose, biotin, biomarker like C reactive protein so as bacteria and virus phantoms (gels of silica micro and nanoparticles) have been used. Structure of resonance spectra of the solutions was a specific subject of investigation. Probabilistic neural network classifier for biological agents and micro/nano particles classification has been developed. Several parameters of resonance spectra as spectral shift, broadening, diffuseness and others have been used as input parameters to develop a network classifier for micro and nanoparticles and biological agents in solution. Classification probability of approximately 98% for probes under investigation have been achieved. Developed approach have been demonstrated to be a promising technology platform for sensitive, lab-on-chip type sensor which can be used for development of diagnostic tools for different biological molecules, e.g. proteins, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides, lipids, small molecules, viral particles, cells as well as in different experimental contexts e.g. proteomics, genomics, drug discovery, and membrane studies.

  20. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  1. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  2. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Marín, Laura; Fernández, Javier; Álvarez San Millán, María; Ferrero, Francisco Javier; Valledor, Marta; Campo, Juan Carlos; Cobián, Natalia; Méndez, Ignacio; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins) failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking water.

  3. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río

    Full Text Available Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking

  4. Gunshot Wound in Lumbar Spine with Intradural Location of a Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient’s position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery.

  5. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  6. Lead poisoning due to gunshot bullet in contact with cerebrospinal fluid: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lead poisoning due to retained gunshot bullets is a well-known clinical problem that is fairly frequently described in the literature. The risk factors for this occurrence relate mainly to whether the lead bullet is in contact with the joint fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The treatment for these cases entails chelation therapy while symptoms are shown and definitive surgical removal of the bullet as a potential source of lead. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of lead poisoning due to a retained gunshot bullet in contact with CSF. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old male was hit by gunshot bullets during a holdup, and one of them was retained in the spinal cord. Six years later, he developed intense low back pain and underwent laminectomy. Nine years later, he then underwent arthrodesis on L5-S1, but he developed intense abdominal pain after the surgical procedure. For five years, he was treated with calcium versenate in five-day cycles, with a good response. The chelation therapy cycles showed great efficacy during symptomatic periods, thus reducing the symptoms and signs of poisoning and promoting great amounts of lead excretion, thereby reducing the total lead burden responsible for the symptoms. Fortunately, over the last four years, the symptoms have improved and the urine levels of aminolevulinic acid (ALA have declined, to reach complete normalization. This shows that a healing process is probably taking place on the spinal wound, thereby isolating the bullet fragments from CSF contact.

  7. PredHSP: Sequence Based Proteome-Wide Heat Shock Protein Prediction and Classification Tool to Unlock the Stress Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins are chaperonic proteins, which are present in every domain of life. They play a crucial role in folding/unfolding of proteins, their sorting and assembly into multi-protein complex, cell cycle control and also protect the cell during stress. Considering the fact that no web-based predictor is available for simultaneous prediction and classification of HSPs, it is imperative to develop a method, which can predict and classify them efficiently. In this study, we have developed coupled amino acid composition and support vector machine based two-tier method, PredHSP that identifies heat shock proteins (1st tier and classifies it to different families (at 2nd tier. At 1st tier, we achieved maximum accuracy 76.66% with MCC 0.43, while at 2nd tier we achieved maximum accuracy 96.36% with MCC 0.87 for HSP20, 91.91% with MCC 0.83 for HSP40, 95.96% with MCC 0.72 for HSP60, 91.87% with MCC 0.71 for HSP70, 98.43% with MCC 0.70 for HSP90 and 97.48% with MCC 0.71 for HSP100. We have also developed a webserver, as well as standalone package for the use of scientific community, which can be accessed at http://14.139.227.92/mkumar/predhsp/index.html.

  8. Analysis of Anti-Bullet Resistance of Armored Steels of Foreign Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zuzov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies penetrating armour plates from the steel alloys such as Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, Weldox 700 E, Hardox 400, and Armstal 500, which are used for armour protection. In all tests for five different thick (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 6 + 6 mm, and 8 + 8mm plates was used one of the most common bullets, i.e. a 7.62 mm "APM2" (hard steel core bullet with an impact velocity of 830 m / s and 920 m / s. The article presents the developed rational finite element models of plates and bullets, which allow us to obtain results with acceptable accuracy and minimum time of solution using the LS-DYNA solver. Predicts the rational thickness values and the steel properties to ensure protection according to the European standard EN1063 ("BR7". Also conducts analysis of influence of the friction coefficient on the results of numerical simulation.The main results of calculations include the residual velocity and kinetic energy of the bullet after penetrating and the pattern of the plate fracture mechanism (for each plate type and thickness. As a result of the studies, it was found that the monolayer 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm thick plates from all the investigated steel alloys do not provide a protection level of "BR7" (with an initial bullet velocity of 830 m / s and, on the other hand, the two-layer plates from the alloys Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, and Armstal 500 with a total thickness of 12 mm provide such level of protection. It was also revealed that the influence of the coefficient of friction on the resistance to the bullet penetration is very small, so friction can be neglected.At an initial velocity of 920 m / s a bullet penetrated two-layer 6x2 mm thick plates from all the steel alloys under consideration, while with a thickness of 8x2 mm the bullet could not penetrate (except the Weldox 700E alloy plate.

  9. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  10. Electron transfer from CO2lg-bullet- to perylene in cyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    CO 2 lg-bullet- formed by the reactions of the electron with CO 2 in cyclohexane transfers an electron to perylene with a rate constant of 2.9 x 10 10 M -1 s -1 . Gε 580nm for the perylene radical anion is 9 x 10 3 molecules (100 eV) -1 M -1 cm -1 . The transfer of an electron from CO 2 lg-bullet+ to an aromatic molecule is a significant process when CO 2 is used as an electron scavenger in solution where the production of excited states of the aromatic molecule is studied. 24 refs., 6 figs

  11. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  12. Hypoxia in tumors: pathogenesis-related classification, characterization of hypoxia subtypes, and associated biological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, Peter; Mayer, Arnulf

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a hallmark of tumors leading to (mal-)adaptive processes, development of aggressive phenotypes and treatment resistance. Based on underlying mechanisms and their duration, two main types of hypoxia have been identified, coexisting with complex spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Chronic hypoxia is mainly caused by diffusion limitations due to enlarged diffusion distances and adverse diffusion geometries (e.g., concurrent vs. countercurrent microvessels, Krogh- vs. Hill-type diffusion geometry) and, to a lesser extent, by hypoxemia (e.g., in anemic patients, HbCO formation in heavy smokers), and a compromised perfusion or flow stop (e.g., due to disturbed Starling forces or intratumor solid stress). Acute hypoxia mainly results from transient disruptions in perfusion (e.g., vascular occlusion by cell aggregates), fluctuating red blood cell fluxes or short-term contractions of the interstitial matrix. In each of these hypoxia subtypes oxygen supply is critically reduced, but perfusion-dependent nutrient supply, waste removal, delivery of anticancer or diagnostic agents, and repair competence can be impaired or may not be affected. This detailed differentiation of tumor hypoxia may impact on our understanding of tumor biology and may aid in the development of novel treatment strategies, tumor detection by imaging and tumor targeting, and is thus of great clinical relevance.

  13. Age and growth of bullet tuna, Auxis rochei (Risso), from the Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to identify the age and growth parameters of bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) in Turkish waters. The fish were caught from the Turkish Mediterranean coasts between December 2008 and December 2009. A total of 186 dorsal fin spines obtained from the specimens were analyzed for ageing and growth studies.

  14. Scientific and Technical Libraries: Administration and Management. LC Science Tracer Bullet 84-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This guide to reference materials on the management of scientific and technical libraries updates and expands LC Science Tracer Bullet 76-l. While the guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, the compilation does provide the user with a representative sample of types of materials available and suggestions on appropriate…

  15. Space Science Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet No. TB-89-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This publication aims to assist elementary and secondary school students and teachers in planning, preparing and executing projects in the space sciences. Sources in other areas of science and on science fairs themselves are listed in "Science Fair Projects" (LC Science Tracer Bullet 88-4). This compilation is not intended to be a comprehensive…

  16. Demonstrating the effect of forensic firearm countermeasures: Bullet characteristics generated due to barrel modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, C; Champion, S; Allsop, D

    2015-12-01

    Forensic awareness and the declining availability of firearms have resulted in an increase in the use of modified and re-activated firearms in crime. Although some modifications are undertaken to simply acquire a functioning firearm, others are perpetrated as a direct forensic countermeasure to prevent the association between a firearm and a crime. This article describes the effects of these modifications on bullet striation patterns imparted from the barrel to a fired bullet. The key results indicated that the investigated modifications display assessable characteristics. The use of an oversized barrel imparted striations consistent with firing with the absence of typical rifling. Subsequent or consecutively fired bullets possessed striation variations, with the first showing the least evidence of striations. The application of a choke resulted in more obvious bullet elongation compared to a smoothbore barrel. The restriction caused merging of lands and groves of the imparted rifling and obscured their usual definition. Effects of breech adaption were also characterised by observing the buckling and enlargement of the cartridge case. This deformity of the cartridge case was most evident when the barrel pressure increased due to the presence of the choke. From this study it was evident that unique characteristic impressions associated with different modifications most commonly found in criminal investigations can be utilised by a forensic expert and impart significant intelligence to an investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bullet Retarding Forces in Ballistic Gelatin by Analysis of High Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    cavity arises because the retarding force accelerates tissue which then stretches until the combination of inertia , weight, and elasticity causes it to...at impact. Damping of the oscillations over the first 50 m is due to the bullets “going to sleep ” (damping of pitch and yaw). Decreasing

  18. Decrystallization of Crystals Using Gold "Nano-Bullets" and the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nishone; Boone-Kukoyi, Zainab; Shortt, Raquel; Lansiquot, Carisse; Kioko, Bridgit; Bonyi, Enock; Toker, Salih; Ozturk, Birol; Aslan, Kadir

    2016-10-18

    Gout is caused by the overproduction of uric acid and the inefficient metabolism of dietary purines in humans. Current treatments of gout, which include anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and systemic glucocorticoids, have harmful side-effects. Our research laboratory has recently introduced an innovative approach for the decrystallization of biological and chemical crystals using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Decrystallization (MAMAD) technique. In the MAMAD technique, microwave energy is used to heat and activate gold nanoparticles that behave as "nano-bullets" to rapidly disrupt the crystal structure of biological crystals placed on planar surfaces. In this study, crystals of various sizes and compositions were studied as models for tophaceous gout at different stages (i.e., uric acid as small crystals (~10-100 μm) and l-alanine as medium (~300 μm) and large crystals (~4400 μm). Our results showed that the use of the MAMAD technique resulted in the reduction of the size and number of uric acid and l-alanine crystals up to >40% when exposed to intermittent microwave heating (up to 20 W power at 8 GHz) in the presence of 20 nm gold nanoparticles up to 120 s. This study demonstrates that the MAMAD technique can be potentially used as an alternative therapeutic method for the treatment of gout by effective decrystallization of large crystals, similar in size to those that often occur in gout.

  19. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  20. Antimony sinks in the weathering crust of bullets from Swiss shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Sonia; Giere, Reto; Newville, Matthew; Majzlan, Juraj

    2009-01-01

    Shooting ranges represent sites heavily polluted by Pb, Sb, Cu, Ni, and Zn, which are released during the weathering of bullets. The pristine bullets are made of a Pb-Sb core, Fe mantle, and minor amounts of Cu, Ni, and Zn in an interlayer between the core and mantle. At two selected sampling sites (Losone and Lucerne, both in Switzerland), corroding bullets were collected to determine the sinks of Sb within the weathering crust of the bullets. Bulk Sb concentrations in the crust were found to be as high as 1.3 wt.%. The oxalate-extractable fraction of Fe showed that the amorphous Fe oxides (e.g., ferrihydrite) prevail over goethite and lepidocrocite, which were identified by bulk X-ray diffraction experiments. Crystalline Pb phases are litharge (only found by X-ray diffraction) and cerussite, which result from weathering of the Pb core. No distinct Sb minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction. Investigations with electron microprobe (EMP) showed that Sb is mostly accumulated in those regions in the weathering crust where there is also a high concentration of Fe. In the weathering crust from Losone, such Fe-rich regions with Sb are represented by material that cements or rims silicate mineral grains. The cement was identified as lepidocrocite by micro-Raman analysis. At Lucerne, Sb is found in Fe-oxide aggregates, in sawdust particles where it may be bound to organic matter, or in aggregates enriched in Pb and depleted in Fe. Bulk EXAFS experiments suggested that the Fe oxides are the most important sink for Sb. Our modelling of Sb next-nearest neighbours suggests two types of inner-sphere complexes on the surfaces of Fe oxides. These are edge- and corner-sharing adsorption complexes. Hence, the predominant sink of Sb in the weathering crust of the bullets at the selected shooting ranges is Fe oxides, amorphous or crystalline

  1. Cervical spinal cord bullet fragment removal using a minimally invasive surgical approach: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton Cort D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of penetrating gunshot injury to the high-cervical spinal cord and describe a minimally invasive approach used for removal of the bullet fragment. We present this report to demonstrate technical feasibility of a minimally invasive approach to projectile removal. Case presentation An 18-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with a penetrating gunshot injury to the high-cervical spine. The bullet lodged in the spinal cord at the C1 level and rendered our patient quadriplegic and dependent on a ventilator. For personal and forensic reasons, our patient and his family requested removal of the bullet fragment almost one year following the injury. Given the significant comorbidity associated with quadriplegia and ventilator dependency, a minimally invasive approach was used to limit the peri-operative complication risk and expedite recovery. Using a minimally invasive expandable retractor system and the aid of a microscope, the posterior arch of C1 was removed, the dura was opened, and the bullet fragment was successfully removed from the spinal cord. Conclusions Here we describe a minimally invasive procedure demonstrating the technical feasibility of removing an intramedullary foreign object from the high-cervical spine. We do not suggest that the availability of minimally invasive procedures should lower the threshold or expand the indications for the removal of bullet fragments in the spinal canal. Rather, our objective is to expand the indications for minimally invasive procedures in an effort to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with spinal procedures. In addition, this report may help to highlight the feasibility of this approach.

  2. A Molecular-line Study of the Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS05506+2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Lee, Chin-Fei; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen; Patel, Nimesh; Morris, Mark R.; Claussen, Mark

    2017-12-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish molecular line observations of the interstellar bullet-outflow source IRAS 05506+2414, whose wide-angle bullet spray is similar to the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow and likely arises from an entirely different mechanism than the classical accretion-disk-driven bipolar flows in young stellar objects. The bullet-outflow source is associated with a large pseudo-disk and three molecular outflows—a high-velocity outflow (HVO), a medium-velocity outflow (MVO), and a slow, extended outflow (SEO). The size (mass) of the pseudo-disk is 10,350 au × 6400 au (0.64-0.17 M ⊙) from a model-fit assuming infall and rotation, we derive a central stellar mass of 8-19 M ⊙. The HVO (MVO) has an angular size ˜5180 (˜3330) au and a projected outflow velocity of ˜140 km s-1 (˜30 km s-1). The SEO size (outflow speed) is ˜0.9 pc (˜6 km s-1). The HVO’s axis is aligned with (orthogonal to) that of the SEO (pseudo-disk). The velocity structure of the MVO is unresolved. The scalar momenta in the HVO and SEO are very similar, suggesting that the SEO has resulted from the HVO interacting with ambient-cloud material. The bullet spray shares a common axis with the pseudo-disk and has an age comparable to that of MVO (few hundred years), suggesting that these three structures are intimately linked. We discuss several models for the outflows in IRAS 05506+2414 (including dynamical decay of a stellar cluster, chance encounter of a runaway star with a dense cloud, and close passage of two protostars), and conclude that second-epoch imaging to derive proper motions of the bullets and nearby stars can help to discriminate between them.

  3. Hydrodynamics of back spatter by blunt bullet gunshot with a link to bloodstain pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, P. M.; Yarin, A. L.; Attinger, D.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical model describing the blood spatter pattern resulting from a blunt bullet gunshot is proposed. The predictions are compared to experimental data acquired in the present work. This hydrodynamic problem belongs to the class of the impact hydrodynamics with the pressure impulse generating the blood flow. At the free surface, the latter is directed outwards and accelerated toward the surrounding air. As a result, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the flow of blood occurs, which is responsible for the formation of blood drops of different sizes and initial velocities. Thus, the initial diameter, velocity, and acceleration of the atomized blood drops can be determined. Then, the equations of motion are solved, describing drop trajectories in air accounting for gravity, and air drag. Also considered are the drop-drop interactions through air, which diminish air drag on the subsequent drops. Accordingly, deposition of two-phase (blood-drop and air) jets on a vertical cardstock sheet located between the shooter and the target (and perforated by the bullet) is predicted and compared with experimental data. The experimental data were acquired with a porous polyurethane foam sheet target impregnated with swine blood, and the blood drops were collected on a vertical cardstock sheet which was perforated by the blunt bullet. The highly porous target possesses a low hydraulic resistance and therefore resembles a pool of blood shot by a blunt bullet normally to its free surface. The back spatter pattern was predicted numerically and compared to the experimental data for the number of drops, their area, the total stain area, and the final impact angle as functions of radial location from the bullet hole in the cardstock sheet (the collection screen). Comparisons of the predicted results with the experimental data revealed satisfactory agreement. The predictions also allow one to find the impact Weber number on the collection screen, which is necessary to predict stain

  4. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10 µm CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Grant/Contract Number AFOSR assigned control number. It must

  5. Classifying Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    al. 2013). The analysis aims at three goals: The classifications’ internal consistency, the abstraction of classification criteria and the identification of differences in classification across fields and/or time. Especially the abstraction of classification criteria can be used in future endeavors......This paper critically analyzes seventeen game classifications. The classifications were chosen on the basis of diversity, ranging from pre-digital classification (e.g. Murray 1952), over game studies classifications (e.g. Elverdam & Aarseth 2007) to classifications of drinking games (e.g. LaBrie et...... into the topic of game classifications....

  6. Damage to apparel layers and underlying tissue due to hand-gun bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra; Kieser, Jules; Mabbott, Alexander; Mott, Charlotte; Champion, Stephen; Girvan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic damage to the clothing of victims of gunshot wounds to the chest can provide useful forensic evidence. Anyone shot in the torso will usually be wearing clothing which will be damaged by the penetrating impact event and can reportedly be the source of some of the debris in the wound. Minimal research has previously been reported regarding the effect of bullets on apparel fabrics and underlying tissue. This paper examines the effect of ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket [FMJ] DM11 A1B2, 8.0 g; and soft point flat nose Remington R357M3, 10.2 g) on clothing layers that cover the torso (T-shirt, T-shirt plus hoodie, T-shirt plus denim jacket) and underlying structures represented by porcine thoracic wall (skin, underlying tissue, ribs). Impacts were recorded using a Phantom V12 high speed camera. Ejected bone debris was collected before wound tracts were dissected and measured; any debris found was recovered for further analysis. Size and mass of bony debris was recorded; fibre debris recovered from the wound and impact damage to fabrics were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remington R357M3 ammunition was characteristically associated with stellate fabric damage; individual fibres were less likely to show mushrooming. In contrast, 9 mm FMJ ammunition resulted in punch-out damage to fabric layers, with mushrooming of individual fibres being more common. Entry wound sizes were similar for both types of ammunition and smaller than the diameter of the bullet that caused them. In this work, the Remington R357M3 ammunition resulted in larger exit wounds due to the bullet construction which mushroomed. That fabric coverings did not affect the amount of bony debris produced is interesting, particularly given there was some evidence that apparel layers affected the size of the wound. Recent work has suggested that denim (representative of jeans) can exacerbate wounding caused by high-velocity bullet impacts to the thigh when the bullet does not

  7. Biological and Health Effects of Electromagnetic (Nonionizing) Radiation. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Hisako, Comp.

    The environment we live in today is filled with human-created electromagnetic fields generated by a variety of sources, including radio and television transmitters, power lines, and visual display terminals. (In addition, there exists a natural background of electromagnetic fields.) The term "electromagnetic pollution" is often used to…

  8. Distributed radar network for real-time tracking of bullet trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Li, Xin; Jin, Yuanwei; Amin, Moeness G.; Eydgahi, Ali

    2009-05-01

    Gunshot detection, sniper localization, and bullet trajectory prediction are of significant importance in military and homeland security applications. While the majority of existing work is based on acoustic and electro-optical sensors, this paper develops a framework of networked radar systems that uses distributed radar sensor networks to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The use of radio frequency radar systems allows the achievement of subtime- of-flight tracking response, enabling to response before the bullet reaches its target and, as such, effectively leading to the reduction of injuries and casualties in military and homeland security operations. The focus of this paper is to examine the MIMO radar concept with concurrent transmission of low-correlation waveforms from multiple radar sets to ensure wide surveillance coverage and maintain a high waveform repetition frequency for long coherent time interval required to achieve return signal concentration.

