WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological and chemical weapons

  1. Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

    2014-09-01

    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons.

  2. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and..., 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of... Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  4. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J A; King, J M

    2001-12-01

    This symposium addresses the complications encountered by medical planners when confronted by the use or threat of the use of weapons of mass destruction. The types of chemical warfare agents (CWA), their principal target organs, and physiological effects are discussed. We have reviewed the use of CWA in 20th century warfare and otherwise with emphasis on five cases: (1) use of sulfur mustard during World War I; (2) use by Italy against Ethiopia; (3) use in the Sino-Japanese War; (4) relatively well-studied use in the Iran-Iraq conflict; and (5) the use of sarin in the Tokyo subway terrorist incident. We reviewed the additional physiological and psychological consequences of their use and threat of use. Results from training and simulation are discussed. Finally, we present our conclusions derived from the analysis of these historical situations.

  5. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  6. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  7. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... These restrictions were imposed on July 9, 2002 (see Volume 67 FR Public Notice 4071). Dated: June 21... of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY... lift nonproliferation measures on Chinese entities. DATES: Effective Date: Upon publication in...

  8. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  9. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  10. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  11. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On August 2, 2013, a determination was made that the Government of Syria used... Notice 8460. That determination resulted in sanctions against the Government of Syria. Section 307(b)...

  12. Diversion of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons Expertise from the Former Soviet Union: Understanding an Evolving Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Chemical cases - Syria and Gen. Kuntsevich - Aum RAND 3. DEMAND FOR PROLIFERATION-CRITICAL KNOWLEDGE This section examines the scope and nature of...prominent example of demand for chemical weapons knowledge is Syria, where General Anatoly Kuntsevich , head of Russia’s chemical weapons program, built a

  13. AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and rad...

  14. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  15. Of owl or ostrich. The U.S. policy of calculated ambiguity to deter the use of chemical and biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakamp, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    The United States has adopted a policy of calculated ambiguity regarding the role of nuclear weapons in response to a potential chemical or biological weapons (CBW) attack. Many factors affect decisions about the role nuclear weapons play in US counterproliferation strategy. This thesis describes the policy of calculated ambiguity and offers some observations about its prospects and pitfalls. The thesis presents evidence that suggests nuclear weapons could play a positive role in the US counterproliferation strategy, at least in some circumstances. It also explains how such a role could conflict with the US nonproliferation strategy. Such a role would also violate the nuclear taboo and be seen by a majority of countries as illegal and immoral. The United States has chosen a policy of calculated ambiguity in an attempt to retain the deterrent value of nuclear weapons without paying the political, legal, and moral costs of explicit reliance on nuclear weapons to deter the use of CBW. This may have short-term benefits, but ultimately may damage the national interest.

  16. 15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... country and in any intermediary country through which the items being exported or reexported will transit... quantity that may be exported or reexported is limited, to a significant degree, by the fact that the...

  17. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign... CONTACT: Pamela K. Durham, Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of... government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability:...

  18. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  19. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on

  20. Applications of Quantum Cascade Laser Scanners for Remote Detection of Chemical and Biological Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-09

    tested were detected in the field with a minimum of 500 ng∕cm2 [20]. OPUS 6.0™ software package for data acquisition and analysis (Bruker Optics...residuals versus Hotelling’s T2 plot on PLS Toolbox™ software for MATLAB®. According to the plot, the data with both high-residual variance and high...will recruit students at Universidad Metropolitana, a Hispanic Serving Institution in San Juan, Puerto Rico and offer a program during the academic

  1. The War Next Time: Countering Rogue States and Terrorists Armed with Chemical and Biological Weapons. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    anthrax, Plague, cholera, E. coli, staph, necrotizing fasciitis , ricin, botulinum, gas gangrene, anti-matter bacteria, and the Ebola, Marburg, and Rift...the Soviet-developed flesh-eating bacteria, necrotizing fasciitis , as well as the antidote. In 1994, the South Africans surprised the Americans by...Security Council (NSC) 50 National Security Strategy (NSS) 68, 75,83 Nazism 19, 24 262 necrotizing fasciitis 34 Neethling, General Lothar 48 New

  2. Non-Proliferation Regimes: A Comparative Analysis of Policies to Control the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons and Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco ), entered into force April 22, 1968 The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in...and the Treaty of Tlatelolco may contribute to future regime-building efforts. 5) Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines (NSG): The Zangger Committee and the

  3. United States Army Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Corps Capability Combating the Contemporary Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    of nerve agent exposure; one involving the death of sheep , and one involving Soldiers on the island of Okinawa, continued to raise questions about the...the CBRN enterprise, train CBRN warriors, develop CBRN leaders, synchronize CBRN school operations, and take care of people/ensure quality of life...these mission specific areas. “Planning for WMD elimination operations requires close synchronization with select CBRN-trained personnel and

  4. Chemical space and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M

    2004-12-16

    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  5. Assessing the Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    unsuccessful. 66. Brad Roberts, “The Outpacing of Negotiations by Circumstance,” in K. M. Jensen and David Wurmser, eds., Is It Feasible to...Controlling Dangerous Pathogens,” www.cissm.umd.edu/documents/Patho gens%20project%20monograph_092203.pdf. 231. Personal communication, 2005. 232. Liz

  6. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential

  7. Strengthening the biological weapons convention and implications on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabriskie, D

    1998-06-01

    The development, production, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons are banned by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Reflecting the realities of the Cold War era in which it was negotiated, the BWC lacks means for compliance verification or enforcement. International efforts to remedy this deficiency are accelerating in the face of evidence that covert biological weapon programs are proliferating at the national and subnational levels.

  8. Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Dando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  9. Advances in neuroscience and the biological and toxin weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  10. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mark R. Hurst; Ebtisam Wilkins

    2005-01-01

    Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons i...

  11. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Coutto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC. Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting the exchange of information among different groups of states, most notably during the 2006 BTWC review conference. This paper also sheds light on the identification of specific features that allow for increasing visibility and actorness of regional powers in promoting universality of multilateral security regimes (MSR, as well as the limitations faced by these players.

  12. Looming Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, a dramatic shift has been observed in the strategies of warfare from conventional to non-conventional. Now-a-days, traditional power is of less importance than it used to be earlier. Weapons of mass destruction, which comprise of nuclear weapons, and chemical and biological warfare agents, are posing a great peril to the world due to their devastating potential. Though, there are several bilateral as well as multilateral treaties to control the use and proliferation of these weapons, yet the risk of use of such agents by non-state actors cannot be overlooked. Chances of use of chemical and biological agents are more likely than the nuclear weapons. A comparison of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in terms of technology, cost, signature, effectiveness on protected and un-protected troops shows that chemical and biological weapon programmes require much lower level of technology and cost than the nuclear weapon programme. Further, there is no or least distinctive and readily observable signature in biological weapon programme in comparison to nuclear and chemical weapon facilities. There can be two possibilities of use of these agents in terrorist attacks. First, there is a risk of transfer of material or know-how of these weapons to terrorists for using against the adversaries and second, the risk of these agents being pilfered due to poor security, thereby sabotaging the national security. The International Committee of Red Cross in February 1918 reckoned these agents as ‘barbarous inventions’ that can ‘only be called criminal’.

  13. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  14. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  15. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  16. Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, Milton

    2002-09-01

    This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere.

  17. Toxins as biological weapons for terror-characteristics, challenges and medical countermeasures: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tamar; Eisenkraft, Arik; Bar-Haim, Erez; Kassirer, Michael; Aran, Adi Avniel; Fogel, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Toxins are hazardous biochemical compounds derived from bacteria, fungi, or plants. Some have mechanisms of action and physical properties that make them amenable for use as potential warfare agents. Currently, some toxins are classified as potential biological weapons, although they have several differences from classic living bio-terror pathogens and some similarities to manmade chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on category A and B bio-terror toxins recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulinum neurotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, and ricin. Their derivation, pathogenesis, mechanism of action, associated clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed in detail. Given their expected covert use, the primary diagnostic challenge in toxin exposure is the early detection of morbidity clusters, apart from background morbidity, after a relatively short incubation period. For this reason, it is important that clinicians be familiar with the clinical manifestations of toxins and the appropriate methods of management and countermeasures.

  18. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hurst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons is a matter of conjecture. The unpredictable and indiscriminate devastation caused by natural epidemics and hazardous chemicals during wartime without medical treatment should warn humans of the dangers of employing them as weapons. This study argues rapid detection techniques may dissuade future use. Many agents are far less toxic to treatment. A quick response time to most attacks will decrease the chances of serious health issues. The agent will be less effective and discourage the attacker from using the weapon. Fortunately, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention (CWCIBWC allows defensive work in the area of biological and chemical weapons. Consequently, the review will discuss history, delivery/dispersal systems and specific agents of the warfare. The study presents current developments in biosensors for toxic materials of defense interest. It concludes with future directions for biosensor development.

  19. Biological and Chemical Information Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Martyn; Dittrich, Peter; McCaskill, John;

    2011-01-01

    Biological and chemical information technologies (bio/chem IT) have the potential to reshape the scientific and technological landscape. In this paper we briefly review the main challenges and opportunities in the field, before presenting several case studies based on ongoing FP7 research projects....

  20. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  1. An Analysis of the Brain Drain Phenomenon in the Field of Development of Chemical and Biological Weapons in Russia During the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Russian Federal Security Service charged A. Kuntsevich , a former general of the Russian RCB Forces, with having shipped 800 kilograms of CW precursors...to Syrian buyers and attempting to smuggle an additional 5.5 tons. Although Kuntsevich was fired, the charges against him were later dropped

  2. Designing the Army’s Future Active Duty Weapons of Mass Destruction Response: Is the Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosives Response Force (DCRF) the Right Force at the Right Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    alternative methods for implementing the force structure, reducing redundancy and waste , and building cooperative training strategies for the CBRNE forces...nuclear detonation, attacks with biological, blister , nerve, and radiological agents, an influenza pandemic, an toxic industrial chemical release, a

  3. Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-05-01

    The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

  4. Ending the scourge of chemical weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brin, J.

    1993-04-01

    After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

  5. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  6. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  7. Effectiveness of mindfulness and emotion regulation trainings on physical and psychological well-being among chemical weapon victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical weapon victims are suffering from physical difficulties and psychological trainings may help to decrease these problems. The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness and emotion regulation training on physical and psychological well-being in chemical weapon victims.Methods: An experimental, pre-post and follow-up study designed. Forty seven chemical weapon victims men with low mental health in Sardasht city (North-Western Iran randomly selected and assigned into three groups: 1-Mindfulness training group 2- Emotion regulation training group and 3- Control group. The first two groups were received mindfulness-based stress eduction training and emotion regulation training respectively, while no training provided for control group. Data was collected using the General Health Questionnaire, and Physical Syndromes Scale. Analysis of variance with repeated measure was used for analyzing the data.Results: Results indicated that mindfulness and emotion regulation were significantly improved physical syndromes and mental health in chemical weapon victims. Also, the effectiveness of mindfulness in follow-up scores of physical syndromes and in post-test and follow-up scores of mental health was higher than the base line scores (P<0.01. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed effectiveness of mindfulness and emotion regulation on improvement of physical syndromes and mental health in chemical weapon victims. Therefore, mindfulness and emotion regulation training could be suggested for improvement of physical and psychological well-being among chemical weapon victims.

  8. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  9. Re-evaluating Russia's biological weapons policy, as reflected in the Criminal Code and Official Admissions: insubordination leading to a president's subordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph, Jan T; Westerdahl, Kristina S

    2006-01-01

    Half-heartedly acknowledged by the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union ran the world's largest offensive program for biological weapons, breaching the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Russia criminalized biological weapons in 1993 only to decriminalize them in 1996, but in 2003 president Putin partly recriminalized them. None of these changes were declared within the Convention. Several well-known official statements, when reviewed in their context, turned out to admit to neither an offensive program nor a breach of the Convention. Thus, the Russian biological weapons policy is more ambiguous than usually depicted, and various policy shapers can be discerned.

  10. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  11. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  12. [Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Heidi; Kinnunen, Paula M; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is a flaccid paralysis in which consciousness and nociception are preserved. Natural botulism typically results from ingestion of inadequately heated or unheated vacuum-packed foods. In addition, botulinum toxin is one of the most feared biological weapons. In the diagnosis and treatment of botulism early suspicion is essential. Several coinciding or local clusters without a typical connecting source, or an uncommon type of toxin may indicate an intentionally caused epidemic.

  13. Chemical Demilitarization Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    access machines , two (2) rocket cutting and shearing lines, two (2) neutralization system sampling stations, and three (3) Supercritical Water Oxidation...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-243 Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA) As...Abbreviations for MDAP Programs Acq O&M - Acquisition-Related Operations and Maintenance ACAT - Acquisition Category ADM - Acquisition Decision

  14. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  15. Chemical and Biological Resistant Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Dehydration was confirmed by CuSO4 (dry CuSO4 turns light blue upon contacting water). The influence of DMMP adsorption on the zeolite external surface...temperature. Table 16. Saturated Vapor Pressure (PSaturated) at Room Temperature Chemical PSaturated (mm Hg ) Water 4.54 DMMP 0.34 TBP 0.004 MS...to enter the pores of zeolite-A and its adsorption on the zeolite external surface is apparently negligible in the IPA liquid environment. The GC

  16. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the Organisa

  17. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  18. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement...

  19. Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    regime of President Bashar al Asad possesses stocks of nerve (sarin, VX ) and blister (mustard gas) agents , possibly weaponized into bombs, shells...largest in the world” during a June 2012 interview.16 Damascus possesses mustard blister agent , sarin nerve agent , and VX nerve agent , according to...chemical weapons stockpile. Syria also has several hundred metric tons of mustard agent in ready-to-use form and several tens of metric tons of VX . The

  20. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; Gregg, H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of bu

  1. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Terzic; H. Gregg; P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of bu

  2. Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbaugh, Ryan; Barton, Jeff; Chiu, Christopher; Fidler, Ken; Hiatt, Dan; Hawthorne, Chad; Marshall, Steven; Mohos, Joe; McHugh, Vince; Nicoloff, Bill

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army PM-Unmanned Aircraft Systems, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. This test demonstrated the Raven's ability to autonomously detect and track a chemical plume during a variety of atmospheric conditions. During the testing, the Raven conducted over a dozen flights, tracking outdoor releases of simulated chemical weapons over significant distances. The Raven was cued to the releases with standoff detection systems through Cursor on Target messages. Upon reaching the plume, the Raven used on-board sensors and on-board meteorological data to track the plume autonomously and determine the extent of the plume. Results were provided in real-time to the UAV operator.

  3. Chemical Force Microscopy of Chemical and Biological Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A

    2006-01-02

    Interactions between chemical functionalities define outcomes of the vast majority of important events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Chemical Force Microscopy (CFM)--a technique that uses direct chemical functionalization of AFM probes with specific functionalities--allows researchers to investigate these important interactions directly. We review the basic principles of CFM, some examples of its application, and theoretical models that provide the basis for understanding the experimental results. We also emphasize application of modern kinetic theory of non-covalent interactions strength to the analysis of CFM data.

  4. US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

  5. Implementing the chemical weapons convention: The nuts and bolts of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper is a presentation prepared for the American Bar Association in which the author discusses the issue of rights to privacy in the United States in the face of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention inspections. The author points out that there are no clear precedents in law which deal with all the issues which will result from international inspections for verification which are required by the treaty. In particular as inspections tread on the issue of personal rights or private property there is a fairly ill defined legal area which needs to be developed to allow such inspections in the face of constitutional guarantees.

