WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological assessment

  1. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  2. Biology reflective assessment curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    2011-01-01

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help stud...

  3. The Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment: A Concept Assessment for Upper-Division Molecular Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Wood, William B.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in…

  4. Skill Assessment in Ocean Biological Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Robinson, Allan R.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Schlitzer, Reiner; Thompson, Keith R.; Doney, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing recognition that rigorous skill assessment is required to understand the ability of ocean biological models to represent ocean processes and distributions. Statistical analysis of model results with observations represents the most quantitative form of skill assessment, and this principle serves as well for data assimilation models. However, skill assessment for data assimilation requires special consideration. This is because there are three sets of information in the free-run model, data, and the assimilation model, which uses Data assimilation information from both the flee-run model and the data. Intercom parison of results among the three sets of information is important and useful for assessment, but is not conclusive since the three information sets are intertwined. An independent data set is necessary for an objective determination. Other useful measures of ocean biological data assimilation assessment include responses of unassimilated variables to the data assimilation, performance outside the prescribed region/time of interest, forecasting, and trend analysis. Examples of each approach from the literature are provided. A comprehensive list of ocean biological data assimilation and their applications of skill assessment, in both ecosystem/biogeochemical and fisheries efforts, is summarized.

  5. Biological Based Risk Assessment for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) - made up of high-energy protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, and solar particle events (SPEs) - comprised largely of low- to medium-energy protons are the primary health concern for astronauts for long-term space missions. Experimental studies have shown that HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation, making risk assessments for cancer and degenerative risks, such as central nervous system effects and heart disease, highly uncertain. The goal for space radiation protection at NASA is to be able to reduce the uncertainties in risk assessments for Mars exploration to be small enough to ensure acceptable levels of risks are not exceeded and to adequately assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as shielding or biological countermeasures. We review the recent BEIR VII and UNSCEAR-2006 models of cancer risks and their uncertainties. These models are shown to have an inherent 2-fold uncertainty as defined by ratio of the 95% percent confidence level to the mean projection, even before radiation quality is considered. In order to overcome the uncertainties in these models, new approaches to risk assessment are warranted. We consider new computational biology approaches to modeling cancer risks. A basic program of research that includes stochastic descriptions of the physics and chemistry of radiation tracks and biochemistry of metabolic pathways, to emerging biological understanding of cellular and tissue modifications leading to cancer is described.

  6. Biological indicators for radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introductory report on the present level of practical experience in using biological indicator systems to identify and assess doses from radiation exposures, the state of the art in the field of biochemical, cytological and immunological indicators was presented as a basis for discussions in working groups. With reference to the type of radiation - gamma radiation, electrons, neutrons - the question was examined how and to which extent body doses could be evaluated on the basis of results from biological indicator systems. The indicator systems were examined and evaluated in working groups under the aspects of practical use, validity of results and demand of research according to uniform criteria. These were, among others, dose effect relationship, detection limit, reproducibility and specificity, interference factors, stress and reasonable inconvenience of the examined person, earliest possible availability of results and the maximum time needed to identify a biological effect after radiation exposure, as well as the possible maximum number of persons examined from a population group of radiation exposed individuals. The results of the working groups discussions were compiled and summarized in recommendations. (orig./MG)

  7. Modeling to Improve Vegetation-Based Wetland Biological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    To meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act (1972), natural resource managers need to be able to detect biological degradation in wetland ecosystems. Biological indices are commonly used by managers to assess wetland biological condition. The accuracy and precision of wetland condition assessments are directly related to the performance of these indices, and biological index performance is thought to be related to how well an index controls for the effects of environmental attributes on b...

  8. Use of biological indicators in TMDL assessment and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Yagow, G.; Wilson, B.; Srivastava, P; Obropta, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Most states in the U.S. have a general water quality standard intended to protect water from all potential pollutants not specifically named or identified in other standards. Biological indicators are used, in part, to assess the level of water quality with respect to this general standard. Under EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, impaired waters based on a biological assessment require an additional step compared with non-biological TMDLs. In non-biological TMDLs, the "pollutant"...

  9. Using biological monitoring to assess human exposure to priority toxicants.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirkle, J L; Sampson, E J; Needham, L L; Patterson, D G; Ashley, D L

    1995-01-01

    Scientifically valid exposure assessment is crucial to risk assessment, risk management, and prevention of environmental disease. Scientists have used three tools to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire, environmental monitoring (including personal monitoring), and biological monitoring. Combinations of these tools usually provide the exposure information needed to meet objectives of human studies evaluating the exposure-health effect relationship. Biological monitoring is a capabl...

  10. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  11. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R. M.; Brenner, D; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L; Smith, S.; Warburton, D; Young, T. L.; Tsai, W. Y.; Hemminki, K; Brandt-Rauf, P

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers h...

  12. Assessment and management of biosafety in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengjun Guan; Lei Pei; Markus Schmidt; Wei Wei

    2012-01-01

    While having developed into one of the most dynamic fields of the life sciences, synthetic biology may pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Based on current national and international risk assessment methods and current regulation of synthetic biology, we reviewed risk assessment in relation to synthetic biology’s research subfields (such as DNA-based biocircuits, minimal genome, protocells and chemical synthetic biology), its relation with biosafety engineering, its effe...

  13. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R.M.; Brenner, D.; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L.; Smith, S.; Warburton, D.; Young, T.L.; Tsai, W.Y.; Brandt-Rauf, P. (Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)); Hemminki, K. (Finnish School of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment.

  14. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment

  15. Mathematical modeling in biology: A critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular revolution and the development of biology-derived industry have led in the last fifty years to an unprecedented 'lead forward' of life sciences in terms of experimental data. Less success has been achieved in the organisation of such data and in the consequent development of adequate explanatory and predictive theories and models. After a brief historical excursus inborn difficulties of mathematisation of biological objects and processes derived from the complex dynamics of life are discussed along with the logical tools (simplifications, choice of observation points etc.) used to overcome them. 'Autistic', monodisciplinary attitudes towards biological modeling of mathematicians, physicists, biologists aimed in each case at the use of the tools of other disciplines to solve 'selfish' problems are also taken into account and a warning against derived dangers (reification of mono disciplinary metaphors, lack of falsification etc.) is given. Finally 'top.down' (deductive) and 'bottom up' (inductive) heuristic interactive approaches to mathematisation are critically discussed with the help of serie of examples

  16. Bigheaded carps : a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cindy S.; Chapman, Duane C.; Courtenay, Walter R., Jr.; Housel, Christine M.; Williams, James D.; Jennings, Dawn P.

    2007-01-01

    The book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the bigheaded carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys, which includes the bighead, silver, and largescale silver carps. It summarizes the scientific literature describing their biology, ecology, uses, ecological effects, and risks to the environment.

  17. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michelle M; Vermeire, Theo

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, three Scientific Committees of the European Commission (EC) drafted Scientific Opinions on synthetic biology that provide an operational definition and address risk assessment methodology, safety aspects, environmental risks, knowledge gaps, and research priorities. These Opinions contribute to the international discussions on the risk governance for synthetic biology developments. PMID:27234301

  18. Biological assessment of Ariane 5 fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, A.; Boulanger, A.; Telmar, E.

    2008-09-01

    United Nations Space Treaties [United Nations, Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 610 UNTS 205, resolution 2222(XXI) of December 1966., United Nations, Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, UN doc A/RES/34/68, resolution 38/68 of December 1979.] require the preservation of planets and of Earth from contamination. All nations part to these Treaties shall take measures to prevent forward and backward contamination during missions exploring our solar system. As observer for the United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) defines and handles the applicable policy and proposes recommendations to Space Agencies [COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel, Planetary Protection Policy accepted by the COSPAR Council and Bureau, 20 October 2002, amended 24 March 2005. http://www.cosparhq.org/scistr/PPPolicy.htm.]. The goal is to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial biological contamination as well as to protect the Earth environment from an eventual biohazard which may be carried by extraterrestrial samples or by space systems returning to Earth. According to the applicable specifications, including in our case the French requirements [CNES, System Safety. Planetary Protection Requirements. Normative referential CNES RNC-CNES-R-14, CNES Toulouse, ed. 4, 04 October 2002.], the prevention of forward contamination is accomplished by reducing the bioburden on space hardware to acceptable, prescribed levels, including in some instances system sterilization, assembling and integrating the appropriate spacecraft systems in cleanrooms of appropriate biological cleanliness, avoiding or controlling any recontamination risk, and limiting the probability impact of space systems. In order to prepare for future exploration missions [Debus, A., Planetary protection: organization

  19. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  20. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  1. The development and assessment of biological treatments for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eve M D; Foster, Helen E; Beresford, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The development of biological agents with specific immunological targets has revolutionized the treatment of a wide variety of paediatric diseases where traditional immunosuppressive agents have been partly ineffective or intolerable. The increasing requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake paediatric studies has provided impetus for studies of biologics in children. The assessment of biological agents in children to date has largely relied upon randomized controlled trials using a withdrawal design, rather than a parallel study design. This approach has been largely used due to ethical concerns, including use of placebo treatments in children with active chronic disease, and justified on the basis that treatments have usually already undergone robust assessment in related adult conditions. However, this study design limits the reliability of the data and can confuse the interpretation of safety results. Careful ongoing monitoring of safety and efficacy in real-world practice through national and international biologics registries and robust reporting systems is crucial. The most commonly used biological agents in children target tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and cytotoxic lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. These agents are most frequently used in paediatric rheumatic diseases. This review discusses the development and assessment of biologics within paediatric rheumatology with reference to the lessons learned from use in other subspecialties. PMID:24750505

  2. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  3. Biological dosimetry: chromosomal aberration analysis for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the growing importance of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter, the present report provides a concise summary of the scientific background of the subject and a comprehensive source of information at the technical level. After a review of the basic principles of radiation dosimetry and radiation biology basic information on the biology of lymphocytes, the structure of chromosomes and the classification of chromosomal aberrations are presented. This is followed by a presentation of techniques for collecting blood, storing, transporting, culturing, making chromosomal preparations and scaring of aberrations. The physical and statistical parameters involved in dose assessment are discussed and examples of actual dose assessments taken from the scientific literature are given

  4. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  5. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  6. Performance-based assessment of biology teachers: Promises and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Angelo

    BioTAP, the biology component of the Teacher Assessment Project, explored three modes of performance-based teacher assessment: portfolios, simulations, and portfolio-based simulations. Assessments were designed by a team of university-based researchers and classroom teachers. Assessments were completed by 15 high school biology teachers from a variety of teaching contexts. Portfolios are defined as collections of evidence gathered on site, such as videotapes of instruction. The portfolios had four sections: planning, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Simulation exercises are replications of critical tasks of teaching in a standardized setting, for example, an interview about adapting a textbook. Portfolio-based simulations take advantage of the contextual aspects of portfolios and the standardization of simulations, for example, an interview on student misconceptions about the laboratory experience that was presented in the portfolio. Using a holistic process, teachers were rated in categories derived from the five core propositions of teacher knowledge and skill proposed by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Teachers reported that the assessments had a high degree of fidelity to teaching and provided stimuli to improving teaching. The description presented in this article provides a foundation for those who wish to advance the research in science teacher assessment.

  7. Levels of Biological Diversity: a Spatial Approach to Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU-IONUŢ PETRIŞOR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity, interpreted as a variety of natural and man-dominated biological and ecological systems, plays an important role in assuring their stability and can be interpreted at different spatial scales, based on the hierarchical level of the system (biocoenose/ ecosystem, biome/complex of ecosystem, biosphere/ecosphere. Literature distinguishes six levels of biodiversity, namely alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, and omega. The current paper lists methodologies appropriate for assessing diversity at each of these levels, with a particular focus on regional diversity (gamma, delta, and epsilon diversities, i.e. CORINE land cover classification and the biogeographical regions of the European Union.

  8. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  9. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  10. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  11. Biological monitoring and environmental assessment in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining projects in the Alligator Rivers Region can accumulate excess volumes of water from the heavy rains of the annual Wet season. Such water contains naturally-occurring substances (heavy metals, radionuclides, suspended solids) at concentrations greater than those in adjacent streams and could pose an environmental risk if allowed to drain freely from a site. Because transport by surface waters dominates dispersion of mine-derived material, much of the research carried out at the Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute has been centred on aquatic ecosystems. While chemical analysis of waters can be used to measure concentrations of selected constituents, only biological monitoring can be used to assess effects on organisms, a crucial aspect of environmental protection

  12. Methemoglobin-Based Biological Dose Assessment for Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Zhao, Su-Ying; Xie, Li-Hua; Miao, Yu-Ji; Li, Qun; Min, Rui; Liu, Pei-Dang; Zhang, Hai-Qian

    2016-07-01

    Methemoglobin is an oxidative form of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. The authors' aim was to develop a new biological dosimeter based on a methemoglobin assay. Methemoglobin in peripheral blood (of females or males) that was exposed to a Co source (0.20 Gy min) was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The dose range was 0.5-8.0 Gy. In a time-course experiment, the time points 0, 0.02, 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, and 30 d after 4-Gy irradiation of heparinized peripheral blood were used. Methemoglobin levels in a lysed erythrocyte pellet from the irradiated blood of females and males increased with the increasing dose. Methemoglobin levels in female blood irradiated with γ-doses more than 4 Gy were significantly higher than those in male samples at the same doses. Two dose-response relations were fitted to the straight line: one is with the correlation coefficient of 0.98 for females, and the other is with the correlation coefficient of 0.99 for males. The lower limit of dose assessment based on methemoglobin is about 1 Gy. Methemoglobin levels in blood as a result of auto-oxidation increase after 7-d storage at -20 °C. The upregulation of methemoglobin induced by γ-radiation persists for ∼3 d. The absorbed doses that were estimated using the two dose-response relations were close to the actual doses. The results suggest that methemoglobin can be used as a rapid and accurate biological dosimeter for early assessment of absorbed γ-dose in human blood. PMID:27218292

  13. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    unstable aberrations were analyzed and biological dose was assessed according to the dose-effect curves built by our lab member. For micronucleus analysis, blood were added cytochalasin-B after culturing 40 hours. The doses were assessed according to the dose-effect curves built by our lab member. According to a human lymphocyte chromosome aberration and micronucleus analysis, the estimated maximum irradiation dose of 3 exposed patients is lower than 2 Gy, equal to the dose of once uneven total-body irradiation. In vitro dose-response calibration curves for (60)Co gamma rays have been established for unstable chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The observed dose-response data were fitted to a linear quadratic model. The calibration curve parameters were used to estimate the equivalent whole-body dose and dose to the irradiated region in partial body irradiation of cancer patients. The derived partial body doses and fractions of lymphocytes irradiated were in agreement with those estimated from the radiotherapy regimes. (author)

  14. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the control of Arundo donax (giant reed, Carrizo cane). The environmental assessment considers the... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. We are making...

  15. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the control of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp.). The environmental assessment considers the effects of, and... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds. We are...

  16. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1997-03-01

    This report discusses the biological impact to the area around the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator. In particular the impact to the soils, water quality, vegetation, and wildlife are discussed.

  17. Anti-tick biological control agents: assessment and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.

  18. Biology Needs a Modern Assessment System for Professional Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Lucinda A.; Maddison, David R.; Guralnick, Robert; Piwowar, Heather A.; Jameson, Mary Liz; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Hill, Andrew; Vis, Morgan L.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated in large part by the advent of the Internet, research productivity in many academic disciplines has changed dramatically over the last two decades. However, the assessment system that governs professional success has not kept pace, creating a mismatch between modes of scholarly productivity and academic assessment criteria. In this…

  19. Assessment of biological Hydrogen production processes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, G. D.; Shahavi, M. H.; Neshat, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Energy crisis created a special attention on renewable energy sources. Among these sources; hydrogen through biological processes is well-known as the most suitable and renewable energy sources. In terms of process yield, hydrogen production from various sources was evaluated. A summary of microorganisms as potential hydrogen producers discussed along with advantages and disadvantages of several bioprocesses. The pathway of photo-synthetic and dark fermentative organisms was discussed. In fact, the active enzymes involved in performance of biological processes for hydrogen generation were identified and their special functionalities were discussed. The influential factors affecting on hydrogen production were known as enzymes assisting liberation specific enzymes such as nitrogenase, hydrogenase and uptake hydrogenase. These enzymes were quite effective in reduction of proton and form active molecular hydrogen. Several types of photosynthetic systems were evaluated with intension of maximum hydrogen productivities. In addition dark fermentative and light intensities on hydrogen productions were evaluated. The hydrogen productivities of efficient hydrogen producing strains were evaluated.

  20. Assessment of Constructed Wetland Biological Integrity Using Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    C. Galbrand; I. G. Lemieux; Abdel E. Ghaly; Côté, R.; Verma, M.

    2007-01-01

    A surface flow constructed wetland consisting of seven cells was used to treat the leachates from a decommissioned landfill. Wetland monitoring was performed by evaluating the treatment efficiency of the landfill leachate and the wetland biological integrity of the wetland. The water quality samples were analyzed for iron, manganese, phosphorus (orthophosphate), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and TKN), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) ...

  1. Development and Assessment of Modules to Integrate Quantitative Skills in Introductory Biology Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Kathleen; Leupen, Sarah; Dowell, Kathy; Kephart, Kerrie; Leips, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have called for integrating quantitative reasoning into biology courses to prepare students for careers in research and medicine. This article describes the development, implementation, and assessment of modules designed to incorporate quantitative reasoning and skill development into introductory biology courses.

  2. A Curriculum Skills Matrix for Development and Assessment of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…

  3. A preliminary biological assessment of Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report represents an initial biological assessment of wetland conditions on Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Slade NWR, and Florence Lake NWR that was...

  4. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  5. The Importance of Biologically Relevant Microclimates in Habitat Suitability Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Varner; M Denise Dearing

    2014-01-01

    Predicting habitat suitability under climate change is vital to conserving biodiversity. However, current species distribution models rely on coarse scale climate data, whereas fine scale microclimate data may be necessary to assess habitat suitability and generate predictive models. Here, we evaluate disparities between temperature data at the coarse scale from weather stations versus fine-scale data measured in microhabitats required for a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochoto...

  6. Soil biodiversity assessment, biological indicators and soil ecosystem services - an overview of European approaches

    OpenAIRE

    CREAMER, Rachel; Hamer, Ute; Helder, Johannes; Pelosi, Céline; Pérès, Guénola; Rutgers, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Soil biota are essential for many soil processes and functions, yet there are increasing pressures on soil biodiversity and soil degradation remains a pertinent issue. The sustainable management of soils requires soil monitoring, including biological indicators, to be able to relate land use and management to soil functioning and ecosystem services. Since the 1990s, biological soil parameters have been assessed in an increasing number of field trials and monitoring programmes across Europe....

  7. Quality of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports on biological pest control / Thea Henriette Carroll

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Thea Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Decision making regarding the release of biological control agents for invasive species such as lantana, Lantana camara, requires the consideration and evaluation of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports by a competent authority. Although various biological control agents have been authorised for release into the environment for the control of lantana, the quality of the EIA reports that form the basis for decision making has never been evaluated. The evaluation of the ...

  8. Quantitative assessment of biological impact using transcriptomic data and mechanistic network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to biologically active substances such as therapeutic drugs or environmental toxicants can impact biological systems at various levels, affecting individual molecules, signaling pathways, and overall cellular processes. The ability to derive mechanistic insights from the resulting system responses requires the integration of experimental measures with a priori knowledge about the system and the interacting molecules therein. We developed a novel systems biology-based methodology that leverages mechanistic network models and transcriptomic data to quantitatively assess the biological impact of exposures to active substances. Hierarchically organized network models were first constructed to provide a coherent framework for investigating the impact of exposures at the molecular, pathway and process levels. We then validated our methodology using novel and previously published experiments. For both in vitro systems with simple exposure and in vivo systems with complex exposures, our methodology was able to recapitulate known biological responses matching expected or measured phenotypes. In addition, the quantitative results were in agreement with experimental endpoint data for many of the mechanistic effects that were assessed, providing further objective confirmation of the approach. We conclude that our methodology evaluates the biological impact of exposures in an objective, systematic, and quantifiable manner, enabling the computation of a systems-wide and pan-mechanistic biological impact measure for a given active substance or mixture. Our results suggest that various fields of human disease research, from drug development to consumer product testing and environmental impact analysis, could benefit from using this methodology. - Highlights: • The impact of biologically active substances is quantified at multiple levels. • The systems-level impact integrates the perturbations of individual networks. • The networks capture the relationships between

  9. Quantitative assessment of biological impact using transcriptomic data and mechanistic network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Ty M. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Sewer, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Sewer@pmi.com [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Martin, Florian; Belcastro, Vincenzo [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Frushour, Brian P. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Gebel, Stephan [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH, Edmund-Rumpler-Strasse 5, 51149 Koeln (Germany); Park, Jennifer [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Schlage, Walter K. [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH, Edmund-Rumpler-Strasse 5, 51149 Koeln (Germany); Talikka, Marja [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Vasilyev, Dmitry M.; Westra, Jurjen W. [Selventa, One Alewife Center, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C. [Philip Morris International R and D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, 2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to biologically active substances such as therapeutic drugs or environmental toxicants can impact biological systems at various levels, affecting individual molecules, signaling pathways, and overall cellular processes. The ability to derive mechanistic insights from the resulting system responses requires the integration of experimental measures with a priori knowledge about the system and the interacting molecules therein. We developed a novel systems biology-based methodology that leverages mechanistic network models and transcriptomic data to quantitatively assess the biological impact of exposures to active substances. Hierarchically organized network models were first constructed to provide a coherent framework for investigating the impact of exposures at the molecular, pathway and process levels. We then validated our methodology using novel and previously published experiments. For both in vitro systems with simple exposure and in vivo systems with complex exposures, our methodology was able to recapitulate known biological responses matching expected or measured phenotypes. In addition, the quantitative results were in agreement with experimental endpoint data for many of the mechanistic effects that were assessed, providing further objective confirmation of the approach. We conclude that our methodology evaluates the biological impact of exposures in an objective, systematic, and quantifiable manner, enabling the computation of a systems-wide and pan-mechanistic biological impact measure for a given active substance or mixture. Our results suggest that various fields of human disease research, from drug development to consumer product testing and environmental impact analysis, could benefit from using this methodology. - Highlights: • The impact of biologically active substances is quantified at multiple levels. • The systems-level impact integrates the perturbations of individual networks. • The networks capture the relationships between

  10. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  11. Biological and chemical assessments of zinc ageing in field soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As zinc (Zn) is both an essential trace element and potential toxicant, the effects of Zn fixation in soil are of practical significance. Soil samples from four field sites amended with ZnSO4 were used to investigate ageing of soluble Zn under field conditions over a 2-year period. Lability of Zn measured using 65Zn radioisotope dilution showed a significant decrease over time and hence evidence of Zn fixation in three of the four soils. However, 0.01 M CaCl2 extractions and toxicity measurements using a genetically modified lux-marked bacterial biosensor did not indicate a decrease in soluble/bioavailable Zn over time. This was attributed to the strong regulatory effect of abiotic properties such as pH on these latter measurements. These results also showed that Zn ageing occurred immediately after Zn spiking, emphasising the need to incubate freshly spiked soils before ecotoxicity assessments. - Ageing effects were detected in Zn-amended field soils using 65Zn isotopic dilution as a measure of lability, but not with either CaCl2 extractions or a lux-marked bacterial biosensor.

  12. Photon-tissue interaction model for quantitative assessment of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yup; Lloyd, William R.; Wilson, Robert H.; Chandra, Malavika; McKenna, Barbara; Simeone, Diane; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we describe a direct fit photon-tissue interaction model to quantitatively analyze reflectance spectra of biological tissue samples. The model rapidly extracts biologically-relevant parameters associated with tissue optical scattering and absorption. This model was employed to analyze reflectance spectra acquired from freshly excised human pancreatic pre-cancerous tissues (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), a common precursor lesion to pancreatic cancer). Compared to previously reported models, the direct fit model improved fit accuracy and speed. Thus, these results suggest that such models could serve as real-time, quantitative tools to characterize biological tissues assessed with reflectance spectroscopy.

  13. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  14. A Biological Condition Gradient Model for Historical Assessment of Estuarine Habitat Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Pelletier, Marguerite C.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Davies, Susan; Pesch, Carol E.; Deacutis, Christopher F.; Pryor, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are affected by ever-increasing natural and human pressures. Because the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics unique to estuarine ecosystems control the ways that biological resources respond to ecosystem stressors, we present a flexible and adaptable biological assessment method for estuaries. The biological condition gradient (BCG) is a scientific framework of biological response to increasing anthropogenic stress that is comprehensive and ecosystem based and evaluates environmental conditions and the status of ecosystem services in order to identify, communicate, and prioritize management action. Using existing data, we constructed the first estuarine BCG framework that examines changes in habitat structure through time. Working in a New England (U.S.) estuary with a long history of human influence, we developed an approach to define a reference level, which we described as a "minimally disturbed" range of conditions for the ecosystem, anchored by observations before 1850 AD. Like many estuaries in the U.S., the relative importance of environmental stressors changed over time, but even qualitative descriptions of the biological indicators' status provided useful information for defining condition levels. This BCG demonstrated that stressors rarely acted alone and that declines in one biological indicator influenced the declines of others. By documenting the biological responses to cumulative stressors, the BCG inherently suggests an ecosystem-based approach to management. Additionally, the BCG process initiates thinking over long time scales and can be used to inspire scientists, managers, and the public toward environmental action.

  15. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new "experimentation assessments," 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  16. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students’ Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students’ competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new “experimentation assessments,” 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  17. Biological effects of anthropogenic chemical stress: Tools for the assessment of ecosystem health (BEAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari K.; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas;

    In the Baltic Sea Action Plan the urgent need to develop biological effects monitoring of hazardous substances and the assessment of ecosystem health has been clearly indicated. These goals will be tackled in the newly launched BEAST project (Biological Effects of Anthropogenic Chemical Stress......: Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health, 2009-2011), which is part of the Baltic Sea BONUS+ Programme funded jointly by national funding agencies and FP7 ERA-NET+ of the European Commission. The BEAST project consists of three workpackages (WP) with the following main tasks: WP1- Field studies and...... experiments in selected sub-regions of the Baltic Sea, WP2 - Application and validation of methods in monitoring and assessment in the Baltic Sea, and WP3 - Developing tools for ecosystem health assessment in the Baltic Sea. BEAST research activities are focused in the sub-regions of Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of...

  18. COMPARISON OF TWO BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY BASED ON MACROZOOBENTHOS

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Kerovec; Zlatko Mihaljević

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the results of two macrozoobenthos analysis based indices (Saprobic Index and Extended Biotic Index) are used as biological indicators in the assessment of river water quality. The objective of the paper is to establish the extent to which the results of these methods are comparable. The results indicate that both indices are suitable for assessing the quality of river water in the Croatian hydrographic network. Major deviations were only detected in xenosaprobic waters,...

  19. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  20. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed Biological Assessment was developed for the proposed Areawide Water Hyacinth Control Program to outline the procedures that will be used to control this invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta, and to help determine if this action is expected to threaten endanger...

  1. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  2. Education: Outcomes Assessment as a Context for Evaluating the Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Argues, with exemplification, that what is relevant to the undergraduate biology curriculum, as well as what must be covered by that same curriculum, can both be systematically addressed by the process of outcomes assessment, thereby assuring appropriate program perspective as a desirable precursor to major curriculum revision. (nine references)…

  3. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative to the control of... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. We...

  4. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... prepared an environmental assessment relative to the release of Symnus coniferarum to control hemlock... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to...

  5. Biohorizons: An eConference to Assess Human Biology in Large, First-Year Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors detail the design, implementation and evaluation of an eConference entitled "Biohorizons," using a presage-process-product model to describe the development of an eLearning community. Biohorizons was a summative learning and assessment task aiming to introduce large classes of first-year Human Biology students to the practices of…

  6. Preparing Biology Graduate Teaching Assistants for Their Roles as Instructors: An Assessment of Institutional Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Read, Quentin; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen; Ferzli, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Faculty and staff were surveyed to assess the professional development (PD) for teaching provided to biology graduate students at academic institutions. Although more than 90% of institutions provided PD, it was most often presemester and less than 10 h. Respondents most satisfied with their PD had programs with greater breadth and institutional support.

  7. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  8. Overview of BioCreAtIvE: critical assessment of information extraction for biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschman Lynette

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of the first BioCreAtIvE challenge (Critical Assessment of Information Extraction in Biology was to provide a set of common evaluation tasks to assess the state of the art for text mining applied to biological problems. The results were presented in a workshop held in Granada, Spain March 28–31, 2004. The articles collected in this BMC Bioinformatics supplement entitled "A critical assessment of text mining methods in molecular biology" describe the BioCreAtIvE tasks, systems, results and their independent evaluation. Results BioCreAtIvE focused on two tasks. The first dealt with extraction of gene or protein names from text, and their mapping into standardized gene identifiers for three model organism databases (fly, mouse, yeast. The second task addressed issues of functional annotation, requiring systems to identify specific text passages that supported Gene Ontology annotations for specific proteins, given full text articles. Conclusion The first BioCreAtIvE assessment achieved a high level of international participation (27 groups from 10 countries. The assessment provided state-of-the-art performance results for a basic task (gene name finding and normalization, where the best systems achieved a balanced 80% precision / recall or better, which potentially makes them suitable for real applications in biology. The results for the advanced task (functional annotation from free text were significantly lower, demonstrating the current limitations of text-mining approaches where knowledge extrapolation and interpretation are required. In addition, an important contribution of BioCreAtIvE has been the creation and release of training and test data sets for both tasks. There are 22 articles in this special issue, including six that provide analyses of results or data quality for the data sets, including a novel inter-annotator consistency assessment for the test set used in task 2.

  9. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  10. Models of risk assessments for biologicals or related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, M

    1995-12-01

    In the context of veterinary biologicals, environmental risk assessment means the evaluation of the risk to human health and the environment (which includes plants and animals) connected with the release of such products. The following categories or types of veterinary biologicals can be distinguished: non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMOs) (inactivated/live) GMOs (inactivated/live) carrier products related products (e.g. non-specific "inducers'). Suitable models used in risk assessment for these products should aim to identify all possible adverse effects. A good working model should lead, at least, to a qualitative judgement on the environmental risk of the biological product (e.g. negligible, low, medium, severe, unacceptable). Quantifiable outcomes are rare; therefore, the producer of a biological product and the European control authorities should accept only models which are based on testable points and which are relevant to the type of product and its instructions for use. In view of animal welfare aspects, models working without animals should be preferred. In recent years, some of these methods have been integrated into safety tests described in European Union Directives and in monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. By reviewing vaccine/registration problems (e.g. Aujeszky's disease live vaccine for pigs, and vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine), several models used in risk assessment are demonstrated and discussed. PMID:8639943

  11. Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing biological indicators based on benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, A.H.; Bressler, D.W.; Paul, M.J.; Barbour, M.T.; Rankin, E.T.; Carter, J.L.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Biological indicators, particularly benthic macroinvertebrates, are widely used and effective measures of the impact of urbanization on stream ecosystems. A multimetric biological index of urbanization was developed using a large benthic macroinvertebrate dataset (n = 1,835) from the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area and then validated with datasets from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 79); San Jose, California (n = 85); and a different subset of the Baltimore data (n = 85). The biological metrics used to develop the multimetric index were selected using several criteria and were required to represent ecological attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages including taxonomic composition and richness (number of taxa in the insect orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (number of taxa designated as filterers), and habit (percent of individuals which cling to the substrate). Quantile regression was used to select metrics and characterize the relationship between the final biological index and an urban gradient (composed of population density, road density, and urban land use). Although more complex biological indices exist, this simplified multimetric index showed a consistent relationship between biological indicators and urban conditions (as measured by quantile regression) in three climatic regions of the United States and can serve as an assessment tool for environmental managers to prioritize urban stream sites for restoration and protection.

  12. Phosphorus recycling potential assessment by a biological test applied to wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braak, Etienne; Auby, Sarah; Piveteau, Simon; Guilayn, Felipe; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling as mineral fertilizer from wastewater activated sludge (WAS) depends on the amount that can be dissolved and separated from the organic matter before the final crystallization step. The aim of the biological phosphorus dissolution potential (BPDP) test developed here was to assess the maximum amount of P that could be biologically released from WAS prior that the liquid phase enters the recovery process. It was first developed for sludge combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride. Because carbohydrates are known to induce acidification during the first stage of anaerobic digestion, sucrose was used as a co-substrate. Best results were obtained after 24-48 h, without inoculum, with a sugar/sludge ratio of 0.5 gCOD/gVS and under strict anaerobic conditions. Up to 75% of the total phosphorus in sludge from a wastewater treatment plant combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride phosphorus removal could be dissolved. Finally, the test was applied to assess BPDP from different sludge using alum compounds for P removal. No dissolution was observed when alum polychloride was used and less than 20% when alum sulphate was used. In all the cases, comparison to chemical acidification showed that the biological process was a major contributor to P dissolution. The possibility to crystallize struvite was discussed from the composition of the liquids obtained. The BPDP will be used not only to assess the potential for phosphorus recycling from sludge, but also to study the influence of the co-substrates available for anaerobic digestion of sludge. PMID:26786893

  13. Relevance of Crop Biology for Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Akinbo, Olalekan; Hancock, James F.; Makinde, Diran

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the crop biology of economic crops in Africa is needed for regulators to accurately review dossiers and conduct comprehensive environmental risk assessments (ERAs). This information allows regulators to decide whether biotech crops present a risk to biodiversity, since crossing between domesticated crops and their wild relatives could affect the adaptations of the wild species. The criteria that should be used in the evaluation of African crops for ERA include growth habit, ce...

  14. The phaseness of human biological development assesse with the use of selected physicochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Czapla, Zbigniew

    2000-01-01

    The principal idea of the work was to show a new, original method of description of the phenomena of human biological development with the use of nonstandard research methods so far unused in the ontogenetic studies in regard to the stable and involutional phases of ontogenesis. The main purpose of the work was to assess with selected methods individual reactions of a human organism in ontogenesis against the development of the population. Two research methods were selec...

  15. The relationship between environmental monitoring and biological markers in exposure assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Rappaport, S. M.; Symanski, E.; Yager, J W; Kupper, L L

    1995-01-01

    The poor quality of traditional assessments of exposure has encouraged epidemiologists to explore biological monitoring in studies of chronic diseases. Yet, despite theoretical advantages, biomarkers have not been widely used in such applications. This article compares the general utility of a biomarker with that of the measurement of exposure per se. Points are illustrated with a longitudinal study of boat workers in which levels of styrene in the breathing zone and in exhaled air were compa...

  16. Impact assessment of HIV infection on biological variables in Angami Nagas: Gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Athoni Rhetso; S.L. Malik

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess gender differences for the impact of HIV infection on biological variables in Angami Nagas, a cross sectional analysis was performed comparing 400 control (HIV negative) adult Angamis (200 males and 200 females) and 60 affected (HIV positive) adult Angamis collected from Kohima, Nagaland (India). Both control males and females are significantly heavier, and have greater grip strengths, higher lung functions and marginally higher blood pressure than the respective HIV affect...

  17. The use of computer-based assessments in a field biology module

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, Glenn K.; Rayne, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    Formative computer-based assessments (CBAs) for self-instruction were introduced into a Year-2 field biology module. These CBAs were provided in ‘tutorial’ mode where each question had context-related diagnostic feedback and tutorial pages, and a self-test mode where the same CBA returned only a score. The summative assessments remained unchanged and consisted of an unseen CBA and written reports of field investigations. When compared with the previous three year-cohorts, the mean score for t...

  18. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were polyurethane foam insulation (0.023 mg m(-3)). The most commonly detected isocyanate in the urine was hexamethylene diisocyanate, which was detected in 21 instances. The geometric mean total isocyanate metabolite concentration for the dataset was 0.29 micromol mol(-1) creatinine (range 0.05-12.64 micromol mol(-1

  19. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-12-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states. Achieve, Inc. on behalf of the twenty-six states and partners that collaborated on the NGSS, 2013). Although assessments of the NGSS have yet to be developed, most students are currently evaluated on their ability to interpret science visuals. While numerous studies exist on particular visuals, it is unclear whether the same types of visuals are emphasized in all science disciplines. The present study is an evaluation of the similarities and differences of visuals used to assess students' knowledge of chemistry, earth science, living environment (biology), and physics on the New York State Regents examination. Analysis of 266 distinct visual representations categorized across the four content examinations reveals that the frequency and type of visuals vary greatly between disciplines. Diagrams, Graphs, Tables, and Maps are the most prevalent across all science disciplines. Maps, Cartograms, and Time Charts are unique to the Earth Science examination, and Network Diagrams are unique to the living environment (biology) examination. This study identifies which representations are most critical for training students across the science disciplines in anticipation of the implementation and eventual assessment of the NGSS.

  20. Assessment of network perturbation amplitudes by applying high-throughput data to causal biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Florian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput measurement technologies produce data sets that have the potential to elucidate the biological impact of disease, drug treatment, and environmental agents on humans. The scientific community faces an ongoing challenge in the analysis of these rich data sources to more accurately characterize biological processes that have been perturbed at the mechanistic level. Here, a new approach is built on previous methodologies in which high-throughput data was interpreted using prior biological knowledge of cause and effect relationships. These relationships are structured into network models that describe specific biological processes, such as inflammatory signaling or cell cycle progression. This enables quantitative assessment of network perturbation in response to a given stimulus. Results Four complementary methods were devised to quantify treatment-induced activity changes in processes described by network models. In addition, companion statistics were developed to qualify significance and specificity of the results. This approach is called Network Perturbation Amplitude (NPA scoring because the amplitudes of treatment-induced perturbations are computed for biological network models. The NPA methods were tested on two transcriptomic data sets: normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells treated with the pro-inflammatory signaling mediator TNFα, and HCT116 colon cancer cells treated with the CDK cell cycle inhibitor R547. Each data set was scored against network models representing different aspects of inflammatory signaling and cell cycle progression, and these scores were compared with independent measures of pathway activity in NHBE cells to verify the approach. The NPA scoring method successfully quantified the amplitude of TNFα-induced perturbation for each network model when compared against NF-κB nuclear localization and cell number. In addition, the degree and specificity to which CDK

  1. Development and Assessment of Modules to Integrate Quantitative Skills in Introductory Biology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kathleen; Leupen, Sarah; Dowell, Kathy; Kephart, Kerrie; Leips, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Redesigning undergraduate biology courses to integrate quantitative reasoning and skill development is critical to prepare students for careers in modern medicine and scientific research. In this paper, we report on the development, implementation, and assessment of stand-alone modules that integrate quantitative reasoning into introductory biology courses. Modules are designed to improve skills in quantitative numeracy, interpreting data sets using visual tools, and making inferences about biological phenomena using mathematical/statistical models. We also examine demographic/background data that predict student improvement in these skills through exposure to these modules. We carried out pre/postassessment tests across four semesters and used student interviews in one semester to examine how students at different levels approached quantitative problems. We found that students improved in all skills in most semesters, although there was variation in the degree of improvement among skills from semester to semester. One demographic variable, transfer status, stood out as a major predictor of the degree to which students improved (transfer students achieved much lower gains every semester, despite the fact that pretest scores in each focus area were similar between transfer and nontransfer students). We propose that increased exposure to quantitative skill development in biology courses is effective at building competency in quantitative reasoning. PMID:27146161

  2. Assessment of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria and shrimp production in ponds treated with biological products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Shubhadeep Ghosh; Debasis Sasmal

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of biological products on the levels of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria in shrimp culture systems of West Bengal, India. Methods: The pond water and sediment samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as per standard methods. The bacteria involved in ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation were enumerated by most probable number technique. Results:The semi-intensive and modified extensive shrimp farms used a variety of biological products during various stages of production. No biological products were used in traditional farms. The water and sediment samples of modified extensive system recorded significantly higher mean heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts of ammonia, nitrite and sulphur oxidizers, and nitrate and sulphate reducers varied among the systems. The cycling of nitrogen and sulphur appeared to be affected with the intensification of culture practices. Conclusions:The application of biological products in certain systems helped to maintain the bacteria involved in nitrogen and sulphur cycles and safe levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. An assessment of these metabolically active bacteria in shrimp culture ponds and the application of right kind microbial products would help ameliorate the organic pollution in shrimp aquaculture.