  9. Preparation of gene gun bullets and biolistic transfection of neurons in slice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Georgia; Zito, Karen

    2008-02-13

    Biolistic transfection is a physical means of transfecting cells by bombarding tissue with high velocity DNA coated particles. We provide a detailed protocol for biolistic transfection of rat hippocampal slices, from the initial preparation of DNA coated bullets to the final shooting of the organotypic slice cultures using a gene gun. Gene gun transfection is an efficient and easy means of transfecting neurons and is especially useful for fluorescently labeling a small subset of cells in tissue slice. In this video, we first outline the steps required to coat gold particles with DNA. We next demonstrate how to line the inside of plastic tubing with the gold/DNA bullets, and how to cut this tubing to obtain the plastic cartridges for loading into the gene gun. Finally, we perform biolistic transfection of rat hippocampal slice cultures, demonstrating handling of the Bio-Rad Helios gene gun, and offering trouble shooting advice to obtain healthy and optimally transfected tissue slices.

  10. Improve of recovery during the training process of shot-bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruk I.D.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Special features of the restorative means during the training of shot-bullet are described. Author made analysis of special literature, compares and assessments combination means of recovery, recommends to apply the complex of restorative means. The processes of sportsmen recovery became better during combination of sport massage and functional music, using the complex of facilities during a stage level of recovery.

  11. 18 GHz SZ Measurements of the Bullet Cluster Siddharth S. Malu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is a cluster collision/merger event at z ∼0.296, with the larger, westward cluster being ∼10 times the mass of the smaller 'bullet'. It is known to have a strong radio halo (Liang et al. 2000), and the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (Andreani et al. 1999;. Halverson et al. 2009), and is X-ray bright (Markevitch et al. 2002), though it is.

  12. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  13. Measurement of bullet impact conditions using automated in-flight photography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Decker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of impact conditions is critical to evaluating the terminal impact performance of a projectile. For a small caliber bullet, in-flight velocity has been precisely measured for decades using detection screens, but accurately quantifying the orientation of the bullet on a target has been more challenging. This report introduces the Automated Small-Arms Photogrammetry (ASAP analysis method used to measure, model, and predict the orientation of a small caliber bullet before reaching an impact surface. ASAP uses advanced hardware developed by Sydor Technologies to record a series of infrared digital photographs. Individual images (four orthogonal pairs are processed using computer vision algorithms to quantify the orientation of the projectile and re-project its precise position and orientation into a three-dimensional muzzle-fixed coordinate system. An epicyclic motion model is fit to the measured data, and the epicyclic motion is extrapolated to the target location. Analysis results are fairly immediate and may be reviewed during testing. Prove-out demonstrations have shown that the impact-angle prediction capability is less than six hundredths of a degree for the 5.56 mm ball round tested. Keywords: Yaw, Terminal ballistics, Exterior ballistics, Test & evaluation, Computer vision, Image processing, Angle of attack

  14. Confluence or independence of microwave plasma bullets in atmospheric argon plasma jet plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Chen, Zhaoquan; Mu, Haibao; Xu, Guimin; Yao, Congwei; Sun, Anbang; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Guanjun

    2018-03-01

    Plasma bullet is the formation and propagation of a guided ionization wave (streamer), normally generated in atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In most cases, only an ionization front produces in a dielectric tube. The present study shows that two or three ionization fronts can be generated in a single quartz tube by using a microwave coaxial resonator. The argon APPJ plumes with a maximum length of 170 mm can be driven by continuous microwaves or microwave pulses. When the input power is higher than 90 W, two or three ionization fronts propagate independently at first; thereafter, they confluence to form a central plasma jet plume. On the other hand, the plasma bullets move independently as the lower input power is applied. For pulsed microwave discharges, the discharge images captured by a fast camera show the ionization process in detail. Another interesting finding is that the strongest lightening plasma jet plumes always appear at the shrinking phase. Both the discharge images and electromagnetic simulations suggest that the confluence or independent propagation of plasma bullets is resonantly excited by the local enhanced electric fields, in terms of wave modes of traveling surface plasmon polaritons.

  15. Experimentally Studied Influence of the Bullet Head Shape on Dispersion Characteristics at Subsonic Airspeeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ilukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents description and results of experiments on a ballistic track and subsonic wind tunnel. The subject of study is important an issue such as the assessment of the influence of the bullet head shape on the accuracy of shooting parameters at subsonic muzzle velocity. The article points to the features of examined precision of guided and unguided aircraft, refers to the main disturbing factors. In addition, it outlines the most well known ways to improve the flight precision of unguided munitions. The article presents the geometric parameters of bullets and their scale models used in the experiments. It describes the experimental facilities and the studies themselves. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of experimental air-gun firings. Results for different muzzle velocities of flight are compared. The paper notes an ambiguity in comparison of accuracy and head drag coefficient. The results are clearly aligned with the data purging in the little turbulent subsonic wind tunnel. The article describes in detail the use of the method for visualizing a structure of the flow for the delimitation of attached flow and estimation of stagnation zone. A revealed physical picture has comprehensive theoretical underpinning. The conclusions of the work also give a advices on selecting a bullet to have the best dispersion parameters.

  16. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM and the scanning electro microscope (SEM. For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling. For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the “notch tip” spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the “notch tip”, propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle

  17. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  18. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlei; Ma, Bohan; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Ma, Dongfang

    2018-01-01

    The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM) of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW) nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM) and the scanning electro microscope (SEM). For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling). For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the "notch tip" spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the "notch tip", propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile

  19. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  20. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  1. Text classification

    OpenAIRE

    Deveikis, Karolis

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of text classification. The task of text classification is to assign a piece of text to one of several categories based on its content. Text classification is one of the tasks of natural language processing. Like the others, it is often solved using machine learning algorithms. There are many algorithms suitable for text classification. As a result, a problem of choice arises. In an effort to solve this problem, this paper analyzes various feature extractio...

  2. Classification of cell signalling in tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Craig Charles; Nicholls, Clare; Brookes, Chris; Wood, Ian

    2011-02-01

    The traditional classification of signalling in biological systems is insufficient and outdated and novel efforts must take into account advances in systems theory, information theory and linguistics. We present some of the classification systems currently used both within and outside of the biological field and discuss some specific aspects of the nature of signalling in tissue development. The analytical methods used in understanding non-biological networks provide a valuable vocabulary, which requires integration and a system of classification to further facilitate development.

  3. The benefit of a tough skin: bullet holes, weathering and the preservation of heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Lisa; Gomez-Heras, M.; Brassey, C.; Green, O.; Blenkinsop, T.

    2017-02-01

    Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles outside of the field of engineering focused on ceramics and metals. To investigate alterations to mineral structure caused by projectile damage, impacts were created in medium-grained, well-compacted, mesoporous sandstone samples using 0.22 calibre lead bullets shot at a distance of 20 m. Half these samples were treated with a surface consolidant (Wacker OH 100), to mimic natural cementation of the rock surface. These samples were then tested for changes to surface hardness and moisture movement during temperature cycles of 15-65°C. Petrographic thin section analysis was carried out to investigate the micro-scale deformation associated with high-speed impact. The results surprisingly show that stress build-up behind pre-existing cementation of the surface, as found in heritage sites that have been exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuations for longer periods of time, can be alleviated with a bullet impact. However, fracture networks and alteration of the mineral matrices still form a weak point within the structure, even at a relatively low impact calibre. This initial study illustrates the need for geomorphologists, geologists, engineers and heritage specialists to work collectively to gain further insights into the long-term impact of higher calibre armed warfare on heritage deterioration.

  4. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  5. Firearm suicide committed using an unusual combination of tandem missiles: a bullet, a nail, and a screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, Zoran; Savic, Slobodan; Atanasijevic, Tatjana

    2007-09-01

    An interesting case of firearm suicide carried out using an unusual type of handmade weapon and a peculiar combination of tandem missiles is presented. A nail and a screw were placed in the rifle barrel ahead of a bullet, and all 3 were simultaneously discharged. The inflicted injury began with 1 common channel, which later split in 2 separate channels, both directed backwards and upwards; one was caused by the screw, ending in the epistropheal body, and the other, caused by the bullet and the nail, penetrated into the cranial cavity, where it bifurcated in 2 branches, one from the bullet, ending in the cerebellar tissue, and the other from the nail, penetrated through the brain stem. The established site of the entrance suicidal wound, the appearance of the weapon, and the unusual missiles are discussed with regard to the available references dealing with different types of nail injuries to the head.

  6. 3D-MSCT imaging of bullet trajectory in 3D crime scene reconstruction: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, T; Delannoy, Y; Bresson, F; Marechal, C; Raul, J S; Hedouin, V

    2013-11-01

    Postmortem investigations are increasingly assisted by three-dimensional multi-slice computed tomography (3D-MSCT) and have become more available to forensic pathologists over the past 20years. In cases of ballistic wounds, 3D-MSCT can provide an accurate description of the bullet location, bone fractures and, more interestingly, a clear visual of the intracorporeal trajectory (bullet track). These forensic medical examinations can be combined with tridimensional bullet trajectory reconstructions created by forensic ballistic experts. These case reports present the implementation of tridimensional methods and the results of 3D crime scene reconstruction in two cases. The authors highlight the value of collaborations between police forensic experts and forensic medicine institutes through the incorporation of 3D-MSCT data in a crime scene reconstruction, which is of great interest in forensic science as a clear visual communication tool between experts and the court. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipossomas: a bala mágica acertou? Liposomes: has the magic bullet hit the target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno C. Santos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient drug delivery systems are as important as drug themselves. A powerful drug unable to reach the target cell is useless in practice. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet was the first carrier system to be proposed. The evolution in this domain has been quite slow as the natural mechanisms of mammals against foreign products are hard to overcome. However, lipid-based systems (liposomes and related vesicles have attained reasonable success. The basic preparations and structural features of liposomes and related vesicles as well as their applications are addressed from the chemist's and biochemist's point of view.

  8. Three-dimensional Bessel light bullets in self-focusing Kerr media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Belic, Milivoj; Huang Tingwen

    2010-01-01

    We study three-dimensional (3D) Bessel light-bullet solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a photonic lattice potential in the form of squared Bessel functions in polar coordinates, both analytically and numerically. Analytical solutions are obtained by the Hartree approximation, and numerical simulations are performed, to compare with the analytical solutions and to confirm the stability of localized solutions. The 3D spatial wave packets are built by the products of hyperbolic secant and Bessel functions. These solitons appear in different forms, such as 3D vortex solitons and multipole solitons.

  9. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...... emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at , but improves on the constraints...... for energies of 10–25 keV....

  10. Routing, Disjoint Paths, and Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Shuheng

    2006-01-01

    .... The third part of this thesis concerns a type of classification problem that is motivated by a computational biology problem, where it is desirable that a small amount of genotype data from each...

  11. Genetic Classification of Infantile Spasms

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from University of Washington, Seattle, WA, and Washington University, St Louis, MO propose a genetic and biologic classification of infantile spasms. Infantile spasms are of 2 main groups: those with known or unknown predisposing genotypes.

  12. [Biogeography: geography or biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafanov, A I

    2009-01-01

    General biogeography is an interdisciplinary science, which combines geographic and biological aspects constituting two distinct research fields: biological geography and geographic biology. These fields differ in the nature of their objects of study, employ different methods and represent Earth sciences and biological sciences, respectively. It is suggested therefore that the classification codes for research fields and the state professional education standard should be revised.

  13. Investigating the use of support vector machine classification on structural brain images of preterm-born teenagers as a biological marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton Chu

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has been shown to induce an altered developmental trajectory of brain structure and function. With the aid support vector machine (SVM classification methods we aimed to investigate whether MRI data, collected in adolescence, could be used to predict whether an individual had been born preterm or at term. To this end we collected T1-weighted anatomical MRI data from 143 individuals (69 controls, mean age 14.6y. The inclusion criteria for those born preterm were birth weight ≤ 1500g and gestational age < 37w. A linear SVM was trained on the grey matter segment of MR images in two different ways. First, all the individuals were used for training and classification was performed by the leave-one-out method, yielding 93% correct classification (sensitivity = 0.905, specificity = 0.942. Separately, a random half of the available data were used for training twice and each time the other, unseen, half of the data was classified, resulting 86% and 91% accurate classifications. Both gestational age (R = -0.24, p<0.04 and birth weight (R = -0.51, p < 0.001 correlated with the distance to decision boundary within the group of individuals born preterm. Statistically significant correlations were also found between IQ (R = -0.30, p < 0.001 and the distance to decision boundary. Those born small for gestational age did not form a separate subgroup in these analyses. The high rate of correct classification by the SVM motivates further investigation. The long-term goal is to automatically and non-invasively predict the outcome of preterm-born individuals on an individual basis using as early a scan as possible.

  14. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  15. To drink or grasp? How bullet ants ( Paraponera clavata) differentiate between sugars and proteins in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer; Larson, Hannah K.; Tellez, Peter; McGlynn, Terrence P.

    2013-12-01

    Flexibility in behavior can increase the likelihood that a forager may respond optimally in a fluctuating environment. Nevertheless, physiological or neuronal constraints may result in suboptimal responses to stimuli. We observed foraging workers of the giant tropical ant (also referred to as the "bullet ant"), Paraponera clavata, as they reacted to liquid solutions with varying concentrations of sugar and protein. We show that when protein/sucrose concentration is high, many bullet ants will often try to grasp at the droplet, rather than gather it by drinking. Because P. clavata actively hunt for prey, fixed action patterns and rapid responses to protein may be adaptively important, regardless of the medium in which it is presented. We conclude that, in P. clavata, food-handling decisions are made in response to the nutrient content of the food rather than the texture of the food. Further, we suggest that colonies that maintain a mixture of individuals with consistent fixed or flexible behavioral responses to food-handling decisions may be better adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions, and we propose future studies that could address this.

  16. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse compton emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornstrup, Allan; Molendi, S.

    2014-01-01

    component to describe the spectrum of the Bullet cluster, and instead argue that it is dominated at all energies by emission from purely thermal gas. The conservatively derived 90% upper limit on the IC flux of 1.1 × 10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 (50-100 keV), implying a lower limit on B ≳ 0.2 μG, is barely consistent......The search for diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been undertaken with many instruments, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Because all prior telescopes sensitive at E > 10 keV do not focus light...... and have degree-scale fields of view, their backgrounds are both high and difficult to characterize. The associated uncertainties result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. In this work, we present 266 ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, which is detected...

  17. The Dream About the Magic Silver Bullet – the Complexity of Designing for Tablet-Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Isa; Svendsen, Niels Vandel; Johansen, Simon Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    learning. We report the gaps and interrelations between the dreams and the practice of the teachers. They dream about an interconnected praxis – the magic silver bullet – and establish their visions of inter- connectivity because of their breakdown experiences of media tablets aiding complexity instead...

  18. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm. ...

  19. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report; Embolia pulmonar por projetil de arma de fogo: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanari, Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri; Mansur, Maria Clara Dias; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Silverio, Paulo Rogerio Barboza; Jayanthi, Shri Krishna; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: mauriciogustavo91@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IHC-FMUSP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-03-15

    The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure. (author)

  20. Terminal Performance of Lead Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    an intense stress field in the immediate vicinity of the passing projectile. These stress waves decay rapidly with distance to levels below tissue...Medical Physics. 2007c. Courtney M, Courtney A. A Method for Testing Handgun Bullets in Deer . Cornell University Library, Med- ical Physics. 2007d. Dean G

  1. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Danielle G; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 μm commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 μm in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Entrance and exit wounds of high velocity bullet: An autopsy analysis in the event of dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peonim, Vichan; Srisont, Smith; Udnoon, Jitta; Wongwichai, Sompong; Thapon, Arisa; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn

    2016-11-01

    Fatal mass casualties by high velocity bullets (HVBs) are rare events in peaceful countries. This study presents 27 forensic autopsy cases with 32 shots fired by 5.56×45mm. HVB (M-16 rifle bullets) during the dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010. It was found that twenty-three (71.88%) typical entrance HVB wounds had round sizes less than the bullet diameters. Most entrance wounds had microtears but no collar abrasion since a HVB has a small streamlined spitzer tip and full metal jacket. For exit wounds, there were various sizes and shapes depending on which section of wound ballistics presented when the bullet exited the body. If a bullet exited in the section of temporally cavity formation, there would be a large size exit wound in accordance with the degree of bullet yaw. This is different from civilian bullets whereby the shape looks like a cylindrical round nose and at low velocity that causes entrance wounds with a similar size to the bullet diameter and is usually round or oval shape with collar abrasion. The temporary cavity is not as large as in a HVB so exit wounds are not quite as large and present a ragged border compared to a HVB. We also reported 9 out of 32 shots (28.13%) of atypical entrance wounds that had various characteristics depending on site of injury and destabilization of bullets. These findings may be helpful to forensic pathologists and to give physicians, who need to diagnose HVB wounds, more confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dodging Bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Caroline T.; Burger, Martijn J.; Ianchovichina, Elena I.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between political violence and greenfield foreign direct investment is contingent on the type of violence, the characteristics of the investment-receiving sector, and the international scope of the investing firm. Analysis using a dynamic fixed effects model for a panel of 90 dev...

  4. High-Speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB to Planetary Nebula Transition: A Study of the Carbon Star V Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2017-08-01

    The carbon star V Hya is experiencing heavy mass loss as it undergoes the transition from an AGB star to a planetary nebula (PN). This is possibly the earliest object known in this brief phase, which is so short that few nearby stars are likely to be caught in the act. Molecular observations reveal that a bipolar nebula has been established even at this early stage. Using STIS, we obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya spanning 3 epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (2002-2004, 2011-2013). These data reveal high-velocity emission in [SII] lines from compact blobs located both on- and off-source, with the ejection axis executing a flip-flop, both in, and perpendicular to, the sky-plane. We have proposed a detailed model in which V Hya ejects high-speed (200-250 km/s) bullets once every 8.5 yr associated with periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit with an 8.5 yr period. We suggest that the jet driver is an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing. Our model predicts the locations of previously ejected bullets in V Hya and future epochs at which new bullets will emerge. We now propose new STIS observations of these remarkable bullet ejections over two new epochs well separated from previous ones, to robustly test our model. The proposed observations will provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to look on as V Hya's circumstellar envelope is sculpted by these bullets. Our study will help solve the long-standing puzzle of how the spherical mass-loss envelopes of AGB stars evolve into bipolar and multipolar PNe.

  5. Study about quantification and classification of biological tissues in tomographic images from histograms; Estudo sobre quantificacao e classificacao dos tecidos biologicos em imagens tomograficas a partir de histogramas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rafael T.F.; Lemke, Ney; Hormaza, Joel Mesa; Alvarez, Matheus, E-mail: rafael@ibb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquisa Filho (DFB/IB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Pina, Diana R.; Teixeira, Altamir S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquisa Filho (HC/FM/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-06-15

    An algorithm for determining the equivalent thickness of biological tissue by the removal of Gaussian from the histograms was proposed. This algorithm classifies the different biological tissues using histograms, constructed from CT scans in DICOM format and calculates the average thickness of these tissues. The founded results show to be coherent with literature, with discrepancies of up to 21.6% on the bone, and analyzed for the anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO). These results allow the use of this method in living tissues for the construction of chest homogeneous phantoms of newborn and suckling patients, which are subsequently used in the optimization process of pediatric radiographic images. (author)

  6. The drone ambulance [A-UAS]: golden bullet or just a blank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Voorde, P; Gautama, S; Momont, A; Ionescu, C M; De Paepe, P; Fraeyman, N

    2017-07-01

    Defibrillation within the first minutes after sudden cardiac arrest can save many quality-adjusted life years. Yet, despite enormous investments, 'healthcare' is still unable to provide this for the majority of patients. Emergency Medical Services often have a too long mean response time and many issues surround Public Access Defibrillation programs. In this article we argument that AED-equipped drones could be the 'magic bullet'. They are easily deployed and fast, and have a relatively low operational cost. As such they could rapidly bring an AED next to the victim, irrespective of most geographical circumstances, give visual feedback and situational awareness to the EMS dispatcher and thus assist a bystander to provide better CPR. Although there are many real-life barriers to actual deployment, we argument these might all get solved once we have solved the described technological issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antigen-Based Immune Therapeutics for Type 1 Diabetes: Magic Bullets or Ordinary Blanks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Culina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal drug of modern medicine is the one that achieves its therapeutic target with minimal adverse effects. Immune therapy of Type 1 diabetes (T1D is no exception, and knowledge of the antigens targeted by pathogenic T cells offers a unique opportunity towards this goal. Different antigen formulations are being considered, such as proteins or peptides, either in their native form or modified ad hoc, DNA plasmids, and cell-based agents. Translation from mouse to human should take into account important differences, particularly in the time scale of autoimmune progression, and intervention. Critical parameters such as administration route, dosing and interval remain largely empirical and need to be further dissected. T1D staging through immune surrogate markers before and after treatment will be key in understanding therapeutic actions and to finally turn ordinary blanks into magic bullets.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that we currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Karr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  9. Spatial instabilities of light bullets in passively-mode-locked lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, S. V.; Javaloyes, J.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the existence of robust three-dimensional light bullets (LBs) was predicted theoretically in the output of a laser coupled to a distant saturable absorber. In this paper, we analyze the stability and the range of existence of these dissipative localized structures and provide guidelines and realistic parameter sets for their experimental observation. In order to reduce the complexity of the analysis, we first approximate the three-dimensional problem by a reduced equation governing the dynamics of the transverse profile. This effective theory provides an intuitive picture of the LB formation mechanism. Moreover, it allows us to perform a detailed multiparameter bifurcation study and to identify the different mechanisms of instability. It is found that the LBs experience dominantly either homogeneous oscillation or symmetry-breaking transversal wave radiation. In addition, our analysis reveals several nonintuitive scaling behaviors as functions of the linewidth enhancement factors and the saturation parameters. Our results are confirmed by direct numerical simulations of the full system.