  6. Biological Weapons Attribution: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    person avian bird flu cases since the epidemic had begun in March of 2003.120 In three years, bird flu spread to over forty countries, affecting...February 15, 2006. 120 Associated Press, “Human spread No. 1 suspect in bird flu cluster,” MSNBC (May 24, 2006). http://msnbc.msn.com/id/12939359...Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the bird flu spreading like wild-fire across the globe all highlight the intrinsic difficulties in identifying

  7. [The experiments conducted by Japanese on human guinea pigs, and the use of biological weapons during the Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, and during the first four decades of the past century, Japan showed considerable military expansion, on the back of a pan-Asiatic and imperialistic ideology, comparable only to those expressed by Wilhelmian and Nazi Germany. This growth led to Japan playing an extremely important role in the Asia-Pacific continent, which unavoidably brought the country onto a collision course with the British Empire and the United States of America. The Japanese general Shiro Ishii, who had undoubted organisational abilities but also a propensity for crimes against mankind, starting from the end of the 1920s and during the subsequent decade, under the suggestion of a military physician, developed a research programme to obtain biological weapons, since he was aware of the lack of raw materials, technology and scientific background in nuclear weapons. This project was taken forward despite Japan's ratification of the Geneva protocol, undersigned by 70 nations, which posed strict limits to the use of both biological and chemical weapons. In actual fact, the protocol allowed these weapons for defensive purposes, and permitted their experimental development. The research programme, developed with the support of the high command of the Japanese army and certainly known by the Emperor (Tenno) Hirohito, had its operative basis from the year 1932 in the satellite state of Manchukuo, but later and paralleling the increased, aggressive behaviour towards China and the English and American colonies during World War II, spread towards other Asian provinces occupied by the Japanese armies, with other operative units. In these dedicated bases, which were true concentration camps, numerous experiments were carried out on human guinea pigs, frequently concluding with vivisection. Among others, experiments of freezing, thirst, hunger, loss of blood, wounding with firearms, and bone fractures, were performed, as well as the inoculation of

  8. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  9. The Russian biological weapons program: vanished or disappeared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Dany; Wolfson, Ze'ev

    2004-01-01

    The legacy and arsenal of biological weapons Russia inherited from USSR in 1991 became a lingering unsolved issue, in terms of a prime strategic arm that ought to be eliminated, advisably, in accordance with the Biological Weapons Convention Russia is committed to, and considering further undertakings and declarations made by the Russian regime. Indeed, that inheritance was created by USSR as a powerful, highly sophisticated component of utmost importance within the Soviet military paradigm, based on a wide spectrum of virulent, stabilized pathogens and toxins plus delivery systems. Moreover, remarkably advanced biotechnologies were thus applied to procure stockpiles of military-grade pathogens and toxins. Yet, an intriguing debate aroused with regard to the extent of the weaponized biological inventory accumulated by USSR, as well as the in effect attitude of Russia towards perpetuating or wiping out that inheritance. It turned out to form a far reaching and challenging complexity, both strategically and scientifically. The present study concentrates on the strategic as well as scientific spheres shaping that overall issue at large, attempting to thoroughly analyze it through an innovative methodology. One main conclusion thereby reached at is that the Russian military still poses a potential menance, in terms of both stockpiled, probably deployable biological weapons, and prevailing production capacities.

  10. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  11. Arbutus unedo L.: Chemical and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree has a circum-Mediterranean distribution, being found in western, central and southern Europe, north-eastern Africa (excluding Egypt and Libya and the Canary Islands and western Asia. Fruits of the strawberry tree are generally used for preparing alcoholic drinks (wines, liqueurs and brandies, jams, jellies and marmalades, and less frequently eaten as fresh fruit, despite their pleasing appearance. An overview of the chemical composition of different parts of the plant, strawberry tree honey and strawberry tree brandy will be presented. The biological properties of the different parts of A. unedo and strawberry tree honey will be also overviewed.

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marta Feldmesser, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of...Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0085 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  13. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  14. Nanotechnologies and chemical tools for cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing

    This dissertation describes several nanotechnologies and chemical tools that I have developed to probe living cells. Chapter one gives a brief overview on the current status of biomedical and biotechnological applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this chapter, strategies for functionalization of CNTs with emphasis on biological applications are reviewed. Representative developments in biosensing, bioimaging, intracellular delivery, and tissue engineering are presented. Recent studies on toxicity of CNTs are also discussed. Chapter two describes the development of a nanoscale cell injector for delivery of cargo to the interior of living cells without physiological harm. A CNT attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this "nanoneedle", followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. Chapter three presents a biomimetic functionalization strategy for interfacing CNTs with biological systems. The potential biological applications of CNTs have been limited by their insolubility in aqueous environment and their intrinsic toxicity. We developed a biomimetic surface modification of CNTs using glycosylated polymers designed to mimic natural cell surface mucin glycoproteins interactions. Chapter four further extends the biomimetic strategy for functionalization of CNTs to glycosylated dendrimers. We developed a new class of amphiphilic bifunctional glycodendrimers that comprised carbohydrate units displayed in the periphery and a pyrene tail that bound to SWNT surface via pi-pi interactions. The glycodendrimer-coated CNTs were soluble in water, and noncytotoxic. We also demonstrated that the coated CNTs could interface with biological systems including proteins and cells. Chapter five presents a biosensing application of glycodenderimer-coated CNTs. SWNTN-FETs coated with glycodendrimers were

  15. Iron and its complexation by phenolic cellular metabolites: from oxidative stress to chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a transition metal that forms chelates and complexes with various organic compounds, also with phenolic plant secondary metabolites. The ligands of iron affect the redox potential of iron. Electrons may be transferred either to hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide or molecular oxygen. In the first case, oxidative stress is decreased, in the latter two cases, oxidative stress is increased. This milieu-dependent mode of action may explain the non-linear mode of action of juglone and other secondary metabolites. Attention to this phenomenon may help to explain idiosyncratic and often nonlinear effects that result in biological assays. Current chemical assays are discussed that help to explore these aspects of redox chemistry.

  16. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.; Hammer, Ann E.

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  17. Wounds and weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  18. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  19. Chemical Biology is.....

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  20. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  1. Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2007-04-27

    The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

  2. Arms Control without Arms Control: The Failure of the Biological Weapons Convention Protocol and a New Paradigm for Fighting the Threat of Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    and in 1990, soon-to-be-retired President F.W. de Klerk ordered all work halted on lethal agents.53 Arguably the most disconcerting and dangerous...anything that provides for a level of assurance exceeding 50 percent makes sense.” 93 Frederick Aandahl et al., eds., “Formulation of a United States

  3. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  4. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  5. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Current Updates for Nurse Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin

    2002-01-01

    Describes eight topics related to chemical/biological terrorism for a standalone nursing course or integration into other courses: surveillance systems; identification, communication, and response; chemical agents; biological agents; recognition of covert exposure; patient decontamination and mass triage; availability and safety of therapies; and…

  6. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  8. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  9. 77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons... economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the...

  10. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  11. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  12. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  13. GC-MS Study of Mono- and Bishaloethylphosphonates Related to Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Discovery of a New Intramolecular Halogen Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazas-Márquez, Nerea; Sierra, María; Nova, Clara; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Aboitiz, Nuria; de Rivas, Gema; Sierra, Miguel A.; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Gómez-Caballero, Esther

    2016-09-01

    A new class of compounds, mono- and bis-haloethylphosphonates (HAPs and bisHAPs, respectively), listed in Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has been synthesized and studied by GC-MS with two aims. First, to improve the identification of this type of chemicals by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, (OPCW). Second, to study the synergistic effect of halogen and silicon atoms in molecules undergoing mass spectrometry. Fragmentation patterns of trimethylsilyl derivatives of HAPs were found to depend on the nature of the halogen atom; this was in agreement with DFT-calculations. The data suggest that a novel intramolecular halogen transfer takes place during the fragmentation process.

  14. Waves and Patterns in Chemical and Biological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, Harry L.; Krinsky, Valentin I.

    1991-12-01

    These 28 contributions by leading researchers - from such diverse disciplines as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics, and physiology - describe recent experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical analyses of the formation of spatial patterns in chemical and biological systems. Chemical patterns have been systematically studied since the field was established by Alan Turing's landmark 1952 paper, "The chemical basis for morphogenesis," yet only recently have new experimental techniques and numerical analyses of reaction-diffusion equations opened the way to understanding stationary and traveling wave patterns. This collection summarizes the exciting developments in this rapidly growing field. It shows that some biological patterns have been found to be strikingly similar to patterns found in simple, well-controlled laboratory chemical systems, that new chemical reactor designs make it possible to sustain chemical patterns and to study transitions between different kinds of patterns, and that nearly 40 years after Turing's paper, the patterns predicted by Turing have finally been observed in laboratory experiments. Harry L. Swinney is Sid Richardson Foundation Regents Chair, Department of Physics, and Director of the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin. Valentin I. Krinsky is Head of the Autowave Laboratory, Institute of Biological Physics, Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, USSR. Chapters cover: Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Experiments. Spiral, Ring, and Scroll Patterns: Theory and Simulations. Fronts and Turing Patterns. Waves and Patterns in Biological Systems.

  15. Construction of a Linux based chemical and biological information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, László; Vágó, István; Fehér, András

    2003-01-01

    A chemical and biological information system with a Web-based easy-to-use interface and corresponding databases has been developed. The constructed system incorporates all chemical, numerical and textual data related to the chemical compounds, including numerical biological screen results. Users can search the database by traditional textual/numerical and/or substructure or similarity queries through the web interface. To build our chemical database management system, we utilized existing IT components such as ORACLE or Tripos SYBYL for database management and Zope application server for the web interface. We chose Linux as the main platform, however, almost every component can be used under various operating systems.

  16. A conceptual framework for verifying the multinational Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, K.E.

    1990-08-01

    The United States has for several years sought an effective, global ban on the production, possession, and use of chemical weapons (CW). In 1984, then-Vice President Bush submitted to the ongoing Conference on Disarmament in Geneva a draft comprehensive Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); since then, he has supported the multinational process for CWC implementation. Given the high visibility of a CW treaty, policy makers face some major questions. Is such a treaty more valuable to national security than a chemical deterrent capability How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered What constitutes an effective CWC verification regime, and can the objectives of this regime be achieved How would signatories respond to noncompliance by other signatories The answers to such questions will be important in determining the level of support, both nationally and internationally, for the multinational CWC. In addressing the issue of effective verification, it is important to consider how the CWC objectives devolve into general requirements for the verification regime. Translating these requirements into specific monitoring and inspection activities helps in understanding the extent and limitations of effective CWC verification. 4 refs.

  17. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  18. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  19. Biological Weapons -- Still a Relevant Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    sunlight can weaken the effects and persistency of the chemical agents. 9 Winds can also send the agent in the wrong direction or even back onto the...and those in the area fell unconscious and were crushed to death. Then they were blown up in the air and hurled back to the ground. The roaring...include fever, coughing, headache, muscle or joint pain , sore throat, chills, fatigue, and running nose. These are not only symptoms from a potential

  20. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply...... plants to the omnipresent pharmaceutical industry, the buzz-word is bioarrays, attracting scientific funding and investor capital. Although only few commercial products are currently out in the research laboratorium, hospital clinic or at the local doctor, there are high expectations for arrays screening...... predispositions and following therapy, monitoring the amount of bacteria in food stuff, measuring the small signs from cardiac arrest before it happens, analysing the toxin level in a water sample (preferentially on-line) or deciphering the identity of an infecting bug. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...

  1. 78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by... proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President issued Executive Order 13094 amending...

  2. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous weap

  3. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  4. Carbon Nanotubes: Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Kumar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of carbon nanotubes has great impact on the development of newer methodologies and devicesuseful for the analysis of various types of chemicals. The functionalisation of CNTs with biomolecules relatedto chemical and biological warfare agents makes these useful for the detection of these agents. The detectionsensitivity can be increased manyfold. Various types of chemical and biological sensors were developed usingvarious type of carbon nanotubes as well as nano particles of different metals.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.617-625, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1684

  5. Bacteriocins and other bioactive substances of probiotic lactobacilli as biological weapons against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, Francisco O; Pascual, Liliana; Giordano, Walter; Barberis, Lucila

    2015-04-01

    In the search of new antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteriocins-producing probiotic lactobacilli deserve special attention. The inhibitory effects of biosubstances such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and each bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) L23 and L60 on the growth of different gonococcal strains were investigated. Different non-treated and treated cell-free supernatants of two probiotic lactobacilli containing these metabolites were used. The aims of this work were (i) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the biosubstances produced by two probiotic lactobacilli, estimating the proportion in which each of them is responsible for the inhibitory effect, (ii) to define their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and, (iii) to determine the potential interactions between these biosubstances against N. gonorrhoeae. The main antimicrobial metabolites were the BLIS-es L23 and L60 in comparison with other biosubstances. Proportionally, their contributions to the inhibition on the gonococcal growth were 87.28% and 80.66%, respectively. The MIC values of bacteriocins were promising since these substances, when diluted, showed considerable inhibitory activity for all gonococci. In the interaction between bacteriocins, 100% of synergism was found on the gonococcal growth. In summary, this study indicates that both L23 and L60 could potentially serve to design new bioproducts against N. gonorrhoeae.

  6. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community.

  7. Nuclear, biological, and chemical combined injuries and countermeasures on the battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Gregory B; Elliott, Thomas B; Brook, Itzhak; Shoemaker, Michael O; Pastel, Ross H; Lowy, Robert J; King, Gregory L; Herzig, Thomas C; Landauer, Michael R; Wilson, Scott A; Peacock, Susan J; Bouhaouala, S Samy; Jackson, William E; Ledney, G David

    2002-02-01

    The Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute (AFRRI) has developed a research program to determine the major health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation in combination with biological and chemical warfare agents and to assess the extent to which exposure to ionizing radiation compromises the effectiveness of protective drugs, vaccines, and other biological and chemical warfare prophylactic and treatment strategies. AFRRI's Defense Technology Objective MD22 supports the development of treatment modalities and studies to assess the mortality rates for combined injuries from exposure to ionizing radiation and Bacillus anthracis, and research to provide data for casualty prediction models that assess the health consequences of combined exposures. In conjunction with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, our research data are contributing to the development of casualty prediction models that estimate mortality and incapacitation in an environment of radiation exposure plus other weapons of mass destruction. Specifically, the AFFRI research program assesses the effects of ionizing radiation exposure in combination with B. anthracis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Shigella sonnei, nerve agents, and mustard as well as their associated treatments and vaccines. In addition, the long-term psychological effects of radiation combined with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) injuries are being evaluated. We are also assessing the effectiveness of gamma photons and high-speed neutrons and electrons for neutralizing biological and chemical warfare agents. New protocols based on our NBC bioeffects experiments will enable U.S. armed forces to accomplish military operations in NBC environments while optimizing both survival and military performance. Preserving combatants' health in an NBC environment will improve warfighting operations and mission capabilities.

  8. Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year.

  9. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  10. Chemical and Biological Properties of Food Allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedrychowski, L.; Wichers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    This book provides epidemiological data on food allergens and information on the incidence of food allergies. It discusses the link between hypersensitivity and immune system health and covers methods used for assays on allergenic components, animal models for allergen analysis, and clinical methods

  11. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  12. Methylene Diphosphonate Chemical and Biological control of MDP complex

    CERN Document Server

    Aungurarat, A

    2000-01-01

    Technetium-9 sup 9 sup m MDP easy prepared from MDP kits which different sources such as OAP (In house), SIGMA. The resulting Tc 9 sup 9 sup m -MDP preparations were controlled in chemical and biological tests to compare the different results in these cases: radiochemical purity, the quantity of starting material and biodistribution result.

  13. Chemical and biologic characteristics of roxatidine acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, M; Herling, A W; Schoelkens, B; Scholtholt, J

    1988-01-01

    Roxatidine acetate is a specific and competitive H2-receptor antagonist, as shown in isolated rabbit gastric glands or guinea pig atria preparations. The antisecretory effect of roxatidine acetate is mediated by its main metabolite, roxatidine. In the rat, roxatidine acetate was equipotent after intraduodenal and intraperitoneal administration, indicating excellent bioavailability. Roxatidine acetate and roxatidine were equipotent in the rat after intravenous administration. In the Heidenhain-pouch dog stimulated by food ingestion or maximal histamine dosing, roxatidine acetate and roxatidine proved to be 3-6 times more potent than cimetidine in inhibiting gastric acid secretion. From in vitro experiments it can be concluded that roxatidine acetate and ranitidine are equipotent. Roxatidine acetate has no antiandrogenic effects and does not influence drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver.

  14. Integration of Chemical and Biological Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Thomas J.; Goodman, Samuel M.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup;

    2013-01-01

    Furylglycolic acid (FA), a pseudoaromatic hydroxy-acid suitable for copolymerization with lactic acid, can be produced from glucose via enzymatically derived cortalcerone using a combination of Bronsted and Lewis acid catalysts. Cortalcerone is first converted to furylglyoxal hydrate (FH) over a ...

  15. Chemical and biological evolution in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. M.; Weber, P.; Schutte, W.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of organic molecules in interstellar dust grains and the survival of bacterial spores in a space environment are examined, summarizing the results of experimental investigations and theoretical calculations. The interstellar medium is characterized; the production of organic yellow-stuff residues on the mantles of dust grains in molecular clouds by UV radiation is explained; an IR absorption spectrum toward a Galactic-center source is shown to confirm the presence of such residues; and the mass of such abiotically produced complex organic molecules in the Galaxy is estimated as at least 10 to the 7th solar mass, or 0.1 percent of the mass in the Galaxy. This finding is considered significant for the prebiotic chemistry of the earth, since comets containing large amounts of interstellar dust may have impacted the earth many times during comet showers in the early solar system. UV-irradiation experiments on bacterial spores show that initial exposures to solar UV, not interstellar survival, is the main factor rendering theries of panspermia questionable.