  3. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  4. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database

  5. Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-05-01

    The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

  6. Assessing Vermont's stream health and biological integrity using artificial neural networks and Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Fytilis, N.; Stevens, L.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental managers are increasingly required to monitor and forecast long-term effects and vulnerability of biophysical systems to human-generated stresses. Ideally, a study involving both physical and biological assessments conducted concurrently (in space and time) could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and complex relationships. However, costs and resources associated with monitoring the complex linkages between the physical, geomorphic and habitat conditions and the biological integrity of stream reaches are prohibitive. Researchers have used classification techniques to place individual streams and rivers into a broader spatial context (hydrologic or health condition). Such efforts require environmental managers to gather multiple forms of information - quantitative, qualitative and subjective. We research and develop a novel classification tool that combines self-organizing maps with a Naïve Bayesian classifier to direct resources to stream reaches most in need. The Vermont Agency of Natural Resources has developed and adopted protocols for physical stream geomorphic and habitat assessments throughout the state of Vermont. Separate from these assessments, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation monitors the biological communities and the water quality in streams. Our initial hypothesis is that the geomorphic reach assessments and water quality data may be leveraged to reduce error and uncertainty associated with predictions of biological integrity and stream health. We test our hypothesis using over 2500 Vermont stream reaches (~1371 stream miles) assessed by the two agencies. In the development of this work, we combine a Naïve Bayesian classifier with a modified Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The SOM is an unsupervised artificial neural network that autonomously analyzes inherent dataset properties using input data only. It is typically used to cluster data into similar categories when a priori classes do not exist. The

  7. The impact of biology on risk assessment -- Workshop of the National Research Council's board on radiation effects research. Meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear, nonthreshold extrapolation from a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation derived at higher doses to doses for which regulatory standards are proposed is being challenged by some scientists and defended by others. It appears that the risks associated with exposures to doses of interest are below the risks that can be measured with epidemiologic studies. Therefore, many have looked to biology to provide information relevant to risk assessment. The workshop reported here, ''The Impact of biology on Risk Assessment,'' was planned to address the need for further information by bringing together scientists who have been working in key fields of biology and others who have been contemplating the issues associated specifically with this question. The goals of the workshop were to summarize and review the status of the relevant biology, to determine how the reported biologic data might influence risk assessment, and to identify subjects on which more data is needed

  8. Biological Assessment to Support Ecological Recovery of a Degraded Headwater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Scott D.; Haggard, Brian E.

    2010-09-01

    An assessment of the benthic macroinvertebrate community was conducted to characterize the ecological recovery of a channelized main stem and two small tributaries at the Watershed Research and Education Center (WREC, Arkansas, USA). Three other headwater streams in the same basin were also sampled as controls and for biological reference information. A principal components analysis produced stream groupings along an overall gradient of physical habitat integrity, with degraded reaches showing lower RBP habitat scores, reduced flow velocities, smaller substrate sizes, greater conductivity, and higher percentages of sand and silt substrate. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage at WREC was dominated by fast-reproducing dipteran larvae (midge and mosquito larvae) and physid snails, which comprised 71.3% of the total macroinvertebrate abundance over three sampling periods. Several macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics should provide effective targets for monitoring overall improvements in the invertebrate assemblage including recovery towards a more complex food web (e.g., total number of taxa, number of EPT taxa, percent 2 dominant taxa). However, current habitat conditions and the extent of existing degradation, system isolation and surrounding urban or agricultural land-uses might affect the level of positive change to the system. We therefore suggest a preliminary restoration strategy involving the addition of pool habitats in the system. At one pool we collected a total of 29 taxa (dominated by water beetle predators), which was 59% of total number of taxa collected at WREC. Maintaining water-retentive pools to collect flows and maintain water permanence focuses on enhancing known biology and habitat, thus reducing the effects of abiotic filters on macroinvertebrate assemblage recovery. Furthermore, biological assessment prior to restoration supports a strategy primarily focused on improving the existing macroinvertebrate community in the current context of the

  9. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  10. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  11. Assessment of Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae for biological control in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Alvarenga Soares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the sixth most important crop in the world, and it is attacked by many pests, such as Erinnyis ello (L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae. This lepidopteran pest has natural enemies that can efficiently control its population, such as Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. The objective of this research was to assess the flight capacity, parasitism and emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum, T. marandobai and T. demoraesi and to select the most efficient species among them for biological control programs. The flight capacity of these species was assessed in test units consisting of a plastic PVC cylinder with a rigid, transparent plastic circle on the upper portion of the cylinder and an extruded polystyrene disk to close the bottom of the cylinder. A tube was placed in each test unit containing a card with 300 Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae eggs that had been parasitised by Trichogramma. These cards were later assessed to determine the parasitism rate and adult emergence of these natural enemies. Trichogramma pretiosum presented the highest flight capacity (68 ± 5%, parasitism (74 ± 2% and percentage of adults emerged (91 ± 3% in the laboratory, making this species suitable for mass rearing and release in biological control programs.

  12. In situ combined chemical and biological assessment of estrogenic pollution in a water recycling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Huang, Qiansheng; Zhang, Huanteng; Chen, Yajie; Dong, Sijun

    2016-05-01

    Estrogenic pollution and its control in aquatic systems have drawn substantial attention around the world. The chemical and biological assessment approaches currently utilized in the laboratory or field cannot give an integrated assessment of the pollution when used separately. In this study, in situ chemical and biological methods were combined to detect pollution in a water recycling system. Data for the water quality index (WQI) demonstrated that the water treatment resulted in the decline of pollution from upstream to downstream. Wild male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was sampled in June and September. The concentrations of four common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were determined in the tilapia liver by chromatographic analysis methods. The level of 17β-estradiol (E2) declined from upstream to downstream in both months. In contrast, the levels of bisphenol A (BPA), di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) did not display this declining tendency. The highest relative expression of vitellogenin 1 (VTG1) was observed in tilapia from upstream, then the level significantly decreased along the water system. The relative expression levels of CYP1A1 in the water system were also significantly higher than that of the control. However, no declining trend could be observed along the water system. The change of VTG1 expression corresponded well with that of E2 levels in the tilapia liver. Overall, our study assessed the pollution by endocrine disruptors using chemical and biological data with good correspondence. This study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the water recycling system in eliminating estrogen pollution in municipal sewage. PMID:27155427

  13. Chemical and biological toxicity assessment of simulated Hanford site low-level waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defining the potential damage to the biosphere associated with exposure to low-level waste grouting operations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is difficult and controversial. Combined chemical and biological assessment of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. This paper will identify and predict the chemical components of the grout that will have the greatest potential of causing deleterious effects on fish and wildlife indigenous to the Hanford Site. This paper will also determine whether the current grout technology is adequate in controlling toxicant and pollutant releases for regulatory compliance

  14. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.I. [Hospital Univ. la Fe de Valen cian, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F.; Rodriguez, P. [Universitat Autonom a de Barcelona, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia., Barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular, Barcelona (Spain); Verdu, G.; Ramos, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Valencia, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  15. Analysis and assessment of the detriment in interventional radiology using biological dosimetry methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiologist and staff members usually are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. As a result, the exposition to radiation procedures can produce detrimental effects that we would have to know. Effective dose is the quantity that better estimates the radiation risk. For this study we have realized an estimation of the radiological detriment to exposed workers of the Hospital la Fe de Valencia. For it, have been used physical doses registered in detectors T.L.D., and doses estimated by biological dosimetry in lymphocytes of peripheral blood. There has been estimated for every case the probability of effect of skin cancer and of non-solid cancers (leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma), being compared with the baseline probability of natural effect. Biological doses were obtained by extrapolating the yield of dicentrics and translocations to their respective dose -effect curves. The discrepancies observed between physically recorded doses and biological estimated doses indicate that workers did not always wear their dosimeters or the dosimeters were not always in the radiation field. Cytogenetic studies should be extended to more workers to assess the risk derived from their occupational exposure. (authors)

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. PMID:25708404

  17. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  18. Insects as test systems for assessing the potential role of microgravity in biological development and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernós, I.; Carratalá, M.; González-Jurado, J.; Valverde, J. R.; Calleja, M.; Domingo, A.; Vinós, J.; Cervera, M.; Marco, R.

    Gravity and radiation are undoubtedly the two major environmental factors altered in space. Gravity is a weak force, which creates a permanent potential field acting on the mass of biological systems and their cellular components, strongly reduced in space flights. Developmental systems, particularly at very early stages, provide the larger cellular compartments known, where the effects of alterations in the size of the gravity vector on living organisms can be more effectively tested. The insects, one of the more highly evolved classes of animals in which early development occurs in a syncytial embryo, are systems particularly well suited to test these effects and the specific developmental mechanisms affected. Furthermore, they share some basic features such as small size, short life cycles, relatively high radio-resistance, etc. and show a diversity of developmental strategies and tempos advantageous in experiments of this type in space. Drosophila melanogaster, the current biological paradigm to study development, with so much genetic and evolutionary background available, is clearly the reference organism for these studies. The current evidence on the effects of the physical parameters altered in space flights on insect development indicate a surprising correlation between effects seen on the fast developing and relatively small Drosophila embryo and the more slowly developing and large Carausius morosus system. In relation to the issue of the importance of developmental and environmental constraints in biological evolution, still the missing link in current evolutionary thinking, insects and space facilities for long-term experiments could provide useful experimental settings where to critically assess how development and evolution may be interconnected. Finally, it has to be pointed out that since there are experimental data indicating a possible synergism between microgravity and space radiation, possible effects of space radiation should be taken into

  19. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part 11 of a database constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on authors, key words, title, year, journal name, or publication number. Photocopies of the publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by our publication acquisition numbers. This volume contains 1048 additional entries, which are listed in alphabetical order by author. The computer software used for the database is a simple but sophisticated relational database program that permits quick information access, high flexibility, and the creation of customized reports. This program is inexpensive and is commercially available for the Macintosh and the IBM PC. Although the database entries were made using a Macintosh computer, we have the capability to convert the files into the IBM PC version. As of this date, the database cites 2260 publications. Citations in the database are from 200 different scientific journals. There are also references to 80 books and published symposia, and 158 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed within the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly predominate. The journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, with a total of 242 citations in the database, and Mutation Research, with 185 citations. Other journals with over 100 citations in the database, are Radiation Research, with 136, and International Journal of Radiation Biology, with 132

  20. A biological tool to assess flow connectivity in reference temporary streams from the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, N; Verkaik, I; García-Roger, E M; Rieradevall, M; Bonada, N; Sánchez-Montoya, M M; Gómez, R; Suárez, M L; Vidal-Abarca, M R; Demartini, D; Buffagni, A; Erba, S; Karaouzas, I; Skoulikidis, N; Prat, N

    2016-01-01

    Many streams in the Mediterranean Basin have temporary flow regimes. While timing for seasonal drought is predictable, they undergo strong inter-annual variability in flow intensity. This high hydrological variability and associated ecological responses challenge the ecological status assessment of temporary streams, particularly when setting reference conditions. This study examined the effects of flow connectivity in aquatic macroinvertebrates from seven reference temporary streams across the Mediterranean Basin where hydrological variability and flow conditions are well studied. We tested for the effect of flow cessation on two streamflow indices and on community composition, and, by performing random forest and classification tree analyses we identified important biological predictors for classifying the aquatic state either as flowing or disconnected pools. Flow cessation was critical for one of the streamflow indices studied and for community composition. Macroinvertebrate families found to be important for classifying the aquatic state were Hydrophilidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae, Planorbiidae, Heptageniidae and Gerridae. For biological traits, trait categories associated to feeding habits, food, locomotion and substrate relation were the most important and provided more accurate predictions compared to taxonomy. A combination of selected metrics and associated thresholds based on the most important biological predictors (i.e. Bio-AS Tool) were proposed in order to assess the aquatic state in reference temporary streams, especially in the absence of hydrological data. Although further development is needed, the tool can be of particular interest for monitoring, restoration, and conservation purposes, representing an important step towards an adequate management of temporary rivers not only in the Mediterranean Basin but also in other regions vulnerable to the effects of climate change. PMID:26209067

  1. Standards in biological dosimetry: A requirement to perform an appropriate dose assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Every year, many countries perform a significant number of investigations based on biological radiation dose assessment to check suspected or true overexposure by irradiation of radiation workers and individuals of the general population. The scoring of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes has gradually become the "gold standard" for the biodosimetry-based assessment of accidental situations. Nevertheless, other "classical" biodosimetric methods such as micronuclei, prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) and FISH translocations are relevant in some exposure situations, also for surveillance of groups of populations at risk. Historical international intercomparison studies have shown discrepancies among dose-effect curves used to estimate doses from blood samples irradiated between 0 and 4Gy. Recent experimental work performed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has shown the impact of some blood harvesting parameters on the mitotic index, and consequently on the quality of dose assessment. Therefore, it was relevant to define the best Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) criteria to harmonize protocols among biodosimetry laboratories. Complementary with several editions of an IAEA technical manual, ISO standards were written with the view of considering the most used chromosome aberrations assays: dicentrics and micronuclei. An important feature of these standards is to address the organization of population triage and laboratories networking that would be required in case of a large nuclear event or malicious act involving radioactive material. These ISO standards are relevant and helpful to implement a coordinated response of several biodosimetry networks in Europe, Japan, Canada, and to support European programs such as MULTIBIODOSE and RENEB. A new important ISO standard on the use of FISH translocations in retrospective dosimetry is now being drafted. PMID:26520381

  2. Compression-based classification of biological sequences and structures via the Universal Similarity Metric: experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzini Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. It is currently primarily handled using alignments. However, the alignment methods seem inadequate for post-genomic studies since they do not scale well with data set size and they seem to be confined only to genomic and proteomic sequences. Therefore, alignment-free similarity measures are actively pursued. Among those, USM (Universal Similarity Metric has gained prominence. It is based on the deep theory of Kolmogorov Complexity and universality is its most novel striking feature. Since it can only be approximated via data compression, USM is a methodology rather than a formula quantifying the similarity of two strings. Three approximations of USM are available, namely UCD (Universal Compression Dissimilarity, NCD (Normalized Compression Dissimilarity and CD (Compression Dissimilarity. Their applicability and robustness is tested on various data sets yielding a first massive quantitative estimate that the USM methodology and its approximations are of value. Despite the rich theory developed around USM, its experimental assessment has limitations: only a few data compressors have been tested in conjunction with USM and mostly at a qualitative level, no comparison among UCD, NCD and CD is available and no comparison of USM with existing methods, both based on alignments and not, seems to be available. Results We experimentally test the USM methodology by using 25 compressors, all three of its known approximations and six data sets of relevance to Molecular Biology. This offers the first systematic and quantitative experimental assessment of this methodology, that naturally complements the many theoretical and the preliminary experimental results available. Moreover, we compare the USM methodology both with methods based on alignments and not. We may group our experiments into two sets. The first one, performed via ROC

  3. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative to the control...

  4. Evaluation of Formative Computer-Based Assessment by Cell Biology Students with Differing Entry Qualifications and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Christopher; Baggott, Glenn; Howey, Ellen; Pellet-Many, Carolyn; Rayne, Richard; Neonaki, Maria; Bax, Bridget E.; White, Christopher Branford

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine students' responses to the use of on-line assessments that included feedback. First year BSc students taking a Cell Biology module undertook such an assessment and were then asked to evaluate the test by completing an anonymous questionnaire. Answers were analysed in light of the respondents' ethnicity and…

  5. Statistical and regulatory considerations in assessments of interchangeability of biological drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthfalusi, Lászlo; Endrényi, László; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2014-05-01

    When the patent of a brand-name, marketed drug expires, new, generic products are usually offered. Small-molecule generic and originator drug products are expected to be chemically identical. Their pharmaceutical similarity can be typically assessed by simple regulatory criteria such as the expectation that the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of geometric means of some pharmacokinetic parameters be between 0.80 and 1.25. When such criteria are satisfied, the drug products are generally considered to exhibit therapeutic equivalence. They are then usually interchanged freely within individual patients. Biological drugs are complex proteins, for instance, because of their large size, intricate structure, sensitivity to environmental conditions, difficult manufacturing procedures, and the possibility of immunogenicity. Generic and brand-name biologic products can be expected to show only similarity but not identity in their various features and clinical effects. Consequently, the determination of biosimilarity is also a complicated process which involves assessment of the totality of the evidence for the close similarity of the two products. Moreover, even when biosimilarity has been established, it may not be assumed that the two biosimilar products can be automatically substituted by pharmacists. This generally requires additional, careful considerations. Without declaring interchangeability, a new product could be prescribed, i.e. it is prescribable. However, two products can be automatically substituted only if they are interchangeable. Interchangeability is a statistical term and it means that products can be used in any order in the same patient without considering the treatment history. The concepts of interchangeability and prescribability have been widely discussed in the past but only in relation to small molecule generics. In this paper we apply these concepts to biosimilars and we discuss: definitions of prescribability and interchangeability and

  6. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996 and 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1998-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to build, install, and operate a Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LMA) in Technical Area 53 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LEDA will demonstrate the accelerator technology necessary to produce tritium, but is not designed to produce tritium at LANL. USFWS reviewers of the Biological Assessment prepared for LEDA insisted that the main drainage be monitored to measure and document changes to vegetation, soils, wildlife, and habitats due to LEDA effluent discharges. The Biology Team of ESH-20 (LANL`s Ecology Group) has performed these monitoring activities during 1996 and 1997 to document baseline conditions before LEDA released significant effluent discharges. Quarterly monitoring of the outfall which will discharge LEDA blowdown effluent had one exceedance of permitted parameters, a high chlorine discharge that was quickly remedied. Samples from 12 soil pits in the drainage area contained no hydric indicators, such as organic matter in the upper layers, streaking, organic pans, and oxidized rhizospheres. Vegetation transacts in the meadows that LEDA discharges will flow through contained 44 species of herbaceous plants, all upland taxa. Surveys of resident birds, reptiles, and amphibians documented a fauna typical of local dry canyons. No threatened or endangered species inhabit the project area, but increased effluent releases may make the area more attractive to many wildlife species, an endangered raptor, and several other species of concern. Biological best management practices especially designed for LEDA are discussed, including protection of floodplains, erosion control measures, hazards posed by increased usage of the area by deer and elk and revegetation of disturbed areas.

  7. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  8. Mass balance to assess the efficiency of a mechanical-biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using mechanical-biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste, it is possible to significantly lower landfill volume and gas and leachate emissions. Moreover, the landfill characteristics are improved. The performance of the Mende (France) mechanical-biological treatment plant is assessed via mass balances coupled with manual sorting according to the MODECOMTM methodology and biochemical methane potential after 90 days of incubation. The site includes mechanical sorting operations, a rotary sequential bioreactor, controlled aerobic stabilisation corridors, maturation platforms, and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. Results showed that several steps could be improved: after a first sieving step, about 12% of the potentially biodegradable matter is landfilled directly without any treatment; mechanical disintegration of papers and cardboards in the rotary sequential bioreactor is insufficient and leads to a high proportion of papers and cardboards being landfilled without further treatment. Two fine fractions go through stabilisation and maturation steps. At the end of the maturation step, about 54% of the potentially biodegradable matter is degraded. The biochemical methane potential after 90 days of incubation is reduced by 81% for one of the two fine fractions and reduced by 88% for the other one. Considering the whole plant, there is a reduction of nearly 20% DM of the entering residual municipal solid waste

  9. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Pape, Yann Le [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2016-01-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) values in the concrete biological shields of the US PWR fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to assure reliable risk assessment for NPPs extended operation.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF WHEAT BRAN MEDIUM PROCESSING CONDITIONS, ASSESSMENT OF BIOLOGICAL VALUE FOR SACCHAROMYCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Panfilov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnological methods have perhaps the greatest potential in deep processing of renewable raw materials. Bioconversion of lignocelluloses materials substantially increases its bioavailability and effectiveness of consumption by microorganisms. The enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis of wheat bran under mild conditions are compared in this study.The purpose of this study was to define microbiological and biochemical criteria for the bioconversion. Enzymatic hydrolysis of extruded bran was held with three enzyme preparations usually used in the conversion of vegetable raw materials: “Viscoferm,” “Cellic HTec2,” and “Celloviridin G20x.” The central composite design was used for parameter optimization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was used for assessment of biological value of the slurry obtained. The content of crude protein of the product obtained was 1.9 times higher than the initial.

  11. Sediment contaminants and biological effects in southern California: Use of a multivariate statistical approach to assess biological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to predict biological toxicity and benthic community impact in sediments collected from two southern California sites. Contaminant concentrations and grain size were evaluated as predictors using a two-step multivariate approach. The first step used principal component analysis (PCA) to describe contamination type and magnitude present at each site. Four dominant PC vectors, explaining 88% of the total variance, each corresponded to a unique physical and/or chemical signature. The four PC vectors, in decreasing order of importance, were: (1) high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), most likely from combusted or weathered petroleum; (2) low molecular weight alkylated PAH, primarily from weathered fuel product; (3) low molecular weight nonalkylated PAH, indicating a fresh petroleum-related origin; and (4) fine-grained sediments and metals. The second step used stepwise regression analysis to predict individual biological effects (dependent) variables using the four PC vectors as independent variables. Results showed that sediment grain size alone was the best predictor of amphipod mortality. Contaminant vectors showed discrete depositional areas independent of grain size. Neither contaminant concentrations nor PCA vectors were good predictors of biological effects, most likely due to the low concentrations in sediments

  12. Assessment of the Effects of Student Response Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes over a Broad Range of Biology Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Preszler, Ralph W.; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B.; Shuster, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six biology courses showed that strong majorities of students had favorable overall impressions of the use of student response systems and also thought t...

  13. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar Bireescu; Geanina Bireescu; Michele Vincenzo Sellitto

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized ...

  14. Environmental Projects. Volume 17; Biological Assessment, Opinion, and New 34-Meter Beam-Waveguide Antenna (DSS 24) at Apollo Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, Irving

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with the Biological Assessment, Biological Opinion and Final Report on the construction of a high- efficiency 34-meter, multifrequency beam-waveguide antenna at the Apollo Site of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, operated by JPL. According to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, a Biological Assessment must be conducted and a Biological Opinion, with terms and conditions, rendered (the Opinion by the U.S. Department of the Interior) before construction of any federal project that may affect endangered or threatened flora or fauna. After construction, a final report is filed with the Department. The desert tortoise, designated "threatened" by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Mojave ground squirrel and the Lane Mountain milk vetch, both designated "candidate threatened," required the reporting specified by the Act. The Assessment found no significant danger to the animal species if workers are educated about them. No stands of the plant species were observed in the surveyed construction area. The Department issued a Biological Opinion to safeguard the two animal species. The Service and the California Department of Fish and Game both issued a Biological Concurrence that JPL had satisfied all environmental criteria for preserving threatened species.

  15. Assessing impacts of climate change on forests: The state of biological modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rauscher, H.M. [Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1993-04-06

    Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one model can address all of these impacts, but landscape transition models and regional vegetation and land-use models consider the largest number of impacts. Developing landscape vegetation dynamics models of functional groups is suggested as a means to integrate the theory of both landscape ecology and individual tree responses to climate change. Risk assessment methodologies can be adapted to deal with the impacts of climate change at various spatial and temporal scales. Four areas of research development are identified: (1) linking socioeconomic and ecologic models, (2) interfacing forest models at different scales, (3) obtaining data on susceptibility of trees and forest to changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and (4) relating information from different scales.

  16. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, V. H.; Rauscher, H. M.

    1993-04-06

    Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one model can address all of these impacts, but landscape transition models and regional vegetation and land-use models consider the largest number of impacts. Developing landscape vegetation dynamics models of functional groups is suggested as a means to integrate the theory of both landscape ecology and individual tree responses to climate change. Risk assessment methodologies can be adapted to deal with the impacts of climate change at various spatial and temporal scales. Four areas of research development are identified: (1) linking socioeconomic and ecologic models, (2) interfacing forest models at different scales, (3) obtaining data on susceptibility of trees and forest to changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and (4) relating information from different scales.

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of size and surface charge measurements on nanoparticles prior to biological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Alliance for NanoEHS Harmonization (IANH) organises interlaboratory comparisons of methods used to study the potential biological impacts of nanomaterials. The aim of IANH is to identify and reduce or remove sources of variability and irreproducibility in existing protocols. Here, we present results of the first IANH round robin studies into methods to assess the size and surface charge of suspended nanoparticles. The test materials used (suspensions of gold, silica, polystyrene, and ceria nanoparticles, with [primary] particles sizes between 10 nm and 80 nm) were first analysed in repeatability conditions to assess the possible contribution of between-sample heterogeneity to the between-laboratory variability. Reproducibility of the selected methods was investigated in an interlaboratory comparison between ten different laboratories in the USA and Europe. Robust statistical analysis was used to evaluate within- and between-laboratory variability. It is shown that, if detailed shipping, measurement, and reporting protocols are followed, measurement of the hydrodynamic particle diameter of nanoparticles in predispersed monomodal suspensions using the dynamic light scattering method is reproducible. On the other hand, measurements of more polydisperse suspensions of nanoparticle aggregates or agglomerates were not reproducible between laboratories. Ultrasonication, which is commonly used to prepare dispersions before cell exposures, was observed to further increase variability. The variability of the zeta potential values, which were also measured, indicates the need to define better surface charge test protocols and to identify sources of variability.

  18. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  19. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Environmental impact assessment of sea bottom and marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.

    2000-03-15

    An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)

  20. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  1. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  2. 76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health.... On May 20, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28233- 28234, Docket No....

  3. How Important Is the Assessment of Practical Work? An Opinion Piece on the New Biology A-Level from BERG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Biological Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As education in England emerges from a major curriculum review (DfE 2013), the next few years will see significant changes in what is taught in schools and how this is assessed. As a core subject, under the current proposals, all students, from the beginning of primary school until age 16, will study science in some detail. Biology is an exciting,…

  4. Assessment of the Effects of Student Response Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes over a Broad Range of Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W.; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B.; Shuster, Michele

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six…

  5. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  6. Assessment of the Potential Biological Activity of Low Molecular Weight Metabolites of Freshwater Macrophytes with QSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Elena V.; Krylova, Julia V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the assessment of the spectrum of biological activities (antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial) with PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) for the major components of three macrophytes widespread in the Holarctic species of freshwater, emergent macrophyte with floating leaves, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., and two species of submergent macrophyte groups, Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Potamogeton obtusifolius (Mert. et Koch), for the discovery of their ecological and pharmacological potential. The predicted probability of anti-inflammatory or antineoplastic activities above 0.8 was observed for twenty compounds. The same compounds were also characterized by high probability of antifungal and antibacterial activity. Six metabolites, namely, hexanal, pentadecanal, tetradecanoic acid, dibutyl phthalate, hexadecanoic acid, and manool, were a part of the major components of all three studied plants, indicating their high ecological significance and a certain universalism in their use by various species of water plants for the implementation of ecological and biochemical functions. This report underlines the role of identified compounds not only as important components in regulation of biochemical and metabolic pathways and processes in aquatic ecological systems, but also as potential pharmacological agents in the fight against different diseases. PMID:27200207

  7. Exposure assessment to heavy metals in general population in a polluted area through biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimercati L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In polluted areas, a major issue is the correct assessment of the exposure of general population to industrial pollutants. The objectives were: to evaluate the exposure to heavy metals emitted from the industrial area of Taranto; to correlate biological monitoring data with environmental data, in order to clarify the impact of industrial pollution in terms of internal dose. A cross sectional study has been designed to measure levels of urinary arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese in 300 inhabitants of Taranto, Statte and Laterza. Adult subjects have been selected by a two-stage random stratified sampling. Results are based on 272 subjects (131 men and 141 women. The observed concentrations of metals in the whole study population are overall high. The median values for lead (7.4 μg/l and chromium (0.4 μg/l are higher than the 95° percentile of the range of reference values. For manganese and arsenic the 95° percentile of concentration in the whole study population is higher than the 95° percentile of the range of reference values. Concentrations of mercury in the whole study population are comparable to reference.

  8. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-07-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  9. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Field, Kevin G.; Le Pape, Yann

    2016-02-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC0500OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  10. A review of the known biological characteristics of the Great Meteor East site together with a sampling programme for a biological site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing biological information on GME is reviewed. In common with most other oceanic areas there is very little data available from depths below 2000m. There is virtually no direct benthic information and none at all on the midwater/benthic boundary layer. Existing data from a wider geographic area are relevant to GME but the applicability of such data varies according to the hydrography. A sampling programme is outlined which will allow a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessment of the midwater and benthic ecosystems. Particular attention will be paid to the interactions between benthic and midwater communities just above the sea floor. (author)

  11. Policy implications of select student characteristics and their influence on the Florida biology end-of-course assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Janine Cecelia

    In an attempt to improve student achievement in science in Florida, the Florida Department of Education implemented end-of-course (EOC) assessments in biology during the 2011-2012 academic school year. Although this first administration would only account for 30% of the student's overall final course grade in biology, subsequent administrations would be accompanied by increasing stakes for students, teachers, and schools. Therefore, this study sought to address gaps in empirical evidence as well as discuss how educational policy will potentially impact on teacher evaluation and professional development, student retention and graduation rates, and school accountability indicators. This study explored four variables- reading proficiency, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender- to determine their influence and relationship on biology achievement on the Biology I EOC assessment at a Title 1 school. To do so, the results of the Biology I EOC assessment administered during the Spring 2012 school year was obtained from a small, rural Title 1 high school in North Florida. Additional data regarding each student's qualification for free and reduced-price lunch, FCAT Reading developmental scale scores, FCAT Reading level, grade level, gender, and ethnicity were also collected for the causal-comparative exploratory study. Of the 178 students represented, 48% qualified for free and reduced-price lunch, 54% were female, and 55% scored at FCAT Reading level 3 or higher. Additionally, 59% were White and 37% Black. A combination of descriptive statistics and other statistical procedures such as independent samples one-tailed t-test, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multipleregression, and a Pearson r correlation was utilized in the analysis, with a significance level set at 0.05. Results indicate that of all four variables, FCAT Reading proficiency was the sole variable, after adjusting for other variables; that had a significant impact on biology achievement. Students with higher

  12. Ways of incorporating photographic images in learning and assessing high school biology: A study of visual perception and visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Brenda Chaumont

    This study evaluated the cognitive benefits and costs of incorporating biology-textbook and student-generated photographic images into the learning and assessment processes within a 10th grade biology classroom. The study implemented Wandersee's (2000) 20-Q Model of Image-Based Biology Test-Item Design (20-Q Model) to explore the use of photographic images to assess students' understanding of complex biological processes. A thorough review of the students' textbook using ScaleMaster R with PC Interface was also conducted. The photographs, diagrams, and other representations found in the textbook were measured to determine the percentage of each graphic depicted in the book and comparisons were made to the text. The theoretical framework that guided the research included Human Constructivist tenets espoused by Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak (2000). Physiological and cognitive factors of images and image-based learning as described by Robin (1992), Solso (1997) and Wandersee (2000) were examined. Qualitative case study design presented by Yin (1994), Denzin and Lincoln (1994) was applied and data were collected through interviews, observations, student activities, student and school artifacts and Scale Master IIRTM measurements. The results of the study indicate that although 24% of the high school biology textbook is devoted to photographic images which contribute significantly to textbook cost, the teacher and students paid little attention to photographic images other than as aesthetic elements for creating biological ambiance, wasting valuable opportunities for learning. The analysis of the photographs corroborated findings published by the Association American Association for the Advancement of Science that indicated "While most of the books are lavishly illustrated, these representations are rarely helpful, because they are too abstract, needlessly complicated, or inadequately explained" (Roseman, 2000, p. 2). The findings also indicate that applying the 20-Q

  13. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  14. Instream Biological Assessment of NPDES Point Source Discharges at the Savannah River Site, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) currently has 31 NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams. These studies were designed to detect biological impacts due to point source discharges. Sampling was initially conducted between November 1997 and July 1998 and was repeated in the summer and fall of 2000. A total of 18 locations were sampled (Table 1, Figure 1). Sampling locations for fish and macroinvertebrates were generally the same. However, different locations were sampled for fish (Road A-2) and macroinvertebrates (Road C) in the lower portion of Upper Three Runs, to avoid interference with ongoing fisheries studies at Road C. Also, fish were sampled in Fourmile Branch at Road 4 rather than at Road F because the stream at Road F was too narrow and shallow to support many fish. Sampling locations and parameters are detailed in Sections 2 and 3 of this report. In general, sampling locations were selected that would permit comparisons upstream and downstream of NPDES outfalls. In instances where this approach was not feasible because effluents discharge into the headwaters of a stream, appropriate unimpacted reference were used for comparison purposes. This report summarizes the results of the sampling that was conducted in 2000 and also compares these data to the data that were collected in 1997 and 1998

  15. Preliminary assessment of the interaction of introduced biological agents with biofilms in water distribution systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Caldwell, Sara; Jones, Howland D. T.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Souza, Caroline Ann; McGrath, Lucas K.

    2005-12-01

    Basic research is needed to better understand the potential risk of dangerous biological agents that are unintentionally or intentionally introduced into a water distribution system. We report on our capabilities to conduct such studies and our preliminary investigations. In 2004, the Biofilms Laboratory was initiated for the purpose of conducting applied research related to biofilms with a focus on application, application testing and system-scale research. Capabilities within the laboratory are the ability to grow biofilms formed from known bacteria or biofilms from drinking water. Biofilms can be grown quickly in drip-flow reactors or under conditions more analogous to drinking-water distribution systems in annular reactors. Biofilms can be assessed through standard microbiological techniques (i .e, aerobic plate counts) or with various visualization techniques including epifluorescent and confocal laser scanning microscopy and confocal fluorescence hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis. We have demonstrated the ability to grow reproducible Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms in the annular reactor with plate counts on the order of 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 6} CFU/cm{sup 2}. Stationary phase growth is typically reached 5 to 10 days after inoculation. We have also conducted a series of pathogen-introduction experiments, where we have observed that both polystyrene microspheres and Bacillus cereus (as a surrogate for B. anthracis) stay incorporated in the biofilms for the duration of our experiments, which lasted as long as 36 days. These results indicated that biofilms may act as a safe harbor for bio-pathogens in drinking water systems, making it difficult to decontaminate the systems.

  16. Limitations of the scalp-hair biologic monitor in assessing selenium status in epidemiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalp hair is routinely used to assess exposure to toxic trace elements and nutritional status of some required trace elements. The advantages and disadvantages of hair as a biologic monitor have been comprehensively discussed in the literature for many years. Among the concerns is distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contributions. Nested in this issue is the longitudinal distribution of a trace element along the hair strand. The typical observation for many elements of interest is that the element concentration increases from the root end to the distal end; and this is attributed to continuing contamination from exogenous sources. In this study we used neutron activation analysis to measure 14 trace elements in 6 mm segments of full-length scalp hair from three healthy members of the same household having light-urban environmental exposure. To extend the data set for selenium, we included three adult female subjects with longer than average scalp hair. From these trace-element concentrations we calculated the root-to-distal end ratios as a profile diagnostic of trace-element distributions. Ratios fall into three diagnostic categories, >1, ∼1, and 1, Zn and S have R ∼ 1, and the remaining 11 elements all have R I > Hg ∼ Au ∼ Mg ∼ Mn ∼ Sb ∼ Ca > Cu > Al ∼ Ag. RSe is greater than 1 and increases with hair length (P 0.02) corresponding to a continuous longitudinal loss of Se in stark and puzzling contrast to the other elements measured. An analogous loss of Se in the nail monitor was not observed leading us to conclude that the nail is less prone to misclassification of selenium status in epidemiological studies. (author)

  17. Chelating impact assessment of biological ad chemical chelates on metal extraction from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination is the result of uncontrolled waste dumping and poor practices by humans. Of all the pollutants heavy metals are of particular concern due to their atmospheric deposition, leaching capacity and non-biodegradability. Heavy metal containing effluent is discharged into the agricultural fields and water bodies. This results in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and the crops grown on that soil. Studies have revealed detrimental impacts on soil fertility and the poor health of animals and humans. Phytoextraction is widely researched for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of phytoextraction heavy metals have to be available to the plants in soluble form. In this study the potential of different chelating agents was assessed in solubilizing the heavy metals making easy for plants to uptake them. For this purpose efficient chemical and biological chelating agent had to be identified. Along with that an optimum dose and application time for chemical chelating agent was determined. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Nitriloacetic acid (NTA) were applied to the soil, containing Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd, at different concentrations and application time. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were incubated in soil for different time periods. In correspondence with findings of the study, Pb and Cr were best solubilized by 5mM EDTA. For Cd and Cu 5mM DTPA carried out efficient chelation. NTA showed relatively inadequate solubilisation, although for Cr it performed equal to EDTA. A. niger and A. flavus instead of solubilizing adsorbed the metals in their biomass. Adsorption was mainly carried out by A. niger. (author)

  18. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  19. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  20. Advances in Soil Biology: What does this mean for assessing soil change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helaina; Mele, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    Our interests in soil change are moving away from soil properties and increasingly towards changes in the processes and functioning of soils. Soil organisms are fundamental to dynamics and change in soils through their fundamental role in soil processes [1]. However it is only with recent technical and theoretical advances that we have started to establish quantitative relationships between soil biology and soil change (c.f. [2]). It is this predictive understanding that will enable us to fully integrate soil biology into the effective monitoring and sustainable management of soils. This paper outlines some of the recent advances in soil biology and discusses their relevance to monitoring and management.