  10. "You are our only hope": trading metaphorical "magic bullets" for stem cell "superheroes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of two recent developments in stem cell research, it is a fitting time to reassess the claim that stem cells will radically transform the concept and function of medicine. The first is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's decision in January 2009 to approve Geron Corporation's Phase I clinical trial using human embryonic stem cells for patients with spinal cord injuries. The second is the National Institutes of Health's decision to permit federal funding of research using donated IVF human embryos in their July 2009 Guidelines on Human Stem Cell Research. We are now poised to see whether stem cell research can deliver on what it promises. However, what exactly does it promise and how? Moreover, who is doing the promising? Turning to the use of metaphor can help us to answer these questions and enable us to develop a better appreciation of the unique features of promised stem cell therapies. Indeed, metaphors have exerted profound influence in medicine, and it is fitting that we seek new metaphors for new therapies where appropriate. In this case, other metaphors such as magic bullets or the Holy Grail cannot capture what is unique about stem cells. Accordingly, I propose a new metaphor: the stem cell superhero. Stem cell superheroes are characterized by the following traits: they are seemingly capable of fighting the evil of virtually all disease (unlike "magic bullets") and they seem to be our only hope of doing so, although to summon them we must make difficult moral choices. In the course of assessing the merits of three recent yet covert references to the superhero metaphor, I conclude that this powerful new paradigm employs a problematic logic (i.e., we cannot know that something is "our only hope"), but that the aspiration as such is a good one.

  11. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglo, Koffi N.; Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Martin, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to “frictional” effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the “cluster” and “cline” constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin's argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces, and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response. PMID:26925096

  12. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglo, Koffi N; Mersha, Tesfaye B; Martin, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to "frictional" effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the "cluster" and "cline" constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin's argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces, and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response.

  13. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  14. Biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  15. Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Tao; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2017-11-21

    Biological classification, the hierarchical arrangement of scientific names of organisms, constitutes the core infrastructure of biological databases. For an efficient management of biological databases, adopting a stable and universal biological classification system is crucial. Currently in Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF; http://taibif.tw/ ), the national portal website that integrates Taiwan's biodiversity information databases, angiosperms are arranged according to Cronquist's System of Classification, which is not compatible with current trend of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification. To consolidate the function and management of the database, TaiBIF is moving to adopt the APG IV classification and Christenhusz et al. (Phytotaxa 19:55-70, 2011)'s classification of gymnosperms, which we summarize as the Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan. The Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan places gymnosperms in five families [vs. eight families in the Flora of Taiwan (FOT)] and angiosperms in 210 families (vs. 193 families in FOT). Three FOT gymnosperm families are synonymized in current treatment. Of the 210 APG IV families, familial circumscriptions of 114 families are identical with FOT and 50 families are recircumscription of FOT, with 46 families newly added. Of the 29 FOT families not included in current classification, two families are excluded and 27 families are synonymized. The adoption of the Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan in TaiBIF will provide better service and efficient management of the nation's biodiversity information databases.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticle-induced hyperthermia with appropriate payloads: Paul Ehrlich's "magic (nano)bullet" for cancer theranostics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, N R; Krishnan, S; Speiser, D E; Neufeld, E; Kuster, N; Bodis, S; Hofmann, H

    2016-11-01

    Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology. The rapid developments in multifunctional nanoparticles provide ample opportunities to integrate both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities into a single effective cancer "theranostic" vector. Nanoparticles could extravasate passively into the tumour tissues in preference to the adjacent normal tissues by capitalizing on the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Tumour targeting might be further augmented by conjugating tumour-specific peptides and antibodies onto the surface of these nanoparticles or by activation through electromagnetic radiations, laser or ultrasound. Magnetic nanoparticles can induce hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, thereby multifunctionally with tumour-specific payloads empowering tumour specific radiotheranostics (for both imaging and radiotherapy), chemotherapy drug delivery, immunotherapy and gene silencing therapy. Such a (nano)bullet could realise the "magic bullet" conceived by Paul Ehrlich more than a century ago. This article discusses the various aspects of this "magic (nano)bullet" and the challenges that need to be addressed to usher in this new paradigm in modern cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bullet-shaped ionization front of plasma jet plumes driven by microwave pulses at atmospheric gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoquan; Xia, Guangqing; Zou, Changlin; Liu, Xiaodong; Feng, Deren; Li, Ping; Hu, Yelin; Stepanova, Olga; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Ionization waves (propagating bullet-shaped plasma) are always present in atmospheric-pressure plasma jets generated by a pulsed DC power supply or low-frequency voltages. Nevertheless, whether these ionization waves exist for pulsed microwave plasma jets remains unclear. In this paper, a coaxial transmission line resonator driven by microwave pulses is capable of generating atmospheric pressure plasma jet plumes. Depending on the discharges, these plasma jet plumes exhibit distinctive characteristics, such as bullet-shaped ionization fronts for argon plasma and ball-shaped for helium plasma. Fast images show argon plasma plumes generating several small branches but only one dominant ionization front travels more distance along the jet axis. Both ionization-wave images and electromagnetic simulation results indicate that the bullet-shaped ionization front forms a plasma jet plume immediately. The dominant ionization wave is resonantly excited by the local enhanced electric field, which originates from the local net charge of the streamer plus surface plasmon polariton located at the open end of the resonator.

  18. Two bullets to the head and an early winter: fate permits Kutuzov to defeat Napoleon at Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushchayev, Sergiy V; Belykh, Evgenii; Fishchenko, Yakiv; Salei, Aliaksei; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Shabaturov, Leonid; Cruse, Mark; Preul, Mark C

    2015-07-01

    General Mikhail Kutuzov (circa 1745-1813) brilliantly repelled Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Honored as a national hero and a savior of Russia, Kutuzov has a unique medical story. He was shot in the head twice while fighting the Turks (1774 and 1788) and survived the serious injuries seemingly against all odds. The first bullet "ran through the head from one temple to the other behind both eyes." The second bullet entered the cheek, destroyed upper teeth, traveled through the head, and exited the occiput. Massot, a French surgeon with the Russian army, wrote after treating Kutuzov's seemingly two mortal wounds: "It must be believed that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, because he was still alive after two injuries, a death sentence by all the rules of medical science." Aided by Massot's expert surgical technique, Kutuzov lived to become intimately engaged in events that altered world history. His health did, however, suffer significant effects due to the bullet wounds. In 1812, as Napoleon's Grande Armée approached, Kutuzov realized he could not confront Napoleon and he strategically retreated from Moscow, submitting the French to the harsh winter and Russian cavalry. Napoleon's devastated army retreated to Paris, and Kutuzov became the personification of Russian spirit and character. Kutuzov's survival of two nearly mortal head wounds created the legends, additional mystery, and drama surrounding him, not the least astonishing of which was the skilled neurosurgical care that probably saved his life.

  19. A model for beta skin dose estimation due to the use of a necklace with uranium depleted bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle Heibron, P.H.; Pérez Guerrero, J.S.; Oliveira, J.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Depleted uranium bullets were use as munitions during the Kuwait – Iraq war and the International Atomic Energy Agency sampling expert’s team found fragments in the environment when the war was over. Consequently, there is a possibility that members of the public, especially children, collects DU fragments and use it, for example, to make a necklace. This paper estimates the beta skin dose to a child that uses a necklace made with a depleted uranium bullet. The theoretical model for dose estimation is based on Loevinguer’s equation with a correction factor adjusted for the maximum beta energy in the range between 0.1 and 2.5 MeV calculated taking into account the International Atomic Energy Agency expected doses rates in air at one meter distance of a point source of 37 GBq, function of the maximum beta energy. The dose rate estimated by this work due to the child use of a necklace with one depleted uranium bullet of 300 g was in good agreement with other results founded in literature. (authors)

  20. Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaha Luan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.

  1. Spatial scale, means and gradients of hydrographic variables define pelagic seascapes of bluefin and bullet tuna spawning distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alvarez-Berastegui

    Full Text Available Seascape ecology is an emerging discipline focused on understanding how features of the marine habitat influence the spatial distribution of marine species. However, there is still a gap in the development of concepts and techniques for its application in the marine pelagic realm, where there are no clear boundaries delimitating habitats. Here we demonstrate that pelagic seascape metrics defined as a combination of hydrographic variables and their spatial gradients calculated at an appropriate spatial scale, improve our ability to model pelagic fish distribution. We apply the analysis to study the spawning locations of two tuna species: Atlantic bluefin and bullet tuna. These two species represent a gradient in life history strategies. Bluefin tuna has a large body size and is a long-distant migrant, while bullet tuna has a small body size and lives year-round in coastal waters within the Mediterranean Sea. The results show that the models performance incorporating the proposed seascape metrics increases significantly when compared with models that do not consider these metrics. This improvement is more important for Atlantic bluefin, whose spawning ecology is dependent on the local oceanographic scenario, than it is for bullet tuna, which is less influenced by the hydrographic conditions. Our study advances our understanding of how species perceive their habitat and confirms that the spatial scale at which the seascape metrics provide information is related to the spawning ecology and life history strategy of each species.

  2. Using ethnicity as a classification variable in health research: perpetuating the myth of biological determinism, serving socio-political agendas, or making valuable contributions to medical sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S S

    1999-11-01

    There is a need for a valid way to classify the human species consistently and reliably, be it to highlight similarities between human populations such as intelligence or physical capacity, to dispel myths about group differences, or to discover 'novel' risk factors for diseases. In contrast to racial divisions, which are usually based on differences in skin colour and physical features, ethnicity is a complex concept which has both socio-cultural and biological components. However, because of the relative vagueness of the term, the interpretation of the 'Ethnicity' construct is not simple, and its definition is often unique to the research project at hand. Therefore conducting ethnicity-research necessitates being aware of the differences between the concept of ethnicity and race, acknowledgement of the complexity of the ethnicity construct, and requires that a clear definition of the use of this term be made explicit by the researcher.

  3. [Myelodysplastic syndrome classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghariani, Ines; Braham, Najia; Hassine, Mohsen; Kortas, Mondher

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are myeloid disorders with various clinical and biological presentations. The French-American-British (FAB-1982) classification included five categories basing on morphology and bone marrow blast count. Three criteria are taken into account: 1) the percentage of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, 2) the percentage of ringed sideroblasts, and 3) the number of monocytes in peripheral blood. The World Health Organization classification (WHO 2001, 2008) modifies the FAB system by also taking cytogenetic characteristics and molecular biology into consideration. The last classification (WHO-2008) takes into account: 1) the number of peripheral cytopenia, 2) the percentage of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, 3) the percentage of ringed sideroblasts, 4) the possible presence of Auer Rods, and 5) the detection of a cytogenetic abnormality (the isolated 5q deletion). The following subgroups are defined: refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with excess blasts, myelodysplastic syndrome unclassifiable and myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q).

  4. Xenolog classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Charlotte A; Stolzer, Maureen; Ropp, Patrick J; Barker, Daniel; Durand, Dannie

    2017-03-01

    Orthology analysis is a fundamental tool in comparative genomics. Sophisticated methods have been developed to distinguish between orthologs and paralogs and to classify paralogs into subtypes depending on the duplication mechanism and timing, relative to speciation. However, no comparable framework exists for xenologs: gene pairs whose history, since their divergence, includes a horizontal transfer. Further, the diversity of gene pairs that meet this broad definition calls for classification of xenologs with similar properties into subtypes. We present a xenolog classification that uses phylogenetic reconciliation to assign each pair of genes to a class based on the event responsible for their divergence and the historical association between genes and species. Our classes distinguish between genes related through transfer alone and genes related through duplication and transfer. Further, they separate closely-related genes in distantly-related species from distantly-related genes in closely-related species. We present formal rules that assign gene pairs to specific xenolog classes, given a reconciled gene tree with an arbitrary number of duplications and transfers. These xenology classification rules have been implemented in software and tested on a collection of ∼13 000 prokaryotic gene families. In addition, we present a case study demonstrating the connection between xenolog classification and gene function prediction. The xenolog classification rules have been implemented in N otung 2.9, a freely available phylogenetic reconciliation software package. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~durand/Notung . Gene trees are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1503 . durand@cmu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  6. Simulation of white light generation and near light bullets using a novel numerical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Haider

    2018-01-01

    An accurate and efficient simulation has been devised, employing a new numerical technique to simulate the derivative generalised non-linear Schrödinger equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The simulation models all pertinent effects such as self-steepening and plasma for the non-linear propagation of ultrafast optical radiation in bulk material. Simulation results are compared to published experimental spectral data of an example ytterbium aluminum garnet system at 3.1 μm radiation and fits to within a factor of 5. The simulation shows that there is a stability point near the end of the 2 mm crystal where a quasi-light bullet (spatial temporal soliton) is present. Within this region, the pulse is collimated at a reduced diameter (factor of ∼2) and there exists a near temporal soliton at the spatial center. The temporal intensity within this stable region is compressed by a factor of ∼4 compared to the input. This study shows that the simulation highlights new physical phenomena based on the interplay of various linear, non-linear and plasma effects that go beyond the experiment and is thus integral to achieving accurate designs of white light generation systems for optical applications. An adaptive error reduction algorithm tailor made for this simulation will also be presented in appendix.

  7. Another Shock for the Bullet Cluster, and the Source of Seed Electrons for Radio Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimwell, Timothy W,; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav

    2015-01-01

    With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2:30:11025 WHz(exp -1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94% of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re- )acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.

  8. Non-psychotropic analgesic drugs from the endocannabinoid system: "magic bullet" or "multiple-target" strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-09-15

    The exploitation of preparations of Cannabis sativa to combat pain seems to date back to time immemorial, although their psychotropic effects, which are at the bases of their recreational use and limit their therapeutic use, are at least as ancient. Indeed, it has always been different to tease apart the unwanted central effects from the therapeutic benefits of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychotropic component of cannabis. The discovery of the cannabinoid receptors and of their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, which, unlike THC, play a pro-homeostatic function in a tissue- and time-selective manner, offered the opportunity to develop new analgesics from synthetic inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation. The advantages of this approach over direct activation of cannabinoid receptors as a therapeutic strategy against neuropathic and inflammatory pain are discussed here along with its potential complications. These latter have been such that clinical success has been achieved so far more rapidly with naturally occurring THC or endocannabinoid structural analogues acting at a plethora of cannabinoid-related and -unrelated molecular targets, than with selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid enzymatic hydrolysis, thus leading to revisit the potential usefulness of "multi-target" versus "magic bullet" compounds as new analgesics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioresorbable scaffold - A magic bullet for the treatment of coronary artery disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brie, Daniel; Penson, Peter; Serban, Maria-Corina; Toth, Peter P; Simonton, Charles; Serruys, Patrick W; Banach, Maciej

    2016-07-15

    Today, drug-eluting metal stents are considered the gold standard for interventional treatment of coronary artery disease. While providing inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, drug-eluting metal stents have many limitations such as the risk of late and very late stent thrombosis, restriction of vascular vasomotion and chronic local inflammatory reaction due to permanent implantation of a 'metallic cage', recognized as a foreign body. Bioresorbable scaffold stents (BRS) are a new solution, which is trying to overcome the limitation of the 'metallic cage'. This structure provides short-term scaffolding of the vessel and then disappears, leaving nothing behind. The purpose of this review is to present the theoretical rationale for the use of BRS and to outline the clinical outcomes associated with their use in terms of data obtained from RCTs, clinical trials, registries and real life use. We have also tried to answer all questions on this intervention based on available data, with a focus on ABSORB BVS (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, USA). We consider that this new technology can be the "magic bullet" to treat coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scape goats, silver bullets, and other pitfalls in the path to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Webster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from 'The Lathe of Heaven' by Ursula Le Guin to highlight some of the most likely pitfalls on the political road to a sustainable planet. Through the literary device of dreams that can change the world, Le Guin explores how the individual’s egoistic desire to save humanity can be twisted by the limitations of our psyche and our society, turning an already uncomfortable future Earth into a devastated planet. It is a stinging critique of answers handed down from above, and a call to action for those of us who just get by here below. Her story warns of the ancient “road to hell”, paved and trodden by would be saviors with the best intentions but also points to the license that public apathy provides to the powerful when the costs of environmental harm are borne by the powerless. These disconnects, combined with cycles of rationalization, silver bullet mentalities, and the tendency to scapegoat others for negative side effects, can all derail sustainability transitions. 'Lathe' provides an allegorical assessment of this process, but much more study is needed to fully understand and regulate the resulting governance treadmill.

  11. Manufacturing immunity to disease in a test tube: the magic bullet realized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard A

    2006-12-11

    Although it took over one hundred years, Ehrlich's concept of the magic bullet is now a reality. Today, therapeutic antibodies are, arguably, the most important class of new drugs for the treatment of illnesses ranging from Alzheimer's disease to cancer. The emergence of therapeutic antibodies had to wait for advances in immunochemistry that allowed construction of antibodies in vitro. The centerpiece of the new technology is the combinatorial antibody library, which essentially allows one to synthesize an artificial immune system with a diversity that exceeds that of the natural repertoire. The construction of such libraries was perceived to be difficult because, if the natural immune system was to be used as the starting material, construction of the libraries would entail protocols that are the opposite of usual cloning. In gene cloning one starts with complexity and reduces it to a singularity. In the generation of diversity by construction of combinatorial antibody libraries, one starts with a collection of clones, randomly expands their complexity, and then returns them to recoverable singularities. The methods developed to accomplish this seemingly formidable task now allow construction of antibodies in a test tube to any antigen. These synthetic antibodies may be qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of nature.

  12. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification....... Although other methods exist, we concentrate on Bayesian modeling approaches, in which generative image models are constructed and subsequently ‘inverted’ to obtain automated segmentations. This general framework encompasses a large number of segmentation methods, including those implemented in widely used...

  13. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  14. DC superimposed AC high voltage: A new strategy for transferring stable He atmospheric pressure cold plasma bullets through long dielectric tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadati, S. N.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Valinataj Omran, Azadeh

    2017-06-01

    This study developed a stable transfer of He atmospheric pressure cold plasma bullets in a large dielectric tube with a length of 70 cm and an inner diameter of 0.4-1.6 cm. DC superimposed AC voltage was used for this purpose. The DC component of the applied voltage generated corona ionization through the tube, which helped in the ignition and transfer of the plasma as a pre-ionization background. The bullets followed the frequency of the AC component; therefore, very high applied energy was not required to ignite this large-scale plasma. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a complex waveform has been reported for the transfer of a plasma bullet. The characteristics of the transferring plasma bullet, such as the power, charge, propagation speed, resistance, AC electrical field (EF) of the plasma, and electrostatic field on the tube surface, were measured. The influence of the tube diameter on these characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the power applied, charge, and power deposited on the target increased as the tube diameter increased. Less plasma resistance and radiation were observed using larger diameters. The root mean square (RMS) values of the axial AC EF of the bullet along the jet axis were higher for the larger diameters, but no special relation between the propagation speed, radial AC EF, and static surface field and tube diameter was observed.

  15. The virtual double-slit experiment to High School level (Part I: behavior classical analysis (with bullets and waves and development of computational software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cardoso Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n2p697   This paper analyses the double-slit virtual experiment and it composed of two parts: The part I covers the classical theory (with bullets and waves and the part II covers the interference with electrons or photons. Firstly, we have analyzed the same experiment that shoots a stream of bullets. In front of the gun we have a wall that has in it two holes just big enough to let a bullet through. Beyond the wall is a backstop (say a thick wall of wood which will absorb the bullets when they hit it. In this case, the probabilities just add together. The effect with both holes open is the sum of effects with each holes open alone. We have shown it for high school level. Next, we have analyzed a same experiment with water waves. The intensity observed when both holes are open is certainly not the sum of the intensity of the wave from hole 1 (which we find by measuring when hole 2 is blocked off and the intensity of the wave form hole 2 (seen when hole 1 is blocked. Finally, we have shown a software developed by students about double-slit experiment with bullets.

  16. INNOVATION IN ACCOUNTING BIOLOGIC ASSETS

    OpenAIRE

    Stolуarova M. A.; Shcherbina I. D.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS) 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has bee...

  17. On non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets and plasma bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinpei

    2012-10-01

    Because of the enhanced plasma chemistry, atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas (APNPs) have been widely studied for several emerging applications such as biomedical applications. For the biomedical applications, plasma jet devices, which generate plasma in open space (surrounding air) rather than in confined discharge gaps only, have lots of advantages over the traditional dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices. For example, it can be used for root canal disinfection, which can't be realized by the traditional plasma device. On the other hand, currently, the working gases of most of the plasma jet devices are noble gases or the mixtures of the noble gases with small amount of O2, or air. If ambient air is used as the working gas, several serious difficulties are encountered in the plasma generation process. Amongst these are high gas temperatures and disrupting instabilities. In this presentation, firstly, a brief review of the different cold plasma jets developed to date is presented. Secondly, several different plasma jet devices developed in our lab are reported. The effects of various parameters on the plasma jets are discussed. Finally, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the plasma bullet is discussed and its behavior is described. References: [1] X. Lu, M. Laroussi, V. Puech, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21, 034005 (2012); [2] Y. Xian, X. Lu, S. Wu, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123702 (2012); [3] X. Pei, X. Lu, J. Liu, D. Liu, Y. Yang, K. Ostrikov, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, J. Phys. D 45, 165205 (2012).