  16. Chemical and biological rhizosphere interactions in low zinc soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of the PhD thesis entitled “Chemical and biological rhizosphere interactions in low zinc soils” by Andreas Duffner Soil provides ecosystem services critical for life. The availability of micronutrients, such as zinc (Zn), in soils is an essenti

  17. The nuclear terrorist, radiological, biological, chemical threat. Medical approach; Menace terroriste nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique. Approche medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C

    2005-07-01

    This book illustrates the cooperation of the civil and the military experts in the domain of the NBRC (nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical threat). The different aspects bond to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, are discussed. Al topics of each domains (NRBC) are presented: historical and fundamental aspects, diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  18. Modelling biological and chemically induced precipitation of calcium phosphate in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, R; Montoya, T; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-06-01

    The biologically induced precipitation processes can be important in wastewater treatment, in particular treating raw wastewater with high calcium concentration combined with Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal. Currently, there is little information and experience in modelling jointly biological and chemical processes. This paper presents a calcium phosphate precipitation model and its inclusion in the Activated Sludge Model No 2d (ASM2d). The proposed precipitation model considers that aqueous phase reactions quickly achieve the chemical equilibrium and that aqueous-solid change is kinetically governed. The model was calibrated using data from four experiments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) operated for EBPR and finally validated with two experiments. The precipitation model proposed was able to reproduce the dynamics of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) formation and later crystallization to hydroxyapatite (HAP) under different scenarios. The model successfully characterised the EBPR performance of the SBR, including the biological, physical and chemical processes.

  19. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  20. Preparedness for terrorism: managing nuclear, biological and chemical threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kristi L

    2009-12-01

    The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed.

  1. The Illogic of the Biological Weapons Taboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    scale quantities of microbes for the production of vaccines and antibiotics , it also became possible for medical scientists to harness the...tularemia bacteria, 334 pounds of dried Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus, 4,991 gallons of liquid VEE viral suspension, 5,098 gallons of Q fever

  2. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    implanted into athymic nude mice for evaluation of solid tumor responses in vivo. In addition the following microorganisms were studied: Bacillus ...including Staphylococcus, a-hemolytic Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Candida species. , 12% 0.1 % ° F R 3 R2 R3 .0 E R5:2 % R5: 32

  3. LIDAR for Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Veerabuthiran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote detection of chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic gases in the atmosphere is of current interest to both the military and civilian agencies. Out of all currently available techniques, no single technique provides efficient detection against such threats at significant standoff distances. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR technologies, based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, have demonstrated impressive capabilities in remote detection of such toxic chemicals. LIDAR is a highly sensitive tool to detect the extremely low concentrations of various toxic agents present in the form of thin clouds at distances of few kilometer. The detection of these toxic clouds is based on the approach of first detecting and measuring the range of the clouds using the scattering phenomena and subsequently identifying the composition of toxic clouds using absorption and fluorescence phenomena. Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been working on the design and development of LIDAR systems for detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents. In this paper, theoretical analysis of differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL for detection of chemical agents and fluorescence LIDAR for detection of biological agents has been discussed. For some typical parametric conditions, the received power levels from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of chemical or biological clouds have been computed and discussed. The technical details of the indigenously developed backscattering LIDAR, which detects and measures the distance of cloud layers up to 5 km is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.241-250, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.556

  4. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  5. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies.

  6. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the

  7. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of Primary Biological Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bioaerosols on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that biological matter represents a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affects the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of primary biological particles in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  8. Organic Chemistry and Biology: Chemical Biology Through the Eyes of Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    From a scientific perspective, efforts to understand biology including what constitutes health and disease has become a chemical problem. However, chemists and biologists “see” the problems of understanding biology from different perspectives, and this has retarded progress in solving the problems especially as they relate to health and disease. This suggests that close collaboration between chemists and biologists is not only necessary but essential for progress in both the biology and chemistry that will provide solutions to the global questions of biology. This perspective has directed my scientific efforts for the past 45 years, and in this overview I provide my perspective of how the applications of synthetic chemistry, structural design, and numerous other chemical principles have intersected in my collaborations with biologists to provide new tools, new science, and new insights that were only made possible and fruitful by these collaborations. PMID:20000552

  9. Organic chemistry and biology: chemical biology through the eyes of collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Victor J

    2009-12-18

    From a scientific perspective, efforts to understand biology including what constitutes health and disease has become a chemical problem. However, chemists and biologists "see" the problems of understanding biology from different perspectives, and this has retarded progress in solving the problems especially as they relate to health and disease. This suggests that close collaboration between chemists and biologists is not only necessary but essential for progress in both the biology and chemistry that will provide solutions to the global questions of biology. This perspective has directed my scientific efforts for the past 45 years, and in this overview I provide my perspective of how the applications of synthetic chemistry, structural design, and numerous other chemical principles have intersected in my collaborations with biologists to provide new tools, new science, and new insights that were only made possible and fruitful by these collaborations.

  10. Bill related to the struggle against proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their vectors; Projet de Loi relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This bill indicates the modifications brought to different French laws and codes (penal code, defence code, custom code) and defines provisions and penalties within the frame of struggle against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear weapons, biological weapons and toxin-based weapons, chemical weapons), and against the proliferation of their vectors. These modifications, provisions and penalties also concern double-use products. The bill also defines the modifications brought to the French penal procedure code. It finally addresses offenses related to these proliferations which can be considered as an act of terrorism

  11. Solution-gated graphene transistors for chemical and biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Meng; Li, Jinhua

    2014-03-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention in biomedical applications for its fascinating properties. Because of the well-known 2D structure, every atom of graphene is exposed to the environment, so the electronic properties of graphene are very sensitive to charged analytes (ions, DNA, cells, etc.) or an electric field around it, which renders graphene an ideal material for high-performance sensors. Solution-gated graphene transistors (SGGTs) can operate in electrolytes and are thus excellent candidates for chemical and biological sensors, which have been extensively studied in the recent 5 years. Here, the device physics, the sensing mechanisms, and the performance of the recently developed SGGT-based chemical and biological sensors, including pH, ion, cell, bacterial, DNA, protein, glucose sensors, etc., are introduced. Their advantages and shortcomings, in comparison with some conventional techniques, are discussed. Conclusions and challenges for the future development of the field are addressed in the end.

  12. One species, many terpenes: matching chemical and biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Francesco; Bagnoli, Francesca; Fineschi, Silvia

    2009-08-01

    Volatile terpenes have been proposed as chemotaxonomic markers, despite the strong environmental control on their synthesis. To clarify whether chemical profiles match biological diversity, cork oak, a monoterpene-emitting species that has been bred by humans and frequently hybridizes with other oaks, is a useful case-study. Analysis of the available genetic information in cork oak provenances suggests that volatile terpenes might indeed suitably track geographical diversity even at the intraspecific level. Phylogeographical diversity does not reflect chemical diversity in other evergreen oaks that have not been intensively bred. Breeding for productive traits might therefore drive selection for terpene diversity, in turn modulating important adaptive mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stressors.

  13. Chemical composition and biological activity of the plum seed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Ivan M.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Savić-Gajić, Ivana M.; Kundaković, Tatjana D.; Stanojković, Tatjana P.; Najman, Stevo J.; id_orcid 0000-0002-2411-9802

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the biological activity of the plum seed extract and to define the chemical composition by using the ESI-MS method. During the investigation of the antioxidant activity, the extract showed a better ability to inhibit DPPH radicals compared with amygdalin standard. The results of the antimicrobial study indicate that the extract has a greater effect on Gram-negative bacteria compared with amygdalin. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi remained resistant in bo...

  14. Methodology and biological monitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, M.L.; Smith, J.R.; McMonagle, J.D. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In the past few years, our institute has developed several GC/MS methods for the detection of the breakdown products of toxic organophosphonates (soman, sarin, GF) and vesicant sulfur mustard in biological samples. Recently we developed a modified GC/MS method for VX and are continually working on the methodology for lewisite and tabun. The purpose is to have an analytical tool to verify the exposure of chemical warfare agents in humans. Analytical procedures for quantitating the hydrolyzed phosphonic acids from nerve agents in environmental samples have been reported by many analysts. For more complex matrices such as biological samples, there is not yet a method reported. To make these polar acids amenable to gas chromatographic analysis a prior derivatization is needed. We found the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives of the phosphonates are suitable for verification and pharmacokinetic studies in biological samples. This method may also serve as an alternative method for confirmation purposes in environmental samples.

  15. Autonomous chemical and biological miniature wireless-sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bar-Giora

    2005-05-01

    The presentation discusses a new concept and a paradigm shift in biological, chemical and explosive sensor system design and deployment. From large, heavy, centralized and expensive systems to distributed wireless sensor networks utilizing miniature platforms (nodes) that are lightweight, low cost and wirelessly connected. These new systems are possible due to the emergence and convergence of new innovative radio, imaging, networking and sensor technologies. Miniature integrated radio-sensor networks, is a technology whose time has come. These network systems are based on large numbers of distributed low cost and short-range wireless platforms that sense and process their environment and communicate data thru a network to a command center. The recent emergence of chemical and explosive sensor technology based on silicon nanostructures, coupled with the fast evolution of low-cost CMOS imagers, low power DSP engines and integrated radio chips, has created an opportunity to realize the vision of autonomous wireless networks. These threat detection networks will perform sophisticated analysis at the sensor node and convey alarm information up the command chain. Sensor networks of this type are expected to revolutionize the ability to detect and locate biological, chemical, or explosive threats. The ability to distribute large numbers of low-cost sensors over large areas enables these devices to be close to the targeted threats and therefore improve detection efficiencies and enable rapid counter responses. These sensor networks will be used for homeland security, shipping container monitoring, and other applications such as laboratory medical analysis, drug discovery, automotive, environmental and/or in-vivo monitoring. Avaak"s system concept is to image a chromatic biological, chemical and/or explosive sensor utilizing a digital imager, analyze the images and distribute alarm or image data wirelessly through the network. All the imaging, processing and communications

  16. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  17. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  18. Chemical and biological flocculation process to treat municipal sewage and analysis of biological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Si-qing; YANG Dian-hai; XU Bin; ZHAO Jian-fu

    2005-01-01

    The pilot-scale experimental apparatus and the procedure of the chemical and biological flocculation process to verify the feasibility in treating Shanghai municipal sewage were introduced in this paper. In addition, the biological function of the process was discussed. The results of optimal running showed that in the reaction tank, the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid(MLSS) was2 g/L, hydraulic retention time(HRT) was 35 min, dosage of liquid polyaluminium chloride(PAC) was 60 mg/L, and the concentration of polyacrylamide(PAM) was 0.5 mg/L. The effluent average concentrations of CODcr, TP, SS and BOD5 were 50 mg/L, 0.62 mg/L, 18mg/L, and 17 mg/L, respectively. These were better than the designed demand. In addition, the existence of biological degradation in this system was proven by several methods. The removal efficiencies of the chemical and biological flocculation process were 20% higher than that of the chemical flocculation process above at the same coagulant dosage. The treatment process under different situations was evaluated on a pilot-scale experiment, and the results provided magnificent parameters and optimal condition for future operation of the plant.

  19. Modeling drug- and chemical- induced hepatotoxicity with systems biology approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin eBhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of computational systems biology approaches as applied to the study of chemical- and drug-induced toxicity. The concept of ‘toxicity pathways’ is described in the context of the 2007 US National Academies of Science report, Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy. Pathway mapping and modeling based on network biology concepts are a key component of the vision laid out in this report for a more biologically-based analysis of dose-response behavior and the safety of chemicals and drugs. We focus on toxicity of the liver (hepatotoxicity – a complex phenotypic response with contributions from a number of different cell types and biological processes. We describe three case studies of complementary multi-scale computational modeling approaches to understand perturbation of toxicity pathways in the human liver as a result of exposure to environmental contaminants and specific drugs. One approach involves development of a spatial, multicellular virtual tissue model of the liver lobule that combines molecular circuits in individual hepatocytes with cell-cell interactions and blood-mediated transport of toxicants through hepatic sinusoids, to enable quantitative, mechanistic prediction of hepatic dose-response for activation of the AhR toxicity pathway. Simultaneously, methods are being developing to extract quantitative maps of intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulatory networks perturbed by environmental contaminants, using a combination of gene expression and genome-wide protein-DNA interaction data. A predictive physiological model (DILIsymTM to understand drug-induced liver injury (DILI, the most common adverse event leading to termination of clinical development programs and regulatory actions on drugs, is also described. The model initially focuses on reactive metabolite-induced DILI in response to administration of acetaminophen, and spans multiple biological scales.

  20. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  1. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Paris Chemical Weapons Conference 7-11 January 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    further strengthening of the Geneva protocol and for the activation of negotiations on ban on and total liquida - tion of chemical weapons in such a...ministries, Yugoslav Assistant Foreign Secretary Kazi- mir Vidas and undersecretary of the Iraqi Foreign Min- istry Riyad al-Qaysi also discussed the

  2. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries.

  3. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  4. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  5. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  6. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Artemisia herba-alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou El-Hamd H. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia, one of the larger genera in the family Asteraceae and the largest genus in the tribe Anthemideae, comprises from 200 to more than 500 taxa at the specific or subspecific level. Many Artemisia species have a high economic value in several fields, as food plants and as antihelminthic and antimalaria in medicine. Artemisia herba-alba was known for its therapeutic and medicinal properties, it was used in both traditional and modern medicine. Several papers have been published on the chemical composition of specimens of A. herba-alba. The aim of this work is to review all available scientific literature published on A. herba-alba. The focus will be on the chemical constitutions which have been identified from this species, in addition to all of the reported biological activites of this species have been included as well as the pharmacology and toxicology

  7. Molecular codes in biological and chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlich, Dennis; Dittrich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Shannon's theory of communication has been very successfully applied for the analysis of biological information. However, the theory neglects semantic and pragmatic aspects and thus cannot directly be applied to distinguish between (bio-) chemical systems able to process "meaningful" information from those that do not. Here, we present a formal method to assess a system's semantic capacity by analyzing a reaction network's capability to implement molecular codes. We analyzed models of chemical systems (martian atmosphere chemistry and various combustion chemistries), biochemical systems (gene expression, gene translation, and phosphorylation signaling cascades), an artificial chemistry, and random reaction networks. Our study suggests that different chemical systems possess different semantic capacities. No semantic capacity was found in the model of the martian atmosphere chemistry, the studied combustion chemistries, and highly connected random networks, i.e. with these chemistries molecular codes cannot be implemented. High semantic capacity was found in the studied biochemical systems and in random reaction networks where the number of second order reactions is twice the number of species. We conclude that our approach can be applied to evaluate the information processing capabilities of a chemical system and may thus be a useful tool to understand the origin and evolution of meaningful information, e.g. in the context of the origin of life.

  8. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  9. Chemical and Biological Features of Soils of Urban Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasil'evna Smirnova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been observed chemical and biological qualities of urbanized soils and soil-like bodies of the city of Kazan. There has been given an assessment of their enzymological (urease activity of the speed of degrading of urea, of reaction of soil solution, of contents of organic carbon. It is shown that chemical and biological qualities of studied soils have been seriously transformed and significantly differ from the complex of qualities of original natural analogs. There has been discovered the increase of pH of soil solution up to 7,0-8,2, high variation in contained organic substance, available forms of elements of nutrients of plants (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, flexible compounds of heavy metals and variety of activity of enzyme of urease. There has been discovered the absence of dependence of enzymological activity of city soil-like compounds from their acid-alcaline conditions and contained organic body. The necessity to work out new approaches and methods of studying urban soils and with the aim to assess their ecological state and forecasting of their impact on the city environment.

  10. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and

  11. Methods of information geometry in computational system biology (consistency between chemical and biological evolution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Interest in simulation of large-scale metabolic networks, species development, and genesis of various diseases requires new simulation techniques to accommodate the high complexity of realistic biological networks. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. We analyze the complexity of large-scale biological networks as well as transition of the system functionality due to modification in the system architecture, system environment, and system components. The dynamic core model is developed. The term dynamic core is used to define a set of causally related network functions. Delocalization of dynamic core model provides a mathematical formalism to analyze migration of specific functions in biosystems which undergo structure transition induced by the environment. The term delocalization is used to describe these processes of migration. We constructed a holographic model with self-poetic dynamic cores which preserves functional properties under those transitions. Topological constraints such as Ricci flow and Pfaff dimension were found for statistical manifolds which represent biological networks. These constraints can provide insight on processes of degeneration and recovery which take place in large-scale networks. We would like to suggest that therapies which are able to effectively implement estimated constraints, will successfully adjust biological systems and recover altered functionality. Also, we mathematically formulate the hypothesis that there is a direct consistency between biological and chemical evolution. Any set of causal relations within a biological network has its dual reimplementation in the chemistry of the system environment.