  1. A biological assessment of streams in the eastern United States using a predictive model for macroinvertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A predictive model (RIVPACS-type) for benthic macroinvertebrates was constructed to assess the biological condition of 1,087 streams sampled throughout the eastern United States from 1993-2003 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. A subset of 338 sites was designated as reference quality, 28 of which were withheld from model calibration and used to independently evaluate model precision and accuracy. The ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) taxa richness was used as a continuous measure of biological condition, and sites with O/E values biologically degraded. Spatiotemporal variability of O/E values was evaluated with repeated annual and within-site samples at reference sites. Values of O/E were regressed on a measure of urbanization in three regions and compared among streams in different land-use settings. The model accurately predicted the expected taxa at validation sites with high precision (SD = 0.11). Within-site spatial variability in O/E values was much larger than annual and among-site variation at reference sites and was likely caused by environmental differences among sampled reaches. Values of O/E were significantly correlated with basin road density in the Boston, Massachusetts (p biological degradation. Taxa that occurred less frequently than predicted by the model were those known to be generally intolerant of a variety of anthropogenic stressors. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  2. High-Resolution Gene Flow Model for Assessing Environmental Impacts of Transgene Escape Based on Biological Parameters and Wind Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Haccou, Patsy; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Environmental impacts caused by transgene flow from genetically engineered (GE) crops to their wild relatives mediated by pollination are longstanding biosafety concerns worldwide. Mathematical modeling provides a useful tool for estimating frequencies of pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) that are critical for assessing such environmental impacts. However, most PMGF models are impractical for this purpose because their parameterization requires actual data from field experiments. In addition, most of these models are usually too general and ignored the important biological characteristics of concerned plant species; and therefore cannot provide accurate prediction for PMGF frequencies. It is necessary to develop more accurate PMGF models based on biological and climatic parameters that can be easily measured in situ. Here, we present a quasi-mechanistic PMGF model that only requires the input of biological and wind speed parameters without actual data from field experiments. Validation of the quasi-mechanistic model based on five sets of published data from field experiments showed significant correlations between the model-simulated and field experimental-generated PMGF frequencies. These results suggest accurate prediction for PMGF frequencies using this model, provided that the necessary biological parameters and wind speed data are available. This model can largely facilitate the assessment and management of environmental impacts caused by transgene flow, such as determining transgene flow frequencies at a particular spatial distance, and establishing spatial isolation between a GE crop and its coexisting non-GE counterparts and wild relatives. PMID:26959240

  3. Human exposure to radiation following the release of radioactivity from a reactor accident: a quantitative assessment of the biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to provide a biological basis upon which to assess the consequences of the exposure of a population to radioactivity released after a reactor accident. Depending upon the radiation dose, both early and late somatic damage could occur in the exposed population and hereditary effects may occur in their descendants. The development of dose-effect relationships has been based upon the limited amount of information available on humans, supplemented by data obtained from experiments on animals. (author)

  4. SYMBIOSIS: development, implementation, and assessment of a model curriculum across biology and mathematics at the introductory level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depelteau, Audrey M; Joplin, Karl H; Govett, Aimee; Miller, Hugh A; Seier, Edith

    2010-01-01

    "It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power." Alan Cohen (Used by permission. All rights reserved. For more information on Alan Cohen's books and programs, see (www.alancohen.com.) With the support of the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) administration and a grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the departments of Biological Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics, and Curriculum and Instruction have developed a biology-math integrated curriculum. An interdisciplinary faculty team, charged with teaching the 18 curriculum modules, designed this three-semester curriculum, known as SYMBIOSIS. This curriculum was piloted to two student cohorts during the developmental stage. The positive feedback and assessment results of this project have given us the foundation to implement the SYMBIOSIS curriculum as a replacement for the standard biology majors curriculum at the introductory level. This article addresses the history and development of the curriculum, previous assessment results and current assessment protocol, and the future of ETSU's approach to implementing the SYMBIOSIS curriculum. PMID:20810967

  5. Examining Portfolio-Based Assessment in an Upper-Level Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Brittany Ann

    2012-01-01

    Historically, students have been viewed as empty vessels and passive participants in the learning process but students actually are active forming their own conceptions. One way student learning is impacted is through assessment. Alternative assessment, which contrasts traditional assessment methods, takes into account how students learn by…

  6. A Comparison of Two Low-Stakes Methods for Administering a Program-Level Biology Concept Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Couch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Concept assessments are used commonly in undergraduate science courses to assess student learning and diagnose areas of student difficulty. While most concept assessments align with the content of individual courses or course topics, some concept assessments have been developed for use at the programmatic level to gauge student progress and achievement over a series of courses or an entire major. The broad scope of a program-level assessment, which exceeds the content of any single course, creates several test administration issues, including finding a suitable time for students to take the assessment and adequately incentivizing student participation. These logistical considerations must also be weighed against test security and the ability of students to use unauthorized resources that could compromise test validity. To understand how potential administration methods affect student outcomes, we administered the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA to three pairs of matched upper-division courses in two ways: an online assessment taken by students outside of class and a paper-based assessment taken during class. We found that overall test scores were not significantly different and that individual item difficulties were highly correlated between these two administration methods. However, in-class administration resulted in reduced completion rates of items at the end of the assessment. Taken together, these results suggest that an online, outside-of-class administration produces scores that are comparable to a paper-based, in-class format and has the added advantages that instructors do not have to dedicate class time and students are more likely to complete the entire assessment.

  7. A "weight of evidence" approach for the integration of environmental "triad" data to assess ecological risk and biological vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Alessandro; Sforzini, Susanna; Dondero, Francesco; Fenoglio, Stefano; Bona, Elisa; Jensen, John; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-07-01

    A new Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) that can integrate Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites has been developed. Starting with ecosystem relevance, the EDSS assigns different weights to the results obtained from Triad disciplines. The following parameters have been employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecotoxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates), 3) biomarkers (showing sublethal pollutant effects), and 4) ecological parameters (assessing changes in community structure and functions). For each Triad discipline, the EDSS compares the data obtained at the studied field sites with reference values and calculates different 0-1 indexes (e.g., Chemical Risk Index, Ecotoxicological Risk Index, and Ecological Risk Index). The EDSS output consists of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk index (EnvRI), quantifying the levels of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index (BVI), assessing the potential threats to biological equilibriums, and 3) Genotoxicity Index (GTI), screening genotoxicity effects. The EDSS has been applied in the integration of a battery of Triad data obtained during the European Union-funded Life Intervention in the Fraschetta Area (LINFA) project, which has been carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soils of a highly anthropized area (Alessandria, Italy) mainly impacted by deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Results obtained during 4 seasonal sampling campaigns (2004-2005) show maximum values of EnvRI in sites A and B (characterized by industrial releases) and lower levels in site D (affected by vehicular traffic emissions). All 3 potentially polluted sites have shown high levels of BVI and GTI, suggesting a general change from reference conditions (site C). PMID:18393577

  8. Assessing Student Understanding of the "New Biology": Development and Evaluation of a Criterion-Referenced Genomics and Bioinformatics Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chad Edward

    Over the past decade, hundreds of studies have introduced genomics and bioinformatics (GB) curricula and laboratory activities at the undergraduate level. While these publications have facilitated the teaching and learning of cutting-edge content, there has yet to be an evaluation of these assessment tools to determine if they are meeting the quality control benchmarks set forth by the educational research community. An analysis of these assessment tools indicated that learning. To remedy this situation the development of a robust GB assessment aligned with the quality control benchmarks was undertaken in order to ensure evidence-based evaluation of student learning outcomes. Content validity is a central piece of construct validity, and it must be used to guide instrument and item development. This study reports on: (1) the correspondence of content validity evidence gathered from independent sources; (2) the process of item development using this evidence; (3) the results from a pilot administration of the assessment; (4) the subsequent modification of the assessment based on the pilot administration results and; (5) the results from the second administration of the assessment. Twenty-nine different subtopics within GB (Appendix B: Genomics and Bioinformatics Expert Survey) were developed based on preliminary GB textbook analyses. These subtopics were analyzed using two methods designed to gather content validity evidence: (1) a survey of GB experts (n=61) and (2) a detailed content analyses of GB textbooks (n=6). By including only the subtopics that were shown to have robust support across these sources, 22 GB subtopics were established for inclusion in the assessment. An expert panel subsequently developed, evaluated, and revised two multiple-choice items to align with each of the 22 subtopics, producing a final item pool of 44 items. These items were piloted with student samples of varying content exposure levels. Both Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item

  9. A preliminary assessment of biological transport of radionuclides dumped at deep sea bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hazard evaluation of deep sea disposal of solid radioactive wastes, biological transport through food chains has not so far been fully considered. In the present paper we examined how to include in the computation of nuclide concentration in predator species the transport of nuclide through prey organisms and obtained two equations. Then a model network was constructed to describe food chain from detritus up to main commercial species in northwest Pacific, supposed disposal area. Biological transport through this model network was then calculated using two equations for nuclides released at sea bottom of 5 km deep. Influence of changes in various conditions and values of parameters was examined

  10. Assessment of the effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes over a broad range of biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W; Dawe, Angus; Shuster, Charles B; Shuster, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    With the advent of wireless technology, new tools are available that are intended to enhance students' learning and attitudes. To assess the effectiveness of wireless student response systems in the biology curriculum at New Mexico State University, a combined study of student attitudes and performance was undertaken. A survey of students in six biology courses showed that strong majorities of students had favorable overall impressions of the use of student response systems and also thought that the technology improved their interest in the course, attendance, and understanding of course content. Students in lower-division courses had more strongly positive overall impressions than did students in upper-division courses. To assess the effects of the response systems on student learning, the number of in-class questions was varied within each course throughout the semester. Students' performance was compared on exam questions derived from lectures with low, medium, or high numbers of in-class questions. Increased use of the response systems in lecture had a positive influence on students' performance on exam questions across all six biology courses. Students not only have favorable opinions about the use of student response systems, increased use of these systems increases student learning. PMID:17339392

  11. Determination of the Biologically Relevant Sampling Depth for Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical paper provides defensible approximations for what the depth of the biologically active zone, or “biotic zone” is within certain environments. The methods used in this study differ somewhat between Part 1 (Terrestrial Biotic Zone) and Part 2 (Aquatic Biotic Zone). ...

  12. Formative Assessment and Increased Student Involvement Increase Grades in an Upper Secondary School Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbom, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that formative methods and increased student participation has a positive influence on learning measured as grades. The study was conducted during the course Biology A in a Swedish Upper Secondary School. The students constructed grade criteria and defined working methods and type of examination within a given topic, Gene…

  13. Assessment of Student Learning Associated with Tree Thinking in an Undergraduate Introductory Organismal Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James J.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Auvenshine, Stacie

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees provide visual representations of ancestor-descendant relationships, a core concept of evolutionary theory. We introduced "tree thinking" into our introductory organismal biology course (freshman/sophomore majors) to help teach organismal diversity within an evolutionary framework. Our instructional strategy consisted…

  14. Finalizing host range determination of a weed biological control pathogen with BLUPs and damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. salsolae (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz. (CGS) is a facultative parasitic fungus being evaluated as a classical biological control agent of Russian thistle or tumbleweed (Salsola tragus L.). In initial host range determination tests, Henderson’s mixed model equat...

  15. Using consumption rate to assess potential predators for biological control of white perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pope, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Control of undesirable fishes is important in aquatic systems, and using predation as a tool for biological control is an attractive option to fishery biologists. However, determining the appropriate predators for biological control is critical for success. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of consumption rate as an index to determine the most effective predators for biological control of an invasive fish. Consumption rate values were calculated for nine potential predators that prey on white perch Morone americana in Branched Oak and Pawnee reservoirs, Nebraska. The consumption rate index provided a unique and insightful means of determining the potential effectiveness of each predator species in controlling white perch. Cumulative frequency distributions facilitated interpretation by providing a graphical presentation of consumption rates by all individuals within each predator species. Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, walleye Sander vitreus and sauger S. canadensis were the most efficient white perch predators in both reservoirs; however, previous attempts to increase biomass of these predators have failed suggesting that successful biological control is unlikely using existing predator species in these Nebraska reservoirs. ?? 2011 ONEMA.

  16. Is 'class effect' relevant when assessing the benefit/risk profile of a biologic agent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterry, W.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically predisposed skin disorder, characterised by thickened scaly plaques. Although no therapy is recognised as curative, therapies aimed at symptom control include biologic agents that are generally designed to block molecular activation of cellular pathways of a patho

  17. Participation in introductory biology laboratories: An integrated assessment based on surveys, behavioral observations, and qualitative interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Connie Adelle

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science

  18. The impact of biology on risk assessment -- Workshop of the National Research Council`s board on radiation effects research. Meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Grosovsky, A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Hanawalt, P.C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Jostes, R.F. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States). Board on Radiation Effects Research; Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Cancer Biology; Morgan, W.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Oleinick, N.L. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Ullrich, R.L. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Therapy

    1997-12-31

    The linear, nonthreshold extrapolation from a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation derived at higher doses to doses for which regulatory standards are proposed is being challenged by some scientists and defended by others. It appears that the risks associated with exposures to doses of interest are below the risks that can be measured with epidemiologic studies. Therefore, many have looked to biology to provide information relevant to risk assessment. The workshop reported here, ``The Impact of biology on Risk Assessment,`` was planned to address the need for further information by bringing together scientists who have been working in key fields of biology and others who have been contemplating the issues associated specifically with this question. The goals of the workshop were to summarize and review the status of the relevant biology, to determine how the reported biologic data might influence risk assessment, and to identify subjects on which more data is needed.

  19. The Development and Application of Affective Assessment in an Upper-Level Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, John D.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2007-01-01

    This study exemplifies how faculty members can develop instruments to assess affective responses of students to the specific features of the courses they teach. Means for assessing three types of affective responses are demonstrated: (a) student attitudes towards courses with differing instructional objectives and methodologies, (b) student…

  20. Biological functioning of PAH-polluted and thermal desorption-treated soils assessed by fauna and microbial bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Cortet, Jérôme; Criquet, Stéven; Biaz, Asmaa; Calvert, Virgile; Caupert, Cécile; Pernin, Céline; Leyval, Corinne

    2011-11-01

    A large number of soil bioindicators were used to assess biological diversity and activity in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the same soil after thermal desorption (TD) treatment. Abundance and biodiversity of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and microarthropods, as well as functional parameters such as enzymatic activities and soil respiration, were assessed during a two year period of in situ monitoring. We investigated the influence of vegetation (spontaneous vegetation and Medicago sativa) and TD treatment on biological functioning. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the whole data set. A principal response curve (PRC) technique was used to evaluate the different treatments (various vegetation and contaminated vs. TD soil) contrasted with control (bare) soil over time. Our results indicated the value of using a number of complementary bioindicators, describing both diversity and functions, to assess the influence of vegetation on soil and discriminate polluted from thermal desorption (TD)-treated soil. Plants had an influence on the abundance and activity of all organisms examined in our study, favoring the whole trophic chain development. However, although TD-treated soil had a high abundance and diversity of microorganisms and fauna, enzymatic activities were weak because of the strong physical and chemical modifications of this soil. PMID:21392572

  1. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using mussels as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, Izaskun [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Apraiz, Itxaso [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Soto, Manu [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2007-07-15

    With the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollution along three gradients of pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea, a biomonitoring survey was implemented using a battery of biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lysosomal structural changes, metallothionein (MT) induction and peroxisome proliferation) in mussels over a period of two years as part of the EU-funded BEEP project. Mussels from the most impacted zones (Fos, Genova and Barcelona harbours) showed enlarged lysosomes accompanied by reduced labilisation period of lysosomal membranes, indicating disturbed health. MT levels did not reveal significant differences between stations and were significantly correlated with gonad index, suggesting that they were influenced by gamete development. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was significantly inhibited in polluted stations possibly due to interactions among mixtures of pollutants. In conclusion, the application of a battery of effect and exposure biomarkers provided relevant data for the assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea. - The biomarker approach is suitable for assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Biological assessment of the advanced turbine design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rakowski, C. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 2005 versus a conventional Kaplan turbine, Unit 9. The studies included an evaluation of blade-strike using deterministic and probabilistic models, integrated analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish to sever hydraulic events within the turbine system, and a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile salmonids in the field.

  3. Double integrating spheres: A method for assessment of optical properties of biological tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Poppendieck, Wigand

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the optical properties of biological tissue is an important issue in laser medicine. The optical properties define the tissue´s absorption and scattering behaviour, and can be expressed by quantities such as the albedo, the optical thickness and the anisotropy coefficient. During this project, a measurement system for the determination of the optical properties was built up. The system consists of a double integrating sphere set-up to perform the necessary reflection and ...

  4. HYDRO BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER BODIES FROM MIRAJ TAHSIL MAHARASHTRA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Sarwade; N. A. Kamble

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical features of freshwater bodies were regulated by number of factors. It includes temperature, turbidity, pH, total alkalinity, carbondioxide, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate, chloride and hardness. Present study focused on the determination of hydrobiological parameters during different seasons in January, 2011 – December, 2013 in three lakes of Miraj tahsil. The study indicated marked variation in some of the factors as turbidity,...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHER CANDIDATES AND THE ASSESSMENTS IN TERMS OF SOME VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    UĞULU, İlker; ERKOL, Sevilay

    2013-01-01

    Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of biology teacher candidates in terms of some variables. As a means of data collection, Environmental Attitude Scale and the personal information form have been used. Environmental Attitude Scale which has 35 items i...

  6. On-site assessment of methods to measure gaseous emissions from biological treatment of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, N.; Mallard, Pascal; Bour, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Landfilling of biodegradable waste must decrease to fulfil the Council Directive 99/31/EC on landfills, in order to reduce the emission of gaseous and liquid pollutants during the landfill lifetime. Therefore, pre-treatment of the organic fraction of municipal waste prior to landfilling is being developed in several countries. In France, the organic fraction is either separated and treated through selective collection of biowaste, or through mechanical sorting in the plant followed by biologi...

  7. Effects of organic amendment on soil quality as assessed by biological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality decline is one of the most predominant effect deriving from human activities. In particular, intensive agricultural management can affect negatively soils, principally due to rapid depletion of soil organic matter, that affects, in turn, soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The declining trend of soil quality coupled with mismanagement of agricultural production is pose a serious threat to sustainability of intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture is...

  8. A new dimension of FDG-PET interpretation: assessment of tumor biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Basu, Sandip [Tata Memorial Center Annexe, Radiation Medicine Center (Bhabha Atomic Research Center), Bombay (India); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ambrosini, Valentina [Sant' Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being used for the evaluation of several malignancies. Key to the correct interpretation of oncological FDG-PET studies is awareness of the concept that the degree of FDG uptake reflects the biology of the tumor in many cancers. More specifically, cancers with high FDG uptake are often histologically and clinically more aggressive than those with low or no FDG uptake. Therefore, although a negative FDG-PET scan in a patient with a cancer that has a size above the spatial resolution of PET may be interpreted as false-negative in terms of tumor detectability, it should in fact be regarded as true-negative from the view-point of tumor biology. This nonsystematic review will give examples of several major cancers in which the relationship between FDG avidity and tumor biology is applicable, and emphasizes the need to reconsider the definition of a ''false-negative'' FDG-PET scan in clinical oncology. (orig.)

  9. Sensor Fusion and Autonomy as a Powerful Combination for Biological Assessment in the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Moline

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ocean environment and the physical and biological processes that govern dynamics are complex. Sampling the ocean to better understand these processes is difficult given the temporal and spatial domains and sampling tools available. Biological systems are especially difficult as organisms possess behavior, operate at horizontal scales smaller than traditional shipboard sampling allows, and are often disturbed by the sampling platforms themselves. Sensors that measure biological processes have also generally not kept pace with the development of physical counterparts as their requirements are as complex as the target organisms. Here, we attempt to address this challenge by advocating the need for sensor-platform combinations to integrate and process data in real-time and develop data products that are useful in increasing sampling efficiencies. Too often, the data of interest is only garnered after post-processing after a sampling effort and the opportunity to use that information to guide sampling is lost. Here we demonstrate a new autonomous platform, where data are collected, analyzed, and data products are output in real-time to inform autonomous decision-making. This integrated capability allows for enhanced and informed sampling towards improving our understanding of the marine environment.

  10. Physics must join with biology in better assessing risk from low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarises the complex response of mammalian cells and tissues to low doses of ionising radiation. This thesis encompasses induction of DNA damage, and adaptive protection against both renewed damage and against propagation of damage from the basic level of biological organisation to the clinical expression of detriment. The induction of DNA damage at low radiation doses apparently is proportional to absorbed dose at the physical/chemical level. However, any propagation of such damage to higher levels of biological organisation inherently follows a sigmoid function. Moreover, low-dose-induced inhibition of damage propagation is not linear, but instead follows a dose-effect function typical for adaptive protection, after an initial rapid rise it disappears at doses higher than ∼0.1-0.2 Gy to cells. The particular biological response duality at low radiation doses precludes the validity of the linear-no-threshold hypothesis in the attempt to relate absorbed dose to cancer. In fact, theory and observation support not only a lower cancer incidence than expected from the linear-no-threshold hypothesis, but also a reduction of spontaneously occurring cancer, a hormetic response, in the healthy individual. (authors)

  11. Assessment of tuberculosis infection during treatment with biologic agents in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Cavusoglu, Cengiz; Dortkardesler, Merve; Sozeri, Betul

    2016-02-01

    Biologic therapies, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockers, are commonly used to treat rheumatological diseases in childhood. Screening patients for tuberculosis (TB) is highly recommended before starting therapy with TNF-α blockers. Despite appropriate screening, TB still remains a problem in patients receiving anti-TNF therapy in countries where TB is not endemic. TB in anti-TNF-treated patients is often diagnosed late due to altered presentation, and this delay results in high morbidity and mortality with a high proportion of extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. The aim of this study is to show the course of TB disease in children who are on biologic therapy, in an era where many of the children are BCG-vaccinated and TB is intermediately endemic. We recruited 71 patients with several types of inflammatory diseases. Six of them had a positive test result during TB screening and began taking isoniazid (INH) prophylactically. During the 3 years of follow-up, none of these patients developed TB disease. Biologic agents can be safely used in a BCG-vaccinated pediatric population, as long as patients are closely monitored to ensure that any cases of TB will be detected early. PMID:25515621

  12. A new dimension of FDG-PET interpretation: assessment of tumor biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being used for the evaluation of several malignancies. Key to the correct interpretation of oncological FDG-PET studies is awareness of the concept that the degree of FDG uptake reflects the biology of the tumor in many cancers. More specifically, cancers with high FDG uptake are often histologically and clinically more aggressive than those with low or no FDG uptake. Therefore, although a negative FDG-PET scan in a patient with a cancer that has a size above the spatial resolution of PET may be interpreted as false-negative in terms of tumor detectability, it should in fact be regarded as true-negative from the view-point of tumor biology. This nonsystematic review will give examples of several major cancers in which the relationship between FDG avidity and tumor biology is applicable, and emphasizes the need to reconsider the definition of a ''false-negative'' FDG-PET scan in clinical oncology. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of oil drilling impacts to aquatic habitat resources: In Situ biological assessment of the photoinduced toxicity of environmental releases of crude oil

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study proposed a biological assessment of a recent crude oil spill for potential impacts to aquatic resources due to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes. The...

  14. INOCULATION STRATEGIES TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FUSARIUM AND ALTERNARIA SPECIES INFECTING SORGHUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three bioassays were assessed for experimental utility to either characterize fungal species potentially pathogenic to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] or to screen germplasm for advancement in breeding programs. Isolates of species commonly associated with sorghum, Alternaria alternata, Fusari...

  15. HYDRO BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER BODIES FROM MIRAJ TAHSIL MAHARASHTRA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sarwade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical features of freshwater bodies were regulated by number of factors. It includes temperature, turbidity, pH, total alkalinity, carbondioxide, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate, chloride and hardness. Present study focused on the determination of hydrobiological parameters during different seasons in January, 2011 – December, 2013 in three lakes of Miraj tahsil. The study indicated marked variation in some of the factors as turbidity, CO₂, DO, COD, Alkalinity etc. Obtained data showed, variations in pollution status of three lakes. As per observations and analysis contamination of lakes was Bharatnagar > Mhaishal > Brahmanath lake.

  16. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  17. Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kelly M; Trawalter, Sophie; Axt, Jordan R; Oliver, M Norman

    2016-04-19

    Black Americans are systematically undertreated for pain relative to white Americans. We examine whether this racial bias is related to false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites (e.g., "black people's skin is thicker than white people's skin"). Study 1 documented these beliefs among white laypersons and revealed that participants who more strongly endorsed false beliefs about biological differences reported lower pain ratings for a black (vs. white) target. Study 2 extended these findings to the medical context and found that half of a sample of white medical students and residents endorsed these beliefs. Moreover, participants who endorsed these beliefs rated the black (vs. white) patient's pain as lower and made less accurate treatment recommendations. Participants who did not endorse these beliefs rated the black (vs. white) patient's pain as higher, but showed no bias in treatment recommendations. These findings suggest that individuals with at least some medical training hold and may use false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites to inform medical judgments, which may contribute to racial disparities in pain assessment and treatment. PMID:27044069

  18. Assessment of the effectiveness of an industrial unit of mechanical-biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayard, R., E-mail: remy.bayard@insa-lyon.fr [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d' Ingenierie Environnementale LGCIE, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Araujo Morais, J. de; Ducom, G.; Achour, F.; Rouez, M.; Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d' Ingenierie Environnementale LGCIE, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-03-15

    An assessment of the French municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) unit of Mende was performed in terms of mass reduction, biogas emissions reduction and biostability of the biologically treated waste. The MBT unit consists of mechanical sorting operations, an aerobic rotating bioreactor, forced-aeration process in open-air tunnels (stabilization), ripening platforms and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. On the overall plant, results showed a dry matter reduction of 18.9% and an oxidative organic matter reduction of 39.0%. A 46.2% biogas production decrease could also be observed. Concerning the biotreatment steps, high reductions were observed: 88.1% decrease of biogas potential and 57.7% decrease of oxidative organic matter content. Nevertheless, the usually considered stabilization indices (biogas potential, respirometric index) remained higher than recommended by the German or Austrian regulation for landfilling. Mass balance performed on each step of the treatment line showed that several stages needed improvement (especially mechanical sorting operations) as several waste fractions containing potentially biodegradable matter were landfilled with very few or no biological treatment.

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of an industrial unit of mechanical-biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the French municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) unit of Mende was performed in terms of mass reduction, biogas emissions reduction and biostability of the biologically treated waste. The MBT unit consists of mechanical sorting operations, an aerobic rotating bioreactor, forced-aeration process in open-air tunnels (stabilization), ripening platforms and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. On the overall plant, results showed a dry matter reduction of 18.9% and an oxidative organic matter reduction of 39.0%. A 46.2% biogas production decrease could also be observed. Concerning the biotreatment steps, high reductions were observed: 88.1% decrease of biogas potential and 57.7% decrease of oxidative organic matter content. Nevertheless, the usually considered stabilization indices (biogas potential, respirometric index) remained higher than recommended by the German or Austrian regulation for landfilling. Mass balance performed on each step of the treatment line showed that several stages needed improvement (especially mechanical sorting operations) as several waste fractions containing potentially biodegradable matter were landfilled with very few or no biological treatment.

  20. Assessment of the effectiveness of an industrial unit of mechanical-biological treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, R; Morais, J de Araújo; Ducom, G; Achour, F; Rouez, M; Gourdon, R

    2010-03-15

    An assessment of the French municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) unit of Mende was performed in terms of mass reduction, biogas emissions reduction and biostability of the biologically treated waste. The MBT unit consists of mechanical sorting operations, an aerobic rotating bioreactor, forced-aeration process in open-air tunnels (stabilization), ripening platforms and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. On the overall plant, results showed a dry matter reduction of 18.9% and an oxidative organic matter reduction of 39.0%. A 46.2% biogas production decrease could also be observed. Concerning the biotreatment steps, high reductions were observed: 88.1% decrease of biogas potential and 57.7% decrease of oxidative organic matter content. Nevertheless, the usually considered stabilization indices (biogas potential, respirometric index) remained higher than recommended by the German or Austrian regulation for landfilling. Mass balance performed on each step of the treatment line showed that several stages needed improvement (especially mechanical sorting operations) as several waste fractions containing potentially biodegradable matter were landfilled with very few or no biological treatment. PMID:19913357

  1. General guidelines for safe and expeditious international transport of samples subjected to biological dosimetry assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have bio-dosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective bio-dosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. (authors)

  2. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  3. The assessment of the coke wastewater treatment efficacy in rotating biological contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cema, G; Żabczyński, S; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    Coke wastewater is known to be relatively difficult for biological treatment. Nonetheless, biofilm-based systems seem to be promising tool for such treatment. That is why a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system focused on the Anammox process was used in this study. The experiment was divided into two parts with synthetic and then real wastewater. It was proven that it is possible to treat coke wastewater with RBC but such a procedure requires a very long start-up period for the nitritation (190 days), as well as for the Anammox process, where stable nitrogen removal over 70% was achieved after 400 days of experiment. Interestingly, it was possible at a relatively low (20.2 ± 2.2 °C) temperature. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) based monitoring of the bacterial community showed that its biodiversity decreased when the real wastewater was treated and it was composed mainly of GC-rich genotypes, probably because of the modeling influence of this wastewater and the genotypes specialization. PMID:26942544

  4. Quantitative assessment of image motion blur in diffraction images of moving biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Jin, Changrong; Feng, Yuanming; Qi, Dandan; Sa, Yu; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Motion blur (MB) presents a significant challenge for obtaining high-contrast image data from biological cells with a polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) method. A new p-DIFC experimental system has been developed to evaluate the MB and its effect on image analysis using a time-delay-integration (TDI) CCD camera. Diffraction images of MCF-7 and K562 cells have been acquired with different speed-mismatch ratios and compared to characterize MB quantitatively. Frequency analysis of the diffraction images shows that the degree of MB can be quantified by bandwidth variations of the diffraction images along the motion direction. The analytical results were confirmed by the p-DIFC image data acquired at different speed-mismatch ratios and used to validate a method of numerical simulation of MB on blur-free diffraction images, which provides a useful tool to examine the blurring effect on diffraction images acquired from the same cell. These results provide insights on the dependence of diffraction image on MB and allow significant improvement on rapid biological cell assay with the p-DIFC method.

  5. Chemical and biological assessment of Angelica herbal decoction: comparison of different preparations during historical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Du, Crystal Ying-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-08-15

    The commonly used Angelica herbal decoction today is Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), which is a dietary supplement in treating menopausal irregularity in women, i.e. to nourish "Qi" and to enrich "Blood". According to historical record, many herbal decoctions were also named DBT, but the most popular formulation of DBT was written in Jin dynasty (1247 AD) of China, which contained Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) with a weight ratio of 5:1. However, at least two other Angelica herbal decoctions recorded as DBT were prescribed in Song (1155 AD) and Qing dynasties (1687 AD). Although AR and ASR are still the major components in the DBT herbal decoctions, they are slightly varied in the herb composition. In order to reveal the efficiency of different Angelica herbal decoctions, the chemical and biological properties of three DBT herbal extracts were compared. Significantly, the highest amounts of AR-derived astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, calycosin and formononetin and ASR-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT described in 1247 AD: this preparation showed stronger activities in osteogenic, estrogenic and erythropoetic effects than the other two DBT. The current results supported the difference of three DBT in chemical and biological properties, which could be a result of different herbal combinations. For the first time, this study supports the popularity of DBT described in 1247 AD. PMID:22902230

  6. Biological effects of static magnetic fields: a selective review with emphasis on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rather than focusing on literature per se, the current study determines the status of magnetic field information that is applicable to risk assessment. Hence, an attempt is made to identify both the literature that is useful to the goal of risk assessment and a framework within which risk assessment methodologies can be derived. From this selected review, it is concluded that three areas exist for which adequate information can be found to begin modelling: disease induction, reproduction and development, and cardiovascular response. The first two are supported by a combination of positive and negative findings and the last by a calculational technique which utilizes the physically well-known principle of flow retardation for a conducting fluid moving through a magnetic field

  7. Biological effects of static magnetic fields: a selective review with emphasis on risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C. E.

    1982-04-01

    Rather than focusing on literature per se, the current study determines the status of magnetic field information that is applicable to risk assessment. Hence, an attempt is made to identify both the literature that is useful to the goal of risk assessment and a framework within which risk assessment methodologies can be derived. From this selected review, it is concluded that three areas exist for which adequate information can be found to begin modelling: disease induction, reproduction and development, and cardiovascular response. The first two are supported by a combination of positive and negative findings and the last by a calculational technique which utilizes the physically well-known principle of flow retardation for a conducting fluid moving through a magnetic field.

  8. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato... severity of air potato infestations. We are making the EA available to the public for review and...

  9. A technical review and assessment of the BEIR V [Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the DOE BEIR V Technical Review Committee (TRC) to provide a technical review and assessment of the National Research Council's Bilogical Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) Committee's Report entitled ''Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation'' (BEIR V). This report contains seven sections. The first section serves as an introduction and reviews the charge to the TRC. The second section is a chapter-by- chapter summary of the BEIR V Report. The third section is a summary of the risk estimates and conclusions of the BEIR V Committee for genetic effects, cancer induction, and in utero effects. The fourth section is a summary and analysis of the new scientific information used by the BEIR V Committee in developing its risk recommendations and conclusions. The fifth section is an assessment of the scientific information and methods used by the BEIR V Committee in developing their risk estimates and conclusions and an analysis of the key assumptions underlying the use of these risk estimates in risk assessment. The sixth section is the TRC'S assessment of the regulatory implications of the BEIR V risk estimates and conclusions for DOE nuclear operations. The seventh and final section is the TRC'S recommended actions for DOE's consideration concerning the BEIR V Report risk estimates and conclusions. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  10. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PROCEDURES FOR USING FAUNA AS BIOLOGICAL MONITORS OF POTENTIAL GEOTHERMAL POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first in a series of reports that covers the feasibility of utilizing wildlife and domestic animals to design a monitoring strategy for assessing the environmental impact of geothermal resource development. Animal tissues and animal products were collected in the vici...

  11. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hjelm, Joakim; Behrens, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidly declined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective management measures...

  12. Exposure factors for marine eutrophication impacts assessment based on a mechanistic biological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources enrich marine waters and promote planktonic growth. This newly synthesised organic carbon is eventually exported to benthic waters where aerobic respiration by heterotrophic bacteria results in the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO). This...... pathway is typical of marine eutrophication. A model is proposed to mechanistically estimate the response of coastal marine ecosystems to N inputs. It addresses the biological processes of nutrient-limited primary production (PP), metazoan consumption, and bacterial degradation, in four distinct sinking...... routes from primary (cell aggregates) and secondary producers (faecal pellets, carcasses, and active vertical transport). Carbon export production (PE) and ecosystems eXposure Factors (XF), which represents a nitrogen-to-oxygen 'conversion' potential, were estimated at a spatial resolution of 66 large...

  13. Assessment of the differential linear coherent scattering coefficient of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New differential linear coherent scattering coefficient, μCS, data for four biological tissue types (fat pork, tendon chicken, adipose and fibroglandular human breast tissues) covering a large momentum transfer interval (0.07≤q≤70.5 nm-1), resulted from combining WAXS and SAXS data, are presented in order to emphasize the need to update the default data-base by including the molecular interference and the large-scale arrangements effect. The results showed that the differential linear coherent scattering coefficient demonstrates influence of the large-scale arrangement, mainly due to collagen fibrils for tendon chicken and fibroglandular breast samples, and triacylglycerides for fat pork and adipose breast samples at low momentum transfer region. While, at high momentum transfer, the μCS reflects effects of molecular interference related to water for tendon chicken and fibroglandular samples and, fatty acids for fat pork and adipose samples.