  18. Classifications of track structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    When ionizing particles interact with matter they produce random topological structures of primary activations which represent the initial boundary conditions for all subsequent physical, chemical and/or biological reactions. There are two important aspects of research on such track structures, namely their experimental or theoretical determination on one hand and the quantitative classification of these complex structures which is a basic pre-requisite for the understanding of mechanisms of radiation actions. This paper deals only with the latter topic, i.e. the problems encountered in and possible approaches to quantitative ordering and grouping of these multidimensional objects by their degrees of similarity with respect to their efficiency in producing certain final radiation effects, i.e. to their ''radiation quality.'' Various attempts of taxonometric classification with respect to radiation efficiency have been made in basic and applied radiation research including macro- and microdosimetric concepts as well as track entities and stopping power based theories. In this paper no review of those well-known approaches is given but rather an outline and discussion of alternative methods new to this field of radiation research which have some very promising features and which could possibly solve at least some major classification problems

  19. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  20. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  1. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalin, Sergey; Kompanets, Victor; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Dormidonov, Alexander; Kandidov, Valerii

    2017-10-01

    A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  2. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekalin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  3. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  4. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik; Larsen, Erik H; Loeschner, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm. The particle mass concentration ranged from 290 to 340 ng/g meat and the particle number concentrations from 27 to 50 million particles/g meat. The size limit of detection strongly depended on the level of dissolved lead and was in the range of 40 to 80 nm. In game meat sampled more than 10 cm away from the wound channel, no lead particles with a diameter larger than 40 nm were detected. In addition to dissolved lead in meat that originated from particulates, the presence of lead nano particles in game meat represents a hitherto unattended source of lead with a largely unknown toxicological impact to humans. Graphical Abstract Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of leadcontaining bullets.

  5. Detection of bone and bone-plus-bullet particles in backspatter from close-range shots to heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, B R

    1991-11-01

    A victim was shot in the head with a 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol using Winchester Silvertip hollow-point ammunition. Of interest in this case was the distance from the muzzle of the weapon to the victim's head, since the wound characteristics were equivocal for firing distance. Two other handguns (revolvers) were involved in this shooting, in addition to a revolver owned by the victim. The handguns were sampled using tape lifts, and the casings were sampled by washing them in distilled water, followed by vacuum filtration of the washing water through 0.2-microns-pore Nuclepore filters. These materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Calcium-phosphorous (bone) particles were detected on the 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol, on two casings found at the scene, and on one of the revolvers. Two of the calcium-phosphorous particles on the casings had associated bullet fragments. Test shots on live pigs destined for slaughter showed that bone particles are a feature of backspatter from close-range shots to heads. Contamination of nearby surfaces by bone fragments and bone-plus-bullet fragments, as well as other organic debris, appears to be quite heavy.

  6. Self-action of Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides and formation of light bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, A. A., E-mail: balakin.alexey@yandex.ru; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A., E-mail: sk.sa1981@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The self-action of two-dimensional and three-dimensional Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides is considered using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The features of the self-action of such wave fields are related to their initial strong spatial inhomogeneity. The numerical simulation shows that for the field amplitude exceeding a critical value, the development of an instability typical of a medium with the cubic nonlinearity is observed. Various regimes are studied: the self-channeling of a wave beam in one light guide at powers not strongly exceeding a critical value, the formation of the “kaleidoscopic” picture of a wave packet during the propagation of higher-power radiation along a stratified medium, the formation of light bullets during competition between self-focusing and modulation instabilities in the case of three-dimensional wave packets, etc. In the problem of laser pulse shortening, the situation is considered when the wave-field stratification in the transverse direction dominates. This process is accompanied by the self-compression of laser pulses in well enough separated light guides. The efficiency of conversion of the initial Bessel field distribution to two flying parallel light bullets is about 50%.

  7. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. W.; Chen, G.

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  8. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  9. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi, E-mail: anggorophd@gmail.com; Kristiana, Nunung, E-mail: nuna.c631@gmail.com [Master of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jln. Prof. Sudharto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  10. Alternatives to currently used antimalarial drugs: in search of a magic bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-11-04

    bullet against malaria. Future studies should focus on effective single-dose molecules that can act against all stages of malaria in order to prevent transmission. Newer medicines have also raised concerns in terms of efficacy and safety. Overall, more evidence is needed to effectively reduce the current malaria burden. Treatment strategies that target the blood stage with transmission-blocking properties are needed to prevent future drug resistance.

  11. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-01-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  12. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  13. DTI measurements for Alzheimer's classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggipinto, Tommaso; Bellotti, Roberto; Amoroso, Nicola; Diacono, Domenico; Donvito, Giacinto; Lella, Eufemia; Monaco, Alfonso; Antonella Scelsi, Marzia; Tangaro, Sabina

    2017-03-21

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising imaging technique that provides insight into white matter microstructure integrity and it has greatly helped identifying white matter regions affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its early stages. DTI can therefore be a valuable source of information when designing machine-learning strategies to discriminate between healthy control (HC) subjects, AD patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nonetheless, several studies have reported so far conflicting results, especially because of the adoption of biased feature selection strategies. In this paper we firstly analyzed DTI scans of 150 subjects from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) database. We measured a significant effect of the feature selection bias on the classification performance (p-value  content provided by DTI measurements for AD classification. Classification performances and biological insight, concerning brain regions related to the disease, provided by cross-validation analysis were both confirmed on the independent test.

  14. Biographical Sources in the Sciences--Life, Earth and Physical Sciences (1989-2006). LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 06-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth, Comp.; Bradley, Michelle Cadoree, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet "TB88-3" ("Biographical Sources in the Sciences," compiled 1988 [ED306074]) and "TB06-7"…

  15. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  16. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  17. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...

  18. Classifying Life, Reconstructing History and Teaching Diversity: Philosophical Issues in the Teaching of Biological Systematics and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reydon, Thomas A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Classification is a central endeavor in every scientific field of work. Classification in biology, however, is distinct from classification in other fields of science in a number of ways. Thus, understanding how biological classification works is an important element in understanding the nature of biological science. In the present paper, I…

  19. Whewell on classification and consilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Aleta

    2017-08-01

    In this paper I sketch William Whewell's attempts to impose order on classificatory mineralogy, which was in Whewell's day (1794-1866) a confused science of uncertain prospects. Whewell argued that progress was impeded by the crude reductionist assumption that all macroproperties of crystals could be straightforwardly explained by reference to the crystals' chemical constituents. By comparison with biological classification, Whewell proposed methodological reforms that he claimed would lead to a natural classification of minerals, which in turn would support advances in causal understanding of the properties of minerals. Whewell's comparison to successful biological classification is particularly striking given that classificatory biologists did not share an understanding of the causal structure underlying the natural classification of life (the common descent with modification of all organisms). Whewell's key proposed methodological reform is consideration of multiple, distinct principles of classification. The most powerful evidence in support of a natural classificatory claim is the consilience of claims arrived at through distinct lines of reasoning, rooted in distinct conceptual approaches to the target objects. Mineralogists must consider not only elemental composition and chemical affinities, but also symmetry and polarity. Geometrical properties are central to what makes an individual mineral the type of mineral that it is. In Whewell's view, function and organization jointly define life, and so are the keys to understanding what makes an organism the type of organism that it is. I explain the relationship between Whewell's teleological account of life and his natural theology. I conclude with brief comments about the importance of Whewell's classificatory theory for the further development of his philosophy of science and in particular his account of consilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  1. Lipid classification, structures and tools☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Sud, Manish; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    The study of lipids has developed into a research field of increasing importance as their multiple biological roles in cell biology, physiology and pathology are becoming better understood. The Lipid Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) consortium is actively involved in an integrated approach for the detection, quantitation and pathway reconstruction of lipids and related genes and proteins at a systems-biology level. A key component of this approach is a bioinformatics infrastructure involving a clearly defined classification of lipids, a state-of-the-art database system for molecular species and experimental data and a suite of user-friendly tools to assist lipidomics researchers. Herein, we discuss a number of recent developments by the LIPID MAPS bioinformatics core in pursuit of these objectives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipodomics and Imaging Mass Spectrometry. PMID:21704189

  2. Lipid classification, structures and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Sud, Manish; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-11-01

    The study of lipids has developed into a research field of increasing importance as their multiple biological roles in cell biology, physiology and pathology are becoming better understood. The Lipid Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) consortium is actively involved in an integrated approach for the detection, quantitation and pathway reconstruction of lipids and related genes and proteins at a systems-biology level. A key component of this approach is a bioinformatics infrastructure involving a clearly defined classification of lipids, a state-of-the-art database system for molecular species and experimental data and a suite of user-friendly tools to assist lipidomics researchers. Herein, we discuss a number of recent developments by the LIPID MAPS bioinformatics core in pursuit of these objectives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational aspects of systematic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Timothy G; Harrison, Scott H; Cole, James R; Garrity, George M

    2006-06-01

    We review the resources available to systematic biologists who wish to use computers to build classifications. Algorithm development is in an early stage, and only a few examples of integrated applications for systematic biology are available. The availability of data is crucial if systematic biology is to enter the computer age.

  4. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  5. Laser filamentation in air via Mathieu modulation: ranging from trajectory-predesigned curved filament to quasi-soliton and ring light bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuze; Nie, Jinsong

    2017-06-26

    We propose theoretically various kinds of filaments via the Mathieu modulation. Our results indicate curved filaments, in-phase and out-of-phase quasi-solitons and nonlinear light bullets can be formed successfully in air. Through calculated initial Mathieu accelerating beam (MAB), curved filament is able to propagate along a predesigned elliptical trajectory. By transforming the MAB into an axial symmetrical structure with in-phase and out-of-phase modulations, we obtain two kinds of quasi-solitons in air, respectively. The latter case can even propagate in a breathing fashion. With a ring structure of MAB, we successfully form a light bullet in air that generates a chain of intensity peaks over extended distances. These unique filaments can offer significant advantages for numerous applications, such as micro engineering of materials, THz radiation generation and attosecond physics.

  6. Just-So Stories: Vaccines, Autism, and the Single-Bullet Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    When should people believe in science, especially in scientific explanations of the causes of health, ill or otherwise? One line of argumentation is that scientific evidence based in robust ecological data, supported by previously tested animal or biological models or double-blinded randomized control trials trumps intuition or just plain "common…

  7. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  8. Hybrid treatment of bullet embolism at the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated with thoracoabdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm and common iliac artery occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bastos Metzger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embolization due to a firearm projectile entering the bloodstream is a rare event that is unlikely to be suspected during initial treatment of trauma patients. We describe and discuss a case of bullet embolism of the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated by a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta and occlusion of the right common iliac artery, but successfully treated using a combination of endovascular methods and conventional surgery.

  9. Comparison of Gunshot Entrance Morphologies Caused by .40-Caliber Smith & Wesson, .380-Caliber, and 9-mm Luger Bullets: A Finite Element Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Matoso, Rodrigo Ivo; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Santos, Leonardo Soriano de Mello; Daruge Junior, Eduardo; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua

    2014-01-01

    Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by.40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W), .380-caliber, an...

  10. Classification of Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Akman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical classification of pemphigus is not yet complete. The classic classification based on clinical and histologic features. Because of the progress in the pathogenesis of pemphigus, the current classifications based on accumulating analyses of antigen molecules and subclasses of immunoglobulins and etiologic aspects of pemphigus as weel as the clinical, histologic features. The aim of this paper is to review classification of pemphigus.

  11. Comparison of gunshot entrance morphologies caused by .40-caliber Smith & Wesson, .380-caliber, and 9-mm Luger bullets: a finite element analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ivo Matoso

    Full Text Available Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by.40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W, .380-caliber, and 9×19-mm Luger bullets. A fully metal-jacketed.40 S&W projectile, a fully metal-jacketed.380 projectile, and a fully metal-jacketed 9×19-mm Luger projectile were computationally fired at the glabellar region of the finite element model from a distance of 10 cm, at perpendicular incidence. The results show different morphologies in the entrance holes produced by the three bullets, using the same skull at the same shot distance. The results and traits of the entrance holes are discussed. Finite element models allow feasible computational ballistic research, which may be useful to forensic experts when comparing and analyzing data related to gunshot wounds in the forehead.

  12. Comparison of gunshot entrance morphologies caused by .40-caliber Smith & Wesson, .380-caliber, and 9-mm Luger bullets: a finite element analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoso, Rodrigo Ivo; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Santos, Leonardo Soriano de Mello; Daruge Junior, Eduardo; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua

    2014-01-01

    Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by.40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W), .380-caliber, and 9×19-mm Luger bullets. A fully metal-jacketed.40 S&W projectile, a fully metal-jacketed.380 projectile, and a fully metal-jacketed 9×19-mm Luger projectile were computationally fired at the glabellar region of the finite element model from a distance of 10 cm, at perpendicular incidence. The results show different morphologies in the entrance holes produced by the three bullets, using the same skull at the same shot distance. The results and traits of the entrance holes are discussed. Finite element models allow feasible computational ballistic research, which may be useful to forensic experts when comparing and analyzing data related to gunshot wounds in the forehead.

  13. A comprehensive classification system for lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Brown, H.A.; Glass, C.K.; Merrill, A.H.; Murphy, R.C.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Russell, D.W.; Seyama, Y.; Shaw, W.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.; VanNieuwenhze, M.S.; White, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, “lipidomics,” in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of l...

  14. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  15. [Bullet injury of the bladder. In the novel "La Regenta" by Leopoldo Alas "Clarín"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña Pérez, L A

    2000-01-01

    Some great literature works show medical pictures of high historical value. In "La Regenta", by Leopoldo Alas Clarín (1852-1901), considered the best XIX-century Spanish novel and one of the most important of the whole Spanish literature, there is a faithful account of a bullet wound of the bladder: the possibility of making the diagnosis, the complications and inevitable poor prognosis are depicted, since in the story the wound is followed by peritonitis and death of the wounded character, with the attending doctors rejecting a transfer to the hospital or a surgical intervention. This episode reminds us of an important chapter in the History of Surgery and Urology: the diagnosis of trauma wounds of the urinary tract, based over a long time on the data provided by urethral catheterisation; and the treatment of penetrating abdominal wounds in general, a matter of discussion between partisans and detractors of surgical exploration, that had a high mortality until well into the XX-century, when modern means of vital support, anaesthesia and antiseptics were on hand.

  16. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  17. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  18. Recursive heuristic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  19. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  20. Classification of Flotation Frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzymala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme of flotation frothers classification is presented. The scheme first indicates the physical system in which a frother is present and four of them i.e., pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas system and aqueous solution/gas/solid system are distinguished. As a result, there are numerous classifications of flotation frothers. The classifications can be organized into a scheme described in detail in this paper. The frother can be present in one of four physical systems, that is pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas and aqueous solution/gas/solid system. It results from the paper that a meaningful classification of frothers relies on choosing the physical system and next feature, trend, parameter or parameters according to which the classification is performed. The proposed classification can play a useful role in characterizing and evaluation of flotation frothers.

  1. New classification efforts in epilepsy: Opportunities for clinical neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T

    2016-11-01

    Classification is truly a scientific endeavor. In recent years, the use of the term in clinical epilepsy has diverged from the purpose of the intellectual process of classification in the sciences. As genetics and molecular biology come into their own, scientific classification may finally come to epilepsy and begin to shed light on the many aspects of brain disorders that are characterized by seizures but which are truly multifaceted disorders and deserve more comprehensive, multidisciplinary approaches than they have received previously. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The new approach to classification: Rethinking cognition and behavior in epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  3. [Classification of tangential (thoracoabdominal) gunshot wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakhov, Z A

    2010-01-01

    79 patients with gunshot bullet wounds of thorax and abdomen were observed. Thoracoabdominal wounds were observed in 37 cases, abdominothoracic wounds - in 35 cases. 7 cases of longitudinal non-penetrating thoracic and abdominal wounds were particularly investigated. The wound canal started in soft tissues of anterior thoracic wall and passed through the thick layers of anterior abdominal wall to the perineum. Lateral blow due to high kinetic energy of bullets caused severe damage of the ribs, lungs and abdominal organs without diaphragm lesions.

  4. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Jeanray

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  5. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanray, Nathalie; Marée, Raphaël; Pruvot, Benoist; Stern, Olivier; Geurts, Pierre; Wehenkel, Louis; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  6. On moving targets and magic bullets: Can the UK lead the way with responsible data linkage for health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, G; Ainsworth, J; Cunningham, J; Dobbs, C; Jones, K H; Kalra, D; Lea, N C; Sethi, N

    2015-11-01

    To provide an overview of essential elements of good governance of data linkage for health-related research, to consider lessons learned so far and to examine key factors currently impeding the delivery of good governance in this area. Given the considerable hurdles which must be overcome and the changing landscape of health research and data linkage, a principled, proportionate, risk-based approach to governance is advocated. In light of the considerable value of data linkage to health and well-being, the United Kingdom aspires to design and deliver good governance in health-related research. A string of projects have been asking: what does good governance look like in data linkage for health research? It is argued here that considerable progress can and must be made in order to develop the UK's contribution to future health and wealth economies, particularly in light of mis-start initiatives such as care.data in NHS England. Discussion centres around lessons learned from previous successful health research initiatives, identifying those governance mechanisms which are essential to achieving good governance. This article suggests that a crucial element in any step-increase of research capability will be the adoption of adaptive governance models. These must recognise a range of approaches to delivering safe and effective data linkage, while remaining responsive to public and research user expectations and needs as these shift and change with time and experience. The targets are multiple and constantly moving. There is not--nor should we seek--a single magic bullet in delivering good governance in health research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  8. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  9. Linear Classification Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Jerry D.

    Linear classification functions (LCFs) arise in a predictive discriminant analysis for the purpose of classifying experimental units into criterion groups. The relative contribution of the response variables to classification accuracy may be based on LCF-variable correlations for each group. It is proved that, if the raw response measures are…

  10. Classification, confusion and misclassification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classifications change and in that process, we can see that someone or some group has recognise that a previous classification hindered understanding or moulded ... to a pathologist's ability to distinguish, had led to confusion and mismanagement by gynaecologists. What is worrying if not the word. 'complex'? But this is ...

  11. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  12. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  13. Colombia: Territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Morales, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the approaches of territorial classification, thematic axes, handling principles and territorial occupation, politician and administrative units and administration regions among other topics. Understanding as Territorial Classification the space distribution on the territory of the country, of the geographical configurations, the human communities, the political-administrative units and the uses of the soil, urban and rural, existent and proposed

  14. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet’s trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right c...

  15. DOE LLW classification rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems

  16. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa

  17. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    . In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...

  18. [Endoscopic classification of colon and rectal neoplasias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Vojtěchová, Gabriela; Suchánek, Stěpán

    2014-01-01

    Along with the dynamic evolution of the new field of digestive endoscopy, the need of unified and unambiguous terms for endoscopic findings arose in the second half of the 20th century. In collaboration with the OMED members, professor Zdeněk Mařatka drew up the first internationally acknowledged terminology for digestive endoscopy which was used in the full range for a period of almost 20 years. The technical progress later brought with it endoscopes which made it possible to view flat lesions, frequently overlooked until then. The classification of the surface lesions was further specified by the Paris Classification which drew from the experience of Japanese endoscopists. Thanks to the new endoscopic methods of imaging mucosa in vivo and the pit-pattern and vascular-pattern classification, we can currently estimate the biological nature of lesion with great accuracy and therefore choose the best therapeutic procedure.

  19. DTI measurements for Alzheimer’s classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggipinto, Tommaso; Bellotti, Roberto; Amoroso, Nicola; Diacono, Domenico; Donvito, Giacinto; Lella, Eufemia; Monaco, Alfonso; Antonella Scelsi, Marzia; Tangaro, Sabina; Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, Alzheimer's.

    2017-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising imaging technique that provides insight into white matter microstructure integrity and it has greatly helped identifying white matter regions affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in its early stages. DTI can therefore be a valuable source of information when designing machine-learning strategies to discriminate between healthy control (HC) subjects, AD patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nonetheless, several studies have reported so far conflicting results, especially because of the adoption of biased feature selection strategies. In this paper we firstly analyzed DTI scans of 150 subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) database. We measured a significant effect of the feature selection bias on the classification performance (p-value  content provided by DTI measurements for AD classification. Classification performances and biological insight, concerning brain regions related to the disease, provided by cross-validation analysis were both confirmed on the independent test.

  20. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  1. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were......%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification...

  2. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic...