  12. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  13. The aesthetics of chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and philosophers have long reflected on the place of aesthetics in science. In this essay, I review these discussions, identifying work of relevance to chemistry and, in particular, to the field of chemical biology. Topics discussed include the role of aesthetics in scientific theory choice, the aesthetics of molecular images, the beauty-making features of molecules, and the relation between the aesthetics of chemical biology and the aesthetics of industrial design.

  14. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical, biological, and physical... FILL MATERIAL Evaluation and Testing § 230.61 Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing... appropriate physical and chemical environmental characteristics. (d) Physical tests and evaluation. The...

  15. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  16. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Biological efficiency of interaction between various radiation and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Yu, Dong Han; Lee, Byoung Hun [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Petin, Vladislav G. [Medical Radiology Science Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Ecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina; Panek, Agnieszka; Wiechec, Anna [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    2004-06-01

    This research project has been carried out jointly with INP (Poland) to develop technologies to assess the biological efficiency of interaction between radiation and chemicals. Through the cooperative project, KAERI and INP have established wide variety of bioassay techniques applicable to radiation bioscience, human monitoring, molecular epidemiology and environmental science. The joint experiment, in special, made it possible to utilize the merits of both institutes and to upgrade and verify KAERI's current technology level. All results of the cooperative research will be jointly published in high standard scientific journals listed in the Science Citation Index (SCI), which can make the role of fundamental basis for improving relationship between Korea and Poland. Research skills such as Trad-MCN assay, SCGE assay, immunohistochemical assay and molecular assay developed through joint research will be further elaborated and will be continuously used for the collaboration between two institutes.

  19. BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.

    1995-02-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  20. Chemical and biological stability of solvent refined coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Weimer, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Stability studies performed on seventeen SRC samples in boiling point from ambient to 850/sup 0/F showed that the major chemical composition of the materials as monitored by high resolution gas chromatography did not change under the storage conditions of the repository, which were 4/sup 0/C, in inert containers, under a nitrogen atmosphere, in the dark. Samples were monitored after two years of storage. It was also found from microbial mutagenicity studies that after four years in the repository there was no significant change in the biological activity of any of the SRC materials. Samples stored under various parameters of air versus nitrogen atmosphere and ambient light versus darkness at room temperature and -20/sup 0/C for one year showed there was no significant differences in the chemical composition of any of the samples. There was evidence, however, that trace components such as amino-PAH degraded at room temperature, in the light, under an air atmosphere since the microbial mutagenicity of samples stored under these conditions for one year decreased significantly. Both the chemical composition and mutagenicity of FOB samples changed when stored diluted in methylene chloride, in the light, under an air atmosphere at room temperature. After one year of storage under these conditions, the microbial mutagenicity was eliminated. Storage of SRC-II FOB at increased temperatures of 60/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C showed significant changes in chemical composition due to volatility effects. The microbial mutagenicity of the FOB samples was completely eliminated after storage at 60/sup 0/C for 32 weeks and 100/sup 0/C for 26 weeks. It appears that the amino-PAH and phenolic materials are the most susceptible components to degradation in the complex SRC materials. 23 references, 29 figures, 50 tables.

  1. Surface treatments for biological, chemical and physical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the topic with a mix of theory and practice in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics. Straightforward and well-structured, the first chapter introduces fundamental aspects of surface treatments, after which examples from nature are given. Subsequent chapters discuss various methods to surface modification, including chemical and physical approaches, followed by the characterization of the functionalized surfaces. Applications discussed include the lotus effect, diffusion barriers, enzyme immobilization and catalysis. Finally, the book concludes with a look at future technology advances. Throughout the text, tutorials and case studies are used for training purposes to grant a deeper understanding of the topic, resulting in an essential reference for students as well as for experienced engineers in R&D.

  2. Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ao Duan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

  3. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1692

  4. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  5. Stability and its manifestation in the chemical and biological worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2015-11-21

    Bridging between the phenomenologically distinct biological and physical worlds has been a major scientific challenge since Boltzmann's probabilistic formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. In this review we summarize our recent theoretical attempts to bridge that divide through analysis of the thermodynamic-kinetic interplay in chemical processes and the manner in which that interplay impacts on material stability. Key findings are that the term 'stability' manifests two facets - time and energy - and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That idea, together with the proposed existence of a logical law of nature, the persistence principle, leads to the mathematically-based insight that stability can come about through either Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations or Malthusian kinetics. Two mathematically-based forms of material persistence then lead directly to the physical likelihood of two material forms, animate and inanimate. Significantly, the incorporation of kinetic considerations into the stability concept appears to bring us closer to enabling two of the central theories in science - the second law of thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - to be reconciled within a single conceptual framework.

  6. Chemical and Biological Defense Program Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    state public health systems, to expand existing biosurveillance efforts, and to fund research on medical countermeasures against potential bioterror...Detection System (JBSDS) • Joint Portal Shield • Biological Identification System (BIDS) • Dry Filter Units (DFUs) Table 2-3 Biological Defense...Detection System (BIDS) • Joint Portal Shield Network Sensor System • Automated biological remote detection and early warning capabilities

  7. Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-20

    ameliorate or prevent symptoms is a primary concern in treating chemical casualties. This factor is essential to defusing the impact of a chemical...Research Aflatoxins O — + + O Weapon Clostridium botulinum toxins + + O — O Weapon Saxitoxin — + + O O Research Tetrodotoxin — + O — O Unknown...a very toxic compound found in castor beans. During the production of castor oil , bean mash with a 5 percent ricin content is produced. Recipes for

  8. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  9. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  10. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldi, F.; Çilingirǒglu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

  11. The chemical information ontology: provenance and disambiguation for chemical data on the biological semantic web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Hastings

    Full Text Available Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA.

  12. Terahertz spectroscopy for chemicals and biological sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Bo

    probe their functional 3D conformation states. Owing to the high sensitivity of differential THz-TDS, it was successfully used to sense the minute change of biological cell monolayers. The results point to a new way for biosensing applications via differential THz-TDS. As a powerful sensing technique, THz spectroscopy will continue to make profound contribution to the understanding of basic physics, chemistry and biology problems, as well as to the technological applications in chemical and biomedicine sensing areas.

  13. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Oleanane Triterpenoids from Soy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Popovich

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Soyasaponins are a group of complex and structural diverse oleanane triterpenoids found in soy (Glycine max and other legumes. They are primarily classified into two main groups − group A and B − based on the attachment of sugar moieties at positions C-3 and C-22 of the ring structures. Group A soyasaponins are bidesmosidic, while group B soyasaponins are monodesmosidic. Group B soyasaponins are further classified into two subcategories known as 2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6 -methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP and non-DDMP conjugated molecules. The preparation and purification of soyasaponin molecules is complicated by the presence of bioactive soy isoflavones, which often overlap with soyasaponin in polarity and must removed from extracts before biological assessment. Soyasaponin extracts, aglycones of group A and B and individual group B soyasaponins such as soyasaponin I have been reported to posses specific bioactive properties, such as in vitro anti-cancer properties by modulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. The isolation, chemical characterization and detection strategies by HPLC and HPLC-MS are reviewed, along with the reported bioactive effects of soyasaponin extracts and individual molecules in cultured cancer cell experiments.

  14. 76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY..., academia, military, test instrument manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide stand-off... requirements for electroshock weapons, the Law Enforcement Standards Office (OLES) at NIST has...

  15. Recycling of dyehouse effluents by biological and chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, R.; Doepkens, E. [Inst. of Biochemical Engineering, Technical Univ. of Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The introduction of the production integrated environmental protection by closing raw material cycles is shown exemplary for the textile finishing industry. Colored process water with a high content of dissolved organic dyes has always been a non-trivial problem for the sewage engineering sector. The recycling of process water of textile mills is often hindered by remaining color of water-soluable azo dyes after conventional wastewater treatment. Rising costs of emitted wastewater, lawful limits and restricted availability of water makes it of great interest to introduce sophisticated techniques helping to purify dye effluents and to recycle process water. A combined biological and chemical process of purification and recycling of residual dyehouse split flows into the production was developed, investigated and installed by a textile finishing company which produces 330,000 m{sup 3} colored wastewater effluents per year. The process contains anaerobic dye-cleavage, aerobic mineralization of cleavage-products and the decolorization and partial oxidation of traces of dyeresiduals by advanced oxidation. (orig.)

  16. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  17. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  18. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  19. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed.

  20. High-valent iron in chemical and biological oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, John T

    2006-04-01

    Various aspects of the reactivity of iron(IV) in chemical and biological systems are reviewed. Accumulated evidence shows that the ferryl species [Fe(IV)O](2+) can be formed under a variety of conditions including those related to the ferrous ion-hydrogen peroxide system known as Fenton's reagent. Early evidence that such a species could hydroxylate typical aliphatic C-H bonds included regioselectivities and stereospecificities for cyclohexanol hydroxylation that could not be accounted for by a freely diffusing hydroxyl radical. Iron(IV) porphyrin complexes are also found in the catalytic cycles of cytochrome P450 and chloroperoxidase. Model oxo-iron(IV) porphyrin complexes have shown reactivity similar to the proposed enzymatic intermediates. Mechanistic studies using mechanistically diagnostic substrates have implicated a radical rebound scenario for aliphatic hydroxylation by cytochrome P450. Likewise, several non-heme diiron hydroxylases, AlkB (Omega-hydroxylase), sMMO (soluble methane monooxygenase), XylM (xylene monooxygenase) and T4moH (toluene monooxygenase) all show clear indications of radical rearranged products indicating that the oxygen rebound pathway is a ubiquitous mechanism for hydrocarbon oxygenation by both heme and non-heme iron enzymes.

  1. Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

  2. Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA): Root Cause Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Primavera Pertmaster and cost risk using ACE. Both Pertmaster and ACE are commercially available risk software programs. These new risk modeling tools...schedule risk using Primavera Pertmaster and modeled cost risk using ACE. Both Pertmaster and ACE are commercially available risk software programs. As

  3. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring.

  4. Molecular scaffolds using multiple orthogonal conjugations: applications in chemical biology and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, David M; Jones, Lyn H

    2012-06-25

    Heteromultifunctional scaffolds that harness sequential "click" reactions will find significant utility in the areas of chemical biology and chemically enabled/enhanced biotherapeutics ("chemologics"). Here we review the existing synthetic technologies that illustrate the considerable potential of the field.

  5. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered.

  6. Chemical and biological oxidative effects of carbon black nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2006-11-01

    Several studies show that ultrafine particles have a larger surface area than coarse particles, thus causing a greater inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated chemical and biological oxidative effects of nanoparticles in vitro. Carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with mean aerodynamic diameters of 14, 56, and 95nm were examined. The innate oxidative capacity of the CB nanoparticles was measured by consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) in cell-free system. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat alveolar type II epithelial cell line (SV40T2) and alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to CB nanoparticles was measured by ELISA. DTT consumption of 14nm CB was higher than that of other CB nanoparticles having the same particle weight. However, DTT consumption was directly proportional to the particle surface area. HO-1 protein in SV40T2 cells was significantly increased by the 14nm and 56nm CB, however, 95nm CB did not affect. HO-1 protein in AM was significantly increased by the 14, 56, and 95nm CB. The increase in HO-1 expression was diminished by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment of each CB nanoparticles before exposure although the difference between the effects of NAC-treated and untreated 14nm CB did not achieve significant. In conclusion, CB nanoparticles have innate oxidative capacity that may be dependent on the surface area. CB nanoparticles can induce oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells and AM that is more prominent with smaller particles. The oxidative stress may, at least partially, be mediated by surface function of particles.

  7. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  8. Counter-Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-26

    Present. [Order from DTIC-E, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 0944, Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218.] Douglas, Joseph, and Livingstone, Neil , America the...Harris, Sheldon H ., Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the American Cover-up (Routledge). 1994. Hayes, Peter L...Biological Warfare (Office of Surgeon General, Borden Institute). 1997. Sloan, Steven, Beating International Terrorism (Air University Press). 1986

  9. Exploration of the central dogma at the interface of chemistry and biology: 2010 Yale Chemical Biology Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua

    2010-09-01

    Ever since the term "central dogma" was coined in 1958, researchers have sought to control information flow from nucleic acids to proteins. Talks delivered by Drs. Anna Pyle and Hiroaki Suga at this year's Chemical Biology Symposium at Yale in May 2010 applauded recent advances in this area, at the interface between chemistry and biology.

  10. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  11. Numerical Techniques for Chemical and Biological Engineers Using MATLAB A Simple Bifurcation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Elnashaie, Said SEH; Affane, Chadia

    2007-01-01

    All reactive chemical and biological processes are highly nonlinear allowing for multiple steady states. This book addresses the bifurcation characteristics of chemical and biological processes as the general case and treats systems with a unique steady state as special cases. It includes a CD-ROM which contains nearly 100 MATLAB programs.

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  15. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  16. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  17. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  18. Structure and biological activity of chemically modified nisin A species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollema, Harry S.; Metzger, Jörg W.; Both, Paula; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Siezen, Roland J.

    1996-01-01

    Nisin, a 34-residue peptide bacteriocin, contains the less common amino acids lanthionine, β-methyllanthionine, dehydroalanine (Dha), and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). Several chemically modified nisin A species were purified by reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by two-dimensional NMR and electrospray m

  19. Polymeric Materials for Protection Against Chemical and Biological Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-30

    the demand for a safe antimicrobial and deodorizing treatment, chemical methods have been proposed using as an antimicrobial component, halamines...in an organic solvent such as carbon disulfide, and a Friedei-Crafts acylation was performed utilizing acetyl chloride and the catalyst aluminum

  20. Control of Dermatomycoses by Physical, Chemical and Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis , Mo.). Lycopene was Isolated from tomato according to the method described by Weedor (22...Bacteriol . To E~e pub1Ished in December 1978. 4. Emyanitoff, R. G. and 1. ~1ashimoto . The effect of temperature ,Incubation atmosphere and medium

  1. Towards Complex Abiotic Systems for Chemical and Biological Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    responses, but most of the work has attempted to couple living cells, their receptors, and even scaffolded tissues to optical or electronic sensors...disparate advances: an Xcell must be an encapsulated compartment in which chemical or light energy is captured and used for biopolymer synthesis. The... biopolymers must be capable of processing and sending signals and performing programmed tasks based on communication with their environment

  2. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  3. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  4. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons... guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed...

  5. Biological and chemical removal of Cr(VI) from waste water: cost and benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aynur; Arisoy, Münevver

    2007-08-17

    The objective of the present study is cost and benefit analysis of biological and chemical removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions. Cost and benefit analysis were done with refer to two separate studies on removal of Cr(VI), one of heavy metals with a crucial role concerning increase in environmental pollution and disturbance of ecological balance, through biological adsorption and chemical ion-exchange. Methods of biological and chemical removal were compared with regard to their cost and percentage in chrome removal. According to the result of the comparison, cost per unit in chemical removal was calculated 0.24 euros and the ratio of chrome removal was 99.68%, whereas those of biological removal were 0.14 and 59.3% euros. Therefore, it was seen that cost per unit in chemical removal and chrome removal ratio were higher than those of biological removal method. In the current study where chrome removal is seen as immeasurable benefit in terms of human health and the environment, percentages of chrome removal were taken as measurable benefit and cost per unit of the chemicals as measurable cost.

  6. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint.

  7. Piezoelectric microelectromechanical resonant sensors for chemical and biological detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei; Zhao, Hongyuan; Kim, Eun Sok; Zhang, Hao; Yu, Hongyu; Hu, Xiaotang

    2012-01-07

    Piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonant sensors, known for their excellent mass resolution, have been studied for many applications, including DNA hybridization, protein-ligand interactions, and immunosensor development. They have also been explored for detecting antigens, organic gas, toxic ions, and explosives. Most piezoelectric MEMS resonant sensors are acoustic sensors (with specific coating layers) that enable selective and label-free detection of biological events in real time. These label-free technologies have recently garnered significant attention for their sensitive and quantitative multi-parameter analysis of biological systems. Since piezoelectric MEMS resonant sensors do more than transform analyte mass or thickness into an electrical signal (e.g., frequency and impedance), special attention must be paid to their potential beyond microweighing, such as measuring elastic and viscous properties, and several types of sensors currently under development operate at different resonant modes (i.e., thickness extensional mode, thickness shear mode, lateral extensional mode, flexural mode, etc.). In this review, we provide an overview of recent developments in micromachined resonant sensors and activities relating to biochemical interfaces for acoustic sensors.