  14. Method for assessing the impact of emission gasses on physiology and productivity in biological methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A H; Rittmann, S; Bernacchi, S; Herwig, C

    2013-05-01

    This contribution presents a method for quantification of the impact of emission gasses on the methane production with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea. The developed method allows a robust quantification of the influence of real gasses on the volumetric productivity of methanogenic cultures by uncoupling physiological and mass transfer effects. This is achieved over reference experiments with pure H2 and CO2, simulating the mass transfer influence of the non-convertible side components by addition of N2 to the reactant stream. Furthermore, this method was used to examine the performance of Methanothermobacter marburgensis on different emission gasses. None of the present side components had a negative effect on the volumetric methane production rate. The presented method showed to be ready to use as a generic tool for feasibility studies and quantification of the physiological impact regarding the use of exhaust gasses as reactant gas for the biological methanogenesis. PMID:23582218

  15. Estimation of the Biological Methods of Assessing Soil N-Supplying Capacity in Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Fa-hui; LI Shi-qing; LU Hong-ling; LI Sheng-xiu

    2007-01-01

    Although many biological methods are used to determine soil nitrogen supplying capacity, there are certain differences in the results for different types of soils and various ways of measurement due to the complexity of soil N conformation, the high variance of soil and microorganism, and the difference of environment. Therefore, it is not clear about which biologic incubation method is better for calcareous soil. In this study, pot experiments were performed by using 25 different calcareous surface soil samples on the Loess Plateau and taking the N uptake of wheat and corn with leaching soil initial nitrate and without leaching in pot experiments as the control to investigate the difference of eight biological incubation methods for reflecting soil nitrogen supply capacity. The eight biological methods are waterlogged incubation, aerobic incubation for 2 weeks and for 4 weeks, dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation for 2 weeks, long-term alternate leaching aerobic incubation (and N mineralization potential, N0), short-term leaching aerobic incubation, microbial biomass carbon (BC), and microbial biomass nitrogen (BN) method, respectively. Among these methods, the dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation and aerobic incubation for 4 weeks were the modification of the method of aerobic incubation for 2 weeks according to the actual farmland moisture. The results showed that the correlation coefficients between these methods and crop uptake N with leaching soil initial nitrate were 0.530, 0.700, 0.777, 0.768, 0.764 (and 0.790, N0), 0.650, 0.555, and 0.465, respectively (r0.05 = 0.369, r0.01 = 0.505). While without leaching soil initial nitrate, their coefficients were 0.351, 0.963, 0.962, 0.959, 0.825 (and 0.812, N0), 0.963, 0.289, and 0.095, respectively (r0.05=0.369, r0.01 =0.505). In conclusion,excluding the soil initial nitrate, the correlation coefficients between the eight methods and crop uptake N were, from high to low, N0, aerobic incubation for 4 weeks, dry

  16. Metrological assessment of the high-accuracy RNAA method of co-determination in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes work on the development of the high-accuracy RNAA method for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in biological materials. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation with selective and quantitative isolation of the analyte in a state of high radiochemical purity by use of column chromatography followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurements. The method was devised according to a set of rules, which were formulated to obtain high accuracy of the method. The procedure has been also equipped with several criteria, being a key factor of quality assurance. The qualification of the high-accuracy RNAA method as a primary ratio method has been demonstrated and its usefulness in the certification of the candidate reference materials: Tea Leaves and Mixed Polish Herbs is presented. (author)

  17. Biological Assessment of the Advanced Turbine Design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2007-09-12

    This report summarizes the results of studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the biological performance (likelihood of injury to fish) from an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington State in 2005. PNNL studies included a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile fish in the field, an evaluation of blade-strike using both deterministic and stochastic models, and extended analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish Device to strike, pressure, and turbulence within the turbine system. Fluorescein dye was used to evaluate injuries to live fish passed through the advanced turbine and an existing turbine at two spill discharges (15 and 17 kcfs). Under most treatments the results were not significantly different for the two turbines, however, eye injury occurred in nearly 30% of fish passing through Unit 9 but in less than 10% of those passing through Unit 8 at 15 kcfs. Both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models were applied for the original and new AHTS turbines. The modeled probabilities were compared to the Sensor Fish results (Carlson et al. 2006) and the biological studies using juvenile fish (Normandeau et al. 2005) under the same operational parameters. The new AHTS turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the original turbine, but no statistical evidence to suggest that there is significant difference in blade-strike injury probabilities between the two turbines, which is consistent with the experiment results using Sensor Fish and juvenile fish. PNNL also conducted Sensor Fish studies at Wanapum Dam in 2005 concurrent with live fish studies. The probablility of severe collision events was similar for both turbine. The advanced turbine had a slightly lower probability of severe shear events but a slightly higher probability of slight shear.

  18. Validation of a Fecal Glucocorticoid Assay to Assess Adrenocortical Activity in Meerkats Using Physiological and Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, Michael; Santema, Peter; Dantzer, Ben; Mausbach, Jelena; Ganswindt, Andre; Manser, Marta B.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, glucocorticoid (i.e. GC) levels have been associated with specific life-history stages and transitions, reproductive strategies, and a plethora of behaviors. Assessment of adrenocortical activity via measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces (FGCM) has greatly facilitated data collection from wild animals, due to its non-invasive nature, and thus has become an established tool in behavioral ecology and conservation biology. The aim of our study was to validate a fecal glucocorticoid assay for assessing adrenocortical activity in meerkats (Suricata suricatta), by comparing the suitability of three GC enzyme immunoassays (corticosterone, 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone and 11oxo-etiocholanolone) in detecting FGCM increases in adult males and females following a pharmacological challenge with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and biological stimuli. In addition, we investigated the time course characterizing FGCM excretion, the effect of age, sex and time of day on FGCM levels and assessed the potential effects of soil contamination (sand) on FGCM patterns. Our results show that the group specific 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone assay was most sensitive to FGCM alterations, detecting significant and most distinctive elevations in FGCM levels around 25 h after ACTH administration. We found no age and sex differences in basal FGCM or on peak response levels to ACTH, but a marked diurnal pattern, with FGCM levels being substantially higher in the morning than later during the day. Soil contamination did not significantly affect FGCM patterns. Our results emphasize the importance of conducting assay validations to characterize species-specific endocrine excretion patterns, a crucial step to all animal endocrinology studies using a non-invasive approach. PMID:27077741

  19. An Evaluation of Two Different Methods of Assessing Independent Investigations in an Operational Pre-University Level Examination in Biology in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Explored aspects of assessment of extended investigation ("project") practiced in the operational examinations of The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) for the perspective of construct validity. Samples of the 1993 (n=333) and 1996 (n=259) biology test results reveal two methods of assessing the project. (MAK)

  20. Deriving acceptable biological catch from the overfishing limit: implications for assessment models

    OpenAIRE

    Prager, Michael H.; Shertzer, Kyle W.

    2010-01-01

    The recently revised Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act requires that U.S. fishery management councils avoid overfishing by setting annual catch limits (ACLs) not exceeding recommendations of the councils’ scientific advisers. To meet that requirement, the scientific advisers will need to know the overfishing limit (OFL) estimated in each stock assessment, with OFL being the catch available from applying the limit fishing mortality rate to current or projected stock b...

  1. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  2. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams

  3. Assessing Soil Biological Properties of Natural and Planted Forests in the Malaysian Tropical Lowland Dipterocarp Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit S. Karam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the soil biological properties of a natural forest and an 18-year-old stand of Shorea leprosula in Chikus Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Approach: Soils were sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil and 15-30 cm (subsoil in six subplots (20×20 m of natural forest (C1 and of a planted S. leprosula (C2 plot. Fresh composite soil samples were kept in UV-sterilized polyethylene bags prior to analysis in the laboratory. The microbial population count was determined using a spread-plate count technique. The microbial enzymatic activity was elucidated using a Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA hydrolysis assay; microbial biomass was extracted using a rapid chloroform fumigation extraction method. The Microbial Biomass C (MBC was determined by wet dichromate oxidation; Kjeldahl digestion and a distillation method were used for evaluation of Microbial Biomass N (MBN. Results: Results indicate that only the microbial biomass N and the population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth were found to be higher in C1 compared to C2. The higher microbial population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth of C1 compared to C2 was enhanced by the large amount of organic matter that serves as a suitable medium for soil microbial growth. The higher MBN in the C1 soil was also influenced by the high content of organic material available that encourages activities of decomposing bacteria to take place. Similarities in the soil biological properties of the plots with regard to enzymatic activity and microbial biomass Care believed to be influenced by the same topographic gradient. The higher MBC/MBN ratios found in soils of C2 compared to C1 were due to the low availability of N compared to C, might result from N utilization by soil microbes for organic material decomposition. Conclusion: There are similarities in microbial enzymatic activity and biomass C, but not in microbial population counts and biomass N

  4. Assessment of solid reactive mixtures for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid reactive mixtures were tested as filling material for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. Mixture selection was performed by taking into account the different mechanisms operating in sulphate and cadmium removal with particular attention to bioprecipitation and sorption onto the organic matrices in the mixtures. Suspensions of eight reactive mixtures were tested for sulphate removal (initial concentration 3 g L-1). Each mixture was made up of four main functional components: a mix of organic sources for bacterial growth, a neutralizing agent, a porous medium and zero-valent iron. The best mixture among the tested ones (M8: 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% zero-valent iron, 30% silica sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone) presented optimal conditions for SRB growth (pH 7.8 ± 0.1; Eh = -410 ± 5 mV) and 83% sulphate removal in 22 days (25% due to bioreduction, 32% due to sorption onto compost and 20% onto leaves). M8 mixture allowed the complete abatement of cadmium with a significant contribution of sorption over bioprecipitation (6% Cd removal due to SRB activity). Sorption properties, characterised by potentiometric titrations and related modelling, were mainly due to carboxylic sites of organic components used in reactive mixtures.

  5. Application of Fourier transform infrared ellipsometry to assess the concentration of biological molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Drévillon, Bernard; De Martino, Antonello; Schwartz, Laurent

    2002-12-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a noninvasive optical characterization technique mainly used in the semiconductor field to characterize bare substrates and thin films. In particular, it allows the gathering of information concerning the physical structure of the sample, such as roughness and film thickness, as well as its optical response. In the mid-infrared (IR) range each molecule exhibits a characteristic absorption fingerprint, which makes this technique chemically selective. Phase-modulated IR ellipsometry does not require a baseline correction procedure or suppression of atmospheric CO2 and water-vapor absorption bands, thus greatly reducing the subjectivity in data analysis. We have found that ellipsometric measurements of thin films, such as the solid residuals left on a plane surface after evaporation of a liquid drop containing a given compound in solution, are particularly favorable for dosing purposes because the intensity of IR absorptions shows a linear behavior along a wide range of solution concentrations of the given compound. Our aim is to illustrate with a concrete example and to justify theoretically the linearity experimentally found between radiation absorption and molecule concentration. For the example, we prepared aqueous solutions of glycogen, a molecule of huge biological importance currently tested in biochemical analyses, at concentrations ranging from 1 mg/l to 1 g/l which correspond to those found in physiological conditions. The results of this example are promising for the application of ellipsometry for dosing purposes in biochemistry and biomedicine. PMID:12477127

  6. Assessment of DDT levels in selected environmental media and biological samples from Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo, Antonio; Ruepert, Clemens; Jovel, Reyna del Carmen; Méndez, Mónica Patricia; Ferrari, Mirtha; Saballos-Sobalvarro, Emilio; Alexander, Carlos; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia; Lopez, Dania; Henao, Samuel; Pinto, Emilio R; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Taking into account the environmental persistence and the toxicity of DDT, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) organized a surveillance program in Mesoamerica which included the detection of residual DDT in environmental (soil) and biological samples (fish tissue and children's blood). This program was carried out in communities from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. This paper presents the first report of that program. As expected, the results show that the levels for [summation operator] DDT in soil (outdoor or indoor) and fish samples in the majority of the locations studied are below guidelines. However, in some locations, we found children with high concentrations of DDT as in Mexico (mean level 50.2 ng/mL). Furthermore, in some communities and for some matrices, the DDT/DDE quotient is higher than one and this may reflect a recent DDT exposure. Therefore, more efforts are needed to avoid exposure and to prevent the reintroduction of DDT into the region. In this regard it is important to know that under the surveillance of PAHO and with the support of UNEP, a regional program in Mesoamerica for the collection and disposal of DDT and other POPs stockpiles is in progress. PMID:20092871

  7. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces.

  8. Assessment of penetration of Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate into biological membranes by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, N C F; Dos Santos, L; Carvalho, B G; Singh, P; Téllez Soto, C A; Azoia, N G; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Martin, A A; Favero, P P

    2016-08-01

    The present work, involves the simulation of the transport of a vitamin C derivative, Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (ATI), through human skin by molecular dynamics. Percutaneous absorption of the ATI molecule through the infundibulum, an important route of absorption into the hair follicle of the human skin, has been modeled and compared with the stratum corneum membrane. The comparative study was done using molecular dynamics with Martini force field. In infundibulum, a single ATI molecule require more time to penetrate, and the data obtained suggested that a high concentration of ATI molecule accelerated the process of penetration. In conclusion, the ATI molecule was found to have more affinity towards the stratum corneum as compared with the infundibulum, and it followed a straight pathway to penetrate (until 600ns of simulation). In the infundibulum, it showed less affinity, more mobility and followed a lateral pathway. Thus, this work contributes to a better understanding of the different molecular interactions during percutaneous absorption of active molecules in these two different types of biological membranes. PMID:27289538

  9. Impact assessment of proposed ski areas: A GIS approach integrating biological, physical and landscape indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ski centres are characterized by significant environmental impacts that occur during both the construction and the operation phase. In Trentino, a well-known ski destination located in northern Italy, new ski areas were identified by planning tools without conducting a formal assessment of their effects on the environment. This paper presents a study to assess and compare the impacts of the proposed ski areas within two valleys strongly linked to winter tourism: the Fiemme and Fassa Valleys. The method is based on the computation of spatial indicators using a Geographical Information System (GIS) to predict and quantify critical impacts, such as ecosystem loss and fragmentation, soil erosion, geomorphologic hazards, interference with flora and fauna, and visibility. Subsequently, multicriteria analysis was applied to generate composite indices, and to rank ski areas according to their overall suitability. Finally, sensitivity analyses allowed to test the stability of the results. The study concluded that two of the proposed ski areas are located in highly unsuitable environment, and the relevant plan provisions should be revised

  10. A microbiology-based multi-parametric approach towards assessing biological stability in drinking water distribution networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lautenschläger, Karin

    2013-06-01

    and sensitive tool to assess and evaluate biological stability and microbial processes in drinking water distribution systems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Metrological assessment of the high-accuracy RNAA method of Co determination in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the contemporary world, chemical measurements are the basis for making central decisions to effective functioning of the society. The areas critically dependent on results of chemical analysis are e.g. environmental control, health, food safety, crime detection, support for R and D. Hence, there is a need for checking the reliability of the results of chemical analysis. This is of great importance especially in the case of trace analysis. One of the ways of checking the accuracy of chemical results is the use of primary methods. The aim of the presented paper has been to show that radiochemical neutron activation (RNAA) method can meet criteria for a primary ratio method (a definitive method). The high-accuracy RNAA method for the determination of trace amount of cobalt in biological materials has been developed. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation with selective and quantitative isolation of the analyte in a state of high radiochemical purity by use of column chromatography followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurements. The method was devised according to a set of rules, which were formulated to obtain high accuracy of the method. The procedure has been also equipped with several criteria, being a key factor of quality assurance. The criteria have to be fulfilled by a result of analysis in order to be accepted. The paper summarizes the work on the development of the method and demonstrates the qualifications of the elaborated method as a primary ratio or a definitive method. The usefulness of the elaborated method in the certification of the candidate reference materials: Tea Leaves and Mixed Polish Herbs is presented. (author)

  12. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  13. Biological Assessment of the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2006-09-19

    This biological assessment considers the effects of continuing to operate Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally listed threatened or endangered species, based on current and future operations identified in the 2006 Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS; DOE In Prep.). We reviewed 40 projects analyzed in the SWEIS as well as two aspects on ongoing operations to determine if these actions had the potential to affect Federally listed species. Eighteen projects that had not already received U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) consultation and concurrence, as well as the two aspects of ongoing operations, ecological risk from legacy contaminants and the Outfall Reduction Project, were determined to have the potential to affect threatened or endangered species. Cumulative impacts were also analyzed.

  14. Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-07-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty-first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high productivity, and effective communication techniques of the students exposed to a MEGA. Three factors, as they pertained to these skills, emerged from classroom observations. Interaction with the teacher, discussion with peers, and engagement/time-on-task while playing the MEGA suggested that students playing an educational video game exhibited all of the projected twenty-first century skills while being engrossed in the embedded science content.

  15. Assessment of biological effects resulting from large scale applications of coal power plant wastes in building technology in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation is performed of the radiation-induced biological effects on the population of Poland with the use of coal power plant wastes for the production of building materials. The assessments of the risks indicated that the use of these materials increased the risk of death from neoplasms and genetic diseases. In the considered period, 1951-2010, the number of leukemias are expected to increase more than twice, the number of malignant neoplasms nearly three times and the number of lung cancers nearly five times. In the same period, only a relatively small increase of about 13% should be observed in the serious genetic defects from the same cause. Comparison of the somatic effects of the excess indoor irradiation with the death rate of neoplasms from all causes revealed the relatively high contribution of the indoor irradiation in the overall incidence of neoplasms. (UK)

  16. Assessment of water quality at selected sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, 1993 and 1995 using biological indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Baker, N.T.; Lydy, M.J.; Stone, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, fish communities were sampled at 11 sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, in 1993 and 1995 to help determine water-quality conditions. Ninety-one species of fish with representatives from 18 families were collected in the basin. Total numbers of fish collected at every site increased between collection years. The Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) and Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) were calculated for all 11 sites in 1995. The QHEI scores indicated six sites had excellent habitat to support fish communities. Only three sites were rated in the “good” to “excellent” IBI water-quality categories, indicating some type of nonhabitat environmental degradation to the fish communities. Eight of the sites were rated in the “fair,” “poor,” or “very poor” IBI water-quality categories.

  17. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  18. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  19. Biological affinities and adaptations of Bronze Age Bactrians: III. An initial craniometric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, B E

    1998-07-01

    Discovery of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilization (Oxus Civilization) centered on the oases of Central Asia immediately raised questions concerning the origin and interregional impacts of this civilization. Fifteen craniometric variables from 12 Bronze Age samples--encompassing 544 adults from Central Asia, Iran, the Indus Valley, and Anatolia--are compared to test which, if any, of the current hypotheses offered by archaeologists are best supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by the Oxus Civilization inhabitants of the north Bactrian oasis. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance, and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (WPGMA, neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis indicate that current hypotheses for both the origin and interregional impacts of Oxus Civilization populations are incomplete. PMID:9696149

  20. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD−1 d−1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD−1 d−1. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  1. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  2. A Study of the Biology Questions in the 6th Grade Science and Technology Test of the Level Assessment Examination Based on the Revised Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Melike ÖZER; AYDIN, Solmaz

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study and compare the biology questions in the sixth grade Science and Technology Tests of the Level Assessment Examinations (SBS) administered in 2008 and 2009 based on the knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of the Revised Taxonomy. The study looked at a total of ten biology questions, five in 2008 and five in 2009. Three doctoral and three master's students worked independently on the classification of the questions according to the Revised Taxonomy, as required b...

  3. Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status: multicenter assessment of a rapid biological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombet, Isabelle; Saguez, Colette; Sanson-Le Pors, Marie-José; Coudert, Benoît; Chatellier, Gilles; Espinoza, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status by medical interview of patients with wounds is poor. Many protected patients receive unnecessary vaccine or immunoglobulin, and unprotected patients may receive nothing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the Tetanos Quick Stick (TQS) rapid finger prick stick test in the emergency department for determining immunization status. We designed a prospective multicenter study for blinded comparison of TQS with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adults referred for open wounds in 37 French hospital emergency departments had the TQS after receiving standard care (emergency-TQS). TQS was also performed in the hospital laboratory on total blood (blood/lab-TQS) and serum (serum/lab-TQS). ELISA was performed with the same blood sample at a central laboratory. We assessed concordance between emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS by the kappa test and the diagnostic accuracy (likelihood ratios) of medical interview, emergency-TQS, and lab-TQS. ELISA was positive in 94.6% of the 988 patients included. Concordance between blood/emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS results was moderate (kappa=0.6), with a high proportion of inconclusive blood/emergency-TQS tests (9.8%). Likelihood ratios for immunization were 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 5.1), 36.6 (95% CI, 5.3 to 255.3), 89.1 (95% CI, 5.6 to 1,405.0), and 92.7 (95% CI, 5.9 to 1,462.0) for medical interview, blood/emergency-TQS, blood/lab-TQS, and serum/lab-TQS, respectively. The sensitivity of the blood/emergency-TQS was 76.7%, and the specificity was 98% by reference to the ELISA. TQS use in the emergency room could make tetanus prevention more accurate if its technical feasibility were improved, and our assessment will be supplemented by a cost effectiveness study. PMID:16148171

  4. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned. - Highlights: ► Lichens were used as bioindicators at a landfill along 14 years of waste management. ► Metal deposition and low lichen diversity were found only close to the landfill. ► Lichen monitoring can assist in waste management regulatory decision. - The results of lichen monitoring can contribute to decision making process concerning waste management.

  5. Linolenic acid grafted hyaluronan: Process development, structural characterization, biological assessing, and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Brandejsová, Martina; Kulhánek, Jaromír; Pavlík, Vojtěch; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Vágnerová, Hana; Velebný, Vladimír

    2016-11-01

    In this study, hyaluronan (HA) was grafted with alpha-linolenic acid (αLNA) by benzoyl mixed anhydrides methodology, which allowed the derivatization of HA under mild reaction conditions. The reaction was optimized and transferred from laboratory to semi-scale production. The derivative revealed an unexpected cytotoxicity after oven drying and storage at 40°C. For this reason, the storage conditions of sodium linolenyl hyaluronate (αLNA-HA) were optimized in order to preserve the beneficial effect of the derivative. Oven, spray dried and lyophilized samples were prepared and stored at -20°C, 4°C and 25°C up to 6 months. A comprehensive material characterization including stability study of the derivative, as well as evaluation of possible changes on chemical structure and presence of peroxidation products were studied by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and complemented with assessment of in vitro viability on mouse fibroblasts NIH-3T3. The most stable αLNA-HA derivative was obtained after spray drying and storage at ambient temperature under inert atmosphere. The choice of inert atmosphere is recommended to suppress oxidation of αLNA supporting the positive influence of the derivative on cell viability. The encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs of αLNA-HA were also demonstrated. PMID:27516333

  6. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  7. Omics Meets Biology: Application to the Design and Preclinical Assessment of Antivenoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Calvete

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenoming represents a neglected tropical disease that has a heavy public health impact worldwide, mostly affecting poor people involved in agricultural activities in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania. A key issue that complicates the treatment of snakebite envenomings is the poor availability of the only validated treatment for this disease, antivenoms. Antivenoms can be an efficacious treatment for snakebite envenoming, provided they are safe, effective, affordable, accessible and administered appropriately. The shortage of antivenoms in various regions, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia, can be significantly alleviated by optimizing the use of current antivenoms and by the generation of novel polyspecific antivenoms having a wide spectrum of efficacy. Complementing preclinical testing of antivenom efficacy using in vivo and in vitro functional neutralization assays, developments in venomics and antivenomics are likely to revolutionize the design and preclinical assessment of antivenoms by being able to test new antivenom preparations and to predict their paraspecific neutralization to the level of species-specific toxins.

  8. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system is an appropriate biological marker for the well-being in erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolga Dogru; Orhan Murat Kocak; Nurper Erberk-Ozen; Murat Basar

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the autonomic nervous system (ANS) components are suitable biological markers for representing well-being in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: The present study included 74 male patients who had applied for check-ups in the cardiology outpatient clinic at Kirikkale University (Kirikkale, Turkey) and who had been diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia. Of these patients, 26 had an additional diagnosis of ED and made up the patient group. The remaining 48 patients formed the control group. Well-being was assessed with short- form 36 (SF-36). The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used as a measure of libido and erectile function. Quantitative assessment of the ANS was made based on the analysis of heart rate variability by means of 24-h holter monitorization. Results: Comparisons between the ED and control groups showed significant differences only in energy scale of SF-36. The ED group also had significantly higher values of sympathetic activity. Except for the general health score of SF-36, which was found to be correlated with parasympathetic activity only in ED group, there were similar correlation patterns within the groups. Although well-being and sympathetic activity were corre- lated negatively, parasympathetic activity and well-being were correlated positively. Conclusion: Quantitative as- sessment of the ANS by heart rate variability analysis might be a suitable marker for well-being of patients with ED. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 643-650)

  9. Coupling geochemical and biological approaches to assess the availability of cadmium in freshwater sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrin, Aymeric, E-mail: aymeric.dabrin@cemagref.fr; Durand, Cyrielle L.; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier; Ferrari, Benoit J.D.; Coquery, Marina

    2012-05-01

    Sediments are considered as a sink for metals, and the assessment of metal bioavailability for benthic organisms represents a great challenge. Diffusive Gradient in Thin films (DGT), developed to measure labile metals in aquatic media, have more recently been applied to sediment. Nevertheless, few studies have determined the relation between measurements from DGT and bioaccumulation in different benthic organisms. The aim of our work was to determine if labile metal measured by DGT in sediment is representative of bioavailable metal for benthic organisms. We focused our work on Cd and chose to use the diversity of ecological traits from different organisms to better understand the measurement given by DGT. We exposed simultaneously DGT and 3 macroinvertebrates species (the chironomid, Chironomus riparius; the amphipod, Gammarus fossarum; the mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum) to a natural sediment Cd-spiked at environmental relevant concentrations. The nature of sediment-bound Cd was also determined by means of sequential extractions in order to better interpret DGT measurements. Cadmium concentrations were determined in DGT and in the 3 organisms after one week of exposure. Results provided by DGT indicated that Cd was poorly released from particulate phase to pore water, suggesting that Cd measured by DGT was representative of the pore water labile fraction. Sequential extractions showed that the percentage of Cd bound to carbonate fraction increased simultaneously with Cd-spiking level; hence, this Cd fraction was poorly reactive to supply DGT demand. Cadmium accumulation rates were similar between DGT measurements and P. antipodarum, suggesting that labile Cd in pore waters was representative of bioavailable Cd for this species. Cadmium accumulation rates in C. riparius were higher than in DGT, demonstrating that C. riparius can mobilize Cd bound to carbonate phase. G. fossarum showed the lowest Cd accumulation rates, suggesting that they were mainly exposed

  10. Molecular biology methods in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Genetics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-12-01

    Effort to predict the genetic consequences for humans of exposure to ionising radiation has been one of the most important issues of human genetics over the past 60 years. To date, there has been little experimental knowledge on the genetic risks of human exposure to ionising radiation. Radiation-induced deleterious hereditary effects have not been detected in human populations - not even among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This does not mean deleterious hereditary effects do not exist in humans, but rather that they are small and/or difficult to detect because the normal incidence of inherited abnormalities is quite high in the human population. Thus, assessment of radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans has been based on the common knowledge of human heredity and on animal experiments. However, recent data have suggested that hyper-variable tandem repeat minisatellite loci provide a useful and sensitive experimental approach for monitoring radiation-induced germline mutations in humans. In order to investigate the feasibility of the minisatellite mutation screening system in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans, we examined the amount of hereditary minisatellite mutations among the offspring of Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers. The men studied received a median radiation dose of 109 mSv while working on the cleanup activities after the Chernobyl accident. We compared the minisatellite mutation rates of 155 children born to 147 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers after the accident to those of their 148 siblings born prior to it. In addition, 44 Estonian families, where the father had not been exposed to radiation, composed an additional control group. In all of these families, the paternity of the children was ascertained by using 5 minisatellite loci (APOB, HRAS, MCOB19, MCT118, and YNZ-22) in PCR-based analyses. Other 8 minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, and MS32) were used

  11. Molecular biology methods in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effort to predict the genetic consequences for humans of exposure to ionising radiation has been one of the most important issues of human genetics over the past 60 years. To date, there has been little experimental knowledge on the genetic risks of human exposure to ionising radiation. Radiation-induced deleterious hereditary effects have not been detected in human populations - not even among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This does not mean deleterious hereditary effects do not exist in humans, but rather that they are small and/or difficult to detect because the normal incidence of inherited abnormalities is quite high in the human population. Thus, assessment of radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans has been based on the common knowledge of human heredity and on animal experiments. However, recent data have suggested that hyper-variable tandem repeat minisatellite loci provide a useful and sensitive experimental approach for monitoring radiation-induced germline mutations in humans. In order to investigate the feasibility of the minisatellite mutation screening system in assessing radiation-induced hereditary risks in humans, we examined the amount of hereditary minisatellite mutations among the offspring of Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers. The men studied received a median radiation dose of 109 mSv while working on the cleanup activities after the Chernobyl accident. We compared the minisatellite mutation rates of 155 children born to 147 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers after the accident to those of their 148 siblings born prior to it. In addition, 44 Estonian families, where the father had not been exposed to radiation, composed an additional control group. In all of these families, the paternity of the children was ascertained by using 5 minisatellite loci (APOB, HRAS, MCOB19, MCT118, and YNZ-22) in PCR-based analyses. Other 8 minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, and MS32) were used

  12. The scaling law of climate change and its relevance to assessing (palaeo)biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Eichenseer, Kilian

    2014-05-01

    It is often argued that current rates of climate change are unprecedented in the geological past. At the same time, the magnitudes of change were often much greater in deep time than they are in history. The most severe global warming in the Phanerozoic, with dramatic consequences for life, probably occurred across the Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary when an increase of tropical water temperatures of 15° C has been observed to occur over a timespan 0.8 myr (Sun et al. 2012), whereas global ocean warming over the last 50 years was 0.35° C (Burrows et al. 2011). When transforming these data into rates of change the P-T rate was roughly 370 times smaller than the current rate. We argue that the smaller rates of change inferred from geological proxy records are due to a scaling effect, that is, rates of climate change generally decrease with timespan of observation. We compiled from the published literature data on measured or inferred temperature changes and the timespans over which these changes were assessed. Our compilation currently comprises 120 values and covers timespans from 20 to 107 years. A log-log plot of timespan versus rate of temperature change depicts a highly significant correlation (r2 = 0.95) of a power-law relationship with an exponent of -0.87. Warming trends show a slightly lower exponent (-0.84) than cooling trends (-0.89) but the explained variance is better for the scaling of warming trends. Importantly, the scaled warming trend across the P-T boundary is higher than the current rates of warming. Similar scaling effects are well explored for sediment accumulation rates (Sadler 1981) and evolutionary rates (Gingerich 1993). These have been interpreted as being due to breaks in sedimentation and periods of stasis or transient reversals, respectively. In case of climate change, transient reversals in general trends are the most likely explanation for the scaling relationship. Even relatively rapid intervals of warming, such as the Pleistocene

  13. Applying electrical resistivity tomography and biological methods to assess the surface-groundwater interaction in two Mediterranean rivers (central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepure, Sanda; Gómez Ortiz, David; Lillo Ramos, Javier; Rasines Ladero, Ruben; Persoiu, Aurel

    2014-05-01

    Delineation of the extent of hyporheic zone (HZ) in river ecosystems is problematic due to the scarcity of spatial information about the structure of riverbed sediments and the magnitude and extent of stream interactions with the parafluvial and riparian zones. The several existing methods vary in both quality and quantity of information and imply the use of hydrogeological and biological methods. In the last decades, various non-invasive geophysical techniques were developed to characterise the streambed architecture and also to provide detailed spatial information on its vertical and horizontal continuity. All classes of techniques have their strengths and limitations; therefore, in order to assess their potential in delineating the lateral and vertical spatial extents of alluvial sediments, we have combined the near-surface images obtained by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with biological assessment of invertebrates in two Mediterranean lowland rivers from central Spain. We performed in situ imaging of the thickness and continuity of alluvial sediments under the riverbed and parafluvial zone during base-flow conditions (summer 2013 and winter 2014) at two different sites with distinct lithology along the Tajuña and Henares Rivers. ERT was performed by installing the electrodes (1 m spacing) on a 47 m long transect normal to the river channel using a Wener-Schlumberger array, across both the riparian zones and the river bed. Invertebrates were collected in the streambed from a depth of 20-40 cm, using the Bou-Rouch method, and from boreholes drilled to a depth of 1.5 m in the riparian zone. The ERT images obtained at site 1 (medium and coarse sand dominated lithology) shows resistivity values ranging from ~20 to 80 ohm•m for the in-stream sediments, indicating a permeable zone up to ~ 0.5 m thick and extending laterally for ca. 5 m from the channel. These sediments contribute to active surface/hyporheic water exchanges and to low water retention in

  14. Environmental Assessment of Streams: Linking Land Use, Instream Stressors, and Biological Indices to Infer Likely Causes of Ecological Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Laan, Jacob J.

    2012-01-01

    To protect and restore the biological integrity of streams, we need to be able to both detect biological degradation and infer likely causes of impairment. Managers often use biological indices to measure biological condition and detect degradation. However, the ability to detect degradation can be limited by the performance of the indices we develop. Index performance varies widely, but the sources of this variation are often unclear. In addition, although bioassessments are useful tools for...

  15. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  16. Uncertainty assessment of a model for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal: Application to a large wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Viviani, Gaspare

    In the last few years, the use of mathematical models in WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP) processes has become a common way to predict WWTP behaviour. However, mathematical models generally demand advanced input for their implementation that must be evaluated by an extensive data-gathering campaign, which cannot always be carried out. This fact, together with the intrinsic complexity of the model structure, leads to model results that may be very uncertain. Quantification of the uncertainty is imperative. However, despite the importance of uncertainty quantification, only few studies have been carried out in the wastewater treatment field, and those studies only included a few of the sources of model uncertainty. Seeking the development of the area, the paper presents the uncertainty assessment of a mathematical model simulating biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The uncertainty assessment was conducted according to the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology that has been scarcely applied in wastewater field. The model was based on activated-sludge models 1 (ASM) and 2 (ASM2). Different approaches can be used for uncertainty analysis. The GLUE methodology requires a large number of Monte Carlo simulations in which a random sampling of individual parameters drawn from probability distributions is used to determine a set of parameter values. Using this approach, model reliability was evaluated based on its capacity to globally limit the uncertainty. The method was applied to a large full-scale WWTP for which quantity and quality data was gathered. The analysis enabled to gain useful insights for WWTP modelling identifying the crucial aspects where higher uncertainty rely and where therefore, more efforts should be provided in terms of both data gathering and modelling practises.

  17. Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

  18. Airway remodeling assessed by high-resolution computed tomography in patients with asthma:relationship to biological markers in induced sputum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世满

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of assessing asthma control by high-resolution computed tomography(HRCT) and biological markers in induced sputum.Methods Forty-eight patients with asthma(asthma group) and 10 healthy subjects(control group) were retrospectively analyzed.

  19. Characterization of a multiculture in-vitro cell exposure chamber for assessing the biological impact of diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the various health influencing parameters related to particulate as well as to gas-phase pollutants emitted by Diesel engine exhaust, there is an urgent need for appropriate sampling devices and methods for cell exposure studies and associated biological and toxicological tests. In a previous paper [1], a specific concept for a cell culture exposure chamber was introduced to allow the uniform exposure of cell cultures to diesel aerosols. In the present work, this cell culture exposure chamber is evaluated and characterized with state-of-the-art nanoparticles measurement instrumentation to assess the local deposition of soot aggregates on the cell cultures and any losses due to particle deposition on the cell culture exposure chamber walls, and in addition an upgraded Multiculture Exposure Chamber (MEC) for in vitro continuous flow cell exposure tests is introduced with improved, compared to the previous version, features. Analysis and design of the MEC employs CFD and true to geometry representations of soot particle aggregates.

  20. ECONOMICS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the session was to describe procedures used in the estimation of economic cost of air pollution to agriculture in the U.S. and to present some examples of those estimates. In recent years, there has been great interest in the development of monetary estimates of ...

  1. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  2. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  3. Evaluation of an index of biotic integrity approach used to assess biological condition in western U.S. streams and rivers at varying spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; Whittier, T.R.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hughes, R.M.; Peck, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent assessments of biological condition are needed across multiple ecoregions to provide a greater understanding of the spatial extent of environmental degradation. However, consistent assessments at large geographic scales are often hampered by lack of uniformity in data collection, analyses, and interpretation. The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely used in eastern and central North America, where fish assemblages are complex and largely composed of native species, but IBI development has been hindered in the western United States because of relatively low fish species richness and greater relative abundance of alien fishes. Approaches to developing IBIs rarely provide a consistent means of assessing biological condition across multiple ecoregions. We conducted an evaluation of IBIs recently proposed for three ecoregions of the western United States using an independent data set covering a large geographic scale. We standardized the regional IBIs and developed biological condition criteria, assessed the responsiveness of IBIs to basin-level land uses, and assessed their precision and concordance with basin-scale IBIs. Standardized IBI scores from 318 sites in the western United States comprising mountain, plains, and xeric ecoregions were significantly related to combined urban and agricultural land uses. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation revealed relatively low variation in IBI scores based on multiple sampling reaches at sites. A relatively high degree of corroboration with independent, locally developed IBIs indicates that the regional IBIs are robust across large geographic scales, providing precise and accurate assessments of biological condition for western U.S. streams. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  4. Correlation of biological aggressiveness assessed by 11C-methionine PET and hypoxic burden assessed by 18F-fluoromisonidazole PET in newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by tissue hypoxia associated with resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To clarify the biological link between hypoxia and tumour-induced neovascularization and tumour aggressiveness, we analysed detailed volumetric and spatial information of viable hypoxic tissue assessed by 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET relative to neovascularization in Gd-enhanced MRI and tumour aggressiveness by L-methyl-11C-methionine (MET) PET in newly diagnosed GBMs. Ten patients with newly diagnosed GBMs were investigated with FMISO PET, MET PET and Gd-enhanced MRI before surgery. Tumour volumes were calculated by performing a three-dimensional threshold-based volume of interest (VOI) analysis for metabolically active volume on MET PET (MET uptake indices of ≥1.3 and ≥1.5) and Gd-enhanced volume on MRI. FMISO PET was scaled to the blood FMISO activity to create tumour to blood (T/B) images. The hypoxic volume (HV) was defined as the region with T/B greater than 1.2. PET and MR images of each patient were coregistered to analyse the spatial location of viable hypoxic tissue relative to neovascularization and active tumour extension. Metabolically active tumour volumes defined using MET uptake indices of ≥1.3 and ≥1.5 and the volumes of Gd enhancement showed a strong correlation (r = 0.86, p < 0.01 for an index of ≥1.3 and r = 0.77, p < 0.05 for an index of ≥1.5). The HVs were also excellently correlated with the volumes of Gd enhancement (r = 0.94, p < 0.01). The metabolically active tumour volumes as defined by a MET uptake index of ≥1.3 and the HVs exhibited a strong correlation (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). On superimposed images, the metabolically active area on MET PET defined by a MET uptake index of ≥1.3 was usually larger than the area of the Gd enhancement and about 20-30% of the MET area extended outside the area of the enhancement. On the other hand, the surface area of viable hypoxic tissue with a T/B cutoff of

  5. Assessing the emergence of resistance: the absence of biological cost in vivo may compromise fosfomycin treatments for P. aeruginosa infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fosfomycin is a cell wall inhibitor used efficiently to treat uncomplicated urinary tract and gastrointestinal infections. A very convenient feature of fosfomycin, among others, is that although the expected frequency of resistant mutants is high, the biological cost associated with mutation impedes an effective growth rate, and bacteria cannot offset the obstacles posed by host defenses or compete with sensitive bacteria. Due to the current scarcity of new antibiotics, fosfomycin has been proposed as an alternative treatment for other infections caused by a wide variety of bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, whether fosfomycin resistance in P. aeruginosa provides a fitness cost still remains unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We herein present experimental evidence to show that fosfomycin resistance cannot only emerge easily during treatment, but that it is also cost-free for P. aeruginosa. We also tested if, as has been reported for other species such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis, fosfomycin resistant strains are somewhat compromised in their virulence. As concerns colonization, persistence, lung damage, and lethality, we found no differences between the fosfomycin resistant mutant and its sensitive parental strain. The probability of acquisition in vitro of resistance to the combination of fosfomycin with other antibiotics (tobramycin and imipenem has also been studied. While the combination of fosfomycin with tobramycin makes improbable the emergence of resistance to both antibiotics when administered together, the combination of fosfomycin plus imipenem does not avoid the appearance of mutants resistant to both antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We have reached the conclusion that the use of fosfomycin for P. aeruginosa infections, even in combined therapy, might not be as promising as expected. This study should encourage the scientific community to assess the in vivo cost of resistance

  6. Assessing and enhancing the introductory science course in physics and biology: Peer instruction, classroom demonstrations, and genetics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Adam Paul

    Most introductory college science courses in the United States are taught in large lectures with students rarely having the opportunity to think critically about the material being presented nor to participate actively. Further, many classes focus on teaching rather than learning, that is, the transfer of information as opposed to actual student understanding. This thesis focuses on three studies about the assessment and enhancement of learning in undergraduate science courses. We describe the results of an international survey on the implementation of Peer Instruction (PI), a collaborative learning pedagogy in which lectures are interspersed with short conceptual questions designed to challenge students to think about the material as it is being presented. We present a portrait of the many instructors teaching with PI and the settings in which it is being used as well as data on the effectiveness of PI in enhancing student learning in diverse settings. The wide variety of implementations suggests that PI is a highly adaptable strategy that can work successfully in almost any environment. We also provide recommendations for those considering adopting PI in their classes. Classroom demonstrations are an important aspect of many introductory science courses, but there is little evidence supporting their educational effectiveness. We explore the effect of different modes of presentation on enhancing student learning from demonstrations. Our results show that students who actively engage with a demonstration by predicting the outcome before it is conducted are better able to recall and explain the scenario posed by that demonstration. As preliminary work for the creation of an inventory of conceptual understanding in introductory biology, we discuss results from a survey of vocabulary familiarity and understanding in an undergraduate genetics course. Students begin introductory classes with significant gaps in their understanding, some of which are retained beyond

  7. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... hyacinth infestations. On November 16, 2009, we published in the Federal Register (74 FR 58939-58940... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based...