  3. Linking the biological underpinnings of depression: Role of mitochondria interactions with melatonin, inflammation, sirtuins, tryptophan catabolites, DNA repair and oxidative and nitrosative stress, with consequences for classification and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George

    2018-01-03

    The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences. Consequently, conceptualizations of MDD have dramatically moved from simple psychological and central biochemical models, such as lowered brain serotonin, to a conceptualization that incorporates whole body processes over a lifespan developmental timescale. However, important hubs are proposed, including the gut-brain axis, and mitochondrial functioning, which may provide achievable common treatment targets despite considerable inter-individual variability in biochemical changes. This provides a more realistic model of the complexity of MDD and the pathophysiological processes that underpin the shift to rMDD and consequent cognitive deficits. Such accumulating data on the pathophysiological processes underpinning MDD highlights the need in psychiatry to shift to a classification system that is based on biochemical processes, rather than subjective phenomenology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Suicidal single gunshot injury to the head: differences in site of entrance wound and direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed--an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Zivković, Vladimir; Babić, Dragan; Juković, Fehim

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the anatomical site of a gunshot entrance wound and the direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed subjects who committed a suicide by a single gunshot injury to the head. The retrospective autopsy study was performed for a 10-year period, and it included selected cases of single suicidal gunshot head injury, committed by handguns. We considered only contact or near-contact wounds. The sample included 479 deceased, with average age 47.1 ± 19.1 years (range, 12-89 years): 432 males and 47 females, with 317 right-handed, 25 left-handed, and 137 subjects with unknown dominant hand. In our observed sample, most cases involved the right temple as the site of entrance gunshot wound (about 67%), followed by the mouth (16%), forehead (7%), left temple (6%), submental (2%), and parietal region (1%). The left temple, right temple, and forehead were the sites of the gunshot entrance wounds, which were the best predictors of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.149, P = 0.006). Our study showed that the direction of the bullet intracranial path in cases of suicide was even a more potent predictor of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.263, P = 0.000; Wald = 149.503, P = 0.000).

  5. Facile green fabrication of nanostructure ZnO plates, bullets, flower, prismatic tip, closed pine cone: Their antibacterial, antioxidant, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, H R; Sharma, S C; Udayabhanu; Suresh, D; Vidya, Y S; Nagabhushana, H; Rajanaik, H; Anantharaju, K S; Prashantha, S C; Sadananda Maiya, P

    2016-01-05

    Green synthesis of multifunctional Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with a variety of morphologies were achieved by low temperature solution combustion route employing neem (Azadirachta indica) extract as fuel. The nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, FTIR, XPS, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopic studies. The Morphologies were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The NPs were subjected for photoluminescence, photocatalytic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity studies. PXRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the product. SEM images indicated the transformation of mushroom like hexagonal disks to bullets, buds, cones, bundles and closed pine cone structured NPs with increase in the concentration of neem extract in reaction mixture. The NPs exhibited prominent green emission due to the presence of intrinsic defect centers. The as-formed bullet shaped ZnO with 4ml of neem extract was found to decolorize Methylene blue (MB) under Sunlight and UV light irradiation. The antibacterial studies indicated that ZnO NPs of concentration 500, 750 and 1000μg resulted in significant antibacterial activity on Klebsiella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion method. Further, ZnO NPs exhibited significant antioxidant activity against scavenging DPPH free radicals. The current investigation demonstrated green engineering method for the synthesis of multifunctional ZnO NPs with interesting morphologies using neem extract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  8. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  10. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  11. Multilingual News Article Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Skjennum, Patrick L

    2016-01-01

    News is an ever-growing and global resource, reliant on robust distribution networks to spread information. This thesis investigates how exploiting semantic, contextual and ontological information may form a basis for a language independent news article classification system. In light of the above, a scalable multi-label news article classification system, based exclusively on extracted DBpedia entities, and a predetermined standardized set of fixed-size IPTC Media Topic categories, is p...

  12. Pathological classification of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, B

    2012-04-01

    The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status").

  13. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  14. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  15. Clinical classification of syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Syncope is a presenting symptom, and in itself is not a diagnosis. An etiology or a mechanism must be sought in all cases. Currently, most clinicians classify syncope on clinical grounds by attempting to ascertain its etiology. They then use this classification to guide further management. Using this approach, reflex syncope is the most common form of syncope, occurring in approximately 60% of syncope presentations. Orthostatic hypotension presents in around 15% with arrhythmic syncope in 10% and structural heart disease as the cause of syncope in 5%; in 10% of patients no diagnosis is made. An alternative classification system uses the mechanism of syncope derived from an implanted ECG loop recorder (ILR). While this approach may be of value for optimizing therapy, it cannot be considered as the primary classification since ILRs are not typically implanted early in the evaluation process of most patients. ILRs are usually placed after "risk stratification" in those deemed not to be at high risk but remain in the uncertain etiology category. Furthermore, there exists, in current ILR technology, lack of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring capability. Thus, vasodilation leading to hypotension, the main trigger of cerebral hypoperfusion other than bradycardia, cannot be detected and is currently unavailable for use in a mechanistic-based classification. Thus, the etiological classification remains the basis for both risk stratification and subsequent clinical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ovarian Cancer Classification based on Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Wu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study [1], we have compared the performance of a number of widely used discrimination methods for classifying ovarian cancer using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry data on serum samples obtained from Reflectron mode. Our results demonstrate good performance with a random forest classifier. In this follow-up study, to improve the molecular classification power of the MALDI platform for ovarian cancer disease, we expanded the mass range of the MS data by adding data acquired in Linear mode and evaluated the resultant decrease in classification error. A general statistical framework is proposed to obtain unbiased classification error estimates and to analyze the effects of sample size and number of selected m/z features on classification errors. We also emphasize the importance of combining biological knowledge and statistical analysis to obtain both biologically and statistically sound results. Our study shows improvement in classification accuracy upon expanding the mass range of the analysis. In order to obtain the best classification accuracies possible, we found that a relatively large training sample size is needed to obviate the sample variations. For the ovarian MS dataset that is the focus of the current study, our results show that approximately 20-40 m/z features are needed to achieve the best classification accuracy from MALDI-MS analysis of sera. Supplementary information can be found at http://bioinformatics.med.yale.edu/proteomics/BioSupp2.html.

  17. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  18. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification was originally based on computed tomographic (CT) findings. Magnetic resonance (MR) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging may demonstrate findings that are not depicted at CT, and there may not always be a clear correlation between the findings...... at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...

  19. Medical imbalanced data classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Belarouci

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, the imbalanced dataset is a problem often found in health applications. In medical data classification, we often face the imbalanced number of data samples where at least one of the classes constitutes only a very small minority of the data. In the same time, it represent a difficult problem in most of machine learning algorithms. There have been many works dealing with classification of imbalanced dataset. In this paper, we proposed a learning method based on a cost sensitive extension of Least Mean Square (LMS algorithm that penalizes errors of different samples with different weights and some rules of thumb to determine those weights. After the balancing phase, we apply the different techniques (Support Vector Machine [SVM], K- Nearest Neighbor [K-NN] and Multilayer perceptron [MLP] for the balanced datasets. We have also compared the obtained results before and after balancing method. We have obtained best results compared to literature with a classification accuracy of 100%.

  20. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... of descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  1. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  2. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  3. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  4. Impact analysis of side door of a car and bullet proof vest with material ‘SAM2X5-630’ using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhode, Trushant; Patil, Girish; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The components which are bound to impact are subjected to deformation even though it may be for a small scale. The efforts are always on for finding the best material to take impact that has no failure or moreover, less plastic deformation. A newly found material which is glass matrix steel named as ‘SAM2X5-630’ has astounding high elastic limit of 12.5GPa. Thus it can take powerful impact & regain its original shape avoiding the deformation of component under impact. The paper is focused on performing the Finite element analysis to assess the behaviour of ‘SAM2X5-630’ steel under impact loading of side door of car as well as impact of bullet on bulletproof jacket on which the material is assigned. The displacement or deformation occurred during impact is found to be lesser than known materials like Kevlar in bulletproof vest and Aluminium alloy in car door.

  5. [The role of the comprehensive approach for the characteristic of the destructive effect of a non-lethal cartridge with two rubber bullets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stragis, V B; Makarov, I Yu; Karelin, V V; Shevchuk, D Yu; Chechenin, E S

    This article was designed to report the results of forensic medical, criminalistics, and comprehensive expertise of the subject who suffered from a non-perforating shotgun wound affecting the soft tissues and blood vessels in the femoral region. It was shown that only the scrutinous comprehensive full-scale expert examination of the injured site in the framework of forensic medical expertise makes it possible to exclude the probability of the expert error and formulate the reliable and substantiated conclusion as regards the fact and the conditions of the shotgun injury by a concrete type of the cartridge (e.g. having a caliber equal to 410/76 Stopper-2) with two spherical rubber bullets fired from a known weapon (Saiga-410S hunting carbine).

  6. [Biology molecular of glioblastomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Hernández, C; Martínez-Glez, V; Rey, J A

    2007-10-01

    Glioblastomas, the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anapalsic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). The molecular alteration most frequent in these tumor-like types is the loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10, in which several genes have been identified as tumors suppressor. The TP53/MDM2/P14arf and CDK4/RB1/ P16ink4 genetic pathways involved in cycle control are deregulated in the majority of gliomas as well as genes that promote the cellular division, EGFR. Finally the increase of growth and angiogenics factors is also involved in the development of glioblastomas. One of the objectives of molecular biology in tumors of glial ancestry is to try to find the genetic alterations that allow to approach better the classification of glioblastomas, its evolution prediction and treatment. The new pathmolecular classification of gliomas should improve the old one, especially being concerned about the oncogenesis and heterogeneity of these tumors. It is desirable that this classification had clinical applicability and integrates new molecular findings with some known histological features with pronostic value. In this paper we review the most frequent molecular mechanisms involved in the patogenesis of glioblastomas.

  7. Rate constants and temperature effects for reactions of Cl2sm-bullet- with unsaturated alcohols and hydrocarbons in aqueous and acetonitrile/water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, S.; Neta, P.; Huie, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for reactions of the dichlorine radical anion, Cl 2 sm-bullet- , with unsaturated alcohols and hydrocarbons have been measured at various temperatures. The alcohol reactions were measured in aqueous solutions and the hydrocarbon reactions in 1:1 aqueous acetonitirle (ACN) solutions. The rate constants for two alcohols and one hydrocarbon were also examined as a function of solvent composition. The room temperature rate constants varied between 10 6 and 10 9 M -1 s -1 . The pre-exponential factors, A, were about (1-5) x 10 9 M -1 s -1 for the alcohols in aqueous solutions and about (0.1-1) x 10 9 M -1 s -1 for the hydrocarbons in aqueous ACN solutions. The activation energies, E a , varied considerably, between 4 and 12 kJ mol -1 for the alcohols and between 2 and 8 kJ mol -1 for the hydrocarbons. The rate constants, k 298 , decrease with increasing ionization potential (IP) of the unsaturated compound, in agreement with an electrophilic addition mechanism. The activation energies for the unsaturated alcohols decrease when the IP decreases from 9.7 to 9.1 eV but appear to level off at lower IP. Most alkenes studied had IP a . Upon addition of ACN to the aqueous solution, the values of log k 298 decreased linearly by more than 1 order of magnitude with increasing ACN mole fraction. This decrease appears to result from a combination of changes in the activation energy and in the pre-exponential factor. The reason for these changes may lie in changes in the solvation shell of the Cl 2 sm-bullet- radical, which will affect the A factor, in combination with changes in solvation of Cl - , which will affect the energetics of the reactions as well. 20 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Extended Abstracts from BioGeo99: Applications of Geospatial Technology to Biological Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    ... of Global Positioning System (GPS), aquatic and terrestrial telemetry, national classification systems, remote sensing, metadata, and other geospatial technologies used in biological science applications...

  9. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW

  10. Shark Teeth Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  11. Classification system: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Although people have always classified soils, it is only since the mid 19th century that soil classification emerged as an important topic within soil science. It forced soil scientists to think systematically about soils and its genesis and developed to facilitate communication between soil

  12. Text document classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana

    č. 62 (2005), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR KSK1019101; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : document representation * categorization * classification Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  13. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four

  14. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  15. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...

  16. Faculty Assignment Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatcom Community Coll., Ferndale, WA.

    This document outlines the point-based faculty assignment classification system in effect at Whatcom Community College (Washington). The purpose of the point system is to provide an equitable and flexible means of compensating faculty members based on a system of assigning quantitative values to tasks. Teaching, which includes classroom…

  17. Steel column base classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspart, J.P.; Wald, F.; Weynand, K.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the rotational characteristics of the column bases on the structural frame response is discussed and specific design criteria for stiffness classification into semi-rigid and rigid joints are derived. The particular case of an industrial portal frame is then considered. Peer reviewed

  18. Principles for ecological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis H. Grossman; Patrick Bourgeron; Wolf-Dieter N. Busch; David T. Cleland; William Platts; G. Ray; C. Robins; Gary Roloff

    1999-01-01

    The principal purpose of any classification is to relate common properties among different entities to facilitate understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes. In the context of this volume, it is to facilitate ecosystem stewardship, i.e., to help support ecosystem conservation and management objectives.

  19. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  20. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...

  1. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne S; Karstoft, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification is a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of cystic changes in the kidney. The process of categorizing renal cysts may be challenging, involving a series of decisions that may affect the final diagnosis and clinical outcome such as surgical management. PU...

  2. An automated cirrus classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Sourdeval, Odran; Goren, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in determining the radiation budget of the earth, but our understanding of the lifecycle and controls on cirrus clouds remains incomplete. Cirrus clouds can have very different properties and development depending on their environment, particularly during their formation. However, the relevant factors often cannot be distinguished using commonly retrieved satellite data products (such as cloud optical depth). In particular, the initial cloud phase has been identified as an important factor in cloud development, but although back-trajectory based methods can provide information on the initial cloud phase, they are computationally expensive and depend on the cloud parametrisations used in re-analysis products. In this work, a classification system (Identification and Classification of Cirrus, IC-CIR) is introduced. Using re-analysis and satellite data, cirrus clouds are separated in four main types: frontal, convective, orographic and in-situ. The properties of these classes show that this classification is able to provide useful information on the properties and initial phase of cirrus clouds, information that could not be provided by instantaneous satellite retrieved cloud properties alone. This classification is designed to be easily implemented in global climate models, helping to improve future comparisons between observations and models and reducing the uncertainty in cirrus clouds properties, leading to improved cloud parametrisations.

  3. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  4. NEW CLASSIFICATION OF ECOPOLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOROBYOV V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Ecopolices are the newest stage of the urban planning. They have to be consideredsuchas material and energy informational structures, included to the dynamic-evolutionary matrix netsofex change processes in the ecosystems. However, there are not made the ecopolice classifications, developing on suchapproaches basis. And this determined the topicality of the article. Analysis of publications on theoretical and applied aspects of the ecopolices formation showed, that the work on them is managed mainly in the context of the latest scientific and technological achievements in the various knowledge fields. These settlements are technocratic. They are connected with the morphology of space, network structures of regional and local natural ecosystems, without independent stability, can not exist without continuous man support. Another words, they do not work in with an ecopolices idea. It is come to a head for objective, symbiotic searching of ecopolices concept with the development of their classifications. Purpose statement is to develop the objective evidence for ecopolices and to propose their new classification. Conclusion. On the base of the ecopolices classification have to lie an elements correlation idea of their general plans and men activity type according with natural mechanism of accepting, reworking and transmission of material, energy and information between geo-ecosystems, planet, man, ecopolices material part and Cosmos. New ecopolices classification should be based on the principles of multi-dimensional, time-spaced symbiotic clarity with exchange ecosystem networks. The ecopolice function with this approach comes not from the subjective anthropocentric economy but from the holistic objective of Genesis paradigm. Or, otherwise - not from the Consequence, but from the Cause.

  5. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... industry and ICE, AMS proposes to offer a futures classification option whereby cotton bales may be... contract month. It is anticipated that AMS would make the futures classification option available December... Sec. 121.201). Establishing the registration option for cotton futures classification will not...

  6. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option... parameters established by that exchange. AMS anticipates that the futures classification option will be... competition in the marketplace; (5) The futures classification option is expected to streamline marketing and...

  7. An Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, James C.; McKinley, Donna L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the value of diagnostic classification systems to counseling professionals. Describes the Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan, an approach to diagnosis that includes the environment as a possible cause of pathology and target of intervention. (Author/KS)

  8. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  9. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  10. Classification of Osteogenesis Imperfecta revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. S.; Pals, G.; van Rijn, R. R.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Cobben, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In 1979 Sillence proposed a classification of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) in OI types I, II, III and IV. In 2004 and 2007 this classification was expanded with OI types V-VIII because of distinct clinical features and/or different causative gene mutations. We propose a revised classification of OI

  11. IAEA Classification of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of uranium deposits follow two general approaches, focusing on: • descriptive features such as the geotectonic position, the host rock type, the orebody morphology, …… : « geologic classification »; • or on genetic aspects: « genetic classification »

  12. A comprehensive classification system for lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Brown, H Alex; Glass, Christopher K; Merrill, Alfred H; Murphy, Robert C; Raetz, Christian R H; Russell, David W; Seyama, Yousuke; Shaw, Walter; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; White, Stephen H; Witztum, Joseph L; Dennis, Edward A

    2005-05-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, "lipidomics," in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of lipids with a common platform that is compatible with informatics requirements has been developed to deal with the massive amounts of data that will be generated by our lipid community. As an initial step in this development, we divide lipids into eight categories (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides) containing distinct classes and subclasses of molecules, devise a common manner of representing the chemical structures of individual lipids and their derivatives, and provide a 12 digit identifier for each unique lipid molecule. The lipid classification scheme is chemically based and driven by the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements that compose the lipid. This structured vocabulary will facilitate the systematization of lipid biology and enable the cataloging of lipids and their properties in a way that is compatible with other macromolecular databases.

  13. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  14. BIRADS classification in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleyguier, Corinne; Ayadi, Salma; Van Nguyen, Kim; Vanel, Daniel; Dromain, Clarisse; Sigal, Robert

    2007-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BIRADS) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) is today largely used in most of the countries where breast cancer screening is implemented. It is a tool defined to reduce variability between radiologists when creating the reports in mammography, ultrasonography or MRI. Some changes in the last version of the BIRADStrade mark have been included to reduce the inaccuracy of some categories, especially for category 4. The BIRADStrade mark includes a lexicon and descriptive diagrams of the anomalies, recommendations for the mammographic report as well as councils and examples of mammographic cases. This review describes the mammographic items of the BIRADS classification with its more recent developments, while detailing the advantages and limits of this classification.

  15. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  16. [Headache: classification and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaat, P A T; Couturier, E G M

    2016-11-01

    There are many types of headache and, moreover, many people have different types of headache at the same time. Adequate treatment is possible only on the basis of the correct diagnosis. Technically and in terms of content the current diagnostics process for headache is based on the 'International Classification of Headache Disorders' (ICHD-3-beta) that was produced under the auspices of the International Headache Society. This classification is based on a distinction between primary and secondary headaches. The most common primary headache types are the tension type headache, migraine and the cluster headache. Application of uniform diagnostic concepts is essential to come to the most appropriate treatment of the various types of headache.

  17. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-01-01

    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  19. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  20. Classification Constrained Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Raich, Raviv; Costa, Jose A.; Damelin, Steven B.; Hero III, Alfred O.

    2008-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is a topic of recent interest. In this paper, we present the classification constrained dimensionality reduction (CCDR) algorithm to account for label information. The algorithm can account for multiple classes as well as the semi-supervised setting. We present an out-of-sample expressions for both labeled and unlabeled data. For unlabeled data, we introduce a method of embedding a new point as preprocessing to a classifier. For labeled data, we introduce a method tha...

  1. Classification of nanopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larena, A; Tur, A [Department of Chemical Industrial Engineering and Environment, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain); Baranauskas, V [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, 13 083-852 Campinas SP Brasil (Brazil)], E-mail: alarena@etsii.upm.es

    2008-03-15

    Nanopolymers with different structures, shapes, and functional forms have recently been prepared using several techniques. Nanopolymers are the most promising basic building blocks for mounting complex and simple hierarchical nanosystems. The applications of nanopolymers are extremely broad and polymer-based nanotechnologies are fast emerging. We propose a nanopolymer classification scheme based on self-assembled structures, non self-assembled structures, and on the number of dimensions in the nanometer range (nD)

  2. Decimal Classification Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study approaches the evolution of Dewey Decimal Classification editions from the perspective of updating the terminology, reallocating and expanding the main and auxilary structure of Dewey indexing language. The comparative analysis of DDC editions emphasizes the efficiency of Dewey scheme from the point of view of improving the informational offer, through basic index terms, revised and developed, as well as valuing the auxilary notations.

  3. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  4. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  5. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  6. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  7. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural......A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...

  8. New international classification of functioning, disability and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stucki Gerold

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF provides a coherent view of health from a biological, individual and social perspective. This view may be defined both as multi- and interdisciplinary management of one’s functioning and health. This new classification is currently being assessed in multiple centers in 32 countries, on 12 health conditions. The Institute of Hygiene and Medical Ecology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, is one of them, serving as the centre where the classification is being tested in obese population. The objective of this paper is to provide information needed for further development and practical application of this classification in various health conditions. The new language of ICF is an exciting landmark event for preventive medicine and rehabilitation. It may lead to a stronger position of rehabilitation within the medical community, change multiprofessional communication and improve communication between patients and health professionals. .