  8. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  9. Group behaviour in physical, chemical and biological systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cihan Saçlioğlu; Önder Pekcan; Vidyanand Nanjundiah

    2014-04-01

    Groups exhibit properties that either are not perceived to exist, or perhaps cannot exist, at the individual level. Such `emergent’ properties depend on how individuals interact, both among themselves and with their surroundings. The world of everyday objects consists of material entities. These are, ultimately, groups of elementary particles that organize themselves into atoms and molecules, occupy space, and so on. It turns out that an explanation of even the most commonplace features of this world requires relativistic quantum field theory and the fact that Planck’s constant is discrete, not zero. Groups of molecules in solution, in particular polymers (`sols’), can form viscous clusters that behave like elastic solids (`gels’). Sol-gel transitions are examples of cooperative phenomena. Their occurrence is explained by modelling the statistics of inter-unit interactions: the likelihood of either state varies sharply as a critical parameter crosses a threshold value. Group behaviour among cells or organisms is often heritable and therefore can evolve. This permits an additional, typically biological, explanation for it in terms of reproductive advantage, whether of the individual or of the group. There is no general agreement on the appropriate explanatory framework for understanding group-level phenomena in biology.

  10. Selectivity on-target of bromodomain chemical probes by structure-guided medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdeano, Carles; Ciulli, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    Targeting epigenetic proteins is a rapidly growing area for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing small molecules binding to bromodomains, the readers of acetyl-lysine modifications. A plethora of co-crystal structures has motivated focused fragment-based design and optimization programs within both industry and academia. These efforts have yielded several compounds entering the clinic, and many more are increasingly being used as chemical probes to interrogate bromodomain biology. High selectivity of chemical probes is necessary to ensure biological activity is due to an on-target effect. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of bromodomain-targeting compounds, focusing on the structural basis for their on-target selectivity or lack thereof. We also highlight chemical biology approaches to enhance on-target selectivity.

  11. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Rhododendron anthopogon Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbriella Innocenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogon was investigated by GC-MS, and seventeen compounds (representing approximately 98% of the oil were identified. The major components of the aerial parts of the oil were the monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and the sesquiterpene δ-cadinene. Biological studies revealed a weak topical anti-inflammatory activity; a significant killing effect against some Gram-positive reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcusfecalis, Bacillus subtilis was measured; Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain and a clinical isolate of Candida, C. pseudotropicalis were killed by as low as 0.04% (v/v essential oil. Moreover, the oil was able to reduce cancer cell growth independently of the cell line and the treatment protocols used.

  13. MODERN WEAPONS AND MILITARY EQUIPMENT FOR ISSUE NO. 3-2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Optimal features for concealed carry weapons. The specificity of jobs and tasks that require concealed carrying of weapons by officials require specific criteria when choosing personal weapons specialist.

  14. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  15. On-matrix derivatization extraction of chemical weapons convention relevant alcohols from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2013-10-11

    Present study deals with the on-matrix derivatization-extraction of aminoalcohols and thiodiglycols, which are important precursors and/or degradation products of VX analogues and vesicants class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The method involved hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) mediated in situ silylation of analytes on the soil. Subsequent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized analytes offered better recoveries in comparison to the procedure recommended by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Various experimental conditions such as extraction solvent, reagent and catalyst amount, reaction time and temperature were optimized. Best recoveries of analytes ranging from 45% to 103% were obtained with DCM solvent containing 5%, v/v HMDS and 0.01%, w/v iodine as catalyst. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes ranged from 8 to 277 and 21 to 665ngmL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  17. Integrated assessment of oil pollution using biological monitoring and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Guitart, Carlos; Pook, Chris; Scarlett, Alan; Readman, James W; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-06-01

    A full assessment of the impact of oil and chemical spills at sea requires the identification of both the polluting chemicals and the biological effects they cause. Here, a combination of chemical fingerprinting of surface oils, tissue residue analysis, and biological effects measures was used to explore the relationship between spilled oil and biological impact following the grounding of the MSC Napoli container ship in Lyme Bay, England in January 2007. Initially, oil contamination remained restricted to a surface slick in the vicinity of the wreck, and there was no chemical evidence to link biological impairment of animals (the common limpet, Patella vulgata) on the shore adjacent to the oil spill. Secondary oil contamination associated with salvage activities in July 2007 was also assessed. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons and terpanes in shell swabs taken from limpet shells provided an unequivocal match with the fuel oil carried by the ship. Corresponding chemical analysis of limpet tissues revealed increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dominated by phenanthrene and C1 to C3 phenanthrenes with smaller contributions from heavier molecular weight PAHs. Concurrent ecotoxicological tests indicated impairment of cellular viability (p oiled animals. These results illustrate the value of combining biological monitoring with chemical fingerprinting for the rapid identification of spilled oils and their sublethal impacts on biota in situ.

  18. Functional Nanostructured Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S E

    2006-03-20

    The central goal of our work is to combine semiconductor nanotechnology and surface functionalization in order to build platforms for the selective detection of bio-organisms ranging in size from bacteria (micron range) down to viruses, as well as for the detection of chemical agents (nanometer range). We will show on three porous silicon platforms how pore geometry and pore wall chemistry can be combined and optimized to capture and detect specific targets. We developed a synthetic route allowing to directly anchor proteins on silicon surfaces and illustrated the relevance of this technique by immobilizing live enzymes onto electrochemically etched luminescent nano-porous silicon. The powerful association of the specific enzymes with the transducing matrix led to a selective hybrid platform for chemical sensing. We also used light-assisted electrochemistry to produce periodic arrays of through pores on pre-patterned silicon membranes with controlled diameters ranging from many microns down to tens of nanometers. We demonstrated the first covalently functionalized silicon membranes and illustrated their selective capture abilities with antibody-coated micro-beads. These engineered membranes are extremely versatile and could be adapted to specifically recognize the external fingerprints (size and coat composition) of target bio-organisms. Finally, we fabricated locally functionalized single nanopores using a combination of focused ion beam drilling and ion beam assisted oxide deposition. We showed how a silicon oxide ring can be grown around a single nanopore and how it can be functionalized with DNA probes to detect single viral-sized beads. The next step for this platform is the detection of whole viruses and bacteria.

  19. Olefin Metathesis for Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chemical biology relies on effective synthetic chemistry for building molecules to probe and modulate biological function. Olefin metathesis in organic solvents is a valuable addition to this armamentarium, and developments during the previous decade are enabling metathesis in aqueous solvents for the manipulation of biomolecules. Functional group-tolerant ruthenium metathesis catalysts modified with charged moieties or hydrophilic polymers are soluble and active in water, enabling ring-opening metathesis polymerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Alternatively, conventional hydrophobic ruthenium complexes catalyze a similar array of metathesis reactions in mixtures of water and organic solvents. This strategy has enabled cross metathesis on the surface of a protein. Continuing developments in catalyst design and methodology will popularize the bioorthogonal reactivity of metathesis. PMID:18935975

  20. Silicon chip integrated photonic sensors for biological and chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Yan, Hai; Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate applications of photonic crystal waveguide based devices for on-chip optical absorption spectroscopy for the detection of chemical warfare simulant, triethylphosphate as well as applications with photonic crystal microcavity devices in the detection of biomarkers for pancreatic cancer in patient serum and cadmium metal ions in heavy metal pollution sensing. At mid-infrared wavelengths, we experimentally demonstrate the higher sensitivity of photonic crystal based structures compared to other nanophotonic devices such as strip and slot waveguides with detection down to 10ppm triethylphosphate. We also detected 5ppb (parts per billion) of cadmium metal ions in water at near-infrared wavelengths using established techniques for the detection of specific probe-target biomarker conjugation chemistries.

  1. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    dependent on factors, such as temperature , pressure, and wind speed (US Army 1990; 1994; and 1998a). In addition to CW agents’ toxicities, their chemical...expected to be at especially high risk of shigellosis, malaria, sandfly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Quin 1992). Studies conducted since the war

  2. U.S. Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    safeguard trade secrets. Leading corpora- tions such as DuPont, Dow, and Monsanto also supported CWC ratification to improve the public image of the...represented large chemical companies such as Dow, DuPont, and Monsanto , was highly effective at contacting senators, putting out useful information, and

  3. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003.

  4. Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Luttikholt, A.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals, alo

  5. Chemical composition and biological screening of Capsella bursa-pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Medik. (Brassicaceae is a wild herb with high nutritional value that can be eaten raw or cooked. A metabolomic study was performed with different extracts of its aerial parts that were tested concerning their antiradical, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antibacterial activities. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD, organic acids and amino acids were determined by HPLC-UV, while free fatty acids and sterols were analysed by GC-ITMS. The vegetal material was rich in kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (mean value 2247.09 mg/kg of dry plant, quinic acid (95628.00 mg/kg of dry plant, arginine (mean value of 1.18 mg/kg of dry plant, palmitic acid (284.48 mg/kg and β-sitosterol (28%. The extracts presented a concentration-dependent antiradical activity (against DPPH•, O2•- and LOO•, being most effective against •NO (EC25 0.20 µg/mL. In addition, the extracts were also acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and antibacterial active, revealing that, besides the plant's good nutritional value, it presents important biological properties as well.

  6. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  7. Emergency response to nuclear, biological and chemical incidents:challenges and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Long Li; Wen-Jun Tang; Ya-Kun Ma; Ji-Min Jia; Rong-Li Dang; Er-Chen Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Given the multiple terrorist attacks that have occurred in recent years in China, medical rescue teams and specialized incident assessment teams have been established by the government; however, medical rescue after nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents remains challenging and is often inefficient. In the present article, problems were analyzed regarding the assessment of responder countermeasures, training of professionals and the management of emergency medical incidents related to nuclear, biological and chemical attacks. Countermeasures, the establishment of response coordination, public education, practical training and exercise, and a professional consultant team or system should be the focus of emergency medical response facilities. Moreover, the government was offered professionals who are involved in managing nuclear, biological and chemical incidents.

  8. Chemical and biological characterization of sclerosin, an antifungal lipopeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Chrystal L; Brassinga, Ann Karen C; Donald, Lynda J; Fernando, W G Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2012-08-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain DF41 produces a lipopeptide, called sclerosin that inhibits the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum . The aim of the current study was to deduce the chemical structure of this lipopeptide and further characterize its bioactivity. Mass spectrometry analysis determined the structure of sclerosin to be CH(3)-(CH(2))(6)-CH(OH)-CH(2)-CO-Dhb-Pro-Ala-Leu/Ile-Ala-Val-Val-Dhb-Thr-Val-Leu/Ile-Dhp-Ala-Ala-Ala-Val-Dhb-Dhb-Ala-Dab-Ser-Val-OH, similar to corpeptins A and B of the tolaasin group, differing by only 3 amino acids in the peptide chain. Subjecting sclerosin to various ring opening procedures revealed no new ions, suggesting that this molecule is linear. As such, sclerosin represents a new member of the tolaasin lipopeptide group. Incubation of S. sclerotinia ascospores and sclerotia in the presence of sclerosin inhibited the germination of both cell types. Sclerosin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus species. Conversely, this lipopeptide demonstrated no zoosporicidal activity against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans . Next, we assessed the effect of DF41 and a lipopeptide-deficient mutant on the growth and development of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae. We discovered that sclerosin did not protect DF41 from ingestion by and degradation in the C. elegans digestive tract. However, another metabolite produced by this bacterium appeared to shorten the life-span of the nematode compared to C. elegans growing on Escherichia coli OP50.

  9. Clustering and rule-based classifications of chemical structures evaluated in the biological activity space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Brown, Nathan; Ertl, Peter; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Selzer, Paul; Hamon, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Classification methods for data sets of molecules according to their chemical structure were evaluated for their biological relevance, including rule-based, scaffold-oriented classification methods and clustering based on molecular descriptors. Three data sets resulting from uniformly determined in vitro biological profiling experiments were classified according to their chemical structures, and the results were compared in a Pareto analysis with the number of classes and their average spread in the profile space as two concurrent objectives which were to be minimized. It has been found that no classification method is overall superior to all other studied methods, but there is a general trend that rule-based, scaffold-oriented methods are the better choice if classes with homogeneous biological activity are required, but a large number of clusters can be tolerated. On the other hand, clustering based on chemical fingerprints is superior if fewer and larger classes are required, and some loss of homogeneity in biological activity can be accepted.

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  11. Effect of Biological and Chemical Pre-treatment on the Hydrolysis of Corn Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Ángeles Ramírez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of corn leaf utilizing two treatment sequences was carried out in this study. The first treatment was chemical and involved subjecting the corn leaf to an alkaline pre-treatment and then to a smooth acid hydrolysis. The second consisted of biological delignification using the strain Trametes sp. 44 H88, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using the enzymatic extract produced by Trichoderma sp. H88. The ligninolytic extract produced by Trametes sp. 44 H88 was used to detoxify the hydrolyzate. The results indicate that biological pre-treatment with delignification is more favorable and improves the subsequent hydrolysis, regardless of whether the hydrolysis is chemical or biological. The chemical treatment sequence obtained 80% conversion of monosaccharides, while the biological treatment sequence resulted in a 87% conversion rate. Finally, the use of the ligninolytic extract for the dephenolization of the hydrolyzate reduced the presence of compounds of phenolic origin by 23%.

  12. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  13. Water quality index calculated from biological, physical and chemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    To ensure a safe drinking water supply, it is necessary to protect water quality. To classify the suitability of the Orós Reservoir (Northeast of Brazil) water for human consumption, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was enhanced and refined through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Samples were collected bi-monthly at seven points (P1 - P7) from July 2009 to July 2011. Samples were analysed for 29 physico-chemical attributes and 4 macroinvertebrate metrics associated with the macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. PCA allowed us to reduce the number of attributes from 33 to 12, and 85.32% of the variance was explained in five dimensions (C1 - C5). Components C1 and C3 were related to water-soluble salts and reflect the weathering process, while C2 was related to surface runoff. C4 was associated with macroinvertebrate diversity, represented by ten pollution-resistant families. C5 was related to the nutrient phosphorus, an indicator of the degree of eutrophication. The mean values for the WQIs ranged from 49 to 65 (rated as fair), indicating that water can be used for human consumption after treatment. The lowest values for the WQI were recorded at the entry points to the reservoir (P3, P1, P5, and P4), while the best WQIs were recorded at the exit points (P6 and P7), highlighting the reservoir's purification ability. The proposed WQI adequately expressed water quality, and can be used for monitoring surface water quality.

  14. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  15. 15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 265.39 Section..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and... dangerous or deadly weapons or materials, or explosives, either openly or concealed, without the...

  16. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  17. Chemical and biological insecticides select distinct gene expression patterns in Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Laurence; Stalinski, Renaud; Faucon, Frédéric; Navratil, Vincent; Viari, Alain; Paris, Margot; Tetreau, Guillaume; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Reynaud, Stéphane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide evolution of mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides represents a major challenge for public health, and the future of vector control largely relies on the development of biological insecticides that can be used in combination with chemicals (integrated management), with the expectation that populations already resistant to chemicals will not become readily resistant to biological insecticides. However, little is known about the metabolic pathways affected by selection with chemical or biological insecticides. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, a laboratory mosquito strain selected with a biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti) evolved increased transcription of many genes coding for endopeptidases while most genes coding for detoxification enzymes were under-expressed. By contrast, in strains selected with chemicals, genes encoding detoxification enzymes were mostly over-expressed. In all the resistant strains, genes involved in immune response were under-transcribed, suggesting that basal immunity might be a general adjustment variable to compensate metabolic costs caused by insecticide selection. Bioassays generally showed no evidence for an increased susceptibility of selected strains towards the other insecticide type, and all chemical-resistant strains were as susceptible to Bti as the unselected parent strain, which is a good premise for sustainable integrated management of mosquito populations resistant to chemicals.