  8. Assessing Students' Abilities in Processes of Scientific Inquiry in Biology Using a Paper-and-Pencil Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kathrin Helena; Nehring, Andreas; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe, categorise and analyse students' (aged 14-16) processes of scientific inquiry in biology and chemistry education. Therefore, a theoretical structure for scientific inquiry for both biology and chemistry, the VerE model, was developed. This model consists of nine epistemological acts, which combine…

  9. 合成生物学生物安全风险评价与管理%Assessment and management of biosafety in synthetic biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关正君; 裴蕾; 马库斯·施密特; 魏伟

    2012-01-01

    While having developed into one of the most dynamic fields of the life sciences, synthetic biology may pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Based on current national and international risk assessment methods and current regulation of synthetic biology, we reviewed risk assessment in relation to synthetic biology's research subfields (such as DNA-based biocircuits, minimal genome, protocells and chemical synthetic biology), its relation with biosafety engineering, its effect on ELSI (Ethics, Legal and Social Implications) and recent biosecurity challenges, such as biopunk (or biohackery), garage biology, do-it-yourself biology and bioterrorism. Additionally, we investigated existing strategies for management of synthetic biology research, focusing on self-regulatory or technology-focused methods and using the 5P (the principal investigator, the project, the premises, the provider of genetic material and its purchaser) strategy focusing in five different policy intervention points. Furthermore, we reviewed the current research and development of synthetic biology and its current biosafety regulations in China. Finally, we recommended management strategies to guide future research in synthetic biology with necessary amendments, including the establishment of regulations with a core of safety assessment, synthetic biology-specific good laboratory practice guidelines, and arguments for the reinforcement of internal regulation at the institution level and more active public outreach efforts for biosafety.%合成生物学(synthetic biology)已迅速发展为生命科学最具发展潜力的分支学科之一,但它同时也会给生态环境和人类健康带来潜在的风险.结合国内外合成生物学发展现状,本文综述了基因回路(DNA-based biocircuits)、最小基因组(minimal genome)、原型细胞(protocells)、化学合成生物学(chemical synthetic biology)等涉及的风险评价、合成生

  10. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs

  11. The effectiveness of spent coffee grounds and its biochar on the amelioration of heavy metals-contaminated water and soil using chemical and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Koo, Namin; Park, Jeongsik; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Bak, Gwan-In; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-12-15

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) and charred spent coffee grounds (SCG-char) have been widely used to adsorb or to amend heavy metals that contaminate water or soil and their success is usually assessed by chemical analysis. In this work, the effects of SCG and SCG-char on metal-contaminated water and soil were evaluated using chemical and biological assessments; a phytotoxicity test using bok choy (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Jusl.) was conducted for the biological assessment. When SCG and SCG-char were applied to acid mine drainage, the heavy metal concentrations were decreased and the pH was increased. However, for SCG, the phytotoxicity increased because a massive amount of dissolved organic carbon was released from SCG. In contrast, SCG-char did not exhibit this phenomenon because any easily released organic matter was removed during pyrolysis. While the bioavailable heavy metal content decreased in soils treated with SCG or SCG-char, the phytotoxicity only rose after SCG treatment. According to our statistical methodology, bioavailable Pb, Cu and As, as well as the electrical conductivity representing an increase in organic content, affected the phytotoxicity of soil. Therefore, applying SCG during environment remediation requires careful biological assessments and evaluations of the efficiency of this remediation technology. PMID:25242543

  12. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  13. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. PMID:26552534

  14. Emissions from mechanical and biological waste treatment - parameters, metrology and assessment; Emissionen bei der mechanisch-biologischen Abfallbehandlung-Parameter, Messtechnik und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doedens, H.; Cuhls, C. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with the following topics: emissions from mechanical and biological waste treatment and their past assessment on the basis of the Clean Air Technical Code of 1986; draft of an ordinance for the execution of the German Federal Emission Control Law, submitted on 18/02/1998 (Ordinance Concerning Notifiable Plants - BImSchV); plants subject to licensing; assessment of measurements on large-scale mechanical and biological waste treatment plants on the basis of previous regulations, the Clean Air Technical Code and the BImSchV draft. [German] Themen des Artikels sind: Emissionen der MBA und deren bisherige Bewertung nach der TA Luft '86. Entwurf einer Verordnung zur Durchfuehrung des BImSchG vom 18.02.1998 (Verordnung ueber anzeigebeduerftige Anlagen-BImSchV). Genehmigungsbeduerftige Anlagen. Messverfahren zum Gesamtkohlenstoff. Bewertung von Messungen an grosstechnischen MBA anhand bisheriger Regelungen, basierend auf der TA Luft und dem BImSchV-Entwurf. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of the biological health of streams on the Patuxent Research Refuge within Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the biological conditions of streams located within the North Track of the Patuxent Research Refuge Refuge. Over the last 7 years, Anne...

  16. Assessment of The Biological Integrity of The Native Vegetative Community In A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Galbrand; A. M. Snow; Abdel E. Ghaly; Côté, R.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the biological integrity of a constructed wetland receiving landfill leachate and stormwater runoff from the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. The biological integrity of the constructed wetland was tested in the second growing season using vegetative community monitoring. The metrics analyzed were species diversity, species heterogeneity (dominance) and exotic/invasive species abundance. There was no significant difference in the plant specie...

  17. Gold nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions: assessment of safety and biological identity for nanomedicine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correard F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Florian Correard,1,2 Ksenia Maximova,3 Marie-Anne Estève,1,2 Claude Villard,1 Myriam Roy,4 Ahmed Al-Kattan,3 Marc Sentis,3 Marc Gingras,4 Andrei V Kabashin,3 Diane Braguer1,2 1Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, CR02 UMR_S911, Marseille, France; 2APHM, Hôpital Timone, Marseille, France; 3Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LP3 UMR 7341, Marseille, France; 4Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINAM, UMR 7325 Marseille, France Abstract: Due to excellent biocompatibility, chemical stability, and promising optical properties, gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs are the focus of research and applications in nanomedicine. Au-NPs prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions present an essentially novel object that is unique in avoiding any residual toxic contaminant. This paper is conceived as the next step in development of laser-ablated Au-NPs for future in vivo applications. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, uptake, and biological behavior of laser-synthesized Au-NPs prepared in water or polymer solutions in human cell lines. Our results showed that laser ablation allows the obtaining of stable and monodisperse Au-NPs in water, polyethylene glycol, and dextran solutions. The three types of Au-NPs were internalized in human cell lines, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and safety of Au-NPs were demonstrated by analyzing cell survival and cell morphology. Furthermore, incubation of the three Au-NPs in serum-containing culture medium modified their physicochemical characteristics, such as the size and the charge. The composition of the protein corona adsorbed on Au-NPs was investigated by mass spectrometry. Regarding composition of complement C3 proteins and apolipoproteins, Au-NPs prepared in dextran solution appeared as a promising drug carrier. Altogether, our results revealed the safety of laser-ablated Au-NPs in human cell lines and support their use for theranostic applications. Keywords: protein

  18. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  19. Seasonal assessment of biological indices, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of heavy metals in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from Algerian west coast, applied to environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rouane-Hacene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to broaden our knowledge on the variability of trace metals in mussel tissues, focusing on seasonal fluctuations in the three different sampling sites of Algerian west coast (Oran Harbor (S1, Ain Defla (S2 and Hadjaj (S3. For this purpose, the bioavailability (metal indices and bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in soft tissues of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, and the physiological characteristics (e.g. biological indices such as condition index (CI of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis have been assessed and related to seasons and sites. In S1, the highest levels of metal concentrations and indices were obtained in mussels sampled in winter for Zn, Cu and Cd, but in summer for Pb. The biological indices significantly decreased in winter. In S2, the levels of concentrations and indices of all metals varied whatever the seasons, excepting in summer where the values were the lowest. In summer and spring, the biological indices were lower than in autumn and winter. The low growth of organisms in spring and summer might be correlated to the reproductive period and the low trophic level known in S2. S3, considered as a “pristine” area, showed low metal concentrations and indices, and high biological indices, reflecting the favorable physiological conditions for the mussel growth. This approach might be used in the monitoring of the quality of coastal waters and the present work provided a useful data set for Mediterranean monitoring network.

  20. Measuring biological responses at different levels of organisation to assess the effects of diffuse contamination derived from harbour and industrial activities in estuarine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Ríos, A; Pérez, L; Echavarri-Erasun, B; Serrano, T; Barbero, M C; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Orbea, A; Juanes, J A; Cajaraville, M P

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of diffuse contamination, biological measurements were applied in a scrap cargo harbour, a marina and an industrial area. Metal accumulation and biomarkers (survival in air, digestive gland and gonad histopathology, lysosomal membrane stability, intralysosomal metal accumulation, transcription of vitellogenin and MT20, peroxisome proliferation and micronuclei formation) were measured in transplanted mussels, together with metrics of benthic invertebrates. Benthic species were classified into ecological groups and univariate indexes were calculated. The marina showed high richness (16) and percentage of opportunistic species (55.1%) and low metal accumulation. Mussels in the scrap cargo harbour showed high metal accumulation, up-regulation of MT20 transcription, reduced health status (LP<6 min) and increased micronuclei frequencies (up to 11.3‰). At the industrial area, low species richness (4) and badly organised assemblages were detected and chemical analyses indicated significant amounts of bioavailable metals. Overall, selected biological measurements showed potential for the assessment of diffuse contamination. PMID:26707886

  1. Emerging roles of frailty and inflammaging in risk assessment of age-related chronic diseases in older adults: the intersection between aging biology and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Chien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-01-01

    A chronic disease in older adults usually runs a course that is less predictable than in younger individuals. Unexplained variations in disease incidence, prognosis, therapeutic responses, and toxicity are frequently observed among older adults. This heterogeneity poses huge challenges to the current one-size-fits-all health care systems, and calls for more personalized managements of chronic diseases in older adults. Aging is characterized by progressive deterioration of bodily functions with increasing risk of failure over time. The entire process is hierarchically organized, and progresses from intracellular events to changes at systemic and ultimately organism levels at different rates among different individuals. Aging biology exerts great influences on the development and progression of most age-related chronic diseases. Thus, aging biology could contribute to the complexity of illnesses that increase with age, and aging biomarkers possess a great potential to enable personalized health risk assessment and health care. We review evidences supporting the roles of aging biomarkers in risk assessment of prevalent age-related diseases. Frailty phenotype is an objectively measured indicator of advanced-stage aging that is characterized by organism-level dysfunction. In contrast, altered inflammation markers level signifies an earlier stage between cellular abnormalities and systems dysfunction. Results of human observational studies and randomized controlled trials indicate that these measures, albeit simple, greatly facilitate classification of older patients with cancer, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus into groups that vary in disease incidence, prognosis and therapeutic response/toxicity. As the detailed mechanisms underlying the complex biologic process of aging are unraveled in the future, a larger array of biomarkers that correlate with biologic aging at different stages will be discovered. Following the

  2. Influence assessment of a lab-scale ripening process on the quality of mechanically-biologically treated MSW for possible recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lonardo, Maria Chiara; Binner, Erwin; Lombardi, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the influence of an additional ripening process on the quality of mechanically-biologically treated MSW was evaluated in the prospective of recovering the end material, rather than landfilling. The biostabilised waste (BSW) coming from one of the MBT plants of Rome was therefore subjected to a ripening process in slightly aerated lab test cells. An in-depth investigation on the biological reactivity was performed by means of different types of tests (aerobic and anaerobic biological tests, as well as FT-IR spectroscopy method). A physical-chemical characterisation of waste samples progressively taken during the ripening phase was carried out, as well. In addition, the ripened BSW quality was assessed by comparing the characteristics of a compost sampled at the composting plant of Rome which treat source segregated organic wastes. Results showed that the additional ripening process allowed to obtain a better quality of the biostabilised waste, by achieving a much higher biological stability compared to BSW as-received and similar to that of the tested compost. An important finding was the lower heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) release in water phase at the end of the ripening compared to the as-received BSW, showing that metals were mainly bound to solid organic matter. As a result, the ripened waste, though not usable in agriculture as found for the compost sample, proved anyhow to be potentially suitable for land reclamation purposes, such as in landfills as cover material or mixed with degraded and contaminated soil for organic matter and nutrients supply and for metals recovery, respectively. In conclusion the study highlights the need to extend and optimise the biological treatment in the MBT facilities and opens the possibility to recover the output waste instead of landfilling. PMID:26074212

  3. A New Method for Post-introduction Risk Assessment of Biological Invasions Among Introduced Shrubs in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seburanga, J. L.; Bizuru, E.; Mwavu, E. N.; Kampungu, K. G.; Gatesire, T.; Kaplin, B. A.

    2016-03-01

    Risk-assessment methods are useful in collecting data that can help decision making to prevent the introduction of new species that have the potential of invading as well as in management of established taxa. Not only the complexity and unaffordability of available pre-introduction risk-assessment models make them rarely or inconsistently applied in the least-developed countries, but also there is lack of tools to assess the status of already introduced plant species. In this study, an affordable and rapid method of assessment of invasiveness among introduced plant species was developed and tested in Rwanda. This method defines three invasion stages (potential, effective, and suppressive invaders) and four levels of risk assessment: post-introduction assessment of species inherent invasive potential ( Level 1), post-establishment assessment of species capacity of regeneration ( Level 2), post-naturalization assessment of species range of occurrence and ability for long-distance dispersal ( Level 3), and post-naturalization assessment of species ability to outcompete other plants in the community and transform the landscape ( Level 4). A review of invasive species in Rwanda was developed through desk review, examination of herbarium records, and vegetation surveys. This method should be applicable in other countries that lack the means for a more conventional scientific investigation or under any circumstance where a quick and inexpensive assessment is needed. The method could be useful to environmental managers for timely intervention with strategies specific to different stages of invasion (post-introduction, post-establishment, or post-naturalization) and allocate resources accordingly.

  4. Assessing the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs on students’ achievements, misconceptions and attitudes towards biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KARA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to ‘‘genetic concepts’’ topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT, the genetic concept test (GCT and biology attitude scale (BAS was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in GAT increased in favor of experimental groups. It was also noticed that using edutainment software programs significantly changed students’ attitudes towards biology. However, only tutorial design software program had the positive effect to the awareness of students’ understandings to the concepts gene, DNA, nucleus, chromosome, allele, genetic information, and genetic code. The current study also revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment.

  5. Comments on the theory of radiation risk II Experiments in biology and the assessment of radiation risk

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, J

    1974-01-01

    For pt. I see ibid., vol. 26, no.3, 229-37 (March 1974). An experimental program and a computational program are outlined for obtaining a relationship between transfer, L. Q and linear energy using biological data for critical effects and sets of linear equations can be obtained in which the coefficients are the doses delivered in intervals of L, and the unknowns are 'biological weighting factors', lambda . From these equations one can derive lambda 's for various L's as they relate to critical effects in animals. Using value judgment and combining the calculated results with data observed on men, one can obtain a Q-L relationship which is more directly based on experimental evidence than that which is currently used. (36 refs).

  6. Assessment of uranium and selenium speciation in human and bacterial biological models to probe changes in their structural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avoscan, L.; Milgram, S.; Untereiner, G.; Collins, R.; Khodja, H.; Carriere, M.; Gouget, B. [Lab. Pierre Sue, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coves, J. [Inst. de Biologie Structurale - J.-P. Ebel, Lab. des Proteines Membranaires, Grenoble (France); Hazemann, J.L. [Lab. de Geophysique Interne et Tectonopbysique, UMR CNRS/Univ. Joseph Fourier, Saint-Martin-D' Heres (France)

    2009-07-01

    This study illustrates the potential of physicochemical techniques to speciate uranium (U) and selenium (Se) in biological samples. Speciation, defined he0re as the study of structural environment, of both toxic elements, was characterized at several levels in biological media and directly in human cells or bacteria once the metal(loid)s were internalized. External speciation that is extracellular speciation in culture media was predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium computer modelling using the JChess software and validated by spectroscopic measurements (XANES and EXAFS). Internal speciation that is intracellular speciation in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells was studied in vitro with a soil bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and ROS 17/2.8 osteoblasts, human cells responsible for bone formation. XANES, EXAFS, HPLC-ICP-MS and SDS-PAGE coupled to particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) permitted the identification and quantification of complexes formed with organic or inorganic molecules and/or larger proteins. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of Potential Sublethal Effects of Various Insecticides on Key Biological Traits of The Tobacco Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yuxian; Zhao, Jianwei; Zheng, Yu; Weng, Qiyong; Biondi, Antonio; DESNEUX, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most devastating pests worldwide. Current management of B. tabaci relies upon the frequent applications of insecticides. In addition to direct mortality by typical acute toxicity (lethal effect), insecticides may also impair various key biological traits of the exposed insects through physiological and behavioral sublethal effects. Identifying and characterizing such effects could be crucial for understanding the global effects of insecticides...

  8. Prediction uncertainty assessment of a systems biology model requires a sample of the full probability distribution of its parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Simon van Mourik; Cajo ter Braak; Hans Stigter; Jaap Molenaar

    2014-01-01

    Multi-parameter models in systems biology are typically ‘sloppy’: some parameters or combinations of parameters may be hard to estimate from data, whereas others are not. One might expect that parameter uncertainty automatically leads to uncertain predictions, but this is not the case. We illustrate this by showing that the prediction uncertainty of each of six sloppy models varies enormously among different predictions. Statistical approximations of parameter uncertainty may lead to dramatic...

  9. Biological Risk Assessment of Automobile Companies- A Case Study of Saipa as the Second Largest Iranian Car Manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Seifalian; Hossein Yadegari; Akbar Mokhtari Azar

    2014-01-01

    In every careers and fields there are cases that known as risk and places that are categorized in biological risk centers that can be classified into specific classes. In HSE field also there are risk centers that can be indentified and validated separately and specifically.In definition; places and situation that are capable of existing or creating risk or can be a potential source of making risk are named risk centers. Risk centers in hygiene, immunity, and environment are different and hav...

  10. Production and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels using Mechanical- Biological Treatment (MBT) of waste: a comprehensive assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Velis, C.A.; Longhurst, Philip J.; Drew, Gillian H; Smith, Richard; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2010-01-01

    The move from disposal-led waste management to resource management demands an ability to map flows of the properties of waste. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of how mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants, and the unit processes that comprise them, perform in relation to management of material flows, while transforming inputs into output fractions. Focus is placed on the properties relating to the quality of MBT-derived fuels. Quality management initiatives for...

  11. Assessment of The Biological Integrity of The Native Vegetative Community In A Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Industrial Park Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Galbrand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the biological integrity of a constructed wetland receiving landfill leachate and stormwater runoff from the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. The biological integrity of the constructed wetland was tested in the second growing season using vegetative community monitoring. The metrics analyzed were species diversity, species heterogeneity (dominance and exotic/invasive species abundance. There was no significant difference in the plant species diversity between the constructed wetland and the reference site. However, the constructed wetland supported a higher plant species richness than the reference site. The top three species in the constructed wetland were tweedy’s rush (Juncus brevicaudatus, soft rush (Juncus effusus and fowl mannagrass (Glyceria striata. In total, these three species occupied 46.4% of the sampled population. The top three species in the reference site were soft rush (Juncus effusus, sweetgale (Myrica gale and woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus. In total, these three species occupied a more reasonable 32.6% of the sampled population. The reference site supported greater biological integrity as it had greater heterogeneity and a smaller abundance of exotic and invasive species compared to the constructed wetland (3.8% versus 10.7%. Although poor heterogeneity and the presence of weedy, exotic species can be a sign of degraded biological health and future problems, these are also common indicators of a system simply undergoing early succession. As the constructed wetland matures, its plant biodiversity may actually decrease, but its integrity, as measured by exotic and invasive species abundance as well as heterogeneity, is expected to increase, so long as invasive species present in the constructed wetland remain controlled through weeding during the first few growing seasons.

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii in pentachlorophenol removal and biological control of two Phytophthora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Luciano; Scelza, Rosalia; Varlese, Rosaria; Meca, Giuseppe; Testa, Antonino; Rao, Maria A; Cristinzio, Gennaro

    2016-04-01

    Bioremediation and biological-control by fungi have made tremendous strides in numerous biotechnology applications. The aim of this study was to test Byssochlamys nivea and Scopulariopsis brumptii in sensitivity and degradation to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and in biological-control of Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora. B. nivea and S. brumptii were tested in PCP sensitivity and degradation in microbiological media while the experiments of biological-control were carried out in microbiological media and soil. The fungal strains showed low PCP sensitivity at 12.5 and 25 mg PCP L(-1) although the hyphal size, fungal mat, patulin, and spore production decreased with increasing PCP concentrations. B. nivea and S. brumptii depleted completely 12.5 and 25 mg PCP L(-1) in liquid culture after 28 d of incubation at 28 °C. Electrolyte leakage assays showed that both fungi have low sensitivity to 25 mg PCP L(-1) and produced no toxic compounds for the plant. B. nivea and S. brumptii were able to inhibit the growth of the two plant pathogens in laboratory studies and reduce the mortality of chestnut plants caused by two Phytophthorae in greenhouse experiments. The two fungal strains did not produce volatile organic compounds able to reduce the growth of two plant pathogens tested. PMID:27020163

  13. Assessment of Biological Kinetics in a Conventional Municipal WWTP by Means of the Oxygen Uptake Rate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Torretta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution control of surface water bodies requires stringent checks on wastewater treatment plants performances. The satisfactory operation of biological treatment, commonly performed by means of activated sludge processes, requires a number of controlling and monitoring procedures. Suitable respirometric techniques for the determination of the kinetic parameters that regulate biological processes have been implemented in order to achieve this aim. This paper describes the results of an experimental research carried out in a conventional Italian municipal wastewater treatment plant. Particularly, the research has been finalized to both evaluate the biological process for the removal of biodegradable pollutants, such as carbonaceous substrates and ammonia nitrogen, and to collect data in order to evaluate a possible plant upgrade. Heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass kinetic parameters have been examined using respirometric techniques based on oxygen uptake measurements. The research performed makes a valuable contribution toward verifying the reliability of the values proposed in the literature for some kinetic parameters, which have been commonly used for a long time.

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in psoriatic arthritis – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley GH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabrielle H Kingsley, David L Scott Rheumatology Unit, Kings College London, London, UK Background: Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis the primary manifestations of which are locomotor and skin disease. Although a number of guidelines have been published citing strategies for reducing disease progression, the evidence base for disease-modifying agents is unclear. This forms the focus of this systematic review. Methods: The systematic review was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2009 checklist. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs that looked at the impact of interventions with disease-modifying agents, either synthetic drugs or biologics on musculoskeletal outcomes, notably American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders. Results were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.6 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK. Whilst our primary focus was on published trials, we also looked at new trials presented in abstract form in 2013–2014 that were not yet published to avoid omitting important and up-to-date information on developing treatments. Results: Our in-depth analysis included 28 trials overall enrolling 5,177 patients published between the 1980s and now as well as limited analysis of some studies in abstract form as described earlier. The most frequently available locomotor outcome measure was the American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders. The risk ratio for achieving an American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders response was positive in favor of treatment (risk ratio 2.30; 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.96; however, there was evidence of considerable heterogeneity between trials. Overall randomized controlled trials of established synthetic disease-modifying agents were largely negative (methotrexate, ciclosporin and sulfasalazine though leflunomide showed a small positive effect. A new synthetic agent, apremilast, did show a

  15. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  16. Cross-sectional study with multiple measurements of biological markers for assessing stomach cancer risks at the population level.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugane, S; Tsuda, M; Gey, F; Watanabe, S.

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine correlations between measurable biologic markers and mortality from stomach cancer was performed in various areas of Japan. Blood and urine were collected from randomly selected 40- to 49-year-old men and their spouses in four areas with different rates of mortality from stomach cancer. The samples were analyzed for levels of the micronutrients vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, and lycopene in plasma and for levels of NaCl, nitrate, and N-nitrosamino ac...

  17. Assessment of occupational exposure and individual radiosensitivity in people exposed to radiation using methods of physical and biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined people professionally in contact with sources of ionizing radiation.The incidence of chromosomal aberrations, the radionuclide content in the urine of the radiochemical method and calculation of internal doses based on the results of direct measurement of the concentration of incorporated radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am using human radiation spectrometer (HRS). According to the results of physical and biological dosimetry identified individual cumulative doses and the ratio defined cohort surveyed by radiosensitivity Key words: chromosomal aberrations, physical methods of dosimetry, radiation sensitivity, ionizing radiation, biodosimetry

  18. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  19. A seasonal assessment of the impact of coal fly ash disposal on the River Yamuha, Delhi. II. Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, A.; Mehra, N.K. [University of Delhi, Delhi (India). Dept. of Zoology

    1998-04-01

    The impact of fly ash on the biology of the Yamuna River, Delhi, was studied. Effluent come from a 200 MW capacity I.P. thermal power station. Seasonal variations in biological features in the non-impacted (Y-1) and the impacted (Y-2) segments of the river receiving fly ash effluents were studied. 60 genera of phytoplankton including 29 Chlorophyceae, 19 Bacillariophyceae, 8 Cyanobacteria, and 4 Egulenophyceae were recorded. Phytoplankton diversity was reduced at the impacted site in comparison to the non-impacted site of the river and substantial changes in the composition of various groups inhabiting these areas were observed. Zooplankton were also reduced at Y-2 compared to Y-1, especially rotifers and protozoans, while copepods and nauplii larvae were not affected to the same degree. Species diversity was not significantly different at Y-2 and Y-1 but similarity index varied from low to high between the two stations. Thus, not only was the density, number of genera and diversity reduced, even the generic composition of the plankton was markedly affected in the impacted waters. The observed perturbations could be due to sedimentation of ash particles, pH or elevated metal or salt concentration. A change in the concentration of one or more constituents disturbs the relationship between biota and could be the possible cause of reduced densities in the impacted waters. 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Linking Biological Integrity and Watershed Models to Assess the Impacts of Historical Land Use and Climate Changes on Stream Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einheuser, Matthew D.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Wang, Lizhu; Sowa, Scott P.; Woznicki, Sean A.

    2013-06-01

    Land use change and other human disturbances have significant impacts on physicochemical and biological conditions of stream systems. Meanwhile, linking these disturbances with hydrology and water quality conditions is challenged due to the lack of high-resolution datasets and the selection of modeling techniques that can adequately deal with the complex and nonlinear relationships of natural systems. This study addresses the above concerns by employing a watershed model to obtain stream flow and water quality data and fill a critical gap in data collection. The data were then used to estimate fish index of biological integrity (IBI) within the Saginaw Bay basin in Michigan. Three methods were used in connecting hydrology and water quality variables to fish measures including stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, and fuzzy logic. The IBI predictive model developed using fuzzy logic showed the best performance with the R 2 = 0.48. The variables that identified as most correlated to IBI were average annual flow, average annual organic phosphorus, average seasonal nitrite, average seasonal nitrate, and stream gradient. Next, the predictions were extended to pre-settlement (mid-1800s) land use and climate conditions. Results showed overall significantly higher IBI scores under the pre-settlement land use scenario for the entire watershed. However, at the fish sampling locations, there was no significant difference in IBI. Results also showed that including historical climate data have strong influences on stream flow and water quality measures that interactively affect stream health; therefore, should be considered in developing baseline ecological conditions.

  1. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  2. Increasing URM Undergraduate Student Success through Assessment-Driven Interventions: A Multiyear Study Using Freshman-Level General Biology as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Mary C.; St. Clair, Candace; Edwards, Andrea M.; Barrett, Peter; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Awad, Mohamed; Kundu, Anup; Ireland, Shubha Kale

    2016-01-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana leads the nation in awarding BS degrees in the biological sciences to African-American students. In this multiyear study with ∼5500 participants, data-driven interventions were adopted to improve student academic performance in a freshman-level general biology course. The three hour-long exams were common and administered concurrently to all students. New exam questions were developed using Bloom’s taxonomy, and exam results were analyzed statistically with validated assessment tools. All but the comprehensive final exam were returned to students for self-evaluation and remediation. Among other approaches, course rigor was monitored by using an identical set of 60 questions on the final exam across 10 semesters. Analysis of the identical sets of 60 final exam questions revealed that overall averages increased from 72.9% (2010) to 83.5% (2015). Regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between high-risk students and their averages on the 60 questions. Additional analysis demonstrated statistically significant improvements for at least one letter grade from midterm to final and a 20% increase in the course pass rates over time, also for the high-risk population. These results support the hypothesis that our data-driven interventions and assessment techniques are successful in improving student retention, particularly for our academically at-risk students. PMID:27543637

  3. Compilation and assessment of microwave bioeffects. Final report. A selective review of the literature on biological effects of microwaves in relation to the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.; Ragan, H.A.; Rogers, L.E.; Guy, A.W.; Hjeresen, D.L.; Hinds, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.

    1978-05-01

    One of many alternate sources of electrical energy that are being considered by the Department of Energy is a microwave-mediated Satellite Power System (SPS). Once inserted into geosynchronous orbit at an altitude of more than 40,000 kilometers, a satellite would collect then convert the sun's energy to 2450-MHz microwaves, which would be beamed to the Earth's surface, where a rectifying antenna (rectenna) would convert the microwaves to electrical current suitable for industrial and domestic use. The expanse of each rectenna (about 10 by 13 kilometers), the power density of the continuous-wave microwave beam (approx. 23 mW/cm/sup 2/ at center, with fall off to 1 mW/cm/sup 2/ or less at the periphery of the rectenna), and the possibility that 20 or more satellite systems will eventually be operating, creates two sets of interrelated problems for biological/ecological assessment. These are 1) the effects of microwave fields of higher intensity on airborne biota (including human beings in aircraft) that may traffic the area above the rectenna and 2) the effects of virtually perpetual fields of much lower intensity on all forms of life at and beyond the rectennae's zone of exclusion. In this review, the scientific literature is examined, not only for biological effects that are pertinent to assessment of SPS, but for hiatuses of knowledge that will have to be filled before SPS can be vouched for operational safety.

  4. Proceedings of a workshop on DNA adducts: Biological significance and applications to risk assessment Washington, DC, April 13-14, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2004, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, a branch of the International Life Sciences Institute, with support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, organized a workshop to discuss the biological significance of DNA adducts. Workshop speakers and attendees included leading international experts from government, academia, and industry in the field of adduct detection and interpretation. The workshop initially examined the relationship between measured adduct levels in the context of exposure and dose. This was followed by a discussion on the complex response of cells to deal with genotoxic insult in complex, interconnected, and interdependent repair pathways. One of the major objectives of the workshop was to address the recurring question about the mechanistic and toxicological relevance of low-concentration measured adducts and the presentations in the session entitled 'Can low levels of DNA adducts predict adverse outcomes?' served as catalysts for further discussions on this subject during the course of the workshop. Speakers representing the regulatory community and industry reviewed the value, current practices, and limitations of utilizing DNA adduct data in risk assessment and addressed a number of practical questions pertaining to these issues. While no consensus statement emerged on the biological significance of low levels of DNA adducts, the workshop concluded by identifying the need for more experimental data to address this important question. One of the recommendations stemming from this workshop was the need to develop an interim 'decision-logic' or framework to guide the integration of DNA adduct data in the risk assessment process. HESI has recently formed a subcommittee consisting of experts in the field and other key stakeholders to address this recommendation as well as to identify specific research projects that could help advance the understanding of the biological significance of low levels of DNA

  5. [Biological Age as a Method for Systematic Assessment of Ontogenetic Changes in the State of an Organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsov, V I; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a common feature of living and nonliving systems as a disturbance of the structure of the system accumulating with age. The only cause of aging of a living system, which is capable of renewal, is the insufficiency of renewal. The latter manifests itself as two global mechanisms of aging: the genetically determined nonrenewal of a number of structures that can only die with age (stochastic aging) and the regulatory reduction in the rate of self-renewal of living structures. The regulatory reduction in cellular self-renewal (cell growth and division) is most important. At the same chronological age, the degree of aging of the organism in general, as well as individual organs, cells, and systems of the organism, may be different, reflecting the concept of biological age (BA)--an indicator of the level of development, changes, or deterioration of a structure or function of an element of the organism, a functional system, or the organism as a whole. It is expressed in units oftime by relating the values of biomarkers defining the processes of aging with the standard average statistical dependences of changes in these biomarkers with the chronological age. The concept of BA is directly related to the concept of viability of the organism, which is determined by the sum (integral) of viabilities of its parts (in practice, the residual functional resource). For quantitative characterization of aging in general, the index of integrated biological age is used. To give a detailed characterization, the partial biological ages are used, which reflect the aging of different systems of the organism, as well as a number of indices reflecting its functional and psychological possibilities. The contribution of pathological processes to BA is also taken into account. In addition, the amount of retained adaptive reserves in the physical and nervous and mental aspects, the risk factors, and the factors of longevity should be determined. For this purpose, it is necessary to take

  6. Using a Newton Personal Data Assistant To Assess Student Participation in Biology Laboratories--A Technique Borrowed from Ethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Connie P.; French, Donald P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of ethological observation methods in a study of student behavior for use in student or course assessment. Describes how a convenient, highly portable recording system designed for ethological observation can be used in educational settings. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  7. Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in Human Systems Biology: Gas-Phase Probes for Assessing In Vitro Enzyme System Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air, Climate, and Energy (ACE) and Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) programs at the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA) encompass broad-based research that includes assessment of the health and environmentalimpacts of anthropogenic and manufactured chemicals. On...

  8. Can an attribution assessment be made for Yellow Rain? Systematic reanalysis in a chemical-and-biological-weapons use investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; Singer, Burton

    2007-03-01

    In intelligence investigations, such as those into reports of chemical- or biological-weapons (CBW) use, evidence may be difficult to assemble and, once assembled, to weigh. We propose a methodology for such investigations and then apply it to a large body of recently declassified evidence to determine the extent to which an attribution can now be made in the Yellow Rain case. Our analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that CBW were used in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although a definitive judgment cannot be made. The proposed methodology, while resource-intensive, allows evidence to be assembled and analyzed in a transparent manner so that assumptions and rationale for decisions can be challenged by external critics. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions, emphasizing the use of evolving information-extraction (IE) technologies, a sub-field of artificial intelligence (AI). PMID:18208344

  9. CONSTRUCTION,EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BPI23—Fcγ1 RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION VECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安云庆; 管远志; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To construct pBV-BPI600-Fcγ1700 recombinant expression vector,to transform it into Escherichia coli DH5α,and to induce the expression of BPI23-Fcγ1 anti-bacterial recombinant protein.Methods:Genes coding for BPI23 and Fcγ1 were amplified by RT-PCR from mRNA extracted from Hl-60 cell and normal human leukocytes;recombinant cloning vector and recombinant expression vector were then constructed.pBV-BPI600-Fcγ1700 recombinant expression vector was transformed into the competent Escherichia coli DH5α and BPI23-Fcγ1 recombinant protein was expressed by a temperature-induced method.Results:(1)Expected amplified products BPI600bp and Fcγ1700bp were obtained by RT-PCR method.(2)pUC18-BPI180,pUC18-BPI420 and pUC18-Fcγ1700 recombinant cloning vectors were successfully constructed, and sequences were identical with the reported ones.(3)pBV-BPI600-Fcγ1700 recombinant expression vector was successfully constructed,and the enzyme digestion analysis showed an expected result.(4)The expression level of BPI23-Fcγ1 recombinant protein accounted for 20% of total bacterial proteins.(5)The renatured BPI23-Fcγ1 recombinant protein showed bacteriocidal activity and biological function of complement fixation,and opsonization.Conclusion:pBV-BPI600-Fcγ1700 recombinant expression vector was successfully constructed,and BPI23-Fcγ1 recombinant protein with double biological activity of BPI and IgGFc was expressed in Escherichia coli.

  10. Biological rhythm disturbance in remitted bipolar patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Adriane R; Comes, Mercè; Torrent, Carla; Solè, Brisa; Reinares, Maria; Pachiarotti, Isabella; Salamero, Manel; Kapczinski, Flávio; Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological rhythm disturbance is common in bipolar patients and seems to affect the course and prognosis of the illness negatively. The main aim of the current study was to assess biological rhythms in remitted bipolar patients. We also assessed whether there was an association between clinical variables or functioning and biological rhythms in remitted bipolar participants. Methods The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) was used to assess biologi...

  11. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, A De; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  12. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C., E-mail: christian.koehler@tudor.lu [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Venditti, S.; Igos, E.; Klepiszewski, K.; Benetto, E.; Cornelissen, A. [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor/Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies, 66 rue de Luxembourg, BP 144, L-4002 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as AOP. The 'conventional' cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  13. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: A comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The “conventional” cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process.