  9. Automatic Classification Using Supervised Learning in a Medical Document Filtering Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, J.; Lam, W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a multilevel model of the information filtering process that permits document classification. Evaluates a document classification approach based on a supervised learning algorithm, measures the accuracy of the algorithm in a neural network that was trained to classify medical documents on cell biology, and discusses filtering…

  10. Automatic workflow for the classification of local DNA conformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, P.; Kukal, J.; Černý, Jiří; Schneider, Bohdan; Svozil, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 205 (2013) ISSN 1471-2105 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/1801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : DNA * Dinucleotide conformation * Classification * Machine learning * Neural network * k-NN * Cluster analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.672, year: 2013

  11. 10 CFR 1045.15 - Classification and declassification presumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental physics, engineering, materials science, biology and medicine; (2) Magnetic confinement fusion... Section 1045.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND... before applying the criteria in § 1045.16. (b) Not all areas of nuclear-related information are covered...

  12. Classification of mitocans, anti-cancer drugs acting on mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Dong, L. F.; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Ralph, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 199-208 ISSN 1567-7249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitocans * Anti-cancer therapeutics * Classification Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.524, year: 2013

  13. Classification of mitocans, anti-cancer drugs acting on mitochondria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Dong, L. F.; Rohlena, Jakub; Truksa, Jaroslav; Ralph, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 199-208 ISSN 1567-7249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mitocans * Anti-cancer therapeutics * Classification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.524, year: 2013

  14. Systema naturae or the outline of living world classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shipunov, Alexey

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the short outline of the classification of living things (to the level of classes), given with two main goals: to provide a compact, synthetic overview of the biological diversity; and to supply users with up-todate information of latest taxonomic achievements. The latter is especially important in the recent epoch of molecular revolution in the taxonomy.

  15. Deep learning for tumor classification in imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Jens; Etmann, Christian; Boskamp, Tobias; Casadonte, Rita; Kriegsmann, Jörg; Maaß, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Tumor classification using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) data has a high potential for future applications in pathology. Due to the complexity and size of the data, automated feature extraction and classification steps are required to fully process the data. Since mass spectra exhibit certain structural similarities to image data, deep learning may offer a promising strategy for classification of IMS data as it has been successfully applied to image classification. Methodologically, we propose an adapted architecture based on deep convolutional networks to handle the characteristics of mass spectrometry data, as well as a strategy to interpret the learned model in the spectral domain based on a sensitivity analysis. The proposed methods are evaluated on two algorithmically challenging tumor classification tasks and compared to a baseline approach. Competitiveness of the proposed methods is shown on both tasks by studying the performance via cross-validation. Moreover, the learned models are analyzed by the proposed sensitivity analysis revealing biologically plausible effects as well as confounding factors of the considered tasks. Thus, this study may serve as a starting point for further development of deep learning approaches in IMS classification tasks. https://gitlab.informatik.uni-bremen.de/digipath/Deep_Learning_for_Tumor_Classification_in_IMS. jbehrmann@uni-bremen.de or christianetmann@uni-bremen.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  17. 14 CFR 1203.412 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 1203.412 Section... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.412 Classification guides. (a) General. A classification guide, based upon classification determinations made by appropriate program and classification...

  18. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  19. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  20. Using the biological literature a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionSearching the Biological LiteratureGeneral SourcesAssociationsBibliographiesClassification, Nomenclature, and SystematicsDictionaries and EncyclopediasDirectoriesField GuidesSeriesFull-Text SourcesGeneral WorksGuides for young ScientistsGuides to the LiteratureHandbooksHistoriesMathematics and StatisticsMethods and TechniquesTextbooks and TreatisesWriting GuidesPeriodicalsReviews of the LiteratureAbstracts and IndexesBiochemistry and BiophysicsMolecular and Cellular BiologyGenetics, Biotechnology, and Developmental BiologyMicrobiology and ImmunologyEcology, Evolution, and Animal BehaviorPlant BiologyAnatomy and PhysiologyEntomologyZoologyIndex.

  1. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  3. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition...... to segment breast tissue and pectoral muscle area from the background in mammogram. The second focus is the choices of metric and its influence to the feasibility of a classifier, especially on k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm, with medical applications on breast cancer prediction and calcification...

  4. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    Monitoring a complex process often involves keeping an eye on hundreds or thousands of sensors to determine whether or not the process is under control. We have been working with dynamic data from an oil production facility in the North sea, where unstable situations should be identified as soon...... as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  5. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    " in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy......This paper explores the role of expertise, the nature of criticality, and their relationship to securitisation as mineral raw materials are classified. It works with the construction of risk along the liberal logic of security to explore how "key materials" are turned into "critical materials...

  6. A Unique Model Platform for C4 Plant Systems and Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    mediated transformation of Setaria viridis. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 was transformed by electroporation with pBI 121. Agrobacterium ... agrobacterium mediated transformation 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF...successful agrobacterium mediated transformation 15. SUBJECT TERMS synthetic biology, Systems Biology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  7. Pattern classification for incomplete data

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Bogdan

    2000-01-01

    The problem of pattern classification for inputs with missing values is considered. A general fuzzy min-max (GFMM) neural network utilising hyperbox fuzzy sets as a representation of data cluster prototypes is used. It is shown how a classification decisions can be carried out on a subspace of high dimensional input data. No substitution scheme for missing values is utilised. The result is a classification procedure that reduces a number of viable class alternatives on the basis of available ...

  8. Unsupervised Classification Using Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muallim, M. T.; El-Kouatly, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unsupervised classification algorithm based on clonal selection principle named Unsupervised Clonal Selection Classification (UCSC) is proposed in this paper. The new proposed algorithm is data driven and self-adaptive, it adjusts its parameters to the data to make the classification operation as fast as possible. The performance of UCSC is evaluated by comparing it with the well known K-means algorithm using several artificial and real-life data sets. The experiments show that the proposed U...

  9. Automated compound classification using a chemical ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobach Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of chemical compounds into compound classes by using structure derived descriptors is a well-established method to aid the evaluation and abstraction of compound properties in chemical compound databases. MeSH and recently ChEBI are examples of chemical ontologies that provide a hierarchical classification of compounds into general compound classes of biological interest based on their structural as well as property or use features. In these ontologies, compounds have been assigned manually to their respective classes. However, with the ever increasing possibilities to extract new compounds from text documents using name-to-structure tools and considering the large number of compounds deposited in databases, automated and comprehensive chemical classification methods are needed to avoid the error prone and time consuming manual classification of compounds. Results In the present work we implement principles and methods to construct a chemical ontology of classes that shall support the automated, high-quality compound classification in chemical databases or text documents. While SMARTS expressions have already been used to define chemical structure class concepts, in the present work we have extended the expressive power of such class definitions by expanding their structure-based reasoning logic. Thus, to achieve the required precision and granularity of chemical class definitions, sets of SMARTS class definitions are connected by OR and NOT logical operators. In addition, AND logic has been implemented to allow the concomitant use of flexible atom lists and stereochemistry definitions. The resulting chemical ontology is a multi-hierarchical taxonomy of concept nodes connected by directed, transitive relationships. Conclusions A proposal for a rule based definition of chemical classes has been made that allows to define chemical compound classes more precisely than before. The proposed structure-based reasoning

  10. Automated compound classification using a chemical ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobach, Claudia; Böhme, Timo; Laube, Ulf; Püschel, Anett; Weber, Lutz

    2012-12-29

    Classification of chemical compounds into compound classes by using structure derived descriptors is a well-established method to aid the evaluation and abstraction of compound properties in chemical compound databases. MeSH and recently ChEBI are examples of chemical ontologies that provide a hierarchical classification of compounds into general compound classes of biological interest based on their structural as well as property or use features. In these ontologies, compounds have been assigned manually to their respective classes. However, with the ever increasing possibilities to extract new compounds from text documents using name-to-structure tools and considering the large number of compounds deposited in databases, automated and comprehensive chemical classification methods are needed to avoid the error prone and time consuming manual classification of compounds. In the present work we implement principles and methods to construct a chemical ontology of classes that shall support the automated, high-quality compound classification in chemical databases or text documents. While SMARTS expressions have already been used to define chemical structure class concepts, in the present work we have extended the expressive power of such class definitions by expanding their structure-based reasoning logic. Thus, to achieve the required precision and granularity of chemical class definitions, sets of SMARTS class definitions are connected by OR and NOT logical operators. In addition, AND logic has been implemented to allow the concomitant use of flexible atom lists and stereochemistry definitions. The resulting chemical ontology is a multi-hierarchical taxonomy of concept nodes connected by directed, transitive relationships. A proposal for a rule based definition of chemical classes has been made that allows to define chemical compound classes more precisely than before. The proposed structure-based reasoning logic allows to translate chemistry expert knowledge into a

  11. SYNERGETICS FRAMEWORK FOR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new classification technique for hyperspectral data based on synergetics theory is presented. Synergetics – originally introduced by the physicist H. Haken – is an interdisciplinary theory to find general rules for pattern formation through selforganization and has been successfully applied in fields ranging from biology to ecology, chemistry, cosmology, and thermodynamics up to sociology. Although this theory describes general rules for pattern formation it was linked also to pattern recognition. Pattern recognition algorithms based on synergetics theory have been applied to images in the spatial domain with limited success in the past, given their dependence on the rotation, shifting, and scaling of the images. These drawbacks can be discarded if such methods are applied to data acquired by a hyperspectral sensor in the spectral domain, as each single spectrum, related to an image element in the hyperspectral scene, can be analysed independently. The classification scheme based on synergetics introduces also methods for spatial regularization to get rid of "salt and pepper" classification results and for iterative parameter tuning to optimize class weights. The paper reports an experiment on a benchmark data set frequently used for method comparisons. This data set consists of a hyperspectral scene acquired by the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory acquired over the Salinas Valley in CA, USA, with 15 vegetation classes. The results are compared to state-of-the-art methodologies like Support Vector Machines (SVM, Spectral Information Divergence (SID, Neural Networks, Logistic Regression, Factor Graphs or Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM. The outcomes are promising and often outperform state-of-the-art classification methodologies.

  12. [Definition, etiology, classification and presentation forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Garriga, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is defined as a degenerative process affecting the joints as a result of mechanical and biological disorders that destabilize the balance between the synthesis and degradation of joint cartilage, stimulating the growth of subchondral bone; chronic synovitis is also present. Currently, the joint is considered as a functional unit that includes distinct tissues, mainly cartilage, the synovial membrane, and subchondral bone, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Distinct risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis have been described: general, unmodifiable risk factors (age, sex, and genetic makeup), general, modifiable risk factors (obesity and hormonal factors) and local risk factors (prior joint anomalies and joint overload). Notable among the main factors related to disease progression are joint alignment defects and generalized osteoarthritis. Several classifications of osteoarthritis have been proposed but none is particularly important for the primary care management of the disease. These classifications include etiological (primary or idiopathic forms and secondary forms) and topographical (typical and atypical localizations) classifications, the Kellgren and Lawrence classification (radiological repercussions) and that of the American College of Rheumatology for osteoarthritis of the hand, hip and knee. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is 10.2% in Spain and shows a marked discrepancy between clinical and radiological findings. Hand osteoarthritis, with a prevalence of symptomatic involvement of around 6.2%, has several forms of presentation (nodal osteoarthritis, generalized osteoarthritis, rhizarthrosis, and erosive osteoarthritis). Symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hip affects between 3.5% and 5.6% of persons older than 50 years and has different radiological patterns depending on femoral head migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  14. Methods for data classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, George [Okemos, MI; Lilburn, Timothy G [Front Royal, VA

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  15. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  16. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, D.G.

    1963-02-01

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  17. a structural biology perspective TANWEER HUSSAIN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Structural biology of Molecular machines. Determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecular complexes. X-ray crystallography. Crystals. X-ray diffraction. Electron density. Model. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Image. Particle picking. 2D class averages. 3D classification. 3D autorefine ...

  18. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...

  19. Multispectral Image classification using the theories of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M.S.; Subki, M.I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Image classification is the one of the important part of digital image analysis. the objective of image classification is to identify and regroup the features occurring in an image into one or several classes in terms of the object. basic to the understanding of multispectral classification is the concept of the spectral response of an object as a function of the electromagnetic radiation and the wavelength of the spectrum. new approaches to classification has been developed to improve the result of analysis, these state-of-the-art classifiers are based upon the theories of neural networks. Neural network classifiers are algorithmes which mimic the computational abilities of the human brain. Artificial neurons are simple emulation's of biological neurons; they take in information from sensors or other artificial neurons, perform very simple operations on this data, and pass the result to other recognize the spectral signature of each image pixel. Neural network image classification has been divided into supervised and unsupervised training procedures. In the supervised approach, examples of each cover type can be located and the computer can compute spectral signatures to categorize all pixels in a digital image into several land cover classes. In supervised classification, spectral signatures are generated by mathematically grouping and it does not require analyst-specified training data. Thus, in the supervised approach we define useful information categories and then examine their spectral reparability; in the unsupervised approach the computer determines spectrally sapable classes and then we define thei information value

  20. Probing spermiogenesis: a digital strategy for mouse acrosome classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloni, Alessandro; Font-Clos, Francesc; Guidetti, Luca; Milan, Simone; Ascagni, Miriam; Vasco, Chiara; Pasini, Maria Enrica; Gioria, Maria Rosa; Ciusani, Emilio; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A M

    2017-06-16

    Classification of morphological features in biological samples is usually performed by a trained eye but the increasing amount of available digital images calls for semi-automatic classification techniques. Here we explore this possibility in the context of acrosome morphological analysis during spermiogenesis. Our method combines feature extraction from three dimensional reconstruction of confocal images with principal component analysis and machine learning. The method could be particularly useful in cases where the amount of data does not allow for a direct inspection by trained eye.

  1. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  2. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  3. Automatic diabetic retinopathy classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, María. A.; Arbeláez, Pablo A.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a disease in which the retina is damaged due to augmentation in the blood pressure of small vessels. DR is the major cause of blindness for diabetics. It has been shown that early diagnosis can play a major role in prevention of visual loss and blindness. This work proposes a computer based approach for the detection of DR in back-of-the-eye images based on the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our CNN uses deep architectures to classify Back-of-the-eye Retinal Photographs (BRP) in 5 stages of DR. Our method combines several preprocessing images of BRP to obtain an ACA score of 50.5%. Furthermore, we explore subproblems by training a larger CNN of our main classification task.

  4. Biomarker Selection and Classification of “-Omics” Data Using a Two-Step Bayes Classification Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunchai Assawamakin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of suitable biomarkers for accurate prediction of phenotypic outcomes is a goal for personalized medicine. However, current machine learning approaches are either too complex or perform poorly. Here, a novel two-step machine-learning framework is presented to address this need. First, a Naïve Bayes estimator is used to rank features from which the top-ranked will most likely contain the most informative features for prediction of the underlying biological classes. The top-ranked features are then used in a Hidden Naïve Bayes classifier to construct a classification prediction model from these filtered attributes. In order to obtain the minimum set of the most informative biomarkers, the bottom-ranked features are successively removed from the Naïve Bayes-filtered feature list one at a time, and the classification accuracy of the Hidden Naïve Bayes classifier is checked for each pruned feature set. The performance of the proposed two-step Bayes classification framework was tested on different types of -omics datasets including gene expression microarray, single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNParray, and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF proteomic data. The proposed two-step Bayes classification framework was equal to and, in some cases, outperformed other classification methods in terms of prediction accuracy, minimum number of classification markers, and computational time.

  5. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  6. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in ...

  7. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  8. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  9. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  10. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Confidential classification are the amount of high explosives used in nuclear weapons, gaseous diffusion design... Classification, jointly with the DoD, shall assign one of the classification levels in paragraph (a) of this.... The Director of Classification shall assign one of the following classification levels to RD...

  11. 49 CFR 8.17 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification challenges. 8.17 Section 8.17.../ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.17 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized... classification status is improper are encouraged and expected to challenge the classification status of the...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders, including authorized holders outside the classifying agency, who want to challenge the classification status of...

  13. 40 CFR 152.164 - Classification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.164 Classification... Agency normally will conduct classification reviews of all uses of a currently registered pesticide at... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification procedures. 152.164...

  14. 32 CFR 2400.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2400.15 Section 2400.15... Derivative Classification § 2400.15 Classification guides. (a) OSTP shall issue and maintain classification guides to facilitate the proper and uniform derivative classification of information. These guides shall...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides. (a) Preparation of classification guides. Originators of classification...

  16. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... classification, where appropriate. (f) Classification schedules shall not limit or extend the applicant's rights.... (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the international... international classification pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3). (b) Prior United States classification system. Section 6...

  17. Possibilistic approach to target classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter describes an alternative to the Bayesian approach to target classification that is based on possibility theory. A possibilistic classifier minimizes the maximum cost of the classification decision taking into account the a posteriori possibilities of the target classes given

  18. Forensic Classification of Digital Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov N. A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several classification schemes for digital information that could be used as sources of evidence in criminal proceedings are offered. In terms of application the proposed classification is very important for the development of forensic tools, means, methods, techniques for the detection, capture, inspection, seizure, investigation of digital information, as well as for the detection and investigation of crimes

  19. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  20. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information...... classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting, and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...... information and their ability to navigate the websites. The results of the study indicate group differences in user classification and related task-performance differences. The main implications of the study are that (a) the edit distance appears a useful measure in cross-country HCI research and practice...

  1. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  2. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  3. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of

  4. A microarray gene expressions with classification using extreme learning machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasodha M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present scenario, one of the dangerous disease is cancer. It spreads through blood or lymph to other location of the body, it is a set of cells display uncontrolled growth, attack and destroy nearby tissues, and occasionally metastasis. In cancer diagnosis and molecular biology, a utilized effective tool is DNA microarrays. The dominance of this technique is recognized, so several open doubt arise regarding proper examination of microarray data. In the field of medical sciences, multicategory cancer classification plays very important role. The need for cancer classification has become essential because the number of cancer sufferers is increasing. In this research work, to overcome problems of multicategory cancer classification an improved Extreme Learning Machine (ELM classifier is used. It rectify problems faced by iterative learning methods such as local minima, improper learning rate and over fitting and the training completes with high speed.

  5. A supervised learning rule for classification of spatiotemporal spike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilin Guo; Zhenzhong Wang; Adjouadi, Malek

    2016-08-01

    This study introduces a novel supervised algorithm for spiking neurons that take into consideration synapse delays and axonal delays associated with weights. It can be utilized for both classification and association and uses several biologically influenced properties, such as axonal and synaptic delays. This algorithm also takes into consideration spike-timing-dependent plasticity as in Remote Supervised Method (ReSuMe). This paper focuses on the classification aspect alone. Spiked neurons trained according to this proposed learning rule are capable of classifying different categories by the associated sequences of precisely timed spikes. Simulation results have shown that the proposed learning method greatly improves classification accuracy when compared to the Spike Pattern Association Neuron (SPAN) and the Tempotron learning rule.

  6. [Diagnostics, classification and prognostic criteria of acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmeier, Bernhard; Buske, Christian; Spiekermann, Karsten; Bohlander, Stefan; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Braess, Jan

    2007-04-15

    The continuously growing knowledge about criteria important for biology, pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) necessitates a broad spectrum of diagnostic methods for first diagnosis and for the further course of the disease. Relevant diagnostic techniques (cytomorphology with cytochemistry, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular genetics, DNA array) are described - with a focus on their mode of operation as well on their clinical significance. Due to the high clinical relevance and growing complexity, AML diagnostics should be performed in specialized laboratories. Compared to the FAB classification which is based primarily on morphological criteria, the classification recommended in 2001 by the WHO additionally takes cytogenetics, molecular genetics and further clinical factors into consideration. Both classifications are described. A wide range of prognostic criteria of AML is discussed on the basis of currently available clinical data. The most important criteria are the karyotype of the leukemic clone and the patient's age.

  7. Biologic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alessandra; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix are commonly used for the repair and functional reconstruction of injured and missing tissues. These naturally occurring bioscaffolds are manufactured by the removal of the cellular content from source tissues while preserving the structural and functional molecular units of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanisms by which these bioscaffolds facilitate constructive remodeling and favorable clinical outcomes include release or creation of effector molecules that recruit endogenous stem/progenitor cells to the site of scaffold placement and modulation of the innate immune response, specifically the activation of an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. The methods by which ECM biologic scaffolds are prepared, the current understanding of in vivo scaffold remodeling, and the associated clinical outcomes are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  9. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  10. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  11. No Magic Bullet: A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Markov Transition Probabilities in Studies of Service Systems for Persons With Mental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Hugh Stephen; Chow, Clifton M; Graves, Stephen C

    2017-03-01

    A random-effects meta-analysis of studies that used Markov transition probabilities (TPs) to describe outcomes for mental health service systems of differing quality for persons with serious mental illness was implemented to improve the scientific understanding of systems performance, to use in planning simulations to project service system costs and outcomes over time, and to test a theory of how outcomes for systems varying in quality differ. Nineteen systems described in 12 studies were coded as basic (B), maintenance (M), and recovery oriented (R) on the basis of descriptions of services provided. TPs for studies were aligned with a common functional-level framework, converted to a one-month time period, synthesized, and compared with theory-based expectations. Meta-regression was employed to explore associations between TPs and characteristics of service recipients and studies. R systems performed better than M and B systems. However, M systems did not perform better than B systems. All systems showed negative as well as positive TPs. For approximately one-third of synthesized TPs, substantial interstudy heterogeneity was noted. Associations were found between TPs and service recipient and study variables Conclusions: Conceptualizing systems as B, M, and R has potential for improving scientific understanding and systems planning. R systems appear more effective than B and M systems, although there is no "magic bullet" system for all service recipients. Interstudy heterogeneity indicates need for common approaches to reporting service recipient states, time periods for TPs, service recipient attributes, and service system characteristics. TPs found should be used in Markov simulations to project system effectiveness and costs of over time.