  18. Chemical and biological evaluation of rejects from the wood industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed chemical characterization and microbiological evaluation of extracts obtained from the waste of woods marketed in Paraná State: Peroba-Rosa (Aspidosperma sp., Roxinho (Peltogyne sp., Jatobá(Hymenaea sp., Curupixá (Micropholis sp., Itaúba (Mezilaurus sp., Cedrilho (Erisma sp. and Imbúia (Licaria sp., whose botanical identifications were based on anatomical studies. The extracts were prepared with different solvents, analyzed by TLC and UV/VIS techniques, and tested against: Proteus mirabilis ATCC15290, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC27853, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus cereus isolated from the clinic. The ethanol extract from Peroba-rosa containing alkaloids showed activity against P. mirabilis. Itaúba, Jatobá and Imbúia methanol extracts containing phenolics, and the Roxinho ethyl acetate extract containing terpenoids and phenolics were active against K. pneumoniae, M. luteus, E. coli, S. aureus and P. mirabilis. P. aeroginosa, S. mutans and E. aerogenes were resistant to the extracts.Este estudo visa a caracterização química e a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos a partir de rejeitos resultantes do beneficiamento de madeiras nobres comercializadas no Paraná: Peroba-Rosa (Aspidosperma sp., Roxinho (Peltogyne sp., Jatobá (Hymenaea sp., Curupixá (Micropholis sp., Itaúba (Mezilaurus sp., Cedrilho (Erisma sp. e Imbúia-do-Norte (Licaria sp., cujas identificações botânicas basearam-se em estudos anatômicos. Os extratos foram preparados com diversos solventes, analisados por CCD e espectrometria UV/VIS, testando-se contra: Proteus mirabilis ATCC15290, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883

  19. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  20. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  1. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11... FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or...

  2. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives,...

  3. Tactical Nuclear Weapons: Their Purpose and Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    still perceived the potential spread of these clashes as a threat to its security. Volatility was expected to come from ethnic, religious, cultural...nuclear weapons in this new global environment. NATO’s 1999 and 2010 strategic concepts describe a change in concern from the spillover threats of the

  4. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  5. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  6. EU-OPENSCREEN-chemical tools for the study of plant biology and resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Torsten; Stechmann, Bahne; Frank, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    EU-OPENSCREEN is an academic research infrastructure initiative in Europe for enabling researchers in all life sciences to take advantage of chemical biology approaches to their projects. In a collaborative effort of national networks in 16 European countries, EU-OPENSCREEN will develop novel chemical compounds with external users to address questions in, among other fields, systems and network biology (directed and selective perturbation of signalling pathways), structural biology (compound-target interactions at atomic resolution), pharmacology (early drug discovery and toxicology) and plant biology (response of wild or crop plants to environmental and agricultural substances). EU-OPENSCREEN supports all stages of a tool development project, including assay adaptation, high-throughput screening and chemical optimisation of the 'hit' compounds. All tool compounds and data will be made available to the scientific community. EU-OPENSCREEN integrates high-capacity screening platforms throughout Europe, which share a rationally selected compound collection comprising up to 300,000 (commercial and proprietary compounds collected from European chemists). By testing systematically this chemical collection in hundreds of assays originating from very different biological themes, the screening process generates enormous amounts of information about the biological activities of the substances and thereby steadily enriches our understanding of how and where they act.

  7. 44 CFR 15.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 15.15... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.15 Weapons and explosives. No person entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC will carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives or items intended...

  8. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying...

  9. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  10. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

  11. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives...

  12. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any...

  13. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items...

  14. 7 CFR 500.12 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 500.12 Section 500.12... OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.12 Weapons and... weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for authorized official purposes. (b) No...

  15. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized...

  16. 43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons, firearms, explosives, and... WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.30 Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess... exceptions: (1) You must not have a weapon in your possession when at or in a Reclamation facility. (2)...

  17. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or...

  18. Simulation and visualization of coupled hydrodynamical, chemical and biological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Slagstad

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the principles of hydrodynamical and ecological modelling of marine systems and how model results are presented by use of MATLAB. Two application examples are shown. One refers to modelling and simulation of the carbon vertical transport in the Greenland Sea and the other is a study on the effect of wind pattern for the invasion success of zooplankton from the Norwegian Sea into the North Sea by use of particle tracking.

  19. 7 CFR 501.12 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 501.12 Section 501.12... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.12 Weapons... arrows, darts, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except...

  20. The search for life's origins: Progress and future directions in planetary biology and chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The current state is reviewed of the study of chemical evolution and planetary biology and the probable future is discussed of the field, at least for the near term. To this end, the report lists the goals and objectives of future research and makes detailed, comprehensive recommendations for accomplishing them, emphasizing those issues that were inadequately discussed in earlier Space Studies Board reports.

  1. Biology Today. Thinking Chemically about Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are applications of biochemistry. Included are designed drugs, clever drugs, carcinogenic structures, sugary wine, caged chemicals, biomaterials, marine chemistry, biopolymers, prospecting bacteria, and plant chemistry. (CW)

  2. Seeking the chemical roots of darwinism: bridging between chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Addy

    2009-08-24

    Chemistry and biology are intimately connected sciences yet the chemistry-biology interface remains problematic and central issues regarding the very essence of living systems remain unresolved. In this essay we build on a kinetic theory of replicating systems that encompasses the idea that there are two distinct kinds of stability in nature-thermodynamic stability, associated with "regular" chemical systems, and dynamic kinetic stability, associated with replicating systems. That fundamental distinction is utilized to bridge between chemistry and biology by demonstrating that within the parallel world of replicating systems there is a second law analogue to the second law of thermodynamics, and that Darwinian theory may, through scientific reductionism, be related to that second law analogue. Possible implications of these ideas to the origin of life problem and the relationship between chemical emergence and biological evolution are discussed.

  3. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  4. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste.

  5. Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P.; Ma, J. L.; Froment, D.; Jaureguy, J. C.

    1993-06-01

    A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time.

  6. Steps towards universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention: How can Africa contribute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.

    1999-11-02

    Universality is a fundamental principal of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It suffuses the fabric of the Convention, found not only in the very first ringing clauses of Article I, but also in the many technical details of its Annexes and Schedules. Consequently, universality is a topic on which commentary is appropriate from all quarters. The author offers his personal views as a lawyer on this important matter in the hope that, this distinguished audience may gain a perspective not available from practitioners of other professions. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US or of any other institution.

  7. Comment on "Invasive harlequin ladybird carries biological weapons against native competitors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter W; van Lenteren, Joop C; Raak-van den Berg, C Lidwien

    2013-09-20

    We comment on the implications that Vilcinskas et al. (Reports, 17 May 2013, p. 862) attach to the finding that the exotic, invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis carries microsporidia to which this species is insensitive but that is lethal to species that are native to the invaded areas. The authors suggest that these microsporidia might serve as "biological weapons" against the native competitors, but we cast doubt on the importance of this suggestion in the field.

  8. The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin

    2002-10-01

    Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for

  9. Biologically inspired large scale chemical sensor arrays and embedded data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, S.; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, A.; Lansner, A.; Martinez, D.; Rospars, J. P.; Beccherelli, R.; Perera, A.; Pearce, T.; Vershure, P.; Persaud, K.

    2013-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. EU Funded Project NEUROCHEM (Bio-ICT-FET- 216916) has developed novel computing paradigms and biologically motivated artefacts for chemical sensing taking inspiration from the biological olfactory pathway. To demonstrate this approach, a biomimetic demonstrator has been built featuring a large scale sensor array (65K elements) in conducting polymer technology mimicking the olfactory receptor neuron layer, and abstracted biomimetic algorithms have been implemented in an embedded system that interfaces the chemical sensors. The embedded system integrates computational models of the main anatomic building blocks in the olfactory pathway: the olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex in vertebrates (alternatively, antennal lobe and mushroom bodies in the insect). For implementation in the embedded processor an abstraction phase has been carried out in which their processing capabilities are captured by algorithmic solutions. Finally, the algorithmic models are tested with an odour robot with navigation capabilities in mixed chemical plumes

  10. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  11. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

  12. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Després, V.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Psenner, R.; Ariya, P. A.; Pósfai, M.; Ahern, H. E.; Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2009-04-01

    The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques) required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  13. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  14. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  15. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  16. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: II. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine the performance of five North American bioreactor landfills. This paper represents the second of a two part series and addresses biological and chemical aspects of bioreactor performance including gas production and management, and l...

  17. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring farm

  18. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  19. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...

  20. Microwave-ultrasound combined reactor suitable for atmospheric sample preparation procedure of biological and chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagha, A.; Chemat, S.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    1999-01-01

    A compact apparatus in which a specific position can be irradiated by microwaves (MW) and ultrasound (US) simultaneously has been developed. The MW-US reactor has been designed for atmospheric pressure digestion and dissolution of biological and chemical products. The reactor can treat a range of th

  1. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability, Small Items of Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    packing closed cell foam planks Expected to absorb and desorb chemical agents and trap nuclear and biological agents. May disintegrate when exposed...property-effects of liquids X 34 Peel/lap shear strength change X X X X 35 Adhesion (loss of), blistering , spalling X X X X X

  2. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  3. Chemical structure and biological activity of the diazepines

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    1 Since the introduction of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam many diazepines have been developed. Use of these drugs is increasing and considerable knowledge has accumulated about their mechanisms of action.

  4. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly, Peter E.; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M.; Churchill, Cassandra D. M.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; West, F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and t...

  5. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    are typical anticholinergic signs and symptoms: dry mouth, ileus , constipation, and urinary retention. Nausea and vomiting can occur. Dilated...s, used when bilary secretion is inadequate and for biliary colic. (Stedman’s Medical Dictionary) acidosis – A state characterized by actual or...Dictionary) ileus – Mechanical, dynamic, or adynamic obstruction of the bowel; may be accompanied by severe colicky pain, abdominal distention

  6. Improved Logistics for Chemical and Biologics Decontamination for Deployed Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    electrophilic phosphate nerve agents and other cholinesterase inhibitors as well as mustards and related blister agents, chloroformates, phosgene, methyl...agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the uU.S. Army Dugway proving ground, Utah” (Environmental Assessment

  7. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  8. An ontology on property for physical, chemical, and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-01-01

    Current metrological literature, including the International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM 1993), presents a special language slowly evolved without consistent use of the procedures of terminological work; furthermore, nominal properties are excluded by definition. Both deficiencies create problems in fields, such as laboratory medicine, which have to report results of all types of property, preferably in a unified systematic format. The present text aims at forming a domain ontology around "property", with intensional definitions and systematic terms, mainly using the terminological tools--with some additions--provided by the International Standards ISO 704, 1087-1, and 10241. "System" and "component" are defined, "quantity" is discussed, and the generic concept "property" is given as 'inherent state- or process-descriptive feature of a system including any pertinent components'. Previously, the term 'kind-of-quantity' and quasi-synonyms have been used as primitives; the proposed definition of "kind-of-property" is 'common defining aspect of mutually comparable properties'. "Examination procedure", "examination method", "examination principle", and "examination" are defined, avoiding the term 'test'. The need to distinguish between instances of "characteristic", "property", "type of characteristic", "kind-of-property", and "property value" is emphasized; the latter is defined together with "property value scale". These fundamental concepts are presented in a diagram, and the effect of adding essential characteristics to give expanded definitions is exemplified. Substitution usually leads to unwieldy definitions, but reveals circularity as does exhaustive consecutive listing of defining concepts. The top concept may be generically divided according to many terminological dimensions, especially regarding which operators are allowed among the four sets =, not equal to; ; +, -; and x, :. The coordinate concepts defined are termed by the

  9. Paper-based chemical and biological sensors: Engineering aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Snober; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-03-15

    Remarkable efforts have been dedicated to paper-based chemosensors and biosensors over the last few years, mainly driven by the promise of reaching the best trade-off between performance, affordability and simplicity. Because of the low-cost and rapid prototyping of these sensors, recent research has been focused on providing affordable diagnostic devices to the developing world. The recent progress in sensitivity, multi-functionality and integration of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), increasingly suggests that this technology is not only attractive in resource-limited environments but it also represents a serious challenger to silicon, glass and polymer-based biosensors. This review discusses the design, chemistry and engineering aspects of these developments, with a focus on the past few years.

  10. Smart Phones: Platform Enabling Modular, Chemical, Biological, and Explosives Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Detection – Colorimetric test kits were purchased commercially from their respective manufacturers [IDEX and E.L.I.T.E. EL100 (Field Forensics ), MIPS...portability. The IDEX (Field Forensics ) was selected for further development due to rugged design, reproducible results, few false positives, low LOD, and...communications mediums, increased memory capacity, power reduction, global positioning systems (GPS), audio recording, accelerometers, increased video and

  11. Optimizing the Domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    felt such experiences would create tensions between employers and NG members and would adversely affect the unit. Without rehearsing this key component...includes many roads of lower class, it may be thought of fundamentally as an arterial network. The ultimate intent is to represent all rural arterials ...and most urban principal arterials , but not collectors or urban minor arterials unless they are part of through highways.” [9] 56 Using this network

  12. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Contamination Survivability: Material Effects Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Description of test specimen (i.e., surface condition (pretest), paint type, paint thickness (number of coats), paint condition, and surface cleanliness ), with...c. The surface condition, surface cleanliness , corrosion, materials of construction, variance from standard painting, and paint condition will be...and surface cleanliness ), with photographs will be TOP 08-2-502 22 June 2012 22 recorded. The test specimen shall be delivered, constructed

  13. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan.

  14. Sensing Biological, Chemical, and Radiation Hazards in Harsh Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    0. doi: 10.1557/mrs2010.568 05/07/2013 9.00 Lihong Bao, Zhi-Hui Xu, Rui Li, Xiaodong Li. Catalyst-Free Synthesis and Structural and Mechanical...whereas the stacking faulted CBO nanogrooves, with the absence of hydrated H2O, exhibited 99% loss in elastic modulus, compared to bulk CBO. (3) ZnO ...areas. We observed the entire melting process of individual ZnO nanobelts in situ by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy

  15. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Peter E; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M; Churchill, Cassandra D M; Tuszynski, Jack A; West, F G

    2016-06-28

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound. Microtubule polymerization assay was used to determine the effect of the new compound on microtubules. To compare the binding affinity of noscapine and the novel compound to tubulin, we have done a fluorescence quenching assay. Finally, in silico methods using docking calculations were used to illustrate the binding mode of the new compound to α,β-tubulin. Our cytotoxicity results show that the new compound is more cytotoxic than noscapine on both SKBR-3 cell lines. This was confirmed by the stronger binding affinity of the new compound, compared to noscapine, to tubulin. Surprisingly, our new compound was found to have strong microtubule-destabilizing properties, while noscapine is shown to slightly stabilize microtubules. Our calculation indicated that the new compound has more binding affinity to the colchicine-binding site than to the noscapine site. This novel compound has a more potent cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than its parent, noscapine, and hence should be of interest as a potential anti-cancer drug.

  16. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability, Large Item Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    per second (m/s)). Anemometer or similar measuring instrument with digital recording capability. ±0.1 m/s. Photographs. Still color camera...capabilities (both lethal and nonlethal) over time. TOP 08-2-509A 3 August 2016 B-1 APPENDIX B. TEST EQUIPMENT. Thermocouple. Hygrometer. Anemometer

  17. Molecular design, synthesis and evaluation of chemical biology tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin

    2017-01-01

    Chapter 1 provides a perspective of synthetic organic chemistry as a discipline involved in the design, synthesis and evaluation of complex molecules. The reader is introduced with a brief history of synthetic organic chemistry, all the while dealing with different aspects of synthe

  18. Chemical, physical and biological features of Okra pectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengkhamparn, N.

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, many plants have been used as vegetables as well as for traditional medicine. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is an example of such a plant. Examples for the medical use are treatment of gastric irritation, treatment of dental diseases, lowering cholesterol level and preven

  19. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    the first test (Table.- 833). Dissolved oxygen was at or above saturation. Mortality in the control appeared to be the result of gas supersaturation ...Reference Strain and Four Geographical Strains of Artemia as Food for Winter Flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) Larvae," Aquaculture , Vol 29, pp...EVIDENCE OF SUPERSATURATION . (1) PERCENT FOR SOLID PHASE TESTS (2) MILLIGRAMS/LITER FOR SUSPENDED PARTICULATE TESTS, DRY WEIGHTS OR COULTER COUNTS OR

  20. Biological Utilization of Wood for Production of Chemicals and Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    treatment of the hydrolyzates. Adsorption on surface-active phytochemical reduction (78, 79, 122), Large inocula can be used to over- materials (116, 144) or...Rhodotorula gracilis were screened , with and without bisulfite 2 phoaphoglyceric acid addition, for their glycerol-producing ATP = adenosine...extract concentrations were yields of glycerol contained 6.3 screening fermentations are given for varied from 0.125 to 1.0 percent as milligrams of

  1. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    1999-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1994 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 1981 through 1994. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data include laboratory determinations of nutrients, major ions, and selected metals in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN?s), and total carbon in stream-bottom sediment samples. The biological data consists of benthic macroinvertebrate population analyses and diversity indices. Chester County is undergoing rapid urbanization as agricultural lands are converted to residential, commercial, and industrial areas. The purpose of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream habitat and chemical changes in response to this urbanization.