  14. Elimination of pharmaceutical residues in biologically pre-treated hospital wastewater using advanced UV irradiation technology: a comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, C; Venditti, S; Igos, E; Klepiszewski, K; Benetto, E; Cornelissen, A

    2012-11-15

    UV irradiation technology as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) post-treatment was investigated and assessed. Both UV low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps were examined. The technology was installed in a pilot plant treating hospital wastewater to provide the study with adequate field data. The effect of the UV irradiation was enhanced with varying dosages of H2O2 to establish an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The efficiency of the pharmaceutical removal process was assessed by examining 14 micropollutants (antibiotics, analgesics, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers, cytostatics and X-ray contrast media) which are typically released by hospitals and detected with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While the MBR treatment generally showed only a low degradation capacity for persistent pharmaceuticals, much better degradation was obtained by applying UV irradiation and H2O2 as AOP. The "conventional" cost-benefit analysis of the different technology options taking into account both electrical energy consumption and pharmaceutical removal efficiency, revealed clearly better performance of low pressure UV lamps as AOP. However, a holistic comparison between the different scenarios was carried out by evaluating their environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Decisive advantages were highlighted to include this approach in the decision making process. PMID:22748974

  15. Three-dimensional image technology in forensic anthropology: Assessing the validity of biological profiles derived from CT-3D images of the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Leon Valenzuela, Maria Julia

    This project explores the reliability of building a biological profile for an unknown individual based on three-dimensional (3D) images of the individual's skeleton. 3D imaging technology has been widely researched for medical and engineering applications, and it is increasingly being used as a tool for anthropological inquiry. While the question of whether a biological profile can be derived from 3D images of a skeleton with the same accuracy as achieved when using dry bones has been explored, bigger sample sizes, a standardized scanning protocol and more interobserver error data are needed before 3D methods can become widely and confidently used in forensic anthropology. 3D images of Computed Tomography (CT) scans were obtained from 130 innominate bones from Boston University's skeletal collection (School of Medicine). For each bone, both 3D images and original bones were assessed using the Phenice and Suchey-Brooks methods. Statistical analysis was used to determine the agreement between 3D image assessment versus traditional assessment. A pool of six individuals with varying experience in the field of forensic anthropology scored a subsample (n = 20) to explore interobserver error. While a high agreement was found for age and sex estimation for specimens scored by the author, the interobserver study shows that observers found it difficult to apply standard methods to 3D images. Higher levels of experience did not result in higher agreement between observers, as would be expected. Thus, a need for training in 3D visualization before applying anthropological methods to 3D bones is suggested. Future research should explore interobserver error using a larger sample size in order to test the hypothesis that training in 3D visualization will result in a higher agreement between scores. The need for the development of a standard scanning protocol focusing on the optimization of 3D image resolution is highlighted. Applications for this research include the possibility

  16. Assessment of crude glycerol for Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: Stability and role of long chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayà, Carlota; Guerrero, Javier; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Guisasola, Albert; Baeza, Juan Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) of urban wastewaters is usually limited by the available carbon source required by Polyphosphate Accumulating Organisms (PAO). External carbon sources as volatile fatty acids (VFA) or other pure organic compounds have been tested at lab scale demonstrating its ability to enhance PAO activity, but the application of this strategy at full-scale WWTPs is not cost-effective. The utilization of industrial by-products with some of these organic compounds provides lower cost, but it has the possible drawback of having inhibitory or toxic compounds to PAO. This study is focused on the utilization of crude glycerol, the industrial by-product generated in the biodiesel production, as a possible carbon source to enhance EBPR in carbon-limited urban wastewaters. Crude glycerol has non-negligible content of other organic compounds as methanol, salts, VFA and long chain fatty acids (LCFA). VFA and methanol have been demonstrated to enhance PAO activity, but there is no previous study about the effect of LCFA on PAO. This work presents the operation of an EBPR SBR system using crude glycerol as sole carbon source, studying also its long-term stability. The effect of LCFA is evaluated at short and long-term operation, demonstrating for the first time EBPR activity with LCFA as sole carbon source and its long-term failure due to the increased hydrophobicity of the sludge. PMID:26092200

  17. Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmohammadi Mirtaghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI, an excretory material of worker′s urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an ECUV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William′s biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 µg/m³, showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker′s urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories.

  18. Experimental derivation of relative biological effectiveness of A-bomb neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M S; Nomura, T; Ejima, Y; Utsumi, H; Endo, S; Saito, I; Itoh, T; Hoshi, M

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological data on the health effects of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide the framework for setting limits for radiation risk and radiological protection. However, uncertainty remains in the equivalent dose, because it is generally believed that direct derivation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons from the epidemiological data on the survivors is difficult. To solve this problem, an alternative approach has been taken. The RBE of polyenergetic neutrons was determined for chromosome aberration formation in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro, compared with published data for tumor induction in experimental animals, and validated using epidemiological data from A-bomb survivors. The RBE of fission neutrons was dependent on dose but was independent of the energy spectrum. The same RBE regimen was observed for lymphocyte chromosome aberrations and tumors in mice and rats. Used as a weighting factor for A-bomb survivors, this RBE system was superior in eliminating the city difference in chromosome aberration frequencies and cancer mortality. The revision of the equivalent dose of A-bomb radiation using DS02 weighted by this RBE system reduces the cancer risk by a factor of 0.7 compared with the current estimates using DS86, with neutrons weighted by a constant RBE of 10. PMID:18582156

  19. Development of a stock-recruitment model and assessment of biological reference points for the Lake Erie walleye fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingming; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an updated stock–recruitment relationship for Lake Erie Walleye Sander vitreus using the Akaike information criterion model selection approach. Our best stock–recruitment relationship was a Ricker spawner–recruit function to which spring warming rate was added as an environmental variable, and this regression model explained 39% of the variability in Walleye recruitment over the 1978 through 2006 year-classes. Thus, most of the variability in Lake Erie Walleye recruitment appeared to be attributable to factors other than spawning stock size and spring warming rate. The abundance of age-0 Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, which was an important term in previous models, may still be an important factor for Walleye recruitment, but poorer ability to monitor Gizzard Shad since the late 1990s could have led to that term failing to appear in our best model. Secondly, we used numerical simulation to demonstrate how to use the stock recruitment relationship to characterize the population dynamics (such as stable age structure, carrying capacity, and maximum sustainable yield) and some biological reference points (such as fishing rates at different important biomass or harvest levels) for an age-structured population in a deterministic way.

  20. Integrated Assessment of PAH Contamination in the Czech Rivers Using a Combination of Chemical and Biological Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH pollution of selected rivers in the Czech Republic. Integrated evaluation was carried out using combination of chemical and biological monitoring, in which we measured content of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP in chub bile and priority PAH in water samples obtained by exposing the semipermeable membrane devices at each location. The concentrations of 1-OHP in bile samples and sum of priority PAH in water sampler ranged from 6.8 ng mg protein−1 to 106.6 ng mg protein−1 and from 5.2 ng L−1 to 173.9 ng L−1, respectively. The highest levels of biliary metabolite and PAH in water were measured at the Odra River (the Bohumín site, which is located in relatively heavily industrialized and polluted region. Statistically significant positive correlation between biliary 1-OHP and sum of PAH in water was also obtained (P<0.01, rs=0.806.

  1. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  2. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  3. A multicenter study of biological effects assessment of pharmacy workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs in Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Bao, Jianan; Wang, Renying; Geng, Zhou; Chen, Yao; Liu, Xinchun; Xie, Yongzhong; Jiang, Ling; Deng, Yufei; Liu, Gaolin; Xu, Rong; Miao, Liyan

    2016-09-01

    This multi-centered study was designed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs) at PIVAS (Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Service) across ten Chinese hospitals. 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and lymphocyte apoptosis assays using peripheral lymphocyte cells were used to detect primary DNA damage. The mutagenicity activity was estimated with the Ames fluctuation test. 158 exposed and 143 unexposed workers participated in this study. The urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentrations of the exposed group was 22.05±17.89ng/mg Cr, which was significantly higher than controls of 17.36±13.50ng/mg Cr (P<0.05). The rate of early lymphocyte apoptosis was slightly increased in exposed group than that of the control group (P=0.087). The mutagenic activity was significantly higher in the exposed group relative to the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, while no statistically significant difference was observed, higher concentrations of 8-OHdG/Cr in urine and an early lymphocyte apoptosis rate were found in exposed group II as compared to exposed group I. In addition, a significant correlation between early lymphocyte apoptosis and exposure time to ADs was also observed (P<0.05). In conclusion, our study identified elevated biomarkers in PIVAS workers exposed to ADs. However whether these findings could lead to increased incidence of genotoxic responses remains to be further investigated. PMID:27179702

  4. Improving data analysis in herpetology: Using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) to assess the strength of biological hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In ecology, researchers frequently use observational studies to explain a given pattern, such as the number of individuals in a habitat patch, with a large number of explanatory (i.e., independent) variables. To elucidate such relationships, ecologists have long relied on hypothesis testing to include or exclude variables in regression models, although the conclusions often depend on the approach used (e.g., forward, backward, stepwise selection). Though better tools have surfaced in the mid 1970's, they are still underutilized in certain fields, particularly in herpetology. This is the case of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) which is remarkably superior in model selection (i.e., variable selection) than hypothesis-based approaches. It is simple to compute and easy to understand, but more importantly, for a given data set, it provides a measure of the strength of evidence for each model that represents a plausible biological hypothesis relative to the entire set of models considered. Using this approach, one can then compute a weighted average of the estimate and standard error for any given variable of interest across all the models considered. This procedure, termed model-averaging or multimodel inference, yields precise and robust estimates. In this paper, I illustrate the use of the AIC in model selection and inference, as well as the interpretation of results analysed in this framework with two real herpetological data sets. The AIC and measures derived from it is should be routinely adopted by herpetologists. ?? Koninklijke Brill NV 2006.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Mercury: Air Exposure Assessment and Biological Monitoring based on Dispersive Ionic Liquid-Liquid Microextraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Shirkhanloo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to mercury (Hg as a heavy metal can cause health effects. The objective of this study was to assess occupational exposure to Hg in a chlor-alkali petrochemical industry in Iran by determining of Hg concentrations in air, blood and urine samples.The study was performed on 50 exposed subjects and 50 unexposed controls. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of exposed subjects, using hopcalite sorbents. Analysis was performed using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS according to NIOSH analytical method 6009. For all participants, blood and urine samples were collected and then transferred into sterile glass tubes. After micro-extraction with ionic liquid and back extraction with nitric acid, Hg concentrations in blood and urine samples were determined by CV-AAS.The mean concentration of air Hg was 0.042± 0.003 mg/m(3. The mean concentrations of Hg in blood and urine samples of exposed subjects were significantly higher than unexposed controls (22.41± 12.58 versus 1.19± 0.95 μg/l and 30.61± 10.86 versus 1.99± 1.34 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Correlation of air Hg with blood Hg, urine Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio were significant statistically (P< 0.05.The values of Hg in blood and urine samples of chlor-alkali workers were considerably high. Correlation coefficients showed that blood Hg and blood Hg-urine Hg ratio are better indicators than urine Hg for assessing occupationally exposed workers in terms of current exposure assessment.

  6. Biological response and morphological assessment of individually dispersed multi-wall carbon nanotubes in the lung after intratracheal instillation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological responses of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were assessed after a single intratracheal instillation in rats. The diameter and median length of the MWCNTs used in this study were approximately 60 nm and 1.5 μm, respectively. Groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 0.04, 0.2, or 1 mg/kg of the individually dispersed MWCNT suspension. After instillation, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for inflammatory cells and markers, and the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and cerebrum were histopathologically evaluated at 3-day, 1-week, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month post-exposure. Transient pulmonary inflammatory responses were observed only in the lungs of the group of rats exposed to 1 mg/kg of MWCNTs. Morphology of the instilled MWCNTs in the lungs of rats was assessed using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy examination revealed that MWCNTs deposited in the lungs of the rats were typically phagocytosed by the alveolar macrophages and these macrophages were consequently accumulated in the alveoli until 6-month post-exposure. The 400 TEM images obtained showed that all MWCNTs were located in the alveolar macrophages or macrophages in the interstitial tissues, and MWCNTs were not located in the cells of the interstitial tissues. There was no evidence of chronic inflammation, such as angiogenesis or fibrosis, induced by MWCNT instillation. These results suggest that MWCNTs were being processed and cleared by alveolar macrophages.

  7. Simultaneous effects of allowed time, teaching method, ability, and student assessment of treatment on achievement in a high school biology course (ISIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkman, Ernest; Brezin, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    The simultaneous effects of teaching method (self-directed, group directed, and teacher directed), allowed time for study, and two student variables (academic ability and assessment of treatment implementation) are described for student achievement in a high school biology course (ISIS). The variable student assessment of treatment implementation was viewed as a particularly important variable for two reasons: (1) in research by Stayrook, Corno, and Winne (1978) it has accounted for as much variance in achievement as the assigned treatment; and (2) it provides a means for controlling the range of implementation of teaching methods. A between-student analysis resulted in a description of effects complicated by interactions among all the variables. While the interactions were particularly strong in the student-directed method, it may generally be concluded that as time allowed for study decreased, students who perceived the treatment as being well implemented tended to have higher achievement. Also, it was found that the main effect of ability was quite strong. The results confirmed the importance of student assessment of treatment implementation as a descriptive variable. Additionally, the results suggest a qualification in the conclusion of Cronbach and Snow (1971) that individualized instruction tends to favor high-ability students; that conclusion may need to be modified to situations in which students fully perceive their autonomy.

  8. Bioavailability of Organic Solvents in soils: Input into Biologically Based Dose-Response Models for Human Risk Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, Ronald C.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods to expose rats and humans percutaneously and to use PBPK modeling to assess the percutaneous permeability of volatile compounds from aqueous or soil exposures. To estimate dermal absorption under realistic environmental exposure conditions, a patch system was developed that allowed for the volatilization of the compounds from the soil without contamination of inhaled or exhaled breath. The end product for this research will be a tested framework for the rapid screening of real and potential exposures while simultaneously developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to comprehensively evaluate and compare exposures to volatile chemicals from either contaminated soil or water.

  9. A Roadmap for Hazard Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Marine Biotoxins on the Basis of Chemical and Biological Test Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Botana, Luis M.; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Buckland, Gemma; Campàs, Mònica; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickey, Robert W.; Diogène, Jorge; Fessard, Valérie; Hartung, Thomas; Humpage, Andrew; Leist, Marcel; Molgó, Jordi; Michael A. Quilliam; Rovida, Costanza

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic food accounts for over 40% of global animal food products, and the potential contamination with toxins of algal origin – marine biotoxins – poses a health threat for consumers. The gold standards to assess toxins in aquatic food have traditionally been in vivo methods, i.e., the mouse as well as the rat bioassay. Besides ethical concerns, there is also a need for more reliable test methods because of low inter-species comparability, high intra-species variability, the high number of f...

  10. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  11. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Apraiz, Itxaso; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)], E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2008-05-15

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea

  13. A new method for assessing the contribution of Primary Biological Atmospheric Particles to the mass concentration of the atmospheric aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Cinzia; Marcovecchio, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Primary Biologic Atmospheric Particles (PBAPs) constitute an interesting and poorly investigated component of the atmospheric aerosol. We have developed and validated a method for evaluating the contribution of overall PBAPs to the mass concentration of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The method is based on PM sampling on polycarbonate filters, staining of the collected particles with propidium iodide, observation at epifluorescence microscope and calculation of the bioaerosol mass using a digital image analysis software. The method has been also adapted to the observation and quantification of size-segregated aerosol samples collected by multi-stage impactors. Each step of the procedure has been individually validated. The relative repeatability of the method, calculated on 10 pairs of atmospheric PM samples collected side-by-side, was 16%. The method has been applied to real atmospheric samples collected in the vicinity of Rome, Italy. Size distribution measurements revealed that PBAPs was mainly in the coarse fraction of PM, with maxima in the range 5.6-10 μm. 24-h samples collected during different period of the year have shown that the concentration of bioaerosol was in the range 0.18-5.3 μg m(-3) (N=20), with a contribution to the organic matter in PM10 in the range 0.5-31% and to the total mass concentration of PM10 in the range 0.3-18%. The possibility to determine the concentration of total PBAPs in PM opens up interesting perspectives in terms of studying the health effects of these components and of increasing our knowledge about the composition of the organic fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. PMID:26680730

  14. Using a biological aerated filter to treat mixed water-borne volatile organic compounds and assessing its emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-Hsi

    2009-01-01

    A biological aerated filter (BAF) was evaluated as a fixed-biofilm processes to remove water-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a multiple layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan.The components of VOC were identified to be toluene,1,2,4-trimethylbenzene,1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,bromodichloromethane and isopropanol (IPA).The full-scale BAF was constructed of two separate reactors in series,respectively using 10-cm and 15-cm diameter polypropylene balls as the packing materials and a successful preliminary bench-scale experiment was performed to feasibility.Performance results show that the BAF removed over 90% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the influent with (1188 ± 605) mg/L of COD.A total organic loading of 2.76 kg biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/(m~3 packing·d) was determined for the packed bed,in which the flow pattern approached that of a mixed flow.A limited VOC concentration of (0.97 ± 0.29) ppmv (as methane) was emitted from the BAF system.Moreover,the emission rate of VOC was calculated using the proposed formula,based on an air-water mass equilibrium relationship,and compared to the simulated results obtained using the Water 9 model.Both estimation approaches of calculation and model simulation using Water 9 evaluating VOC emissions reveal that 0.1% IPA (0.0031-0.0037 kg/d) was aerated into a gaseous phase,and 30% to 40% (0.006-0.008 kg/d) of the toluene was aerated.

  15. Assessing the Possibility of Biological Complexity on Other Worlds, with an Estimate of the Occurrence of Complex Life in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis N. Irwin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rational speculation about biological evolution on other worlds is one of the outstanding challenges in astrobiology. With the growing confirmation that multiplanetary systems abound in the universe, the prospect that life occurs redundantly throughout the cosmos is gaining widespread support. Given the enormous number of possible abodes for life likely to be discovered on an ongoing basis, the prospect that life could have evolved into complex, macro-organismic communities in at least some cases merits consideration. Toward that end, we here propose a Biological Complexity Index (BCI, designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the relative probability that complex, macro-organismic life forms could have emerged on other worlds. The BCI ranks planets and moons by basic, first-order characteristics detectable with available technology. By our calculation only 11 (~1.7% of the extrasolar planets known to date have a BCI above that of Europa; but by extrapolation, the total of such planets could exceed 100 million in our galaxy alone. This is the first quantitative assessment of the plausibility of complex life throughout the universe based on empirical data. It supports the view that the evolution of complex life on other worlds is rare in frequency but large in absolute number.

  16. Effect of treated sewage on the water quality and phytoplankton populations of Lake Manzala (Egypt) with emphasis on biological assessment of water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Naggar, M E; Shaaban-Dessouki, S A; Abdel-Hamid, M I; Aly Elham, M

    1997-07-01

    The effect of treated sewage on the quality of water and phytoplankton populations of Lake Manzala was studied with emphasis on use of algae to monitor water pollution as part of a search for a biological assessment of water quality. Lake Manzala is situated at the northern part of the Nile-delta, Egypt. Disposal of treated sewage into Lake Manzala appeared to have differential effects on water quality and phytoplankton populations. Marked seasonal and local variations were observed for the physical and chemical characteristics of water. 157 species of algae were identified, 59 Chlorophyta, 37 Bacillariophyta, 30 Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria), 28 Euglenophyta, one Pyrrhophyta and 2 Cryptophyta. Distribution and abundance of these algal divisions were found to differ at different sampling stations. Qualitative and quantitative growth of each algal division displayed great seasonal variations. The phytoplankton standing crop was mainly due to the contribution of Bacillariophyta whereas the species composition is dependent mainly on Chlorophyta. A great parallelism was noted between the quality of water samples based upon the chemical and physical investigations and their quality based upon the biological indices. Compound eutrophication index indicated that the nature of the investigated water ranged between eutrophic and hypereutrophic conditions. Diversity index values indicated that the water in the study area was of a moderate level of pollution. Saprobic index and saprobic quotient revealed the presence of beta- to alpha-mesosaprobic forms of algae. PMID:9258946

  17. An assessment of biological processes close to the sea bed in a slope region and its significance to the assessment of sea bed disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical profiles of planktonic and micronektonic biomass observed close to the sea bed along a transect running up the continental slope on the southern flank of the Porcupine Seabight (to the southwest of Ireland) showed that a doubling in biomass concentration occurs from 100 to 10m above the sea bed. Comparison with biomass concentrations at two deep water stations, one in the Seabight and the other in the Rockall Trough, showed that there was a consistent increase in standing crop close to the sea bed over the slope. Supplementary data were collected on the northern flank of the Seabight. Analysis of both taxonomic groups and individual species showed that some taxa were more abundant near the sea floor and extended their vertical ranges to greater depths over the slope than over deep water, other taxa were unaffected. The implications to the problem of assessing the safety of sea bed disposal of high level radioactive waste are summarised. (author)

  18. How the biodiversity sciences may aid biological tools and ecological engineering to assess the impact of climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, S; Guégan, J-F

    2008-08-01

    This paper addresses how climate changes interact with other global changes caused by humans (habitat fragmentation, changes in land use, bioinvasions) to affect biodiversity. Changes in biodiversity at all levels (genetic, population and community) affect the functioning of ecosystems, in particular host-pathogen interactions, with major consequences in health ecology (emergence and re-emergence; the evolution of virulence and resistance). In this paper, the authors demonstrate that the biodiversity sciences, epidemiological theory and evolutionary ecology are indispensable in assessing the impact of climate changes, and also for modelling the evolution of host-pathogen interactions in a changing environment. The next step is to apply health ecology to the science of ecological engineering. PMID:18819665

  19. Coupling Self-Organizing Maps with a Naïve Bayesian classifier: A case study for classifying Vermont streams using geomorphic, habitat and biological assessment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, N.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental managers are increasingly required to forecast the long-term effects and the resilience or vulnerability of biophysical systems to human-generated stresses. Mitigation strategies for hydrological and environmental systems need to be assessed in the presence of uncertainty. An important aspect of such complex systems is the assessment of variable uncertainty on the model response outputs. We develop a new classification tool that couples a Naïve Bayesian Classifier with a modified Kohonen Self-Organizing Map to tackle this challenge. For proof-of-concept, we use rapid geomorphic and reach-scale habitat assessments data from over 2500 Vermont stream reaches (~1371 stream miles) assessed by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources (VTANR). In addition, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (VTDEC) estimates stream habitat biodiversity indices (macro-invertebrates and fish) and a variety of water quality data. Our approach fully utilizes the existing VTANR and VTDEC data sets to improve classification of stream-reach habitat and biological integrity. The combined SOM-Naïve Bayesian architecture is sufficiently flexible to allow for continual updates and increased accuracy associated with acquiring new data. The Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is an unsupervised artificial neural network that autonomously analyzes properties inherent in a given a set of data. It is typically used to cluster data vectors into similar categories when a priori classes do not exist. The ability of the SOM to convert nonlinear, high dimensional data to some user-defined lower dimension and mine large amounts of data types (i.e., discrete or continuous, biological or geomorphic data) makes it ideal for characterizing the sensitivity of river networks in a variety of contexts. The procedure is data-driven, and therefore does not require the development of site-specific, process-based classification stream models, or sets of if-then-else rules associated with

  20. Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dausey David J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, state and local health departments in the United States (US have accelerated efforts to prepare for high-impact public health emergencies. One component of these activities has been the development and conduct of exercise programs to assess capabilities, train staff and build relationships. This paper summarizes lessons learned from tabletop exercises about public health emergency preparedness and about the process of developing, conducting, and evaluating them. Methods We developed, conducted, and evaluated 31 tabletop exercises in partnership with state and local health departments throughout the US from 2003 to 2006. Participant self evaluations, after action reports, and tabletop exercise evaluation forms were used to identify aspects of the exercises themselves, as well as public health emergency responses that participants found more or less challenging, and to highlight lessons learned about tabletop exercise design. Results Designing the exercises involved substantial collaboration with representatives from participating health departments to assure that the scenarios were credible, focused attention on local preparedness needs and priorities, and were logistically feasible to implement. During execution of the exercises, nearly all health departments struggled with a common set of challenges relating to disease surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, communications, command and control, and health care surge capacity. In contrast, performance strengths were more varied across participating sites, reflecting specific attributes of individual health departments or communities, experience with actual public health emergencies, or the emphasis of prior preparedness efforts. Conclusion The design, conduct, and evaluation of the tabletop exercises described in this report benefited from collaborative planning that involved stakeholders from participating health departments and exercise developers and

  1. BioDMET: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic simulation tool for assessing proposed solutions to complex biological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John F; Scholz, Bernhard J; Zavodszky, Maria I

    2012-02-01

    We developed a detailed, whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tool for calculating the distribution of pharmaceutical agents in the various tissues and organs of a human or animal as a function of time. Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) represent the circulation of body fluids through organs and tissues at the macroscopic level, and the biological transport mechanisms and biotransformations within cells and their organelles at the molecular scale. Each major organ in the body is modeled as composed of one or more tissues. Tissues are made up of cells and fluid spaces. The model accounts for the circulation of arterial and venous blood as well as lymph. Since its development was fueled by the need to accurately predict the pharmacokinetic properties of imaging agents, BioDMET is more complex than most PBPK models. The anatomical details of the model are important for the imaging simulation endpoints. Model complexity has also been crucial for quickly adapting the tool to different problems without the need to generate a new model for every problem. When simpler models are preferred, the non-critical compartments can be dynamically collapsed to reduce unnecessary complexity. BioDMET has been used for imaging feasibility calculations in oncology, neurology, cardiology, and diabetes. For this purpose, the time concentration data generated by the model is inputted into a physics-based image simulator to establish imageability criteria. These are then used to define agent and physiology property ranges required for successful imaging. BioDMET has lately been adapted to aid the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Given a range of built-in features and its inherent flexibility to customization, the model can be used to study a variety of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic problems such as the effects of inter-individual differences and disease-states on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dosing optimization, and inter

  2. Gaseous pollutants emitted from a mechanical biological treatment plant for municipal solid waste: odor assessment and photochemical reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingjing; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Na; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations and chromatographic profiles of gaseous pollutants emitted from a municipal solid waste (MSW) biological treatment plant were investigated to identify the major odor substances and atmospheric photochemical reactive species (PRS). Four methods were used to measure different gaseous pollutants in this study, including colorimetric tubes, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection/pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-MS/FID/PFPD) preceded by cold trap concentration, GC-FID preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after derivation by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Seventy-five gaseous compounds belonging to nine groups (nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, terpenes, alcohols, carbonyls, and volatile fatty acids [VFAs]) were identified. In the pre-biotreatment facility, the total concentration of the gaseous pollutants reached the maximum value on day 7 (317 ppm). During the post-biotreatment process, the total concentration of gaseous pollutants decreased from 331 ppm at the beginning to 162 ppm in the end. The group with the greatest decrease was carbonyls, from 64 to 7.4 ppm, followed by alcohols, from 40 to 4.5 ppm, which were both oxygenated compounds. The proportion of aromatics was notably high in the pre-mechanical treatment facility, accounting for 50.6% of the total, revealing the xenobiotic compounds disseminated by stirring and agitating the waste in the initial stage. The proportions of nitrogen compounds were lower in the pre- and post-mechanical treatment facilities (1.5% and 6.9%) than in the pre- and post-biotreatment facilities (11.9% and 13:8%), suggesting that their generation was closely associated with waste degradation. The major odor compounds in the facilities were acetic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, and dimethyl sulfide. The major PRS in the facilities were aromatics, acetaldehyde

  3. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Filippo; Sewer, Alain; Mathis, Carole; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Schlage, Walter K; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Martin, Florian; Elamin, Ashraf; Merg, Céline; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to increase predisposition to oral cancer and is also recognized as a risk factor for many conditions including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, and other benign mucosal disorders. Smoking cessation remains the most effective approach for minimizing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco, without modifying the amount of nicotine, is a promising new paradigm in harm reduction. In this study, we compared effects of exposure to aerosol derived from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, with those of CS generated from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Human organotypic oral epithelial tissue cultures (EpiOral, MatTek Corporation) were exposed for 28 min to 3R4F CS or THS2.2 aerosol, both diluted with air to comparable nicotine concentrations (0.32 or 0.51 mg nicotine/L aerosol/CS for 3R4F and 0.31 or 0.46 mg/L for THS2.2). We also tested one higher concentration (1.09 mg/L) of THS2.2. A systems toxicology approach was employed combining cellular assays (i.e., cytotoxicity and cytochrome P450 activity assays), comprehensive molecular investigations of the buccal epithelial transcriptome (mRNA and miRNA) by means of computational network biology, measurements of secreted proinflammatory markers, and histopathological analysis. We observed that the impact of 3R4F CS was greater than THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity, morphological tissue alterations, and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Analysis of the transcriptomic changes in the exposed oral cultures revealed significant perturbations in various network models such as apoptosis, necroptosis, senescence, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) signaling. The stress responses following THS2.2 aerosol exposure were markedly decreased, and the exposed cultures recovered more completely compared

  4. Biological Assessment of Urban and Agricultural Streams in the California Central Valley (Fall 2002 Through Spring 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacey, J.; Moncada, A.

    2005-05-01

    California has over 200,000 miles of rivers and streams that are increasingly impacted from human activities. Various agencies in the state have begun to conduct bioassessment to evaluate these impacts. We conducted a pilot study to assess potential aquatic impacts of pesticides and other human activities in two urban creeks and two agricultural creeks in the fall and spring for two years (2002-04) using a modified U.S. EPA EMAP method. All creeks showed highly impacted conditions. Water quality measurements indicated below normal dissolved oxygen levels at 44% and 15% of the sites, and elevated temperatures at 70% and 73% of the urban and agricultural sites, respectively. Physical habitat scores indicated significant impacts. Diazinon and chlorpyrifos were detected at all sites (trace to 0.212 ppb). Pyrethroids were detected in water and sediment in urban sites only (trace to 27.5 ppt). High numbers of chironomidae and very low numbers of pollution intolerant species were detected in the benthic macroinvertebrate community. Urban creeks had a higher number of pollution tolerant species compared to agricultural creeks. All sites were ecologically impacted. Mulitvariate ANOVA of macroinvertebrate metrics revealed a significant difference between urban and agricultural sites (P= 0.002) and between fall and spring seasons (P=0.036).

  5. Biological Assessment of a Calcium Silicate Incorporated Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin Nanocomposite: A Comparison to Decellularized Bone Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory utilized biomimicry to develop a synthetic bone scaffold based on hydroxyapatite-gelatin-calcium silicate (HGCS. Here, we evaluated the potential of HGCS scaffold in bone formation in vivo using the rat calvarial critical-sized defect (CSD. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups: control (defect only, decellularized bone matrix (DECBM, and HGCS with and without multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs. DECBM was prepared by removing all the cells using SDS and NH4OH. After 12 weeks, the CSD specimens were harvested to evaluate radiographical, histological, and histomorphometrical outcomes. The in vitro osteogenic effects of the materials were studied by focal adhesion, MTS, and alizarin red. Micro-CT analysis indicated that the DECBM and the HGCS scaffold groups developed greater radiopaque areas than the other groups. Bone regeneration, assessed using histological analysis and fluorochrome labeling, was the highest in the HGCS scaffold seeded with MAPCs. The DECBM group showed limited osteoinductivity, causing a gap between the implant and host tissue. The group grafted with HGCS+MAPCs resulting in twice as much new bone formation seems to indicate a role for effective bone regeneration. In conclusion, the novel HGCS scaffold could improve bone regeneration and is a promising carrier for stem cell-mediated bone regeneration.

  6. Biological assessment of a calcium silicate incorporated hydroxyapatite-gelatin nanocomposite: a comparison to decellularized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Joon; Padilla, Ricardo; Zhang, He; Hu, Wei-Shou; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory utilized biomimicry to develop a synthetic bone scaffold based on hydroxyapatite-gelatin-calcium silicate (HGCS). Here, we evaluated the potential of HGCS scaffold in bone formation in vivo using the rat calvarial critical-sized defect (CSD). Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups: control (defect only), decellularized bone matrix (DECBM), and HGCS with and without multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs). DECBM was prepared by removing all the cells using SDS and NH4OH. After 12 weeks, the CSD specimens were harvested to evaluate radiographical, histological, and histomorphometrical outcomes. The in vitro osteogenic effects of the materials were studied by focal adhesion, MTS, and alizarin red. Micro-CT analysis indicated that the DECBM and the HGCS scaffold groups developed greater radiopaque areas than the other groups. Bone regeneration, assessed using histological analysis and fluorochrome labeling, was the highest in the HGCS scaffold seeded with MAPCs. The DECBM group showed limited osteoinductivity, causing a gap between the implant and host tissue. The group grafted with HGCS+MAPCs resulting in twice as much new bone formation seems to indicate a role for effective bone regeneration. In conclusion, the novel HGCS scaffold could improve bone regeneration and is a promising carrier for stem cell-mediated bone regeneration. PMID:25054149

  7. A surface modification of clozapine-loaded nanocapsules improves their efficacy: A study of formulation development and biological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone M; Michels, Luana R; Roversi, Katiane; Metz, Vinícia G; Moraes, Barbra K S; Piegas, Eduarda M; Freddo, Rodrigo J; Gundel, André; Costa, Teresa Dalla; Burger, Marilise E; Colomé, Letícia M; Haas, Sandra E

    2016-09-01

    This work aimed to develop nanocapsules (NC) coated with polysorbate 80 (P80), cationic chitosan (CS) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) using clozapine (CZP) as the drug model. The zeta potential, pH and encapsulation efficiency were directly affected by the CS coating. Using the bag dialysis method, the in vitro CZP release from CS-coated nanocapsules was similar to the PEG-coated at pH 7.4. Nanocapsules coated with PEG and CS exhibited an increased action duration compared to the P80-coated nanocapsules in pseudo-psychosis induced by d,l-amphetamine in rats. When comparing both groups, the group administered CS-coated nanocapsules showed better activity than the PEG-coated nanocapsules at 6, 10 and 12h after d,l-amphetamine administration. The pharmacokinetic assessment in rats demonstrated that the observed half-lives were free CZP

  8. Assessment of biological effects resulting from large scale applications of coal power plant wastes in building technology in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the building materials commonly used in Poland contain natural radioactive elements and some contain radioactive industrial wastes. It has been shown that these building materials could induce additional annual doses to the inhabitants of the order of 0.4 mGy gamma radiation to the whole body and about 13 mSv alpha radiation to the critical tissues of the respiratory tract. On the basis of these dosimetric data and demographic and forecasting data, the number of severe genetic effects and cancer deaths caused by the additional radiation doses in dwellings were assessed for the population of Poland for the period 1951-2010. It was estimated that additional somatic effects in six consecutive decades will result in approximately 31,200 cancer deaths, including about 26,300 deaths caused by lung cancer. The expected number of severe genetic effects resulting from additional doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by parents indoors will amount to about 260 cases in the first generation and about 7500 cases in succeeding generations. (H.K.)

  9. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to assess the 11B(p, α) 8Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the 11B(p, α) 8Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With 11B(p, α) 8Be* analysis, 11B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 μm, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 11B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with 11B(p, α) 8Be* analysis. When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the 11B(p, α) 8Be* reaction is well suited for assessing the microdistribution of 11B. Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  10. Assessing the influence of physical, geochemical and biological factors on anaerobic microbial primary productivity within hydrothermal vent chimneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olins, H C; Rogers, D R; Frank, K L; Vidoudez, C; Girguis, P R

    2013-05-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production supports hydrothermal vent ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity and its governing factors have not been well constrained. To better understand anaerobic primary production within massive vent deposits, we conducted a series of incubations at 4, 25, 50 and 90 °C using aggregates recovered from hydrothermal vent structures. We documented in situ geochemistry, measured autochthonous organic carbon stable isotope ratios and assessed microbial community composition and functional gene abundances in three hydrothermal vent chimney structures from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Carbon fixation rates were greatest at lower temperatures and were comparable among chimneys. Stable isotope ratios of autochthonous organic carbon were consistent with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle being the predominant mode of carbon fixation for all three chimneys. Chimneys exhibited marked differences in vent fluid geochemistry and microbial community composition, with structures being differentially dominated by gamma (γ) or epsilon (ε) proteobacteria. Similarly, qPCR analyses of functional genes representing different carbon fixation pathways showed striking differences in gene abundance among chimney structures. Carbon fixation rates showed no obvious correlation with observed in situ vent fluid geochemistry, community composition or functional gene abundance. Together, these data reveal that (i) net anaerobic carbon fixation rates among these chimneys are elevated at lower temperatures, (ii) clear differences in community composition and gene abundance exist among chimney structures, and (iii) tremendous spatial heterogeneity within these environments likely confounds efforts to relate the observed rates to in situ microbial and geochemical factors. We also posit that microbes typically thought to be mesophiles are likely active and growing at cooler temperatures, and that their activity at these temperatures comprises the

  11. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. (Procter Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Swanson, S.M. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Marchant, T. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Biology); Schryer, R. (SENTAR Consultants Ltd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada))

    1994-09-01

    A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between chemical exposure and biological response. General incidence of gross pathology and histopathology showed no relationship with exposure to BKME, and no neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were observed in either exposed or reference fish. The few significant differences observed in LS blood parameters were not correlated with exposure to BKME and appeared to reflect habitat gradients. Liver somatic indexes were higher for female BKME-exposed LS, but were not significantly different in male LS nor in MW. Some differences in circulating sex steroid levels were observed in LS exposed to BKME (but not in MW, the species with higher contaminant body burdens). Steroid profile differences may have been related to natural differences in duration of spawning periods in the two fish populations. Other measures of reproductive capacity (relative gonad size, fecundity, young-of-the-year) showed no reductions in exposed fish. The detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A was induced in both species, with greater induction in MW than in LS. MW P4501A induction correlated well with some BKME exposure measures, but not with liver or gonad weights, pathology, reproductive capacity, or population-level parameters. Increased liver size and apparent differences in sex steroid profiles in LS did not translate to other health effects or population-level effects. Thus, exposure to this biologically treated BKME produced one consistent biochemical marker of exposure in the two fish species that was not associated with any adverse effects on fish health.

  12. Biological Assessment of Aquaculture Effects on Effluent-Receiving Streams in Ghana Using Structural and Functional Composition of Fish and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Yaw Boamah; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Amisah, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Biological assessment of aquatic ecosystems is widely employed as an alternative or complement to chemical and toxicity testing due to numerous advantages of using biota to determine ecosystem condition. These advantages, especially to developing countries, include the relatively low cost and technical requirements. This study was conducted to determine the biological impacts of aquaculture operations on effluent-receiving streams in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. We collected water, fish and benthic macroinvertebrate samples from 12 aquaculture effluent-receiving streams upstream and downstream of fish farms and 12 reference streams between May and August of 2009, and then calculated structural and functional metrics for biotic assemblages. Fish species with non-guarding mode of reproduction were more abundant in reference streams than downstream ( P = 0.0214) and upstream ( P = 0.0251), and sand-detritus spawning fish were less predominant in reference stream than upstream ( P = 0.0222) and marginally less in downstream locations ( P = 0.0539). A possible subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate family richness and abundance was also observed, with nutrient (nitrogen) augmentation from aquaculture and other farming activities likely. Generally, there were no, or only marginal differences among locations downstream and upstream of fish farms and in reference streams in terms of several other biotic metrics considered. Therefore, the scale of impact in the future will depend not only on the management of nutrient augmentation from pond effluents, but also on the consideration of nutrient discharges from other industries like fruit and vegetable farming within the study area.