  12. Comparison between different papillary recession classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Chang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study confirmed a significant correlation between the two existing classification methods. The proposed PR classification system characterizes open embrasures in greater detail than previous systems.

  13. Systema Naturae. Classification of living things.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Shipunov

    2007-01-01

    Original classification of living organisms containing four kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Vegetabilia and Animalia), 60 phyla and 254 classes, is presented. The classification is based on latest available information.

  14. Music classification with MPEG-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crysandt, Holger; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Driven by increasing amount of music available electronically the need and possibility of automatic classification systems for music becomes more and more important. Currently most search engines for music are based on textual descriptions like artist or/and title. This paper presents a system for automatic music description, classification and visualization for a set of songs. The system is designed to extract significant features of a piece of music in order to find songs of similar genre or a similar sound characteristics. The description is done with the help of MPEG-7 only. The classification and visualization is done with the self organizing map algorithm.

  15. Optimal classification of standoff bioaerosol measurements using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhavn, Ragnhild; Moen, Hans J. F.; Farsund, Øystein; Rustad, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    Early warning systems based on standoff detection of biological aerosols require real-time signal processing of a large quantity of high-dimensional data, challenging the systems efficiency in terms of both computational complexity and classification accuracy. Hence, optimal feature selection is essential in forming a stable and efficient classification system. This involves finding optimal signal processing parameters, characteristic spectral frequencies and other data transformations in large magnitude variable space, stating the need for an efficient and smart search algorithm. Evolutionary algorithms are population-based optimization methods inspired by Darwinian evolutionary theory. These methods focus on application of selection, mutation and recombination on a population of competing solutions and optimize this set by evolving the population of solutions for each generation. We have employed genetic algorithms in the search for optimal feature selection and signal processing parameters for classification of biological agents. The experimental data were achieved with a spectrally resolved lidar based on ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence, and included several releases of 5 common simulants. The genetic algorithm outperform benchmark methods involving analytic, sequential and random methods like support vector machines, Fisher's linear discriminant and principal component analysis, with significantly improved classification accuracy compared to the best classical method.

  16. The classification of easement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Easement means, a right enjoyed by the owner of land over the lands of another: such as rights of way, right of light, rights of support, rights to a flow of air or water etc. The dominant tenement is the land owned by the possessor of the easement, and the servient tenement is the land over which the right is enjoyed. An easement must exist for the accommodation and better enjoyment to which it is annexed, otherwise it may amount to mere licence. An easement benefits and binds the land itself and therefore countinious despite any change of ownership of either dominant or servient tenement, although it will be extinguished if the two tenemants come into common ownership. An easement can only be enjoyed in respect of land. This means two parcels of land. First there must be a 'dominant tenement' and a 'servient tenement'. Dominant tenement to which the benefit of the easement attaches, and another (servient tenement which bears the burden of the easement. A positive easement consist of a right to do something on the land of another; a negative easement restrict the use of owner of the serviant tenement may make of his land. An easement may be on land or on the house made on land. The next classification is on easement on the ground, and the other one under the ground. An easement shall be done in accordance with the principle of restrictions. This means that the less burden the servient tenement. When there is doubt about the extent of the actual easement shall take what easier the servient tenement. The new needs of the dominant estate does not result in the expansion of servitude. In the article is made comparison between The Draft Code of property and other real estate, and The Draft of Civil Code of Serbia.

  17. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  18. Progression in nuclear classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuying

    1999-01-01

    In this book, summarize the author's achievements of nuclear classification by new method in latest 30 years, new foundational law of nuclear layer in matter world is found. It is explained with a hypothesis of a nucleus which it is made up of two nucleon's clusters with deuteron and triton. Its concrete content is: to advance a new method which analyze data of nuclei with natural abundance using relationship between the numbers of proton and neutron. The relationship of each nucleus increases to 4 sets: S+H=Z H+Z=N Z+N=A and S-H=K. To expand the similarity between proton and neutron to the similarity among p,n, deuteron, triton, and He-5 clusters. According to the distribution law of same kind of nuclei, it obtains that the upper limits of stable region both should be '44s'. New foundational law of nuclear system is 1,2,4,8,16,8,4,2,1. In order to explain new law, a hypothesis which nucleus is made up of deuteron and triton is developing and nuclear field of whole number is built up. And it relates that unity of matter motion, which is the most foundational form atomic nuclear systematic is similar to the most first-class form chromosome numbers of mankind. These achievements will shake the foundations of traditional nuclear science. These achievements will supply new tasks in developing nuclear theory. And shake the ground of which magic number is the basic of nuclear science. It opens up a new field on foundational research. The book will supply new knowledge for researcher, teachers and students in universities and polytechnic schools. Scientific workers read in works of research and technical exploit. It can be stored up for library and laboratory of society and universities. In nowadays of prosperity our nation by science and education, the book is readable for workers of scientific technology and amateurs of natural science

  19. VT Biodiversity Project - Bedrock Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset is a five category, nine sub-category classification of the bedrock units appearing on the Centennial Geologic Map of Vermont. The...

  20. The last classification of vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Systemic vasculitides are a group of diverse conditions characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels. To obtain homogeneity in clinical characteristics, prognosis, and response to treatment, patients with vasculitis should be classified into defined disease categories. Many classification

  1. Deep Learning for ECG Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakillya, B.; Kazachenko, N.; Mikhailovsky, N.

    2017-10-01

    The importance of ECG classification is very high now due to many current medical applications where this problem can be stated. Currently, there are many machine learning (ML) solutions which can be used for analyzing and classifying ECG data. However, the main disadvantages of these ML results is use of heuristic hand-crafted or engineered features with shallow feature learning architectures. The problem relies in the possibility not to find most appropriate features which will give high classification accuracy in this ECG problem. One of the proposing solution is to use deep learning architectures where first layers of convolutional neurons behave as feature extractors and in the end some fully-connected (FCN) layers are used for making final decision about ECG classes. In this work the deep learning architecture with 1D convolutional layers and FCN layers for ECG classification is presented and some classification results are showed.

  2. Vehicle classification using mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In this research, the feasibility of using mobile traffic sensors for binary vehicle classification on arterial roads is investigated. Features (e.g. : speed related, acceleration/deceleration related, etc.) are extracted from vehicle traces (passeng...

  3. [Definition and classification of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiki, Itsuki

    2014-05-01

    The concept or definition of epilepsy was mentioned as a chronic disease of the brain consisting of repetitions of EEG paroxysm and clinical seizures caused by excessive discharges of the cerebral neurons, in reference with Gastaut's opinion and the other statements. Further, we referred to diseases to be excluded from epilepsy such as isolated, occasional and subclinical seizures and so on. Next, new classifications of seizures and epilepsies were explained on the basis of revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies in Report of the ILAE Communication in Classification and Terminology, 2005-09, in comparison with the Classification of Epileptic Seizures in 1981 and the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes in 1989.

  4. Classification of remotely sensed images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For this research, the researchers examine various existing image classification algorithms with the aim of demonstrating how these algorithms can be applied to remote sensing images. These algorithms are broadly divided into supervised...

  5. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-08-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  6. A machine learning approach for viral genome classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remita, Mohamed Amine; Halioui, Ahmed; Malick Diouara, Abou Abdallah; Daigle, Bruno; Kiani, Golrokh; Diallo, Abdoulaye Baniré

    2017-04-11

    Advances in cloning and sequencing technology are yielding a massive number of viral genomes. The classification and annotation of these genomes constitute important assets in the discovery of genomic variability, taxonomic characteristics and disease mechanisms. Existing classification methods are often designed for specific well-studied family of viruses. Thus, the viral comparative genomic studies could benefit from more generic, fast and accurate tools for classifying and typing newly sequenced strains of diverse virus families. Here, we introduce a virus classification platform, CASTOR, based on machine learning methods. CASTOR is inspired by a well-known technique in molecular biology: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). It simulates, in silico, the restriction digestion of genomic material by different enzymes into fragments. It uses two metrics to construct feature vectors for machine learning algorithms in the classification step. We benchmark CASTOR for the classification of distinct datasets of human papillomaviruses (HPV), hepatitis B viruses (HBV) and human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1). Results reveal true positive rates of 99%, 99% and 98% for HPV Alpha species, HBV genotyping and HIV-1 M subtyping, respectively. Furthermore, CASTOR shows a competitive performance compared to well-known HIV-1 specific classifiers (REGA and COMET) on whole genomes and pol fragments. The performance of CASTOR, its genericity and robustness could permit to perform novel and accurate large scale virus studies. The CASTOR web platform provides an open access, collaborative and reproducible machine learning classifiers. CASTOR can be accessed at http://castor.bioinfo.uqam.ca .

  7. Automated Diatom Classification (Part B: A Deep Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Pedraza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms, a kind of algae microorganisms with several species, are quite useful for water quality determination, one of the hottest topics in applied biology nowadays. At the same time, deep learning and convolutional neural networks (CNN are becoming an extensively used technique for image classification in a variety of problems. This paper approaches diatom classification with this technique, in order to demonstrate whether it is suitable for solving the classification problem. An extensive dataset was specifically collected (80 types, 100 samples/type for this study. The dataset covers different illumination conditions and it was computationally augmented to more than 160,000 samples. After that, CNNs were applied over datasets pre-processed with different image processing techniques. An overall accuracy of 99% is obtained for the 80-class problem and different kinds of images (brightfield, normalized. Results were compared to previous presented classification techniques with different number of samples. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that CNNs are applied to diatom classification.

  8. Comparing multilabel classification methods for provisional biopharmaceutics class prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Danielle; Freitas, Alex A; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-05

    The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) is now well established and utilized for the development and biowaivers of immediate oral dosage forms. The prediction of BCS class can be carried out using multilabel classification. Unlike single label classification, multilabel classification methods predict more than one class label at the same time. This paper compares two multilabel methods, binary relevance and classifier chain, for provisional BCS class prediction. Large data sets of permeability and solubility of drug and drug-like compounds were obtained from the literature and were used to build models using decision trees. The separate permeability and solubility models were validated, and a BCS validation set of 127 compounds where both permeability and solubility were known was used to compare the two aforementioned multilabel classification methods for provisional BCS class prediction. Overall, the results indicate that the classifier chain method, which takes into account label interactions, performed better compared to the binary relevance method. This work offers a comparison of multilabel methods and shows the potential of the classifier chain multilabel method for improved biological property predictions for use in drug discovery and development.

  9. Restriction endonucleases: classification, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Raymond J

    2003-03-01

    Restriction endonucleases have become a fundamental tool of molecular biology with many commercial vendors and extensive product lines. While a significant amount has been learned about restriction enzyme diversity, genomic organization, and mechanism, these continue to be active areas of research and assist in classification efforts. More recently, one focus has been their exquisite specificity for the proper recognition sequence and the lack of homology among enzymes recognizing the same DNA sequence. Some questions also remain regarding in vivo function. Site-directed mutagenesis and fusion proteins based on known endonucleases show promise for custom-designed cleavage. An understanding of the enzymes and their properties can improve their productive application by maintaining critical digest parameters and enhancing or avoiding alternative activities.

  10. Reconceptualizing the classification of PNAS articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Edoardo M; Erosheva, Elena A; Fienberg, Stephen E; Joutard, Cyrille; Love, Tanzy; Shringarpure, Suyash

    2010-12-07

    PNAS article classification is rooted in long-standing disciplinary divisions that do not necessarily reflect the structure of modern scientific research. We reevaluate that structure using latent pattern models from statistical machine learning, also known as mixed-membership models, that identify semantic structure in co-occurrence of words in the abstracts and references. Our findings suggest that the latent dimensionality of patterns underlying PNAS research articles in the Biological Sciences is only slightly larger than the number of categories currently in use, but it differs substantially in the content of the categories. Further, the number of articles that are listed under multiple categories is only a small fraction of what it should be. These findings together with the sensitivity analyses suggest ways to reconceptualize the organization of papers published in PNAS.

  11. CP-CHARM: segmentation-free image classification made accessible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Virginie; Singh, Shantanu; Carpenter, Anne E

    2016-01-27

    Automated classification using machine learning often relies on features derived from segmenting individual objects, which can be difficult to automate. WND-CHARM is a previously developed classification algorithm in which features are computed on the whole image, thereby avoiding the need for segmentation. The algorithm obtained encouraging results but requires considerable computational expertise to execute. Furthermore, some benchmark sets have been shown to be subject to confounding artifacts that overestimate classification accuracy. We developed CP-CHARM, a user-friendly image-based classification algorithm inspired by WND-CHARM in (i) its ability to capture a wide variety of morphological aspects of the image, and (ii) the absence of requirement for segmentation. In order to make such an image-based classification method easily accessible to the biological research community, CP-CHARM relies on the widely-used open-source image analysis software CellProfiler for feature extraction. To validate our method, we reproduced WND-CHARM's results and ensured that CP-CHARM obtained comparable performance. We then successfully applied our approach on cell-based assay data and on tissue images. We designed these new training and test sets to reduce the effect of batch-related artifacts. The proposed method preserves the strengths of WND-CHARM - it extracts a wide variety of morphological features directly on whole images thereby avoiding the need for cell segmentation, but additionally, it makes the methods easily accessible for researchers without computational expertise by implementing them as a CellProfiler pipeline. It has been demonstrated to perform well on a wide range of bioimage classification problems, including on new datasets that have been carefully selected and annotated to minimize batch effects. This provides for the first time a realistic and reliable assessment of the whole image classification strategy.

  12. Regularized binormal ROC method in disease classification using microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important application of microarrays is to discover genomic biomarkers, among tens of thousands of genes assayed, for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Thus it is of interest to develop efficient statistical methods that can simultaneously identify important biomarkers from such high-throughput genomic data and construct appropriate classification rules. It is also of interest to develop methods for evaluation of classification performance and ranking of identified biomarkers. Results The ROC (receiver operating characteristic technique has been widely used in disease classification with low dimensional biomarkers. Compared with the empirical ROC approach, the binormal ROC is computationally more affordable and robust in small sample size cases. We propose using the binormal AUC (area under the ROC curve as the objective function for two-sample classification, and the scaled threshold gradient directed regularization method for regularized estimation and biomarker selection. Tuning parameter selection is based on V-fold cross validation. We develop Monte Carlo based methods for evaluating the stability of individual biomarkers and overall prediction performance. Extensive simulation studies show that the proposed approach can generate parsimonious models with excellent classification and prediction performance, under most simulated scenarios including model mis-specification. Application of the method to two cancer studies shows that the identified genes are reasonably stable with satisfactory prediction performance and biologically sound implications. The overall classification performance is satisfactory, with small classification errors and large AUCs. Conclusion In comparison to existing methods, the proposed approach is computationally more affordable without losing the optimality possessed by the standard ROC method.

  13. The classification of candlestick charts

    OpenAIRE

    Etschberger, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The classification of candlestick charts : laying the Foundation for Further Empirical Research / C. Klein ... - In: From data and information analysis to knowledge engineering : proc. of the 29th Annual Conference of the Gesellschaft für Klassifikation e.V., Univ. of Magdeburg, March 9-11, 2005 / Myra Spiliopoulou ... eds. - Berlin u.a. : Springer, 2006. - (Studies in classification, data analysis, and knowledge organization)

  14. Supervised Classification Using Balanced Training

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Mian; Pierce, Matthew; Pivovarova, Lidia; Yangarber, Roman

    2014-01-01

    We examine supervised learning for multi-class, multi-label text classification. We are interested in exploring classification in a real-world setting, where the distribution of labels may change dynamically over time. First, we compare the performance of an array of binary classifiers trained on the label distribution found in the original corpus against classifiers trained on balanced data, where we try to make the label distribution as nearly uniform as possible. We discuss the performance...

  15. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  16. Unsupervised learning for image classification

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yao

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of unsupervised learning for image classification. The state-of-the-art image classification method is Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which is a purely supervised learning method. We argue that despite of the triumph of supervised learning, unsupervised learning is still important and compatible with supervised learning. For example, in the situation where some classes have no training data at all, so called zero-shot learning task, unsupervised learning c...

  17. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo

    2017-07-06

    Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution

  18. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...... requirements and provided little information about why these requirements were considered relevant. This stands in contrast to the discussions at the project meetings where the software engineers made frequent use of both abstract goal descriptions and concrete examples to make sense of the requirements...

  19. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  20. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  1. Magnetic classification of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Consolmagno, G.; Denise, M.; Folco, L.; Gattacceca, J.; Osete, M.; Pesonen, L.

    2003-04-01

    either a different type of meteorite or with even terrestrial rock. In the collections studied several percent of the specimens appeared misidentified. Moreover magnetic measurements can be performed directly on the field, by hand or by a robot, opening new possibility for screening meteorites on cold or hot desert surface. P. Rochette et al., Magnetic Classification of stony meteorites: 1. Ordinary chondrites. Met. Planet. Sci., in press.

  2. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  3. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A... visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law Immediate...

  4. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same as...

  5. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The terms...

  6. 10 CFR 61.55 - Waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste classification. 61.55 Section 61.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.55 Waste classification. (a) Classification of waste for near surface disposal—(1) Considerations. Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves two...

  7. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2700.22 Section 2700.22... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall issue classification guides pursuant to section 2-2 of E.O. 12065. These guides, which shall be used to...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification, the following shall be indicated in a manner that is immediately apparent: (1) Classification...

  9. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... already classified, and marking the newly developed material consistent with the classification markings...

  10. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one review...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot... shall conform to the requirements of the specified classification as defined below: (a) Halves. Lot...

  12. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new FPI...

  13. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating or... with the classification of the source material. Duplication or reproduction of existing classified...

  14. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  15. Satellite image classification using convolutional learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Han, Jiho; Park, Dong-Chul

    2013-10-01

    A satellite image classification method using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture is proposed in this paper. As a special case of deep learning, CNN classifies classes of images without any feature extraction step while other existing classification methods utilize rather complex feature extraction processes. Experiments on a set of satellite image data and the preliminary results show that the proposed classification method can be a promising alternative over existing feature extraction-based schemes in terms of classification accuracy and classification speed.

  16. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  17. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  18. The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A NEW WASTE CLASSIFYING MODEL: HOW WASTE CLASSIFICATION CAN BECOME MORE OBJECTIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcea Stefan Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management specialist must be able to identify and analyze waste generation sources and to propose proper solutions to prevent the waste generation and encurage the waste minimisation. In certain situations like implementing an integrated waste management sustem and configure the waste collection methods and capacities, practitioners can face the challenge to classify the generated waste. This will tend to be the more demanding as the literature does not provide a coherent system of criteria required for an objective waste classification process. The waste incineration will determine no doubt a different waste classification than waste composting or mechanical and biological treatment. In this case the main question is what are the proper classification criteria witch can be used to realise an objective waste classification? The article provide a short critical literature review of the existing waste classification criteria and suggests the conclusion that the literature can not provide unitary waste classification system which is unanimously accepted and assumed by ideologists and practitioners. There are various classification criteria and more interesting perspectives in the literature regarding the waste classification, but the most common criteria based on which specialists classify waste into several classes, categories and types are the generation source, physical and chemical features, aggregation state, origin or derivation, hazardous degree etc. The traditional classification criteria divided waste into various categories, subcategories and types; such an approach is a conjectural one because is inevitable that according to the context in which the waste classification is required the used criteria to differ significantly; hence the need to uniformizating the waste classification systems. For the first part of the article it has been used indirect observation research method by analyzing the literature and the various

  20. Texture classification using logical operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, V; Vasquez, R; Katiyar, P

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm for texture classification based on logical operators is presented. Operators constructed from logical building blocks are convolved with texture images. An optimal set of six operators are selected based on their texture discrimination ability. The responses are then converted to standard deviation matrices computed over a sliding window. Zonal sampling features are computed from these matrices. A feature selection process is applied and the new set of features are used for texture classification. Classification of several natural and synthetic texture images are presented demonstrating the excellent performance of the logical operator method. The computational superiority and classification accuracy of the algorithm is demonstrated by comparison with other popular methods. Experiments with different classifiers and feature normalization are also presented. The Euclidean distance classifier is found to perform best with this algorithm. The algorithm involves only convolutions and simple arithmetic in the various stages which allows faster implementations. The algorithm is applicable to different types of classification problems which is demonstrated by segmentation of remote sensing images, compressed and reconstructed images and industrial images.