  2. Functional Components of Carob Fruit: Linking the Chemical and Biological Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Stylos, Evgenios; Chatziathanasiadou, Maria V; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2016-11-10

    The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Advances in high-throughput screening assays, assisted by the continuous development on the instrumentation's capabilities and omics, have resulted in charting a large chemical and biological space of drug-like compounds, originating from natural sources. Herein, we attempt to integrate the information on the chemical composition and the associated biological impact of carob fruit in regards to human health. The beneficial and health-promoting effects of carob along with the clinical trials and the drug formulations derived from carob's natural components are presented in this review.

  3. Functional Components of Carob Fruit: Linking the Chemical and Biological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasios Goulas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Advances in high-throughput screening assays, assisted by the continuous development on the instrumentation’s capabilities and omics, have resulted in charting a large chemical and biological space of drug-like compounds, originating from natural sources. Herein, we attempt to integrate the information on the chemical composition and the associated biological impact of carob fruit in regards to human health. The beneficial and health-promoting effects of carob along with the clinical trials and the drug formulations derived from carob’s natural components are presented in this review.

  4. Total, chemical, and biological oxygen consumption of the sediments in the Ziya River watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-07-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is a critical dissolved oxygen (DO) sink in many rivers. Understanding the relative contributions of the biological and chemical components of SOD would improve our knowledge of the potential environmental harm SOD could cause and allow appropriate management systems to be developed. A various inhibitors addition technique was conducted to measure the total, chemical, and biological SOD of sediment samples from 13 sites in the Ziya River watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. The results showed that the major component of SOD was chemical SOD due to iron predominate. The ferrous SOD accounted for 21.6-78.9 % of the total SOD and 33.26-96.79 % of the chemical SOD. Biological SOD represented 41.13 % of the overall SOD averagely. Sulfide SOD accounted for 1.78-45.71 % of the total SOD and it was the secondary predominate of the chemical SOD. Manganous SOD accounted for 1.2-16.6 % of the total SOD and it was insignificant at many sites. Only four kinds of benthos were collected in the Ziya River watershed, resulting from the low DO concentration in the sediment surface due to SOD. This study would be helpful for understanding and preventing the potential sediment oxygen depletion during river restoration.

  5. Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    radiation for the pur- pose of weapons use I-131 8.04 d 4590 β and  0.2 43573E-05 Nuclear fusion prod- uct/medical Solid/salt Cs-137 30.17 y 3.22 β...Requirements Office (JRO) for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Defense (J-8/JRO) and the US Army Office of The Surgeon General...D)], radiation dispersal devices (RDD), and improvised nuclear devices (IND), as well as conventional nuclear weapons.”1 To accomplish this task

  6. Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

    2005-02-08

    chloride and hydroxyl (strong nucleophile) dominated experimental solutions. Because of its overwhelming abundance in solution relative to hydroxyl ion, bicarbonate likely effectively competes in nucleophilic attack on phosphorus. The addition of natural dissolved organic matter at 100 mg/L in pH 7 bicarbonate buffered solution slowed VX hydrolysis rates {approx}2 times relative to controls, suggesting hydrophobic interaction. Adsorption experiments derived isotherms from batch aqueous experiments on montmorillonite clay, iron-oxyhydroxide goethite, and on amorphous silica. VX had moderate affinity for montmorillonite and amorphous silica, and very low affinity toward goethite. The addition of dissolved organic matter into solution enhanced VX adsorption to goethite, consistent with its high affinity for hydrophobic organic matter (log K{sub oc} = 2.52). Diisopropylaminoethylthiol (DESH), a hydrolysis product of VX showed equivalent adsorption to montmorillonite, and poor affinity to goethite and silica. However, hydrolysis products O-Ethylmethylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) strongly adsorbed on goethite, but not on montmorillonite or silica, suggesting a ligand-exchange mechanism. VX degraded rapidly when completely dried onto goethite followed by rehydration, consistent with an irreversible chemical adsorption mechanism.

  7. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  8. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  9. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in

  10. Gold nanoparticle wire and integrated wire array for electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Diao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle wire and integrated nanoparticle wire array have been prepared through a green technique: discontinuous vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition. The conducting gold nanoparticle wire made by this technique shows ability for the sensitive electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules due to its high surface to volume ratio. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a potential usage of integrated gold nanoparticle wire array for the localized detection.

  11. Green Jobs: Definition and Method of Appraisal of Chemical and Biological Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheneval, Erwan; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Ostiguy, Claude; Lavoie, Jacques; Bourbonnais, Robert; Labrèche, France; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In the wake of sustainable development, green jobs are developing rapidly, changing the work environment. However a green job is not automatically a safe job. The aim of the study was to define green jobs, and to establish a preliminary risk assessment of chemical substances and biological agents for workers in Quebec. An operational definition was developed, along with criteria and sustainable development principles to discriminate green jobs from regular jobs. The potential toxicity or hazard associated with their chemical and biological exposures was assessed, and the workers' exposure appraised using an expert assessment method. A control banding approach was then used to assess risks for workers in selected green jobs. A double entry model allowed us to set priorities in terms of chemical or biological risk. Among jobs that present the highest risk potential, several are related to waste management. The developed method is flexible and could be adapted to better appraise the risks that workers are facing or to propose control measures.

  12. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach; Menace terroriste, approche medicale nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, Th. de [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, 92 - Clamart (France); Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Vidal, D. [Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees, 38 - La Tronche (France); Renaudeau, C. [Ecole du Val de Grace, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2005-07-01

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  13. Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear decontamination: Recent trends and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN decontamination is the removal of CBRN material from equipment or humans. The objective of the decontamination is to reduce radiation burden, salvage equipment, and materials, remove loose CBRN contaminants, and fix the remaining in place in preparation for protective storage or permanent disposal work activities. Decontamination may be carried out using chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical means. Like materials, humans may also be contaminated with CBRN contamination. Changes in cellular function can occur at lower radiation doses and exposure to chemicals. At high dose, cell death may take place. Therefore, decontamination of humans at the time of emergency while generating bare minimum waste is an enormous task requiring dedication of large number of personnel and large amount of time. General principles of CBRN decontamination are discussed in this review with emphasis on radiodecontamination.

  14. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  15. Chemical and biological attributes of a lowland soil affected by land leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between soil chemical and biological attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills after the land leveling process of a lowland soil. Soil samples were collected from the 0 - 0.20 m layer, before and after leveling, on a 100 point grid established in the experimental area, to evaluate chemical attributes and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC. Leveling operations altered the magnitude of soil chemical and biological attributes. Values of Ca, Mg, S, cation exchange capacity, Mn, P, Zn, and soil organic matter (SOM decreased in the soil profile, whereas Al, K, and MBC increased after leveling. Land leveling decreased in 20% SOM average content in the 0 - 0.20 m layer. The great majority of the chemical attributes did not show relations between their values and the magnitude of cuts and fills. The relation was quadratic for SOM, P, and total N, and was linear for K, showing a positive slope and indicating increase in the magnitude of these attributes in cut areas and stability in fill areas. The relationships between these chemical attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills indicate that the land leveling map may be a useful tool for degraded soil recuperation through amendments and organic fertilizers.

  16. The biological activities and chemical composition of Pereskia species (Cactaceae)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Scio, Elita

    2014-09-01

    The exploration of nature as a source of sustainable, novel bioactive substances continues to grow as natural products play a significant role in the search for new therapeutic and agricultural agents. In this context, plants of the genus Pereskia (Cactaceae) have been studied for their biological activities, and are evolving as an interesting subject in the search for new, bioactive compounds. These species are commonly used as human foodstuffs and in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review focuses on the bioactivity and chemical composition of the genus Pereskia, and aims to stimulate further studies on the chemistry and biological potential of the genus.

  17. Perspective: Reaches of chemical physics in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebele, Martin; Thirumalai, D

    2013-09-28

    Chemical physics as a discipline contributes many experimental tools, algorithms, and fundamental theoretical models that can be applied to biological problems. This is especially true now as the molecular level and the systems level descriptions begin to connect, and multi-scale approaches are being developed to solve cutting edge problems in biology. In some cases, the concepts and tools got their start in non-biological fields, and migrated over, such as the idea of glassy landscapes, fluorescence spectroscopy, or master equation approaches. In other cases, the tools were specifically developed with biological physics applications in mind, such as modeling of single molecule trajectories or super-resolution laser techniques. In this introduction to the special topic section on chemical physics of biological systems, we consider a wide range of contributions, all the way from the molecular level, to molecular assemblies, chemical physics of the cell, and finally systems-level approaches, based on the contributions to this special issue. Chemical physicists can look forward to an exciting future where computational tools, analytical models, and new instrumentation will push the boundaries of biological inquiry.

  18. Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological weather calling for an integrated approach to assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Dahl, Aslög; Bossioli, Elissavet; Baklanov, Alexander; Vik, Aasmund Fahre; Agnew, Paul; Karatzas, Kostas D; Sofiev, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today's air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.

  19. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  20. Physical, chemical, and biological data for selected streams in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1995-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2000-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 51 sampling sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 through 1997 as part of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program. This report presents data collected from 43 sites from 1995 through 1997 that constitute a continuation of the program. Physical data include water temperature, instantaneous stream discharge, pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical data collected include laboratory determinations of nutrients and major ions in whole water samples and selected metals, pesticides, gross polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), gross polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN's), and total carbon in stream-sediment samples. The biological data include benthic-macroinvertebrate populations. The data are presented without interpretation. Chester County is undergoing urbanization as agricultural land is converted to residential developments, commercial areas, and industrial and corporate parks. The major goal of the Stream Conditions of Chester County Program is to further the understanding of stream changes in response to urbanization.

  1. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  2. Chemical and biological metal nanoparticles as antimycobacterial agents: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman U; Arkile, Manisha; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Wadhwani, Sweety A; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-08-01

    Resistance among mycobacteria leading to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. However, nanotechnology has provided new insights in drug delivery and medicine development. This is the first comparative report to determine the activity of chemically and biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mycobacteria. Screening data revealed the high mycobactericidal efficiency of AgNPs, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of therapeutics for tuberculosis.

  3. Safe management of mass fatalities following chemical, biological, and radiological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Jones, Kelly A; Mobbs, Shelly F; Sepai, Ovnair; Morgan, Dilys; Murray, Virginia S G

    2009-01-01

    Contaminated mass fatalities following the release of chemical, biological, or radiological agents pose a potential major health hazard. A United Kingdom government investigation has identified a number of areas of risk. This paper presents an outline of the findings of the study and describes specific pathways for the management of contaminated and non-contaminated fatalities. Factors determining the choice between cremation and burial are discussed. Effective decontamination remains a neglected area of study for both fatalities and casualties.

  4. Biological and chemical reactivity and phosphorus forms of buffalo manure compost, vermicompost and their mixture with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phuong-Thi; Rumpel, Cornelia; Ngo, Quoc-Anh; Alexis, Marie; Velásquez Vargas, Gabriela; Mora Gil, Maria de la Luz; Dang, Dinh-Kim; Jouquet, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    This study characterized the carbon and phosphorus composition of buffalo manure, its compost and vermicompost and investigated if presence of bamboo biochar has an effect on their chemical and biological reactivity. The four substrates were characterized for chemical and biochemical composition and P forms. The biological stability of the four substrates and their mixtures were determined during an incubation experiment. Their chemical reactivity was analyzed after acid dichromate oxidation. Biological reactivity of these substrates was related to their soluble organic matter content, which decreased in the order buffalo manure>compost>vermicompost. Phosphorus was labile in all organic substrates and composting transformed organic P into plant available P. The presence of biochar led to a protection of organic matter against chemical oxidation and changed their susceptibility to biological degradation, suggesting that biochar could increase the carbon sequestration potential of compost, vermicompost and manure, when applied in mixture.

  5. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Particle size distribution and removal in the chemical-biological flocculation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; ZHAO Jian-fu; XIA Si-qing; LIU Chang-qing; KANG Xing-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The particle characterization from the influent and effluent of a chemical-biological flocculation (CBF) process was studied with a laser diffraction device. Water samples from a chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and a primary sediment tank process were also analyzed for comparison. The results showed that CBF process was not only effective for both the big size particles and small size particles removal, but also the best particle removal process in the three processes. The results also indicated that CBF process was superior to CEPT process in the heavy metals removal. The high and non-selective removal for heavy metals might be closely related to its strong ability to eliminate small particles. Samples from different locations in CBF reactors showed that small particles were easier to aggregate into big ones and those disrupted flocs could properly flocculate again along CBF reactor because of the biological flocculation.

  7. Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker’s yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II ion as 500 μmol g−1. Sorption processes of lead(II by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0±3.0–5.0% by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents.

  8. Zebrafish whole-adult-organism chemogenomics for large-scale predictive and discovery chemical biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hong Lam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform large-scale, expression-based chemogenomics on whole adult organisms, as in invertebrate models (worm and fly, is highly desirable for a vertebrate model but its feasibility and potential has not been demonstrated. We performed expression-based chemogenomics on the whole adult organism of a vertebrate model, the zebrafish, and demonstrated its potential for large-scale predictive and discovery chemical biology. Focusing on two classes of compounds with wide implications to human health, polycyclic (halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons [P(HAHs] and estrogenic compounds (ECs, we generated robust prediction models that can discriminate compounds of the same class from those of different classes in two large independent experiments. The robust expression signatures led to the identification of biomarkers for potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR and estrogen receptor (ER agonists, respectively, and were validated in multiple targeted tissues. Knowledge-based data mining of human homologs of zebrafish genes revealed highly conserved chemical-induced biological responses/effects, health risks, and novel biological insights associated with AHR and ER that could be inferred to humans. Thus, our study presents an effective, high-throughput strategy of capturing molecular snapshots of chemical-induced biological states of a whole adult vertebrate that provides information on biomarkers of effects, deregulated signaling pathways, and possible affected biological functions, perturbed physiological systems, and increased health risks. These findings place zebrafish in a strategic position to bridge the wide gap between cell-based and rodent models in chemogenomics research and applications, especially in preclinical drug discovery and toxicology.

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  11. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  13. Deterrence and Cyber-Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    accessible for a couple of hours. Although important, defacement or lack of availability of Court digital services is relatively insignificant to...of which could be accomplished by a relatively easy and cheap attack on the availability of digital services . Russia did not need to deeply affect...variety of targets will be severely more restricted than in a digitally robust society. Secondly, because a minority of the citizens relies on digital

  14. Nuclear Weapon and Military Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Natarajan

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Military equipment must survive a, nuclear attack if enough personnel required to operate them remain combat effective. To achieve this goal, the criteria that determine equipment survivability should be established and any new design should incorporate these criteria to evolve a hardened design. An analysis of the overall response by considering the response to each individual nuclear environment can result in a balanced overall hardened system. The paper discusses the criteria required to be known.

  15. Leukemia, an effective model for chemical biology and target therapy1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qiang CHEN; Li-shun WANG; Ying-li WU; Yun YU

    2007-01-01

    The rapid rise of chemical biology aimed at studying signaling networks for basic cellular activities using specific, active small molecules as probes has greatly accelerated research on pathological mechanisms and target therapy of diseases.This research is especially important for malignant tumors such as leukemia, a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies that occurs worldwide. With the use of a chemical approach combined with genetic manipulation, great progresshas been achieved over the past few decades on the biological, molecular and cytogenetic aspects of leukemia, and in its diagnosis and therapy. In particular,discoveries of the clinical effectiveness of all-trans rctinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia and the kinase inhibitorsImatinib and Dasatinib in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia not only make target therapy of leukemia a reality, but also push mechanisms of leukemo-genesis and leukemic cell activities forward. This review will outline advances in chemical biology that help our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and apoptosis induction and target therapy of leukemia.

  16. Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters of the Three Rural Ponds of Sasaram of Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Choudhary

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico chemical and biological parameters of the three rural pond of Sasaram,Bihar has been studied to see the present condition for its better utilization. The study revealed that parameters are within permissible limit for fish culture and the stocking should be done as per the productivity of the water. As per the BOD estimation the ponds falls under moderately polluted category.