  13. The Biology of the Triatomine Bugs Native to South Central Texas and Assessment of the Risk They Pose for Autochthonous Chagas Disease Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Edward J; Lawrence, Gena; Gorchakov, Rodion; Alamgir, Hasanat; Dotson, Ellen; Sissel, Blake; Sarkar, Sahotra; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-10-01

    Triatomine bugs are a group of hematophagous arthropods that can serve as biological vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Because of differences in the biology and feeding habits among triatomine species, some are more likely than others to be involved in zoonotic and/or human-to-human transmission cycles of T. cruzi . In an attempt to assess the risk for Chagas disease exposure in south-central Texas, human habitations across Texas Health Service Region 8 (HSR 8) and surrounding counties were surveyed for triatomines to characterize the geographic distribution, species-specific biology, and T. cruzi -infection prevalence better. Between May 2010 and August 2013, a total of 545 triatomines representing all 5 known indigenous species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma indictiva, Triatoma lecticularia, Triatoma sanguisuga, and Triatoma protracta woodi) were collected from 59 sites across the region. Triatoma gerstaeckeri was the species most commonly found in domestic and peridomestic ecotopes across Texas HSR 8, representing over 80% of the triatomines collected. Adult T. gerstaeckeri exhibited a seasonal dispersal pattern that began in late April, peaked in mid-May, and then continued into August. On homes with available crevices in the exterior walls, adult T. gerstaeckeri were observed emerging from or entering these protective microhabitats, suggesting possible opportunistic colonization of some exterior walls compartments. Laboratory testing of triatomine hindgut contents for T. cruzi by PCR demonstrated the adult T. gerstaeckeri-infection prevalence across Texas HSR 8 to be 64%. Monitoring peridomestic adult T. gerstaeckeri over the seasonal dispersal peak demonstrated statistically significant increases in both their T. cruzi -infection prevalence (P synanthropic tendencies. The high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in native triatomines, and the high frequency with which T. gerstaeckeri is

  14. A review of biological processes within oceanic water columns relevant to the assessment of the safety of disposal of waste, notably radioactive isotopes on or within the sea bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelagic biological processes and their connotations in the assessment of possible dispersal mechanisms of contaminants released on the deep oceanic seabed are reviewed. Biological gradients tend to be from the surface down so the search is for processes which run counter to these general gradients. Observed profiles of standing crop of both plankton and micronekton show that below 2000 m biological activity would have to be exceptionally dynamic to have an influence that will even approach within an order of magnitude of the dispersive effect of physical mixing. Examination of all forms of known migration mechanisms fails to reveal such dynamic activity. Nor have any critical pathways been identified within the present or foreseeable pattern of exploitation of the oceans. However, a major gap in knowledge is whether the pattern of these biological processes changes substantially in the region of continental slopes. (author)

  15. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G; Grant, P G; Ueda, D L; Autry-Conwell, S A; Hou, Y; Boggan, J E

    2002-12-04

    Purpose: To assess the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Materials and Methods: Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results/Discussion: With{sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis, {sup 11}B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 {micro}m, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 'B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis. Conclusions: When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the assessing the microdistribution of {sup 11}B. {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* reaction is well suited for Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  16. Using biological and physico-chemical test methods to assess the role of concrete mixture design in resistance to microbially induced corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Mitchell Wayne

    Concrete is the most widely used material for construction of wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated portland cement make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multi-stage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion, or MIC. MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on concrete surfaces above the waterline. Sulfuric acid then attacks the cement paste portion of the concrete matrix through decalcification of calcium hydroxide and calcium silica hydrate coupled with the formation of expansive corrosion products. The attack proceeds inward resulting in reduced service life and potential failure of the concrete structure. There are several challenges associated with assessing a concrete's susceptibility to MIC. First, no standard laboratory tests exist to assess concrete resistance to MIC. Straightforward reproduction of MIC in the laboratory is complicated by the use of microorganisms and hydrogen sulfide gas. Physico-chemical tests simulating MIC by immersing concrete specimens in sulfuric acid offer a convenient alternative, but do not accurately capture the damage mechanisms associated with biological corrosion. Comparison of results between research studies is difficult due to discrepancies that can arise in experimental methods even if current ASTM standards are followed. This thesis presents two experimental methods to evaluate concrete resistance to MIC: one biological and one physico-chemical. Efforts are made to address the critical aspects of each testing method currently absent in the literature. The first method presented is a new test

  17. Biological and Tribological Assessment of Poly(Ethylene Oxide Terephthalate)/Poly(Butylene Terephthalate), Polycaprolactone, and Poly (L\\DL) Lactic Acid Plotted Scaffolds for Skeletal Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikson, Wilhelmus J; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Rouwkema, Jeroen; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; van der Heide, Emile; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufactured scaffolds are fabricated from three commonly used biomaterials, polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (L\\DL) lactic acid (P(L\\DL)LA), and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT). Scaffolds are compared biologically and tribologically. Cell-seeded PEOT/PBT scaffolds cultured in osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation media show statistical significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAG)/DNA ratios, followed by PCL and P(L\\DL)LA scaffolds, respectively. The tribological performance is assessed by determining the friction coefficients of the scaffolds at different loads and sliding velocities. With increasing load or decreasing sliding velocity, the friction coefficient value decreases. PEOT/PBT show to have the lowest friction coefficient value, followed by PCL and P(L\\DL)LA. The influence of the scaffold architecture is further determined with PEOT/PBT. Reducing of the fiber spacing results in a lower friction coefficient value. The best and the worst performing scaffold architecture are chosen to investigate the effect of cell culture on the friction coefficient. Matrix deposition is low in the cell-seeded scaffolds and the effect is, therefore, undetermined. Taken together, our studies show that PEOT/PBT scaffolds support better skeletal differentiation of seeded stromal cells and lower friction coefficient compared to PCL and P(L/DL)A scaffolds. PMID:26775915

  18. Review on Invasive Tree of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) Conflicting Values: Assessment of Its Ecosystem Services and Potential Biological Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Sušek, Marta; Guillermic, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Globally, invasions by alien plants are rapidly increasing in extent and severity, leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation. One of the most widespread invasive alien plant species in Europe and North America, Tree of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) was introduced intentionally for use as an ornamental plant in the 18th century. Since then, it has spread and is now frequently found in a number of countries. Today, Tree of Heaven is considered one of the worst invasive plant species in Europe and is also listed as invasive in North America and many other countries. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is one of many systems trying to list and categorize biological services to humans and to provide a tool for identifying services delivered by natural ecosystems. Invasive species have generally caused degradation of the services, have a major impact on the environment, and are threatening biodiversity and reducing overall species abundance and diversity. On the other hand, some invasive species can provide services useful to human well-being. In the present review A. altissima impacts on ecosystems are identified and positive influences on some ecosystem services are weighed against the negative effects on the environment and human health. The aim of the present review is to resume the general knowledge of A. altissima, group available references on distribution and ecology according to countries, compare ecosystem services provided or enhanced by A. altissima presence and the negative effects it causes, identify gaps in current knowledge, and give recommendations for future lines of research.

  19. Occurrence, source diagnosis, and biological effect assessment of DDT and its metabolites in various environmental compartments of the Pearl River Delta, South China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes and analyzes available data in the literature (mostly after 2000) on the occurrence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its main metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and chlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), in the environment of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Generally, the concentration levels of the sum of DDT, DDD, and DDE, designated as DDTs thereafter, have not significantly declined since 1983. However, the composition of DDTs residues has changed with time. DDTs in soil, freshwater sediment and freshwater fish species were mainly residues from chronological use. There is evidence that new point sources, such as dicofol and anti-fouling paint, may have contributed DDTs to various environmental compartments. Risk assessment against existing criteria indicated that the levels of DDTs in water and some fish species may pose adverse effects to humans or wildlife, and those in sediment/soil may also cause negative impacts to the eco-environment of the PRD. - The occurrence, possible input sources, and biological effects of DDTs in the environment of the Pearl River Delta, South China, are reviewed.

  20. Development of a unified transport approach for the assessment of power-plant impact. [Environmental impact of chemical, biological, radioactive, or thermal effluents from power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, E.J.; Barton, J.M.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    Progress during the first 18 months in implementation of the Unified Transport Approach (UTA) is summarized in this report, which covers the period through December 1976. The goal of this project is to develop mathematical models for fast-transient, one-and two-dimensional transport of thermal, radiological, chemical, and biological properties in rivers, estuaries, lakes, and coastal regions for assessing the impact of power-plant operations. Development and validation of these models are illustrated in applications at several sites where data is available. The models include submodels for sediment transport, exchange of a soluble isotope with sediment, and zone-matching models to connect near-field problems of reentrainment and recirculation with far-field convective transport. Several types of automated data preparation have been introduced, and the codes have been designed to allow input of specified plant operating conditions for given durations. The UTA provides a common basis for calculating the transport of intensive quantities that depend on basic flow properties, which can be obtained from a common set of data for geometry, bathymetry, and meteorology that must be prepared only once. The formulation and calculation are based on a stable set of algorithms that have been tested and proven valid. The user can then focus on understanding and interpreting thermal, chemical, or radiological transport results with confidence that the basic calculations are direct, efficient, and meaningful. Recent work in each of the three areas is described.

  1. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  2. Determination of the dose of gamma radiation sterilization for assessment of biological parameters of male Ceratitis capitada (Diptera: Tephritidae), tsl - Vienna 8 strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vienna-8, tsl (temperature sensitive lethal) strain of Ceratitis capitata, by presenting mutations that facilitate the mass rearing and release only of sterile males in the field, has been used in (Sterile Insect Technique) programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that provides the highest level of sterility for Vienna-8, tsl males assessing their biological parameters that indicate the quality of sterile males to be released. Brown pupae (males) of the tsl strain were obtained from the mass rearing of the Food Irradiation and Radio entomology laboratory of CENA/USP, and they were irradiated (with gamma radiation - 60Co) 24 hours before the emergence at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 Gy. The determination of the sterilizing dose was based on fertility of sexually mature females of the bisexual strain and not irradiated, mated with males of different treatments. Eggs were collected daily during 6 days, were counted and it was possible to estimate fecundity, and assess the hatching rate. The emergence and flight ability were determined by following the protocol of quality control manual for FAO/IAEA/USDA (2003). To assess the longevity under nutritional stress, the insects were kept a period of 48 h after emergence in the absence of water and food, and after this period, mortality was recorded. The size of the testes (left and right) was obtained by dissecting irradiated and non-irradiated males at the eighth day of life, and measure the testes in an ocular micrometer, considering the maximum length and width of each sample. To determine the sperm number was necessary to dissect the males and break their testicles. No difference was observed in emergence rate, flight ability and longevity of irradiated and non-irradiated males, nor in the fecundity of females mated with males of different treatments. The sterilizing dose that resulted in lower fertility of females was 120 Gy, with 1.5% hatching. Considering the parameters of

  3. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in police in Florence, Italy, through personal air sampling and biological monitoring of the urinary metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, A; Gottardi, M; Boddi, V; Bavazzano, P; Lanciotti, E

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in workers exposed to exhaust gas from cars, and they assessed the efficiency of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as an indicator of exposure to pyrene and PAHs. The authors selected 2 groups of police who worked in 2 areas in the city of Florence: 1 group was highly exposed to high-density traffic emissions during the winter and summer of 1997, and the 2nd group experienced low exposure to traffic emissions during the same period. Ambient monitoring was achieved with personal sampling of airborne PAHs during each workshift. Eight hydrocarbons were used as indicators of pollution caused by PAHs (e.g., pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene). Biological monitoring was performed through dosing of 1-hydroxypyrene (pyrene metabolite) in urine samples taken at the end of each workshift. The ambient monitoring revealed that PAH concentrations were influenced by both season of sampling and varying intensities of traffic in the different areas. The median concentration of benzo[a]pyrene in winter was twice as high in the high-density traffic area as in the low-density traffic area (i.e., 4.1 ng/m3 versus 1.8 ng/m3). In summer, the high-density traffic area experienced benzo[a]pyrene concentrations that were 6 times higher than in the low-density traffic area (i.e., 1.2 ng/m3 versus 0.2 ng/m3). Benzo[a]pyrene was also correlated highly (r(s) = .92, p traffic area and 120.5 ng/gm creatinine in the low-density traffic area). An analysis of the general data revealed that 1-hydroxypyrene was, to some degree, related to pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and airborne total PAHs, whereas analysis of separate data for the area and the season revealed an emergence of a closer correlation during the winter in the high-traffic area. Therefore, 1 -hydroxypyrene can be considered a good biological indicator of exposure to airborne PAHs in the urban environment, especially in winter

  4. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF6 inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site.

  5. Integrating geochemical (surface waters, stream sediments) and biological (diatoms) approaches to assess AMD environmental impact in a pyritic mining area: Aljustrel (Alentejo, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ana Teresa; Durães, Nuno; de Almeida, Salomé Fernandes Pinheiro; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Aljustrel mines were classified as having high environmental hazard due to their large tailings volume and high metal concentrations in waters and sediments. To assess acid mine drainage impacted systems whose environmental conditions change quickly, the use of biological indicators with short generation time such as diatoms is advantageous. This study combined geochemical and diatom data, whose results were highlighted in 3 groups: Group 1, with low pH (1.9-5.1) and high metal/metalloid (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn; 0.65-1032mg/L) and SO4 (405-39124mg/L) concentrations. An acidophilic species, Pinnularia aljustrelica, was perfectly adapted to the adverse conditions; in contrast, teratological forms of Eunotia exigua were found, showing that metal toxicity affected this species. The low availability of metals/metalloids in sediments of this group indicates that metals/metalloids of the exchangeable fractions had been solubilized, which in fact enables metal/metalloid diatom uptake and consequently the occurrence of teratologies; Group 2, with sites of near neutral pH (5.0-6.8) and intermediate metal/metalloid (0.002-6mg/L) and SO4 (302-2179mg/L) concentrations; this enabled the existence of typical species of uncontaminated streams (Brachysira neglectissima, Achnanthidium minutissimum); Group 3, with samples from unimpacted sites, showing low metal/metalloid (0-0.8mg/L) and SO4 (10-315mg/L) concentrations, high pH (7.0-8.4) and Cl contents (10-2119mg/L) and the presence of brackish to marine species (Entomoneis paludosa). For similar conditions of acidity, differences in diversity, abundance and teratologies of diatoms can be explained by the levels of metals/metalloids. PMID:27090714

  6. Are UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process efficient to treat estrogens in waters? Chemical and biological assessment at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédat, Bruno; de Brauer, Christine; Métivier, Hélène; Dumont, Nathalie; Tutundjan, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    In this study, UV based treatments were implemented at pilot scale to assess their ability to remove hormones from treated wastewater, especially with the view to equip small and medium size Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs). To this end, the degradation of a mixture of estrogenic hormones (Estrone (E1), β-Estradiol (E2), and 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol (EE2)) in waters by UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process was investigated in real conditions. A particular attention was paid at designing a well validated laboratory scale pilot in order to optimise oxidant concentrations and UV fluence. A Low pressure lamp (254 nm) was used in a flow through commercial reactor. The effects of water matrices (drinking water and treated wastewater) and H2O2 concentrations (10, 40, and 90 mg/L) on the pilot efficiency were first determined. Only E1 could be partially degraded by UV photolysis whereas hormones were all well removed by UV/H2O2 process in both matrices. The second part of the study focused on a chemical and biological assessment of UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process (30 and 50 mg/L). Degradation rate constants of hormones as well as changes in estrogenic activity (YES bioassay) and toxicity (Vibrio fischeri) were followed at the same time. UV photolysis could not remove neither estrogens nor estrogenic activity at relevant UV fluence in waters. However 80% of initial estrogenic compounds and estrogenic activity could be removed from treated wastewater by combining UV fluence of 423 and 520 mJ/cm(2) with 50 and 30 mg/L of H2O2, respectively. No high estrogenic or toxic by-products were detected by the two bioassays following UV photolysis or UV/H2O2 process. Operating costs were estimated for a full scale pilot. H2O2 was the major cost. By combining the appropriate concentration of H2O2 and UV fluence, it could be possible to design a cost effective treatment for treating estrogens in small and medium size WTPs. PMID:27214348

  7. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  8. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Re-assessing the last 3,000 years of archaeological and biological sea-level data from Israel and Greece to identify East Mediterranean trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Dorit; Dean, Silas; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Bechor, Benny; Evelpidou, Niki; Baika, Kalliopi; Theodoulou, Theotokis A.

    2016-04-01

    The last 3,000 years of relative sea level (RSL) in Israel are derived primarily from archaeological indicators with additional bio-construction indicators (Dendropoma petraeum reefs at the edge of the abrasion platform along the Israeli coast). The current study examines whether sea-level fluctuations (above and mainly below present-day MSL) observed along the coast of Israel can also be observed in other East Mediterranean areas like Greece so that better evaluations can be made of local and regional driving mechanisms. There are three objectives for achieving this goal: 1) Identify new and already published archaeological and biological RSL indicators from this period in Israel and Greece; 2) Assess the reliability of both existing and new indicators using consistent standards to determine which types most accurately indicate ancient RSL and with what degree of uncertainty; 3) Correct the data for isostatic and tectonic effects. The survey collected nearly 140 archaeological indicators from Israel and about 120 from Greece. Of the Israeli indicators, some 120 were deemed reliable enough for reconstructions, whereas in Greece only 40 were, and not all of these from tectonically stable areas. The Israeli data includes 31 dates obtained from Dendropoma reefs in Israel. The higher reliability of the Israeli dataset may stem from a smaller coastline and more focused SL research over the past few decades. In Greece, many measurements were taken before precise surveying methods were available, and published without sufficient metadata. The two regional datasets reveal chronological gaps and disparities: Israel has a strong set of many indicators from the Roman Period (~2000BP) to present, but fewer from 3000-2000BP, while Greek indicators are strongly clustered in the Classical to Hellenistic Periods (2500-2000BP). On-going research is focusing now also on the last Millennial Greek sea levels (mainly the 'Venetian' period). Results however suggest some correspondence

  10. Assessment of selenium and mercury in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups (3-7) and (8-12) years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam Shazadi; Ali, Jamshed

    2015-03-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological sample composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged (3-7) and (8-12) years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment for the determination of Se and Hg in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of male and female night blindness children while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. The Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of night blindness in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protecting element for night blindness. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children. PMID:25655123

  11. Assessing Biological Response to Bevacizumab Using 18F-Fluoromisonidazole PET/MR Imaging in a Patient with Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Pampaloni, Miguel H.; Clarke, Jennifer L.; Seo, Youngho; Savic, Dragana; Hawkins, Randall A.; Behr, Spencer C.; Chang, Susan M.; Berger, Mitchel; Dillon, William P.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    We present our initial experience in using single modality fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET/MR imaging to noninvasively evaluate the biological effects induced by bevacizumab therapy in a patient treated for recurrent high grade glioma. In this index patient, bevacizumab therapy resulted in the development of nonenhancing tumor characterized by reduced diffusion and markedly decreased FMISO uptake in the setting of maintained CBF and CBV. These observations suggest that the dynamic biological interplay between tissue hypoxia and vascular normalization occurring within treated recurrent high grade glioma can be captured utilizing FMISO PET/MR imaging. PMID:25793136

  12. Assessing Biological Response to Bevacizumab Using 18F-Fluoromisonidazole PET/MR Imaging in a Patient with Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Barajas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our initial experience in using single modality fluoromisonidazole (FMISO PET/MR imaging to noninvasively evaluate the biological effects induced by bevacizumab therapy in a patient treated for recurrent high grade glioma. In this index patient, bevacizumab therapy resulted in the development of nonenhancing tumor characterized by reduced diffusion and markedly decreased FMISO uptake in the setting of maintained CBF and CBV. These observations suggest that the dynamic biological interplay between tissue hypoxia and vascular normalization occurring within treated recurrent high grade glioma can be captured utilizing FMISO PET/MR imaging.

  13. F1 Sterile insect technique: a novel approach for risk assessment of Episimus unguiculus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolus in the Continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal regulations mandate that researchers in the field of classical weed biological control follow the precautionary principle when proposing the release of an organism that can affect our environment. However, the host range observed in traditional laboratory cage experiments typically is broad...

  14. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Preliminary mining; data on soils, meteorology, water resources, and biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume contains five appendixes: Chattanooga Shale preliminary mining study, soils data, meteorologic data, water resources data, and biological resource data. The area around DeKalb County in Tennessee is the most likely site for commercial development for recovery of uranium. (DLC)

  15. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm−2, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment

  16. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  17. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  18. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  19. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task,…

  20. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  1. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  2. Agreement between the DAS28-CRP assessed with 3 and 4 variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents in the daily clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2013-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score-28-C-reactive Protein 4 [DAS28-CRP(4)] composite measure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on 4 variables: tender and swollen joint counts, CRP, and patient global assessment. DAS28-CRP(3) includes only 3 variables, because patient global assessment has been omitted...

  3. Simulation studies of statistical distributions of cell membrane capacities and an ellipse model to assess the frequency behaviour of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency behaviour of biological tissues is commonly described by a Cole model reflecting a single-cell bio-impedance model extended with an exponent α. However, for this parameter α there is no physical or biological substrate, which impedes an interpretation. The present study confirms by computer simulations of tissue models that the factual frequency behaviour can be explained by assuming a distribution of the electrical impedance properties of cells and of the capacitive coupling between cells. This behaviour is modelled mathematically by an ellipse. A mathematical procedure is presented to estimate this ellipse from experimental data by a least square method. A model parameter β is introduced, representing the ratio of the axes of the ellipse. A higher value of β means a larger variation in cell properties, which makes a patho-physiological interpretation of changes possible.

  4. Disentangling emotion processes in borderline personality disorder: physiological and self-reported assessment of biological vulnerability, baseline intensity, and reactivity to emotionally evocative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Linehan, Marsha M

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated M. Linehan's (1993) theory that individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) have high biological vulnerability to emotion dysregulation, including high baseline emotional intensity and high reactivity to emotionally evocative stimuli. Twenty individuals with BPD, 20 age-matched individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD), and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs) participated in 2 separate emotion induction conditions, a standardized condition, and a personally relevant condition. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance response (SCR), and self-report measures were collected throughout the experiment. BPD participants displayed heightened biological vulnerability compared with NCs as indicated by reduced basal RSA. BPD participants also exhibited high baseline emotional intensity, characterized by heightened SCR and heightened self-reported negative emotions at baseline. However, the BPD group did not display heightened reactivity, as their physiological and self-reported changes from baseline to the emotion inductions tasks were not greater than the other 2 groups. PMID:19685950

  5. Relative Biological Effectiveness Variation Along Monoenergetic and Modulated Bragg Peaks of a 62-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beam: A Preclinical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Marshall, Thomas I. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Perozziello, Francesca M.; Manti, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, University of Naples Federico II and INFN Naples Section University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Currell, Frederick J.; Hanton, Fiona [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); McMahon, Stephen J.; Kavanagh, Joy N. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Cirrone, Giuseppe Antonio Pablo; Romano, Francesco [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, LNS, Catania (Italy); Prise, Kevin M., E-mail: k.prise@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Schettino, Giuseppe [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The biological optimization of proton therapy can be achieved only through a detailed evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) variations along the full range of the Bragg curve. The clinically used RBE value of 1.1 represents a broad average, which disregards the steep rise of linear energy transfer (LET) at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). With particular attention to the key endpoint of cell survival, our work presents a comparative investigation of cell killing RBE variations along monoenergetic (pristine) and modulated (SOBP) beams using human normal and radioresistant cells with the aim to investigate the RBE dependence on LET and intrinsic radiosensitvity. Methods and Materials: Human fibroblasts (AG01522) and glioma (U87) cells were irradiated at 6 depth positions along pristine and modulated 62-MeV proton beams at the INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy). Cell killing RBE variations were measured using standard clonogenic assays and were further validated using Monte Carlo simulations and the local effect model (LEM). Results: We observed significant cell killing RBE variations along the proton beam path, particularly in the distal region showing strong dose dependence. Experimental RBE values were in excellent agreement with the LEM predicted values, indicating dose-averaged LET as a suitable predictor of proton biological effectiveness. Data were also used to validate a parameterized RBE model. Conclusions: The predicted biological dose delivered to a tumor region, based on the variable RBE inferred from the data, varies significantly with respect to the clinically used constant RBE of 1.1. The significant RBE increase at the distal end suggests also a potential to enhance optimization of treatment modalities such as LET painting of hypoxic tumors. The study highlights the limitation of adoption of a constant RBE for proton therapy and suggests approaches for fast implementation of RBE models in treatment planning.

  6. Using Biologic Markers in Blood to Assess Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals for Inner-City Children 3–6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L.; Fredrickson, Ann L; Ryan, Andrew D.; Needham, Larry L.; Ashley, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: 50 environmental chemicalsExposure/effect represented:detection of 11 VOCs, 2 heavy metals, 11organochlorine pesticides, 30 PCB congenersStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 43 ethnically diverse childrenAnalytical technique: GC/MSTissue/biological material/sample size: bloodIntra-individual variation: for 6 VOCs (1,4 dichlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m-l-p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene) and PCB 66, 105, 110, 18...

  7. Relative Biological Effectiveness Variation Along Monoenergetic and Modulated Bragg Peaks of a 62-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beam: A Preclinical Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The biological optimization of proton therapy can be achieved only through a detailed evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) variations along the full range of the Bragg curve. The clinically used RBE value of 1.1 represents a broad average, which disregards the steep rise of linear energy transfer (LET) at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). With particular attention to the key endpoint of cell survival, our work presents a comparative investigation of cell killing RBE variations along monoenergetic (pristine) and modulated (SOBP) beams using human normal and radioresistant cells with the aim to investigate the RBE dependence on LET and intrinsic radiosensitvity. Methods and Materials: Human fibroblasts (AG01522) and glioma (U87) cells were irradiated at 6 depth positions along pristine and modulated 62-MeV proton beams at the INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy). Cell killing RBE variations were measured using standard clonogenic assays and were further validated using Monte Carlo simulations and the local effect model (LEM). Results: We observed significant cell killing RBE variations along the proton beam path, particularly in the distal region showing strong dose dependence. Experimental RBE values were in excellent agreement with the LEM predicted values, indicating dose-averaged LET as a suitable predictor of proton biological effectiveness. Data were also used to validate a parameterized RBE model. Conclusions: The predicted biological dose delivered to a tumor region, based on the variable RBE inferred from the data, varies significantly with respect to the clinically used constant RBE of 1.1. The significant RBE increase at the distal end suggests also a potential to enhance optimization of treatment modalities such as LET painting of hypoxic tumors. The study highlights the limitation of adoption of a constant RBE for proton therapy and suggests approaches for fast implementation of RBE models in treatment planning

  8. Relative Biological Effectiveness Variation Along Monoenergetic and Modulated Bragg Peaks of a 62-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beam: A Preclinical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; I Marshall, Thomas; Perozziello, Francesca M; Manti, Lorenzo; Currell, Frederick J.; Hanton, Fiona; McMahon, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Joy N.; Cirrone, Giuseppe Antonio Pablo; Romano, Francesco; Prise, Kevin M.; SCHETTINO, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    iological optimization of proton therapy critically depends on detailed evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) variations along the Bragg curve. The clinically accepted RBE value of 1.1 is an oversimplification, which disregards the steep rise of linear energy transfer (LET) at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak. We observed significant cell killing RBE variations dependent on beam modulation, intrinsic radiosensitivity, and LET in agreement with the LEM predicted valu...

  9. Disentangling Emotion Processes in Borderline Personality Disorder: Physiological and Self-reported Assessment of Biological Vulnerability, Baseline Intensity, and Reactivity to Emotionally-Evocative Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Janice R.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated Linehan’s (1993) theory that individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) have high biological vulnerability to emotion dysregulation, including high baseline emotional intensity and high reactivity to emotionally-evocative stimuli. Twenty individuals with BPD, 20 age-matched individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD), and 20 age-matched normal controls (NC) participated in two separate emotion induction conditions, a standardi...

  10. Preliminary assessment of geologic materials to minimize biological intrusion of low-level waste trench covers and plans for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause radionuclide transport from a waste site. Preliminary results demonstrate that a sandy backfill material offers little resistance to root and animal intrusion through the cover profile. However, bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel combinations do reduce plant root and animal intrusion through cover profiles compared with sandy backfill soil. However, bentonite clay barrier systems appear to be degraded by plant roots through time. Desiccation of the clay barrier by invading plant roots may limit the usefulness of bentonite clay as a moisture and/or biological carrier unless due consideration is given to this interaction. Future experiments are described that further examine the effect of plant roots on clay barrier systems and that determine the effectiveness of proposed biological barriers on larger scales and under various stress conditions

  11. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is un...

  12. Groundtruthing notes and biological data from coral ecosystems surveys for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2000 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow...

  13. Groundtruthing Notes and Miscellaneous Biological Datasets from Coral Ecosystems Surveys from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow...

  14. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  15. The impact of breast cancer biological subtyping on tumor size assessment by ultrasound and mammography - a retrospective multicenter cohort study of 6543 primary breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Roland Gregor; Wollschläger, Daniel; Kreienberg, Rolf; Janni, Wolfgang; Wischnewsky, Manfred; Diessner, Joachim; Stüber, Tanja; Bartmann, Catharina; Krockenberger, Mathias; Wischhusen, Jörg; Wöckel, Achim; Blettner, Maria; Schwentner, Lukas; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Mammography and ultrasound are the gold standard imaging techniques for preoperative assessment and for monitoring the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Maximum accuracy in predicting pathological tumor size non-invasively is critical for individualized therapy and surgical planning. We therefore aimed to assess the accuracy of tumor size measurement by ultrasound and mammography in a multicentered health services research study. Methods We retrospectively anal...

  16. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  17. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  18. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  19. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  20. Application of translocation, γ-H2AX, and Sam68 as a biological indicators for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyung Sun; Nam, Seon Young [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This study showed that confirmation of the initial dose estimated by dicentric analysis is provided by the subsequent FISH analysis for translocation frequency and provides further evidence for the valid use of FISH as a retrospective biological dosimeter. The IAEA manual on cytogenetic dosimetry recommends a halftime value of 3 y to correct for the decrease of dicentrics in case of delayed sampling based on the patient data of Buckton. Support for this comes from the cytogenetic follow up of an individual exposed to tritium, which also indicated a decline in dicentrics with a half-time of ∼3 y. Naturally, the RBE of tritium, as well as other kinds of ionizing radiation, depends on the dose, exposure conditions, and studied parameters. The information about the RBE of tritium that is most important from an applied standpoint is that associated with the range of low doses. In our study, the dose dependence of tritium RBE was not identified because of very low dose Tritium (< 1mSv). However, The strong smooth relationship between translocation yield and age is shown in Table 2. The translocation yields reported here are only slightly lower than already published. The implication is that the increase of yield with age could be due to environmental factors, to a natural aging process or both. In addition, we confirmed that γ-H2AX and Sam68 associated with DNA damage and apoptosis, can be new biological indicators for radiation exposure. Radiation workers are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Ionizing radiation produces several types of DNA lesion, including DNA base alterations, DNA. DNA cross-links, and single- and double-strand breaks. As a protocol for biological dosimetry recommended by IAEA (2001), the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes has been used since the mid 1960s. The intervening years have seen great improvements bringing the technique to a point where dicentric analysis has become a routine component of the radiological

  1. Application of translocation, γ-H2AX, and Sam68 as a biological indicators for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study showed that confirmation of the initial dose estimated by dicentric analysis is provided by the subsequent FISH analysis for translocation frequency and provides further evidence for the valid use of FISH as a retrospective biological dosimeter. The IAEA manual on cytogenetic dosimetry recommends a halftime value of 3 y to correct for the decrease of dicentrics in case of delayed sampling based on the patient data of Buckton. Support for this comes from the cytogenetic follow up of an individual exposed to tritium, which also indicated a decline in dicentrics with a half-time of ∼3 y. Naturally, the RBE of tritium, as well as other kinds of ionizing radiation, depends on the dose, exposure conditions, and studied parameters. The information about the RBE of tritium that is most important from an applied standpoint is that associated with the range of low doses. In our study, the dose dependence of tritium RBE was not identified because of very low dose Tritium (< 1mSv). However, The strong smooth relationship between translocation yield and age is shown in Table 2. The translocation yields reported here are only slightly lower than already published. The implication is that the increase of yield with age could be due to environmental factors, to a natural aging process or both. In addition, we confirmed that γ-H2AX and Sam68 associated with DNA damage and apoptosis, can be new biological indicators for radiation exposure. Radiation workers are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Ionizing radiation produces several types of DNA lesion, including DNA base alterations, DNA. DNA cross-links, and single- and double-strand breaks. As a protocol for biological dosimetry recommended by IAEA (2001), the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes has been used since the mid 1960s. The intervening years have seen great improvements bringing the technique to a point where dicentric analysis has become a routine component of the radiological

  2. - and Post-Workshop Assessment of Teachers and Students Attending the Scientific Workshop ``FROM Educational to Scientific Perspectives: Sugar Polymers in Biology and Their Applications''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufondu, Chuck; Ali, Nawab; Stapleton, Carl; Taylor, Loria; Barker, Linda; Tarasenko, Olga

    2011-06-01

    During summer 2010, a two-week-long scientific workshop "From educational to scientific perspectives: sugar polymers in biology and their applications" was offered for high school teachers and students at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock's Department of Biology. Teacher and student participants took part in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) activities in order to improve math and science skills. Participants were taught various laboratory techniques, computer skills, Public Medical library searches, individual research project, PowerPoint presentation preparation, and a final oral presentation. Each participant was given pre- and post-workshop questionnaires, to gage initial and acquired knowledge. From the questionnaires, it was determined that there was a significant gain in knowledge of basic scientific concepts related to sugar polymers and their applications. It was found that 100% of participants—five teachers and seven students—reported their overall STEM experience as favorable. Furthermore, participants reported that the research project, computer techniques, and PowerPoint presentations were useful. This research experience provides knowledge about basic scientific concepts and is an excellent method to bridge the gap between high school and post-secondary education for both teachers and students.

  3. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  4. Effect of mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties on soils reflectance to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of BSCs in Sahelian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, A.; Cerdan, O.; Desprats, J. F.; Marin, B.; Malam Issa, O.; Valentin, C.; Rajot, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification are among the major environmental problems, resulting in reduced productivity and development of bare surfaces in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. One important factor that acts to increase soil stability and nutrient content, and thus to prevent water and wind erosion and enhance soil productivity of arid environment, is the presence of biological soil crusts (BSCs). They are the dominant ground cover and a key component of arid environments built up mainly by cyanobacteria. They enhance degraded soil quality by providing a stable and water-retaining substratum and increasing fertility by N and C fixations. The BioCrust project, funded by ANR (VMCS 2008), focuses on BSCs in the Sahelian zone of West Africa (Niger), a highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic pressure on land use. Unlike arid areas of developed countries (USA, Australia and Israel) or China where BSCs have been extensively studied, studies from Sahelian zone (Africa) are limited (neither the inventory of their different form nor the estimation of their spatial extension has been carried out). The form, structure and composition of BSCs vary depending on characteristics related to soils and biological composition. This study focuses on the soils characterisation using ground-based spectroradiometry. An extensive database was built included spectral measurements on BSCs, bare soils and vegetation that occur in the same area, visual criteria, in situ and laboratory measurements on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of BSCs and their substratum. The work is carried out on geo-statistical processing of data acquired in sites along a north-south climatic gradient and three types of representative land uses. The investigated areas are highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic

  5. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Johan Kotze

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed

  6. How to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies to assess biotic-abiotic interactions on coastal dune systems: a new multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertoni, Duccio; Bini, Monica; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Ribolini, Adriano; Ruocco, Matteo; Pozzebon, Alessandro; Alquini, Fernanda; Giaccari, Riccardo; Tordella, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Coastal dune systems are arguably one of the most dynamic environments because their evolution is controlled by many factors, both natural and human-related. Hence, they are often exposed to processes leading to erosion, which in turn determine serious naturalistic and economic losses. Most recent studies carried out on different dune fields worldwide emphasized the notion that a better definition of this environment needs an approach that systematically involves several disciplines, striving to merge every data collected from any individual analyses. Therefore, a new multidisciplinary method to study coastal dune systems has been conceived in order to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies. The aim of the work is threefold: i) to check the reliability of this new approach; ii) to provide a dataset as complete as ever about the factors affecting the evolution of coastal dunes; and iii) to evaluate the influence of any biotic and abiotic factors on plant communities. The experimentation site is located along the Pisa coast within the Migliarino - S. Rossore - Massaciuccoli Regional Park, a protected area where human influence is low (Tuscany, Italy). A rectangle of 100 x 200 m containing 50 grids of 20 x 20 m was established along the coastal dune systems from the coastline to the pinewood at the landward end of the backdune area. Sampling from each grid determined grain-size analysis carried out on surface sediment samples such as geologic aspects; topographic surveys performed by means of DGPS-RTK instruments; geophysical surveys conducted with a GPR equipment, which will be matched with core drilling activities; digital image analysis of high definition pictures taken by means of a remote controlled aircraft drone flying over the study area; biological data obtained by percent cover of each vascular plant species recorded in the sampling unit. Along with geologic and biologic methodologies, this research implemented the use of informatics

  7. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hormesis hypothesis is discussed claiming that low dose ionizing radiation shows positive biological effects. The hypothesis could not be demonstrably proved. In the last decade, new disciplines have been developing, such as risk assessment and risk management that, on the basis of proven results and the consideration of all circumstances quantitatively assess and test possible risks. (M.D.). 1 fig

  8. Chemical stability of ecomustine, a new antitumor agent in aqueous and biological media as assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Abed, I; Roger, P; Gosse, C; Atassi, G; Gouyette, A

    1991-01-01

    Ecomustine, or CY233 (NSC-609224), is a new water-soluble nitrosoureido sugar derived from acosamine. A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay (HPLC) developed to quantify the unchanged drug in aqueous solutions and biological specimens enabled us to study the chemical stability as a function of pH, light, and temperature. In buffered aqueous solutions, the kinetics of degradation of CY233 is a first-order process. The log k-pH profile demonstrated hydroxide ion-catalyzed solvolysis. The drug is most stable at pH 4, more stable than some other nitrosoureas in 5% glucose (t1/2, 62-67 h) and in 0.9% isotonic saline (t1/2, 25-37 h) solutions. Based on these findings, blood samples should be collected in cold tubes (4 degrees C) containing citrate buffer (pH 4) and all manipulations should be protected from heat and light. PMID:1998985

  9. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  10. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  11. Evaluation of biological endpoints in crop plants after exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): implications for phytotoxicological assessment of novel contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wiebke; Redshaw, Clare H

    2015-02-01

    Human pharmaceuticals have been detected in the terrestrial environment at µg to mg kg(-1) concentrations. Repeated application of sewage sludge (biosolids) and increasing reclaimed wastewater use for irrigation could lead to accumulation of these novel contaminants in soil systems. Despite this, potential phytotoxicological effects on higher plants have rarely been evaluated. These studies aimed to test effects upon germination, development, growth and physiology of two crop plants, namely radish (Raphanus sativus Spakler 3) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa All Year Around), after exposure to different, but structurally related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at environmentally relevant concentrations. A range of biological endpoints comprising biomass, length, water content, specific root and shoot length, root to shoot ratio, daily progress of stages of cell elongation and organ emergence (primary root, hypocotyl elongation, cotyledon emergence, cotyledon opening, and no change), as well as photosynthetic measurements were evaluated. Compounds from the fenamic acid class were found to affect R. sativus root endpoints (root length and water content), while ibuprofen affected early root development of L. sativa. In general, phytotoxicological effects on root endpoints demonstrated that impacts upon higher plants are not only compound specific, but also differ between plant species. It was found that the usage of a wide range of biological endpoints (all simple, cost-effective and ecologically relevant) were beneficial in detecting differences in plant responses to NSAID exposure. Due to paucity and discrepancy within the few previously available phytotoxicological studies with pharmaceuticals, it is now essential to allocate time and resources to consider development of suitable chronic toxicity tests, and some suggestions regarding this are presented. PMID:25463873

  12. Reduced Flavin: NMR investigation of N(5-H exchange mechanism, estimation of ionisation constants and assessment of properties as biological catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüterjans Heinz

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flavin in its FMN and FAD forms is a versatile cofactor that is involved in catalysis of most disparate types of biological reactions. These include redox reactions such as dehydrogenations, activation of dioxygen, electron transfer, bioluminescence, blue light reception, photobiochemistry (as in photolyases, redox signaling etc. Recently, hitherto unrecognized types of biological reactions have been uncovered that do not involve redox shuffles, and might involve the reduced form of the flavin as a catalyst. The present work addresses properties of reduced flavin relevant in this context. Results N(5-H exchange reactions of the flavin reduced form and its pH dependence were studied using the 15N-NMR-signals of 15N-enriched, reduced flavin in the pH range from 5 to 12. The chemical shifts of the N(3 and N(5 resonances are not affected to a relevant extent in this pH range. This contrasts with the multiplicity of the N(5-resonance, which strongly depends on pH. It is a doublet between pH 8.45 and 10.25 that coalesces into a singlet at lower and higher pH values. From the line width of the 15N(5 signal the pH-dependent rate of hydrogen exchange was deduced. The multiplicity of the 15N(5 signal and the proton exchange rates are little dependent on the buffer system used. Conclusion The exchange rates allow an estimation of the pKa value of N(5-H deprotonation in reduced flavin to be ≥ 20. This value imposes specific constraints for mechanisms of flavoprotein catalysis based on this process. On the other hand the pK ≈ 4 for N(5-H protonation (to form N(5+-H2 would be consistent with a role of N(5-H as a base.