  1. An integrative approach of linking traditional Chinese medicine pattern classification and biomedicine diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Chi; Chan, Kelvin

    2012-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a medical system with over 3000 years of continuous practice experience and refinement through treatment observations. The TCM pattern classification (also defined as Syndrome or Zheng differentiation) and treatment of ill health is the basis and the key concept of the TCM theory. All diagnostic and therapeutic methods in TCM are based on the differentiation of TCM pattern. TCM pattern can be considered as the TCM theoretical interpretation of the symptom profiles. Pattern classification is often used as a guideline in disease classification in TCM practice and has been recently incorporated with biomedical diagnosis, resulting in the increasing research interest of TCM pattern among various disciplines of integrative medicine. This paper describes the historical evolution on the integration of the TCM pattern classification and disease diagnosis in biomedicine, the methodology of pattern classification for diseases, efficacy of TCM practice with integration of TCM pattern classification and biomedical disease diagnosis, and the biological basis of TCM pattern. TCM pattern classification, which may lead to new findings in biological sciences, was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Karpunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The executed investigations have made it possible to ascertain that a morphological structure of starch granules mainly determine technological peculiarities of starch isolation from raw material, its modification and its later use. Morphological structure of starch granules primarily depends on type of plant starch-containing raw material which has been used for its isolation. Class of raw material exerts a strong impact on the shape and size of the granules. Linear “light” amylose chains and “heavy” amylopectin branch chains form a starch granule ultrastructure. X-ray research has proved that starch granules are characterized by presence of interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. In this case polymer orientation using stretching of the obtained end product influences on its physical and mechanical  indices which are increasing due to polymer orientation. For the purpose of packaging orientation of polymer films can solve such important problems as significant improvement of operational properties, creation of  thermosetting film materials, improvement of qualitative indices of the recycled film.Results of the conducted research have proved the fact that it is necessary to make changes in technology in order to increase biological degradability of the recycled packaging made from polymers and improve physical and mechanical indices. In this regard film production technology presupposes usage of such substances as stark and others which are characterized by rather large presence of branch chains of molecules and interlacing amorphous and crystalline regions. Such approach makes it possible to obtain after-use package which is strong and quickly degradable by micro-organisms.

  3. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  4. Biological monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato BAUDO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, Ecotoxicology has found a place with the Legislative Decree n. 152 (May 11, 1999, emanated in fulfilment of the Directives 91/271/CEE "urban waste-water treatment" and 91/676/CEE "protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources". This decree in reality goes beyond (actually anticipating the content of the Framework Directive on Water, still under way of elaboration, and charges the Regions with the duty to identify, for all and each water body, the class of quality on the basis of a chemical and biological monitoring and their classification according to the environmental quality objectives. To this aim, for all water bodies (lakes, rivers, groundwater, coastal waters the ecological, chemical, and environmental status must be assessed by measuring specific parameters. This paper briefly summarises the role of biological monitoring in the classification of waters in five different categories, ranking from High to Foul Environmental status.

  5. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough......The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...... to be a risk. A hazard does not necessarily constitute a risk, as efforts can be done to minimize risk by reducing the exposure. Thus, the relationship between hazard and risk must be treated cautiously. Fora robust risk assessment good data on exposure to the substance is needed and exposure data for other...

  6. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  7. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information classifi......Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information...... information and their ability to navigate the websites. The results of the study indicated group differences in user classification and related task performances differences. The main implications of the study were that (a) the edit distance appears a useful measure in cross-country HCI research and practice...

  8. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  9. Functional classification of genes using semantic distance and fuzzy clustering approach: evaluation with reference sets and overlap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Benabderrahmane, Sidahmed; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika; Napoli, Amedeo; Poch, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Functional classification aims at grouping genes according to their molecular function or the biological process they participate in. Evaluating the validity of such unsupervised gene classification remains a challenge given the variety of distance measures and classification algorithms that can be used. We evaluate here functional classification of genes with the help of reference sets: KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways and Pfam clans. These sets represent ground truth for any distance based on GO (Gene Ontology) biological process and molecular function annotations respectively. Overlaps between clusters and reference sets are estimated by the F-score method. We test our previously described IntelliGO semantic distance with hierarchical and fuzzy C-means clustering and we compare results with the state-of-the-art DAVID (Database for Annotation Visualisation and Integrated Discovery) functional classification method. Finally, study of best matching clusters to reference sets leads us to propose a set-difference method for discovering missing information.

  10. [Classification of periprosthetic shoulder fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C; Kirchhoff, S; Biberthaler, P

    2016-04-01

    The key targets in the treatment of periprosthetic humeral fractures (PHF) are the preservation of bone, successful bony consolidation and provision of a stable anchoring of the prosthesis with the major goal of restoring the shoulder-arm function. A substantial problem of periprosthetic shoulder fractures is the fact that treatment is determined not only by the fracture itself but also by the implanted prosthesis and its function. Consequently, the exact preoperative shoulder function and, in the case of an implanted anatomical prosthesis, the status and function of the rotator cuff need to be assessed in order to clarify the possibility of a secondarily occurring malfunction. Of equal importance in this context is the type of implanted prosthesis. The existing classification systems of Wright and Cofield, Campbell et al., Groh et al. and Worland et al. have several drawbacks from a shoulder surgeon's point of view, such as a missing reference to the great variability of the available prostheses and the lack of an evaluation of rotator cuff function. The presented 6‑stage classification for the evaluation of periprosthetic fractures of the shoulder can be considered just as simple or complex to understand as the classification of the working group for osteosynthesis problems (AO, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen), depending on the viewpoint. From our point of view the classification presented here encompasses the essential points of the existing classification systems and also covers the otherwise missing points, which should be considered in the assessment of such periprosthetic fractures. The classification presented here should provide helpful assistance in the daily routine to find the most convenient form of therapy.

  11. Project implementation : classification of organic soils and classification of marls - training of INDOT personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This is an implementation project for the research completed as part of the following projects: SPR3005 Classification of Organic Soils : and SPR3227 Classification of Marl Soils. The methods developed for the classification of both soi...

  12. Aphasia Classification Using Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, H.; Jantzen, Jan; Berks, G.

    2000-01-01

    A web-based software model (http://fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk/aphasia.nsf) was developed as an example for classification of aphasia using neural networks. Two multilayer perceptrons were used to classify the type of aphasia (Broca, Wernicke, anomic, global) according to the results in some subtests...... of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). First a coarse classification was achieved by using an assessment of spontaneous speech of the patient. This classifier produced correct results in 87% of the test cases. For a second test, data analysis tools were used to select four features out of the 30 available test...

  13. Deep learning for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of deep learning and introduces the several subfields of deep learning including a specific tutorial of convolutional neural networks. Traditional methods for learning image features are compared to deep learning techniques. In addition, we present our preliminary classification results, our basic implementation of a convolutional restricted Boltzmann machine on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database (MNIST), and we explain how to use deep learning networks to assist in our development of a robust gender classification system.

  14. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Development of the existing classification systems has been very difficult and time consuming tasks, where many considerations have been taken and many compromises have been made. The results reveal that, although the theoretical foundation was clarified, many deviations and shortcuts have been m...... and in strong connection with databases holding a wide range of object types....... be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...

  15. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically...... different state-of-the-art MGR systems, that classification accuracy does not necessarily reflect the capacity of a system to recognize genre in musical signals. We argue that a more comprehensive analysis of behavior at the level of the music is needed to address the problem of MGR, and that measuring...

  16. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  17. SHIP CLASSIFICATION FROM MULTISPECTRAL VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Robert-Inacio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of a seaport can be achieved by different means: radar, sonar, cameras, radio communications and so on. Such a surveillance aims, on the one hand, to manage cargo and tanker traffic, and, on the other hand, to prevent terrorist attacks in sensitive areas. In this paper an application to video-surveillance of a seaport entrance is presented, and more particularly, the different steps enabling to classify mobile shapes. This classification is based on a parameter measuring the similarity degree between the shape under study and a set of reference shapes. The classification result describes the considered mobile in terms of shape and speed.

  18. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were....... This change was substantial in three countries (P mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... and consequently affect maternal mortality rates. Differences in classification of death must be taken into account when comparing maternal mortality rates, as well as differences in obstetric care, underreporting of maternal deaths and other factors such as the age distribution of mothers....

  19. FACET CLASSIFICATIONS OF E-LEARNING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the classification of e-learning tools based on the facet method, which suggests the separation of the parallel set of objects into independent classification groups; at the same time it is not assumed rigid classification structure and pre-built finite groups classification groups are formed by a combination of values taken from the relevant facets. An attempt to systematize the existing classification of e-learning tools from the standpoint of classification theory is made for the first time. Modern Ukrainian and foreign facet classifications of e-learning tools are described; their positive and negative features compared to classifications based on a hierarchical method are analyzed. The original author's facet classification of e-learning tools is proposed.

  20. Using biological indices to classify schizophrenia and other psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponheim, S R; Iacono, W G; Thuras, P D; Beiser, M

    2001-07-01

    Although classification of mental disorders using more than clinical description would be desirable, there is scant evidence that available laboratory tests (i.e. biological indices) would provide more valid classifications than current diagnostic systems (e.g. DSM-IV). We used cluster analysis of four biological variables to classify 163 psychotic patients and 83 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. Analyses revealed a three-cluster solution with the first cluster reflecting electrodermal deviance, the second cluster representing nondeviant biological function, and the third cluster reflecting increased nailfold plexus visibility and ocular motor dysfunction. To assess the construct validity of proband clusters we examined ocular motor performance in 156 first-degree relatives as a function of proband cluster membership. First-degree relatives of third cluster probands exhibited worse ocular motor performance than relatives of other cluster probands. Additionally, better classification sensitivity and specificity were obtained for the relatives when they were grouped by proband cluster than by proband DSM-IV diagnosis. When a single proband characteristic (i.e. eyetracking performance) was used to group relatives, classification sensitivity and specificity failed to significantly increase over grouping by proband DSM-IV diagnosis. Multivariate biologically defined clusters may offer an advantage over DSM-IV classification when examining nosology and etiology of psychotic disorders.

  1. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... classification will not only contribute to our biological insight but also improve clinical and pathological examinations, thus advancing thyroid tumour diagnosis and ultimately preventing superfluous surgery. This review evaluates the status of classification and biological insights gained from molecular...

  2. Definition and classification of epilepsy. Classification of epileptic seizures 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, especially in childhood and adolescence. The incidence varies from 15 to 113 cases per 100 000 population with the maximum among children under 1 year old. The prevalence of epilepsy is high, ranging from 5 to 8 cases (in some regions – 10 cases per 1000 children under 15 years old. Classification of the disease has great importance for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The article presents a novel strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, developed in 2016. It contains a number of brand new concepts, including a very important one, saying that some seizures, previously considered as generalized or focal only, can be, in fact, both focal and generalized. They include tonic, atonic, myoclonic seizures and epileptic spasms. The term “secondarily generalized seizure” is replace by the term “bilateral tonic-clonic seizure” (as soon as it is not a separate type of epileptic seizures, and the term reflects the spread of discharge from any area of cerebral cortex and evolution of any types of focal seizures. International League Against Epilepsy recommends to abandon the term “pseudo-epileptic seizures” and replace it by the term “psychogenic non-epileptic seizures”. If a doctor is not sure that seizures have epileptic nature, the term “paroxysmal event” should be used without specifying the disease. The conception of childhood epileptic encephalopathies, developed within this novel classification project, is one of the most significant achievements, since in this case not only the seizures, but even epileptiform activity can induce severe disorders of higher mental functions. In addition to detailed description of the new strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, the article contains a comprehensive review of the existing principles of epilepsy and epileptic seizures classification.

  3. Classifications for cesarean section: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rising cesarean section (CS rates are a major public health concern and cause worldwide debates. To propose and implement effective measures to reduce or increase CS rates where necessary requires an appropriate classification. Despite several existing CS classifications, there has not yet been a systematic review of these. This study aimed to 1 identify the main CS classifications used worldwide, 2 analyze advantages and deficiencies of each system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three electronic databases were searched for classifications published 1968-2008. Two reviewers independently assessed classifications using a form created based on items rated as important by international experts. Seven domains (ease, clarity, mutually exclusive categories, totally inclusive classification, prospective identification of categories, reproducibility, implementability were assessed and graded. Classifications were tested in 12 hypothetical clinical case-scenarios. From a total of 2948 citations, 60 were selected for full-text evaluation and 27 classifications identified. Indications classifications present important limitations and their overall score ranged from 2-9 (maximum grade =14. Degree of urgency classifications also had several drawbacks (overall scores 6-9. Woman-based classifications performed best (scores 5-14. Other types of classifications require data not routinely collected and may not be relevant in all settings (scores 3-8. CONCLUSIONS: This review and critical appraisal of CS classifications is a methodologically sound contribution to establish the basis for the appropriate monitoring and rational use of CS. Results suggest that women-based classifications in general, and Robson's classification, in particular, would be in the best position to fulfill current international and local needs and that efforts to develop an internationally applicable CS classification would be most appropriately placed in building upon this

  4. Classifications for cesarean section: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torloni, Maria Regina; Betran, Ana Pilar; Souza, Joao Paulo; Widmer, Mariana; Allen, Tomas; Gulmezoglu, Metin; Merialdi, Mario

    2011-01-20

    Rising cesarean section (CS) rates are a major public health concern and cause worldwide debates. To propose and implement effective measures to reduce or increase CS rates where necessary requires an appropriate classification. Despite several existing CS classifications, there has not yet been a systematic review of these. This study aimed to 1) identify the main CS classifications used worldwide, 2) analyze advantages and deficiencies of each system. Three electronic databases were searched for classifications published 1968-2008. Two reviewers independently assessed classifications using a form created based on items rated as important by international experts. Seven domains (ease, clarity, mutually exclusive categories, totally inclusive classification, prospective identification of categories, reproducibility, implementability) were assessed and graded. Classifications were tested in 12 hypothetical clinical case-scenarios. From a total of 2948 citations, 60 were selected for full-text evaluation and 27 classifications identified. Indications classifications present important limitations and their overall score ranged from 2-9 (maximum grade =14). Degree of urgency classifications also had several drawbacks (overall scores 6-9). Woman-based classifications performed best (scores 5-14). Other types of classifications require data not routinely collected and may not be relevant in all settings (scores 3-8). This review and critical appraisal of CS classifications is a methodologically sound contribution to establish the basis for the appropriate monitoring and rational use of CS. Results suggest that women-based classifications in general, and Robson's classification, in particular, would be in the best position to fulfill current international and local needs and that efforts to develop an internationally applicable CS classification would be most appropriately placed in building upon this classification. The use of a single CS classification will facilitate

  5. Classification of the papillomaviruses--mapping the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, H; Krubke, J; Dietrich, W; Iftner, T; Fuchs, P G

    1986-01-01

    Papillomaviruses form one genus of the Papovaviridae family. They share common antigenic determinants and their DNAs cross-hybridize under conditions of low stringency. The classification of papillomaviruses is at present based on the host range and the relatedness of the nucleic acids. Isolates are considered independent types if there is less than 50% cross-hybridization in the liquid phase according to a standard protocol. At least 31 human and six bovine papillomavirus types can be differentiated on this basis. The host range does not reflect the natural relationship between the viruses. Subgenera, which differ in biological properties, can be distinguished in outline. Data on overall sequence homology are insufficient for a meaningful classification because two types of virus may be closely related within one genome region and rather heterogeneous in other areas. Some new isolates appear as intermediates between previously well-separated types and complicate the system. A reasonable classification of such types of papillomavirus should be based on homologies between genes that are relevant for differences in the biology of the viruses. A functional mapping of the rather uniformly organized, colinear genomes of papillomaviruses has been started. Genetic studies with bovine papillomavirus type 1 have assigned functions in replication, transformation, gene expression and capsid synthesis to individual open reading frames.

  6. Semi-Supervised Feature Transformation for Tissue Image Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Watanabe

    Full Text Available Various systems have been proposed to support biological image analysis, with the intent of decreasing false annotations and reducing the heavy burden on biologists. These systems generally comprise a feature extraction method and a classification method. Task-oriented methods for feature extraction leverage characteristic images for each problem, and they are very effective at improving the classification accuracy. However, it is difficult to utilize such feature extraction methods for versatile task in practice, because few biologists specialize in Computer Vision and/or Pattern Recognition to design the task-oriented methods. Thus, in order to improve the usability of these supporting systems, it will be useful to develop a method that can automatically transform the image features of general propose into the effective form toward the task of their interest. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised feature transformation method, which is formulated as a natural coupling of principal component analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA in the framework of graph-embedding. Compared with other feature transformation methods, our method showed favorable classification performance in biological image analysis.

  7. On the classification of long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2013-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to perform various functions in a wide variety of important biological processes. To make easier interpretation of lncRNA functionality and conduct deep mining on these transcribed sequences, it is convenient to classify lncRNAs into different groups. Here, we summarize classification methods of lncRNAs according to their four major features, namely, genomic location and context, effect exerted on DNA sequences, mechanism of functioning and their targeting mechanism. In combination with the presently available function annotations, we explore potential relationships between different classification categories, and generalize and compare biological features of different lncRNAs within each category. Finally, we present our view on potential further studies. We believe that the classifications of lncRNAs as indicated above are of fundamental importance for lncRNA studies, helpful for further investigation of specific lncRNAs, for formulation of new hypothesis based on different features of lncRNA and for exploration of the underlying lncRNA functional mechanisms. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

  8. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY THREATS CLASSIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Gerić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are exposed to different types of security risks. Theconsequences of information systems security (ISS breaches can vary from e.g. damaging the data base integrity to physical "destruction" of entire information system facilities, and can result with minor disruptions in less important segments of information systems, or with significant interruptions in information systems functionality. The sources of security risks are different, and can origin from inside or outside of information system facility, and can be intentional or unintentional. The precise calculation of loses caused by such incidents is often not possible because a number of small scale ISS incidents are never detected, or detected with a significant time delay, a part of incidents are interpreted as an accidental mistakes, and all that results with an underestimation of ISS risks. This paper addresses the different types and criteria of information system security risks (threats classification and gives an overview of most common classifications used in literature and in practice. We define a common set of criteria that can be used for information system security threats classification, which will enable the comparison and evaluation of different security threats from different security threats classifications.

  9. Galaxy Classifications with Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Vesna; Brüggen, Marcus

    2017-06-01

    Machine learning techniques have proven to be increasingly useful in astronomical applications over the last few years, for example in object classification, estimating redshifts and data mining. One example of object classification is classifying galaxy morphology. This is a tedious task to do manually, especially as the datasets become larger with surveys that have a broader and deeper search-space. The Kaggle Galaxy Zoo competition presented the challenge of writing an algorithm to find the probability that a galaxy belongs in a particular class, based on SDSS optical spectroscopy data. The use of convolutional neural networks (convnets), proved to be a popular solution to the problem, as they have also produced unprecedented classification accuracies in other image databases such as the database of handwritten digits (MNIST †) and large database of images (CIFAR ‡). We experiment with the convnets that comprised the winning solution, but using broad classifications. The effect of changing the number of layers is explored, as well as using a different activation function, to help in developing an intuition of how the networks function and to see how they can be applied to radio galaxy images.

  10. A new classification of Chelicerata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in classification of Chelicerata has been thwarted especially by two factors, viz., the concept of mites as one monophyletic group, and the opinion that this group consists of species with a highly modified plan of construction and without any trace of true segmentation. The only characters

  11. The classification of minerals deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author present the classification of minerals deposits. Deposit formation take place as a result of complicated and long geology processes in the wide temperature intervals (from 1500 d ig C to usual) and pressures (from usual and to tens kilobars). Deposits of minerals as other investigation objects require in definite systematization on the base of definite characteristics

  12. Classification using Bayesian neural nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); O. van der Meer; R. Potharst (Rob)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecently, Bayesian methods have been proposed for neural networks to solve regression and classification problems. These methods claim to overcome some difficulties encountered in the standard approach such as overfitting. However, an implementation of the full Bayesian approach to

  13. Anytime classification by ontology approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlobach, S.; Blaauw, E.; El Kebir, M.; Ten Teije, A.; Van Harmelen, F.; Bortoli, S.; Hobbelman, M.C.; Millian, K.; Ren, Y.; Stam, S.; Thomassen, P.; Van Het Schip, R.; Van Willigem, W.

    2007-01-01

    Reasoning with large or complex ontologies is one of the bottle-necks of the Semantic Web. In this paper we present an anytime algorithm for classification based on approximate subsumption. We give the formal definitions for approximate subsumption, and show its monotonicity and soundness; we show

  14. Correlation Dimension Estimation for Classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2006), s. 547-557 ISSN 1895-8648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : correlation dimension * probability density estimation * classification * UCI MLR Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  16. Unsupervised classification of variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim

    2018-03-01

    During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.

  17. Data Augmentation for Plant Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Data augmentation plays a crucial role in increasing the number of training images, which often aids to improve classification performances of deep learning techniques for computer vision problems. In this paper, we employ the deep learning framework and determine the effects of several

  18. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information classifi...

  19. Classification and Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Fibromyalgia was recently classified when a sleep disorder was described with diffuse musculoskeletal pain. The standard modern definition was reached on the basis of thorough analysis of pain patterns and characteristic tender points. The principles of classification are reviewed with respect to this diagnosis.

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.