  13. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on various types of radionuclides that may be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. One of the primary goals of this ICRP Task Group is to assess specifically the biological implications of inhaled plutonium. Because other transuranics are becoming more abundant, information on americium, curium and einsteinium is included. Data are also included from studies of polonium and of several beta-gamma emitting isotopes. The Task Group evaluated most of the data on the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in experimental animals to identify the tissues at risk and to assess possible dose-response relationships. Few data from human cases of inhaled radionuclides are available for this assessment. The biological effects of nonradioactive air pollutants were also considered to provide the perspective that all air pollutants can have a deleterious effect on human life and to emphasize the possibility for combined or synergistic effects of nonradioactive and radioactive substances on the respiratory tract. (orig./HP)

  14. Using aromatic biological markers as a tool for assessing thermal maturity of source rocks in the campano-maastrichtian mamu formation, southeastern nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogala, Jude E.; Akaegbobi, Mike I.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of aromatic biomarkers in coals and shales from five boreholes penetrating the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation of the Anambra Basin, southeastern Nigeria, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometryto assess the thermal maturity and organic matter input. The study focused on the variations of the relative abundances of naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and monaromatic and triaromatic steroids identified on the mass fragmentograms. Trimethylnaphthalene(...

  15. Assessment of Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Alvarenga Soares; Germano Leão Demolin Leite; José Cola Zanuncio; Cleidson Soares Ferreira; Silma Leite Rocha; Veríssimo Gibran Mendes de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is the sixth most important crop in the world, and it is attacked by many pests, such as Erinnyis ello (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). This lepidopteran pest has natural enemies that can efficiently control its population, such as Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). The objective of this research was to assess the flight capacity, parasitism and emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum, T. marandobai and T. demoraesi and to select the most efficient species among them for b...

  16. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  17. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH)

  18. Long-term impact of land management in soil biological processes can be assessed by fingerprint of dissolved organic carbon and peroxidase activity in topsoil and subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Maclean, Jamie L.; Dalal, Ram C.; Menzies, Neal W.; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-04-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a highly dynamic pool, directly related to biological functions and to the stabilization of organic carbon (OC) through interaction with the mineral phase. Therefore, the characterization of the main components of DOC can be linked to the metabolic status of soil and the turnover of OC and provides a sensitive approach to evaluate the impact of land use on OC turnover in soils. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to derive relationships between DOC characteristics and biochemical activity in soils under contrasting land management. The soil solution was isolated from topsoil and subsoil for three soils (Vertisol, Ferralsol, Acrisol, World Reference Base 2014) collected from undisturbed areas and from a location(s) immediately adjacent which has a long history of agricultural, pasture or afforestation use (>20 years) by centrifugation at 4000 rpm (20 min, 25 °C. The fingerprint of DOC was obtained to identify OC functionalities by spectrofluorometric analyses and Excitation-Emission matrices (EEM) were obtained for all samples. The excitation wavelengths were increased from 250 to 400 nm in 5-nm steps for each excitation wavelength, and emission was detected from 250 to 500 nm in 0.5-nm steps and. Humification index (HIX), freshness index (FrI), fluorescence index (FI) and redox index (RI) were derived from the EEMs. Extracellular laccase activity was examined by monitoring the oxidation of 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) at 420 nm. The EEMs revealed a depletion of the humic-like component (250proteins was identified in the subsoil of the cropping area. The HIX consistently decreased for cropping areas compared to soil under native vegetation across the different soils. However, HIX decreased for the Ferralsol under pasture compared to areas under native vegetation, but increased for the Acrisol under pasture. Generally, HIX is substantially related to land use, with the highest HIX values

  19. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  20. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  1. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  2. Assessing estrogenic activity in surface water and sediment of the Liao River system in northeast China using combined chemical and biological tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao Jianliang; Liu Shan; Yang Bin; Zhou Lijun; Tao Ran; Su Haochang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigated some selected estrogenic compounds (4-t-octylphenol: 4-t-OP; 4-nonylphenols: 4-NP; bisphenol-A: BPA; diethylstilbestrol: DES; estrone: E1; 17{beta}-estradiol: E2; 17{alpha}-Ethinylestradiol: EE2; triclosan: TCS) and estrogenicity in the Liao River system using the combined chemical and in vitro yeast screen bioassay and assessed their ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The estrogenic compounds 4-t-OP, 4-NP, BPA, E1, E2 and TCS were detected in most of the samples, with their concentrations up to 52.1 2065.7, 755.6, 55.8, 7.4 and 81.3 ng/L in water, and up to 8.6, 558.4, 33.8, 7.9, assessed by using combined chemical analysis and in vitro bioassay.

  3. Assessing estrogenic activity in surface water and sediment of the Liao River system in northeast China using combined chemical and biological tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated some selected estrogenic compounds (4-t-octylphenol: 4-t-OP; 4-nonylphenols: 4-NP; bisphenol-A: BPA; diethylstilbestrol: DES; estrone: E1; 17β-estradiol: E2; 17α-Ethinylestradiol: EE2; triclosan: TCS) and estrogenicity in the Liao River system using the combined chemical and in vitro yeast screen bioassay and assessed their ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The estrogenic compounds 4-t-OP, 4-NP, BPA, E1, E2 and TCS were detected in most of the samples, with their concentrations up to 52.1 2065.7, 755.6, 55.8, 7.4 and 81.3 ng/L in water, and up to 8.6, 558.4, 33.8, 7.9, < LOQ and 33.9 ng/g in sediment, respectively. However, DES and EE2 were not detected in the Liao River. The estrogen equivalents (EEQ) of the water and sediment samples were also measured by the bioassay. High estrogenic risks to aquatic organisms were found in the river sections of metropolitan areas and the lower reach of the river system. - Estrogenic risks to aquatic organisms were assessed by using combined chemical analysis and in vitro bioassay.

  4. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  5. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  6. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Forlani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America.We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control.The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling.

  7. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically-biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-01

    The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R(2)), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year(-1)) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308year(-1) and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12Nm(3)/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90kWh per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions. PMID:23910244

  8. Study of primary biological aerosols to characterize their diversity in particulate matter over the Indian tropical region: assessment for climatic and health impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada R, H.; Muthalagu, A.; R, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Desprès, V.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs) are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and can influence the biosphere, climate, and public health (Després et al., 2012).To study the importance of the PBAPs, it is important to have an understanding about their origin, seasonal abundance and diversity. The study of PBAPs over the Indian tropical region becomes important as it hosts ~ 18% of the world population and has a distinct climate with a systematic and cyclic monsoon season which is different from the continental climates in Europe and America. In this study, the PBAPs were characterized by the application of molecular genetic techniques involving DNA extraction, PCR amplifications, cloning and DNA sequencing. In addition, characterization of the fungal source emissions was performed to better understand the diversity, abundance, and relative contribution of the fungal aerosols. For the present study, DNA analysis was performed on a one-year air filter set of PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 mm) covering three distinct meteorological seasons, i.e. summer, monsoon, and winter. The results from DNA analysis revealed the presence of bacteria and fungi in the filter samples. The fungal source characterization performed by the DNA analysis revealed the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota to be 96:4, which is consistent with previously reported studies from airborne fungal communities in the European continental boundary layer air (Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2009). In the study region, the highest species richness was found to be present in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.81%). Agaricaceae, Polyporaceae and Psathyrellaceae were dominant families in the study region and the families like Clavariaceae, Nectriaceae, Phanerochaetachae, Pleurotaceae and Strophariaceae were found to be rare. The results will next be compared with the diversity and types of the fungi found in ambient PM10. More details will be presented.

  9. Progress in Biological Effects and Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials%纳米材料生物效应研究和安全性评价前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元方; 陈欣欣; 王海芳

    2011-01-01

    The sustainable development of nanotechnology requires the comprehensive understanding on the safety of nanomaterials. Since 2004, researches on the biological effects and safety evaluation of nanomaterials have been developing rapidly and grown to an interdisciplinary field, nanotoxicology. The safety issue of nanotechnology attracts the attentions of the academic, enterprise, government and public. The authors described the urgency and importance of safety evaluation on nanomaterials, and focused on the latest progress related to nano-product, workplace and environment. In addition, a brief discussion on the standardization in nanotechnology, the nano-ethics and the risk management of nanotechnology was presented.%纳米技术持续、健康的发展要求我们了解纳米材料的安全性.2004年以来,纳米材料生物效应和安全性研究发展迅速,形成一个跨学科的研究领域,并受到政府、学界、企业和社会公众等的广泛关注.文中叙述了纳米材料安全性评估的迫切性和重要意义,重点讨论了该领域的最新发展方向,包括纳米产品、工作场所和环境的安全等,同时简单讨论了纳米标准化、纳米技术风险管理和纳米伦理研究与纳米安全性研究的关系.

  10. Thermal ecological study on the water quality and biological impact assessment in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam uses seawater as tertiary coolant at the rate of 35m3/sec employing a once through type of circuit. The discharged water travels as a canal and mixes with seawater at the mixing zone. The present study investigated the impact of the discharged thermal effluent on the physical chemical and biological quality of the receiving seawater body. Measurements of ΔT between Intake and Outfall ranged from 6.1 to 9.8 deg C and between Intake and Mixing zone from 3.2 to 6.0 deg C. These values are well within the legal limits. The thermal plume is shore attached and extended up to 300 m from the shore and registered a ΔT of 3-4 deg C. No measurable Change in the physical and chemical parameters of seawater (DO, Salinity NO3, NO2, NH3, PO4 and SiO3) in relation to thermal discharges was observed. However, these parameters fluctuated with seasonal changes. The shore attached thermal plume adversely affected the density and distribution of macro benthic animals. The benthos are absent in the mixing zone and their density decreased about 500 m on either side of the mixing zone. The natural shift in the mixing zone provides opportunities for the recolonization of macro benthos. The thermal tolerance study revealed that the experimental fish species Mugil cephalus and Alepeus djidapa did not show any mortality or loss of equilibrium at Δ5 degC (33 degC) and Δ T 7 degC (35 degC) and the maximum ΔT recorded at the impact area is 6 degC. The gradual increase in temperature as found in the plume favors the fishes to escape the acute thermal exposures. (author)

  11. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  12. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  13. Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Labiosa, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe an application of a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support web tool that models and evaluates relative changes in ecosystem services to policy and land management decisions. The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio (SCWEPM) was designed to provide credible forecasts of responses to ecosystem drivers and stressors and to illustrate the role of land use decisions on spatial and temporal distributions of ecosystem services within a binational (U.S. and Mexico) watershed. We present two SCWEPM sub-models that when analyzed together address bidirectional relationships between social and ecological vulnerability and ecosystem services. The first model employs the Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), which assesses community vulnerability using information from U.S. and Mexico censuses on education, access to resources, migratory status, housing situation, and number of dependents. The second, relating land cover change to biodiversity (provisioning services), models changes in the distribution of terrestrial vertebrate habitat based on multitemporal vegetation and land cover maps, wildlife habitat relationships, and changes in land use/land cover patterns. When assessed concurrently, the models exposed some unexpected relationships between vulnerable communities and ecosystem services provisioning. For instance, the most species-rich habitat type in the watershed, Desert Riparian Forest, increased over time in areas occupied by the most vulnerable populations and declined in areas with less vulnerable populations. This type of information can be used to identify ecological conservation and restoration targets that enhance the livelihoods of people in vulnerable communities and promote biodiversity and ecosystem health.

  14. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R2 ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R2), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year−1) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year−1 and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m3/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system

  15. Como os livros didáticos de biologia abordam as diferentes formas de estimar a biodiversidade? How do biology textbooks discuss the different ways of assessing biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Benício Cardoso-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O rápido avanço das pesquisas científicas tem possibilitado que novos conhecimentos sejam assimilados, e que antigas teorias e hipóteses reformuladas. É inquestionável a importância dos livros didáticos enquanto objeto pedagógico na formação do cidadão. Por conta disso, torna-se imprescindível que estes sejam constantemente reavaliados, no que tange a seu conteúdo. No presente estudo, foram avaliadas as diferentes formas pelas quais os livros didáticos de Biologia abordam o tema biodiversidade. Para realizar esta pesquisa, foram utilizados livros didáticos, os quais fazem parte do catálogo do Programa Nacional do Livro do Ensino Médio (PNLEM. Observamos que alguns tópicos relacionados ao estudo da biodiversidade são apresentados de maneira superficial e, por vezes, equivocada. Também ficou evidente que os livros didáticos analisados neste estudo tratam de um mesmo assunto com abordagem e profundidade diferentes. Isto sugere que adoção de um único livro didático nas escolas pode comprometer o processo de aprendizado do aluno.The rapid advancement of scientific research has been enabled by new knowledge being assimilated and by the reformulation of old theories and hypotheses. The importance of textbooks is unquestionable as a teaching aid in the formation of the citizen. For this reason, it is essential that they be constantly reevaluated, regarding their contents. In the present study we evaluated the different ways that biology textbooks address the biodiversity issue. To conduct this research were used textbooks, which are part of the High School Didactic Textbooks Brazilian National Evaluation Program (PNLEM. From the results obtained in this study, we observed that some topics related to biodiversity studies are presented in a superficial way, and are sometimes wrong. It was also evident that the textbooks examined in this study were dealing the same subject with different approaches and at different depth. This

  16. Structure based inhibitor design targeting glycogen phosphorylase B. Virtual screening, synthesis, biochemical and biological assessment of novel N-acyl-β-d-glucopyranosylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenopoulou, Vanessa; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Manta, Stella; Zographos, Spyros E; Molfeta, Christina; Archontis, Georgios; Agius, Loranne; Hayes, Joseph M; Leonidas, Demetres D; Komiotis, Dimitri

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a validated target for the development of new type 2 diabetes treatments. Exploiting the Zinc docking database, we report the in silico screening of 1888 N-acyl-β-d-glucopyranosylamines putative GP inhibitors differing only in their R groups. CombiGlide and GOLD docking programs with different scoring functions were employed with the best performing methods combined in a 'consensus scoring' approach to ranking of ligand binding affinities for the active site. Six selected candidates from the screening were then synthesized and their inhibitory potency was assessed both in vitro and ex vivo. Their inhibition constants' values, in vitro, ranged from 5 to 377μM while two of them were effective at causing inactivation of GP in rat hepatocytes at low μM concentrations. The crystal structures of GP in complex with the inhibitors were defined and provided the structural basis for their inhibitory potency and data for further structure based design of more potent inhibitors. PMID:25092521

  17. Introductory biology of Fusarium moniliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J F

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme is a name that has been applied to any of six biological species (or mating populations) that share the teleomorph (sexual stage) Gibberella fujikuroi. Two of these six biological species, termed "A" and "D", are known to produce fumonisin mycotoxins. Strains from the "A" biological species grow as endophytes on maize and often comprise 90+% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from healthy maize seed. It is possible to distinguish all six biological species using sexual fertility and isozymes. Other attributes, such as morphological characters and sequences from the ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region, can be used to identify some, but not all, of the biological species. Within a biological species, genetic variability and population structure can be assessed with anonymous RFLPs and tests of vegetative compatibility. The "A" biological species is genetically diverse, and the sexual cycle appears to be important in the life cycle of field populations of this organism in the United States. PMID:8850614

  18. Data for giant constrictors - Biological management profiles and an establishment risk assessment for nine large species of pythons, anacondas, and the boa constrictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, C.S.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Giant Constrictors' Climate Space The giant constrictors' climate space data set represents the information needed to recreate the climate space and climate matching analyses in Reed and Rodda (2009). A detailed methodology and results are included in that report. The data include locations for nine species of large constrictors including Python molurus, Broghammerus reticulatus, P. sebae, P. natalensis, Boa constrictor, Eunectes notaeus, E. deschauenseei, E. beniensis, and E. murinus. The locations are from published sources. Climate data are included for monthly precipitation and average monthly temperature along with the species locations. The individual spreadsheets of location data match the figures in the Reed and Rodda (2009) report, illustrating areas of the mainland United States that match the climate envelope of the native range. The precipitation and temperature data at each location were used to determine the climate space for each species. Graphs of climate space formed the basis for the algorithms in the data set, and more details can be found in Reed and Rodda (2009). These algorithms were used in ArcGIS to generate maps of areas in the United States that matched the climate space of locations of the snakes in their native range. We discovered a rounding error in ArcGIS in the implementation of the algorithms, which has been corrected here. Therefore the shapefiles are slightly different than those appearing in the risk assessment figures illustrating areas of the United States that match the climate envelope of the species in their native ranges. However, the suitable localities are not different at the scale of intended use for these maps, although there are more noticeable differences between areas classified as 'too cold' and 'too hot'.

  19. Biological transformation, kinetics and dose-response assessments of bound musk ketone hemoglobin adducts in rainbow trout as biomarkers of environmental exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M A Mottaleb; J H Zimmerman; T W Moy

    2008-01-01

    Low levels (ng/g) of musk ketone (MK), used as a fragrance additive in the formulation of personal care products, are frequently detected in the water and other environment. Thus, aquatic organisms can be continuously exposed to MK. In this study, kinetics and dose-response assessments of 2-amino-MK (AMK) metabolite, bound to cysteine-hemoglobin (Hb) in rainbow trout, formed by enzymatic nitro-reduction of MK have been demonstrated. Trout were exposed to a single exposure of 0.010, 0.030, 0.10, and or 0.30 mg MK/g of fish. Twenty-six Hb samples were collected from exposed- and control fish subsequent to exposure intervals of 1 d (24 h), 3 d (72 h), and 7 d (168 h). Basic hydrolysis released bound AMK metabolite was extracted into n-hexane and then concentrated and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) electron capture negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mass spectrometry (MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM). The presence of the AMK metabolite in Hb extracts was confirmed by agreement of similar mass spectral features and retention time with a standard. In the dose-response study, maximum adduct formation was obtained at the 0.10 mg/g dose with an average AMK metabolite concentration of 2.2 ng/g. For kinetics, the highest concentration of the AMK metabolite was found to be 32.0 ng/g at 0.03 mg/g dose in 3-d sample. Further elimination of the metabolite showed kinetics with a half-life estimated to be 2 d, assuming first-order kinetics. The metabolite was not detected in the control samples, non-hydrolyzed Hb, and reagent blank extracts. The detection limit for AMK in the Hb was approximately 0.30 (g/L, based on a signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3).

  20. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  1. Editorial note on reproductive biology of fishes

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS; K. I. STERGIOU; Froese, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Fish reproductive biology (onset and duration of spawning, sex ratio, maturity stages, length and age at maturity, and fecundity) is important in fisheries research, stock assessment, and management. In this editorial note, we provide some criteria and recommendations on issues of fish reproductive biology, which may be useful in research planning, data analysis and presentation, as well as in manuscript preparation.

  2. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  3. Effect of biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Chen, Jin-Yun; Chen, Wen-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation. Thirty-five patients with 39 symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy were enrolled. Before surgery, the uterine fibroids were subdivided into hypo-intense, iso-intense, heterogeneous hyper-intense and homogeneous hyper-intense categories based on signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. Tissue density and moisture content were determined in post-operative samples and normal uterine tissue, the isolated uterine fibroids were subjected to USgHIFU, and the extent of ablation was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining were undertaken to investigate the organizational structure of the uterine fibroids. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was assayed via immunohistochemical staining. The mean diameter of uterine fibroids was 6.9 ± 2.8 cm. For all uterine fibroids, the average density and moisture content were 10.7 ± 0.7 mg/mL and 75.7 ± 2.4%, respectively; and for the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids, 10.3 ± 0.5 mg/mL and 76.6 ± 2.3%. The latter subgroup had lower density and higher moisture content compared with the other subgroups. After USgHIFU treatment, the extent of ablation of the hyper-intense fibroids was 102.7 ± 42.1 mm(2), which was significantly less than those of the hypo-intense and heterogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining revealed that the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids had sparse collagen fibers and abundant cells. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that estrogen and progesterone receptors were highly expressed in the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. This study revealed that lower density, higher moisture content, sparse collagen

  4. Towards quasi-biological nanodosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hajek, M

    2009-01-01

    The increasing utilization of charged particle beams for therapeutic purposes requires designing novel detector systems which shall be capable of assessing radiation quality for a diversity of ion species. It is shown that the pattern of energy deposition in thermoluminescent phosphors and biological tissue contains conceptual parallels. The correlation of physical and radiobiological parameters observed experimentally for specific endpoints (single- and double-strand breaks of DNA) opens the possibility of realizing successfully quasi-biological solid-state nanodosimetry on the basis of thermoluminescence.

  5. Biological effects of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  6. Biologic assessment of copper-containing amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjor, I A; Eriksen, H M; Haugen, E; Skogedal, O

    1977-12-01

    In order to reduce creep and avoid marginal fractures in amalgam restorations, new alloys containing higher proportions of copper have been introduced. Fillings of these materials were placed in cavities prepared in the deciduous teeth of monkeys or placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted subcutaneously in rats. Conventional silver/tin alloys and zinc oxide eugenol cement were used as reference materials. Despite limitations due to the varying depths of cavities and the small number of animals involved it was concluded that the high copper alloys caused more severe pulp damage than the other materials studied. In the implantation studies many of the high copper specimens were exfoliated before the end of the experimental period. It is concluded that in deep cavities these materials require the use of a non-toxic base or lining material although as they are commonly used in young children's teeth the placement of linings and the isolation of the cavity pose problems. PMID:412793

  7. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  8. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  9. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  10. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  11. Biology in Bloom: Implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to Enhance Student Learning in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Alison; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    We developed the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT), an assessment tool based on Bloom's Taxonomy, to assist science faculty in better aligning their assessments with their teaching activities and to help students enhance their study skills and metacognition. The work presented here shows how assessment tools, such as the BBT, can be used to guide and…

  12. Biological width: No violation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of gingival health is one of the keys for the longevity of teeth, as well as for the longevity of restorations. The concept of Biologic width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. This review gives the wide aspect of the complex question of biologic width and represents an attempt to answer some of the demands in relation to it. The article also discusses the possible methods to assess biologic width, problems that occur after improper margin placement in the periodontium and the alternative procedures for prevention of biological width violation.

  13. COMPILATION AND ASSESSMENT OF MICROWAVE BIOEFFECTS AO-02-0l/EA81028 FINAL REPORT A SELECTIVE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVES IN RELATION TO THE SATELLITE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Justesen, HA. Ragan, LE. Rogers, AW. Guy, DL. Hjeresen, WT. Hinds, RD. Phillips, Project Manager

    1978-05-01

    Potential biological and ecological problems are the focus of a review of the world's scientific literature on biological effects of microwave radiation. The emphasis is on recently reported data and on the 2450-MHz continuous-wave (CW) radiation that is envisioned for a Satellite Power System (SPS).

  14. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  15. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  16. Engineering scalable biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial, and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic, and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast, and mammal...

  17. Systems interface biology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis J Doyle; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Henc...

  18. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  19. Development of the Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory (SRBCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    We followed established best practices in concept inventory design and developed a 12-item inventory to assess student ability in statistical reasoning in biology (Statistical Reasoning in Biology Concept Inventory [SRBCI]). It is important to assess student thinking in this conceptual area, because it is a fundamental requirement of being…

  20. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  1. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  2. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology. PMID:24156739

  3. Biological Water or Rather Water in Biology?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 13 (2015), s. 2449-2451. ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological water * protein * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.458, year: 2014

  4. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  5. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  6. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  7. Analyzing the high school biology education in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Abdulsalam Dael

    This study evaluated the high school biology education in Yemen based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Developing Biological Literacy (1993). The study used inductive analysis, a type of qualitative research, in which triangulation of six data sources was used to answer the four research questions developed for the study. Twenty-four teachers and 48 students from four high schools in Yemen responded to the questionnaires. The findings of this study indicated that 44% of the BSCS goals suggested for a biology program is included in the biology education program in Yemen. Fifty-one percent of the concepts related to the unifying principles of biology were found in the three Yemeni high school biology textbooks. The high school biology teachers used 33% of instructional strategies and 40% of the assessment methods suggested in the BSCS guide. The majority of teachers and students reported that laboratory activities in the high school biology program are insufficient. However, most of the teachers' and students' responses indicated their interest in integrating environmental issues in biological concepts. Almost all of the teachers and students reported that the high school biology education in Yemen does not allow students to investigate independently or help them develop awareness of social problems related to biology. Four strategic plans were designed to improve the goals and curriculum content of high school biology education, the preparation of biology teachers, the enhancement of content and teaching skills of in-service teachers, and administrative support for facilities, equipment, and supplies for biology classes.

  8. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  9. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  10. Spectroscopy of biological nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Ortac, Inanc; Severcan, Feride

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystals have gained much interest in recent years, due to their unusual properties allowing interesting applications in physical and biological science. In this literature review, biological nanocrystals are discussed from the spectroscopic point of view. Firstly, the theory behind the outstanding abilities of the nanocrystals is described. Secondly, the spectroscopic properties of biological nanocrystals are mentioned. Lastly, the use of nanocrystals with various spectroscopic applicati...

  11. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  12. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  13. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  14. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  15. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  16. Foundations of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorav, Jean-Louis; Braslau, Alan; Goldar, Arach

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that there are no laws in biology, where everything is contingent and could have been otherwise, being solely the result of historical accidents. Furthermore, the customary introduction of fundamental biological entities such as individual organisms, cells, genes, catalysts and motors remains largely descriptive; constructive approaches involving deductive reasoning appear, in comparison, almost absent. As a consequence, both the logical content and principles of biology ne...

  17. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  18. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  19. Medical-biological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains data on operational and emergency staff of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant who were exposed to radiation as a consequence of the reactor accident, the size of the doses received and consequences for health. 203 persons were found to have acute radiation sickness. Of the 22 patients suffering from an extremely severe degree of acute radiation sickness, 19 died. Of the 23 patients with severe bone marrow syndrome, 7 died. For the majority of patients, clinical recovery occurred toward the end of the second month following the accident. The main harmful factor for all victims was the relatively uniform gamma- and beta-radiation effect in a dosage exceeding 1 Gy and, in the case of 35 people exceeding 4 Gy. Radiation damage to wide areas of the skin was one of the main factors contributing to the overall severe condition of the patients, and was a determining factor in the main fatal complications. A preliminary evaluation of the use of some biochemical and immunological tests in the event of accidental exposure to radiation and the methods of treatment and preliminary assessment of their effectiveness are presented. Another part of the report contains data on the doses from radiation exposure to the population of the town of Pripyat' until the time of evacuation and to the population in the 30 km zone around Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and radiation consequences of the accident for the population of different regions in the European part of the USSR, especially the problems related to the contamination of food products. The last part of the report gives some data on the organization of medical examinations of the population from the region around the Chernobyl' plant and on the long-term programmes for the medical and biological monitoring of the population and personnel

  20. Biology in Bloom: Implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to Enhance Student Learning in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Alison; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    We developed the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT), an assessment tool based on Bloom's Taxonomy, to assist science faculty in better aligning their assessments with their teaching activities and to help students enhance their study skills and metacognition. The work presented here shows how assessment tools, such as the BBT, can be used to guide and enhance teaching and student learning in a discipline-specific manner in postsecondary education. The BBT was first designed and extensively tested fo...

  1. The Effectiveness of an Online Curriculum on High School Students' Understanding of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Robert B.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2015-01-01

    An online curriculum about biological evolution was designed to promote increased student content knowledge and evidentiary reasoning. A feasibility study was conducted with 77 rural high school biology students who learned with the online biological evolution unit. Data sources included the Biological Evolution Assessment Measure (BEAM), an…

  2. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  3. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  4. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  5. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  6. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  7. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  8. Biology and management of ependymomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Armstrong, Terri S; Gilbert, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Ependymomas are rare primary tumors of the central nervous system in children and adults that comprise histologically similar but genetically distinct subgroups. The tumor biology is typically more associated with the site of origin rather than being age-specific. Genetically distinct subgroups have been identified by genomic studies based on locations in classic grade II and III ependymomas. They are supratentorial ependymomas with C11orf95-RELA fusion or YAP1 fusion, infratentorial ependymomas with or without a hypermethylated phenotype (CIMP), and spinal cord ependymomas. Myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas have different biology than ependymomas with typical WHO grade II or III histology. Surgery and radiotherapy are the mainstays of treatment, while the role of chemotherapy has not yet been established. An in-depth understanding of tumor biology, developing reliable animal models that accurately reflect tumor molecule features, and high throughput drug screening are essential for developing new therapies. Collaborative efforts between scientists, physicians, and advocacy groups will enhance the translation of laboratory findings into clinical trials. Improvements in disease control underscore the need to incorporate assessment and management of patients' symptoms to ensure that treatment advances translate into improvement in quality of life. PMID:27022130

  9. Testing levels of competencies in biological experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi

    2007-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to improve the quality of biology education in Germany and develop tests to assess student achievement. With the introduction of national science education standards in 2005, there has been a growing need for criterion-oriented tests, i.e. tests that assess whether or not a specific level of competency has been reached. Here we present an approach to measuring students’ levels of competencies in experimentation. In particular, the focus lies on the competenci...

  10. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  11. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  12. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  13. Mathematical Problems in Biology : Victoria Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1974-01-01

    A conference on "Some Mathematical Problems in Biology" was held at the University of Victoria, Victoria, B. C. , Canada, from May 7 - 10, 1973. The participants and invited speakers were mathematicians interested in problems of a biological nature, and scientists actively engaged in developing mathematical models in biological fields. One aim of the conference was to attempt to assess what the recent rapid growth of mathematical interaction with the biosciences has accomplished and may accomplish in the near future. The conference also aimed to expose the problems of communication bet~",een mathematicians and biological scientists, and in doing so to stimulate the interchange of ideas. It was recognised that the topic spans an enormous breadth, and little attempt was made to balance the very diverse areas. Widespread active interest was shown in the conference, and just over one hundred people registered. The varied departments and institutions across North America from which the participants came made it bo...

  14. Biological dosimetry - Dose estimation method using biomakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual radiation dose estimation is an important step in the radiation risk assessment. In case of radiation incident or radiation accident, sometime, physical dosimetry method can not be used for calculating the individual radiation dose, the other complement method such as biological dosimetry is very necessary. This method is based on the quantitative specific biomarkers induced by ionizing radiation, such as dicentric chromosomes, translocations, micronuclei... in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The basis of the biological dosimetry method is the close relationship between the biomarkers and absorbed dose or dose rate; the effects of in vitro and in vivo are similar, so it is able to generate the calibration dose-effect curve in vitro for in vivo assessment. Possibilities and perspectives for performing biological dosimetry method in radiation protection area are presented in this report. (author)

  15. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  16. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  17. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  18. Assessment of ultrasound-assisted extraction as sample pre-treatment for the measurement of lead isotope ratios in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as a sample preparation procedure for lead isotope ratio measurements in marine biological tissues by multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 20 mg of marine biological tissue and 1 mL of acid extractant were sonicated for 3 min at 60% ultrasound amplitude. Matrix separation was performed in the supernatant using a chromatographic exchange resin (Sr-SpecTM). Total elimination of organic matter was achieved during the separation step. Microwave-assisted digestion and dry-ashing were used for comparative purposes. No significant differences were found in lead isotope ratios at 95% of confidence level. UAE emerges as an advantageous alternative to classical methods for sample preparation owing to its simplicity and rapidity (i.e. operation steps were reduced), low reagent consumption and low contamination risks.

  19. Mode 3 Project-Based O-Level: Part II Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatorex, D.; Lock, R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a British biology course for the O-level which aims to promote the understanding of broad biological principles through an environmental approach. Results of proper assessment and overall examination performance are also revealed. (HM)

  20. A Molecular Biology Database Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Kröger, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Computational Biology or Bioinformatics has been defined as the application of mathematical and Computer Science methods to solving problems in Molecular Biology that require large scale data, computation, and analysis [18]. As expected, Molecular Biology databases play an essential role in Computational Biology research and development. This paper introduces into current Molecular Biology databases, stressing data modeling, data acquisition, data retrieval, and the integration...

  1. Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coke production and a graphite electrode manufacturing plant: assessment of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological indicator of exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchet, J P; Gennart, J P; Mercado-Calderon, F; Delavignette, J P; Cupers, L; Lauwerys, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Characterisation of the airborne concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at various workplaces in a graphite electrode and a coke production plant. Validation of the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (hydroxypyrene) as a biological marker of exposure to PAH. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of workers exposed to PAHs (106 in the graphite electrode producing plant and 16 in the coke works). METHODS--Personal air sampling during at least six hours per workshift u...

  2. Redesigning a large-enrollment introductory biology course

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckert, Catherine; Adams, Alison; Lock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Using an action research model, biology faculty examined, implemented, and evaluated learner-centered instructional strategies to reach the goal of increasing the level of student achievement in the introductory biology course BIO 181: Unity of Life I, which was characterized by both high enrollments and a high DFW rate. Outcomes included the creation and implementation of an assessment tool for biology content knowledge and attitudes, development and implementation of a common syllabus, modi...

  3. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  4. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  5. Teaching evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidon Rosana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Biology integrates several disciplines of Biology in a complex and interactive manner, where a deep understanding of the subject demands knowledge in diverse areas. Since this knowledge is often inaccessible to the majority of specialized professionals, including the teachers, we present some reflections in order to stimulate discussions aimed at the improvement of the conditions of education in this area. We examine the profile of evolutionary teaching in Brazil, based on questionnaires distributed to teachers in Secondary Education in the Federal District, on data provided by the "National Institute for Educational Studies and Research", and on information collected from teachers working in various regions of this country. Issues related to biological misconceptions, curriculum and didactic material are discussed, and some proposals are presented with the objective of aiding discussions aimed at the improvement of the teaching of evolutionary biology.

  6. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  7. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  8. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted or...... residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled, and...

  9. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean....

  10. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  11. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  12. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted or...... residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled, and...

  13. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  14. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  15. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  16. Ontologies for molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Kremer, S

    1998-01-01

    Molecular biology has a communication problem. There are many databases using their own labels and categories for storing data objects and some using identical labels and categories but with a different meaning. A prominent example is the concept "gene" which is used with different semantics by major international genomic databases. Ontologies are one means to provide a semantic repository to systematically order relevant concepts in molecular biology and to bridge the different notions in various databases by explicitly specifying the meaning of and relation between the fundamental concepts in an application domain. Here, the upper level and a database branch of a prospective ontology for molecular biology (OMB) is presented and compared to other ontologies with respect to suitability for molecular biology (http:/(/)igd.rz-berlin.mpg.de/approximately www/oe/mbo.html). PMID:9697223

  17. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  18. The Biology of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  19. Synthetic biology: A foundation for multi-scale molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K; Stephen S. Fong

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Bu...

  20. Computational Thinking in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Priami, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach based on process calculi to systems modeling suitable for biological systems. The main characteristic of process calculi is a linguistic description level to dene incrementally and compositionally executable models. The formalism is suitable to be exploited on the same systems at dierent levels of abstractions connected through well dened formal rules. The abstraction principle that represents biological entities as interacting computational units is the basi...