  17. Chemical and biological indicators of water quality in three agricultural watersheds of the Po valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on quality of surface water and is one of the key activities causing water quality degradation. Its environmental impact can be evaluated by the determination of indicators of the quality of water bodies that collect drainage and runoff waters from agricultural watersheds. For this research, the water quality draining from three watersheds, totally or partially cultivated, all within the Po river valley (Italy, was determined, using chemical indicators (N-NO3 and N-NH4 concentration, N balance, trophic status (chlorophyll-a concentration and benthic population indexes. Together, they should provide an overview of the water status, which is supposed to be strictly related to the land use and the management. Results show that the chemical parameters are well related to land use and farming management: intensive agricultural activity leads to high N-NO3 concentration in water and N surplus and vice versa. The chlorophyll-a concentration follows the same trend, being linked to nitrogen loads and land use. Not always there is accordance between chemical and biological indicators: no direct correspondence is evident between the N-NO3 concentration in waters and benthic community. Its presence and abundance seems to be mostly correlated with the geomorphology, hydrology, riparian strips, etc. of the habitat than to the land use. Only the integration of chemical and biological parameters allows a correct understanding of the state of health of water body and benthic communities.

  18. Characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of propolis from Al-Bahah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakady, Yasser A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Franke, Raimo; Abutaha, Nael; Ebaid, Hossam; Baabbad, Mohannad; Omar, Mohamed O. M.; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A.

    2017-02-01

    Propolis has been used to treat several diseases since ancient times, and is an important source of bioactive natural compounds and drug derivatives. These properties have kept the interest of investigators around the world, leading to the investigation of the chemical and biological properties and application of propolis. In this report, the chemical constituents that are responsible for the anticancer activities of propolis were analyzed. The propolis was sourced from Al-Baha in the southern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Standard protocols for chemical fractionation and bioactivity-guided chemical analysis were used to identify the bio-active ethyl acetate fraction. The extraction was performed in methanol and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major compounds are triterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 74.0%; steroids, with a relative concentration of 9.8%; and diterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 7.9%. The biological activity was characterized using different approaches and cell-based assays. Propolis was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-α-tubulin antibodies and cell cycle analysis indicated that tubulin and/or microtubules are the cellular targets of the L-acetate fraction. This study demonstrates the importance of Saudi propolis as anti-cancer drug candidates.

  19. Harmonizing the Chemical Weapons Convention with the United States Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    perceptive and positive critique; * Professor M. Cherif Bassiouni of the DePaul University College of Law for his numerous insights; "* Burrus M. Carnahan...intrusiveness. See Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Ass’n, 489 U.S. 602, 109 S. Ct. 1402, 1413 (1989) (urinalysis invades privacy). See generally...of the circumstances allowing testing. See also Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Ass’n, 489 U.S. 602, 109 S. Ct. 1402 (1989); (upholding drug

  20. Medical preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) events: gaps and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Diana; Waruszynski, Barbara; Mazurik, Laurie; Szymczak, Ann-Marie; Redmond, Erin; Lichacz, Fred

    2010-11-01

    The Workshop on Medical Preparedness for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) events: national scan was held on 20 and 21 May 2010 at the Diefenbunker Museum in Ottawa, Canada. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the CBRNE Research and Technology Initiative with a Canadian national profile of existing capabilities and anticipated gaps in casualty management consistent with the community emergency response requirements. The workshop was organised to enable extensive round-table discussions and provide a summary of key gaps and recommendations for emergency response planners.

  1. [Chemical and biological characterization of meal and protein isolates from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, J M; Takashima, M K

    1992-12-01

    The present study was carried out in order to check through chemical and biological analyses the nutritional characteristics of pumpkin seed, its delipidized meal and its proteic concentrate, considering its availability, nutritional potential, facility for production in poor soils and the need for new food resources. Another objective was to complement the amino acid pattern of pumpkin with others protein sources for human consumption. The results obtained indicate that: Raw pumpkin seed meal has a proteic values of 37.6% and the delipidized meal 68.8%; The PER values for raw seed meal and delipidized meal were 2.26 and 1.65, respectively; The chemical composition revealed that the delipized pumpkin seed meal was limited in threonine (66.8%); The isolate and seed meal proteins were both complemented with lysine and with cowpea bean meal; Whole pumpkin seed meal obtained from variety Caravelle is a good caloric material (approximately 568 cal/100 g).

  2. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach; Menace terroriste nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique - approche medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S

    2005-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  3. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  4. Laser-micromachined and laminated microfluidic components for miniaturized thermal, chemical, and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Stewart, Donald C.; Lin, Yuehe

    1999-03-01

    Microchannel microfluidic components are being developed for heat transfer, chemical reactor, chemical analysis, and biological analytical applications. Specific applications include chemical sensing, DNA replication, blood analysis, capillary electrophoresis, fuel cell reactors, high temperature chemical reactors, heat pumps, combustors, and fuel processors. Two general types of component architectures have been developed and the fabrication processes defined. All involve a lamination scheme using plastic, ceramic, or metal laminates, as opposed to planar components. The first type is a stacked architecture that utilizes functionality built in each layer, with fluid flow interconnects between layers. Each layer of the laminate has specific microchannel geometry, and performs a specific function. Polymeric materials are used primarily. Fabrication processes used are laser micromachining, wet and dry etching, and coating deposition. the laminates can also be micromolded plastics. The second architecture employs laminates to form internal microchannels and interconnects. Materials include ceramic tapes and high temperature metals. Catalysts can be placed in the microchannels. Fabrication processes used are diffusion bonding, ceramic bonding and firing, photochemical etching, and electrochemical micromachining. Bonding, thus sealing, the laminates is an important issue. Process conditions have been develop to reduce distortion of the laminates and to hermetically seal the components.

  5. Recent developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, David J; Johnson, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling is a well-known biochemical technique that has grown significantly since the turn of the century, principally due to its combination with bioorthogonal/click chemistry reactions. This review highlights new developments and applications of clickable photoprobes in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. In particular, recent examples of clickable photoprobes for target identification, activity- or affinity-based protein profiling (ABPP or AfBPP), characterization of sterol- or lipid-protein interactions and characterization of ligand-binding sites are presented.

  6. Long-term retrievability and safeguards for immobilized weapons plutonium in geologic storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium is not ultimately used as an energy source, the quantity of excess weapons plutonium (w-Pu) that would go into a US repository will be small compared to the quantity of plutonium contained in the commercial spent fuel in the repository, and the US repository(ies) will likely be only one (or two) locations out of many around the world where commercial spent fuel will be stored. Therefore excess weapons plutonium creates a small perturbation to the long-term (over 200,000 yr) global safeguard requirements for spent fuel. There are details in the differences between spent fuel and immobilized w-Pu waste forms (i.e. chemical separation methods, utility for weapons, nuclear testing requirements), but these are sufficiently small to be unlikely to play a significant role in any US political decision to rebuild weapons inventories, or to change the long-term risks of theft by subnational groups.

  7. Cell reprogramming: a new chemical approach to stem cell biology and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, L; Piccoli, M; Garatti, A; Conforti, E; Scaringi, R; Bergante, S; Castelvecchio, S; Venerando, B; Menicanti, L; Tettamanti, G

    2011-02-01

    Generation of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult fibroblasts starts a "new era" in stem cell biology, as it overcomes several key issues associated with previous approaches, including the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem cells. However, as the genetic approach for cell reprogramming has already shown potential safety issues, a chemical approach may be a safer and easier alternative. Moreover, a chemical approach could be advantageous not only for the de-differentiation phase, but also for inducing reprogrammed cells into the desired cell type with higher efficiency than current methodologies. Finally, a chemical approach may be envisioned to activate resident adult stem cells to proliferate and regenerate damaged tissues in situ, without the need for exogenous cell injections.

  8. Chemical synthetic biology: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano eChiarabelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical synthetic biology (CSB is a branch of synthetic biology (SB oriented towards the synthesis of chemical structures alternative to those present in nature. Whereas SB combines biology and engineering with the aim of synthesizing biological structures or life forms that do not exist in nature – often based on genome manipulation, CSB uses and assembles biological parts, synthetic or not, to create new and alternative structures. A short epistemological note will introduce the theoretical concepts related to these fields, whereas the text will be largely devoted to introduce and comment two main projects of CSB, carried out in our laboratory in the recent years.The Never Born Biopolymers (NBB project deals with the construction and the screening of RNA and peptide sequences that are not present in nature, whereas the Minimal Cell project focuses on the construction of semi-synthetic compartments (usually liposomes containing the minimal and sufficient number of components to perform the basic function of a biological cell.These two topics are extremely important for both the general understanding of biology in terms of function, organization and development, and for applied biotechnology.

  9. Preparing for a Nightmare: USNORTHCOM’S Homeland Defense Mission Against Chemical and Biological Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    radiological and nuclear defense. 3 The United States is not secure. The borders between Mexico and Canada are largely unmonitored and illicit...weapons. Commercial air travel may be mostly secured since September 11, 2001, but that does not preclude nefarious actions utilizing non- commercial...Rising rates of antibiotic resistant bacteria or “superbugs,” threaten to cause an epidemic stemming from previously treatable diseases. 19 Viruses are

  10. Chemical reactivity and biological activity of chalcones and other α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydt, Daniela; De Spirt, Silke; Muschelknautz, Christian; Stahl, Wilhelm; Müller, Thomas J J

    2013-08-01

    Abstract 1. Chalcones are structural analogues of benzalacetophenone (BAP). Several derivatives have been identified in plants and anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties were attributed to the compounds, probably related to their direct antioxidant activity or stimulatory effects on the expression of endogenous defence enzymes like hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 expression is triggered by the Nrf2-Keap1 signalling pathway, initiated by the addition of chalcones to thiol groups of Keap1 via Michael-type reaction. 2. The present study used a model system estimating the reactivity of different synthetic chalcones and other α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with thiols and compared the chemical reactivity with the biological activity, measured by HO-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. 3. Chemical reactivity with the thiol group of N-acetylcysteine was determined with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and followed chemical principles of structure-reactivity relationship. Most reactive were sulforaphane, dimethylfumarate, chalcone 3 ((2E)-1-phenyl-3-pyrimidin-2-ylprop-2-en-1-one) and chalcone 7 (1,3-diphenylprop-2-yn-1-one). This result demonstrates that α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives react with thiols differently. All compounds were also biologically active; however, expression of HO-1 was not only related to the chemical reactivity but also to the lipophilicity of the molecules which likely affected transmembrane uptake. Most efficient inducers of HO-1 expression were BAP, 4-hydroxynonenal and chalcone 1 (4-[(1E)-3-oxo-3-phenylprop-1-en-1-yl]benzonitrile), chalcone 5 ((2E)-1-phenyl-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one) and chalcone 7.

  11. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly...

  12. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  13. Chem2Bio2RDF: a semantic framework for linking and data mining chemogenomic and systems chemical biology data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Huijun; Jiao Dazhi; Dong Xiao; Chen Bin; Zhu Qian; Ding Ying; Wild David J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently there has been an explosion of new data sources about genes, proteins, genetic variations, chemical compounds, diseases and drugs. Integration of these data sources and the identification of patterns that go across them is of critical interest. Initiatives such as Bio2RDF and LODD have tackled the problem of linking biological data and drug data respectively using RDF. Thus far, the inclusion of chemogenomic and systems chemical biology information that crosses th...

  14. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many

  15. Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2011-01-01

    As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

  16. President Nixon’s Decision to Renounce the U.S. Offensive Biological Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    fever and the virus that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis); and two types of anticrop weapons (the fungi that cause wheat rust and rice blast...countermeasures, such as vaccines or antibiotics . At the same time, the PSAC favored keeping BW production facilities in a standby state of readiness and...Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus; liquid suspensions of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Q-fever rickettsia; and tens of thousands of

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Tracking SERS-active nanoprobe intracellular uptake for chemical and biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregas, Molly K.; Yan, Fei; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Khoury, Christopher; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-01

    A critical aspect of the use of nanoprobes for intracellular studies in chemical and biological sensing involves a fundamental understanding of their uptake and trajectory in cells. In this study, we describe experiments using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and mapping to track cellular uptake of plasmonics-active labeled nanoparticles. Three different Raman-active labels with positive, negative, and neutral charges were conjugated to silver colloidal nanoparticles with the aim of spatially and temporally profiling intracellular delivery and tracking of nanoprobes during uptake in single mammalian cells. 1-D Raman spectra and 2-D Raman mapping are used to identify and locate the probes via their SERS signal intensities. Because Raman spectroscopy is very specific for identification of chemical and molecular signatures, the development of functionalized plasmonics-active nanoprobes capable of exploring intracellular spaces and processes has the ability to provide specific information on the effects of biological and chemical pollutants in the intracellular environment. The results indicate that this technique will allow study of when, where, and how these substances affect cells and living organisms.

  19. Corrosion and conservation of weapons and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore V. Jegdić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the conditions for the occurrence of corrosion processes on historically important weapons and military equipment made of steel during the period in outdoor environment. A considerable attention has been given to the characteristics of the most important corrosion products formed on the steel surface. The formation of akaganite, β-FeOOH is a sign of active corrosion under a layer of corrosion products. The conditions that cause the formation and regeneration of hydrochloric and sulphuric acid during the exposure to the elements were analyzed. The most often applied methods of diagnostics and procedures of removing active corrosion anions (desalination were described as well. The NaOH solution of certain pH values still has the most important application for the desalination process. The procedures for cleaning the surface before the application of protective coatings and the application of chemicals that transform rust into stable compounds were discussed. As protective coatings, different types of organic coatings plated on well-prepared steel surfaces were used and sometimes special types of waxes as well. This paper presents the results of the tests of corrosion products taken from the exhibits of weapons and military equipment from the Military Museum in Belgrade.

  20. Chemical Biology Approaches to Genome Editing: Understanding, Controlling, and Delivering Programmable Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Johnny H; Davis, Kevin M; Liu, David R

    2016-01-21

    Programmable DNA nucleases have provided scientists with the unprecedented ability to probe, regulate, and manipulate the human genome. Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 system (CRISPR-Cas9) represent a powerful array of tools that can bind to and cleave a specified DNA sequence. In their canonical forms, these nucleases induce double-strand breaks at a DNA locus of interest that can trigger cellular DNA repair processes that disrupt or replace genes. The fusion of these programmable nucleases with a variety of other protein domains has led to a rapidly growing suite of tools for activating, repressing, visualizing, and modifying loci of interest. Maximizing the usefulness and therapeutic relevance of these tools, however, requires precisely controlling their activity and specificity to minimize potentially toxic side effects arising from off-target activities. This need has motivated the application of chemical biology principles and methods to genome-editing proteins, including the engineering of variants of these proteins with improved or altered specificities, and the development of genetic, chemical, optical, and protein delivery methods that control the activity of these agents in cells. Advancing the capabilities, safety, effectiveness, and therapeutic relevance of genome-engineering proteins will continue to rely on chemical biology strategies that manipulate their activity, specificity, and localization.

  1. Treatment of textile effluent by chemical (Fenton's Reagent) and biological (sequencing batch reactor) oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luis M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2009-12-30

    The removal of organic compounds and colour from a synthetic effluent simulating a cotton dyeing wastewater was evaluated by using a combined process of Fenton's Reagent oxidation and biological degradation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The experimental design methodology was first applied to the chemical oxidation process in order to determine the values of temperature, ferrous ion concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration that maximize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour removals and increase the effluent's biodegradability. Additional studies on the biological oxidation (SBR) of the raw and previously submitted to Fenton's oxidation effluent had been performed during 15 cycles (i.e., up to steady-state conditions), each one with the duration of 11.5h; Fenton's oxidation was performed either in conditions that maximize the colour removal or the increase in the biodegradability. The obtained results allowed concluding that the combination of the two treatment processes provides much better removals of DOC, BOD(5) and colour than the biological or chemical treatment alone. Moreover, the removal of organic matter in the integrated process is particularly effective when Fenton's pre-oxidation is carried out under conditions that promote the maximum increase in wastewater biodegradability.

  2. Use of chemicals and biological products in Asian aquacultire and their potential environmental risks: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Satapornvanit, K.; Haque, M.M.; Min, J.; Nguyen, P.T.; Telfer, T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, Asian aquaculture production has intensified rapidly through the adoption of technological advances, and the use of a wide array of chemical and biological products to control sediment and water quality and to treat and prevent disease outbreaks. The use of chemicals in aq

  3. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.

  4. Using chemical biology to assess and modulate mitochondria: progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of mitochondria in biomedical sciences has expanded considerably over the past decade. In addition to their well-known metabolic roles, mitochondrial are also central to signalling for various processes through the generation of signals such as ROS and metabolites that affect cellular homeostasis, as well as other processes such as cell death and inflammation. Thus, mitochondrial function and dysfunction are central to the health and fate of the cell. Consequently, there is considerable interest in better understanding and assessing the many roles of mitochondria. Furthermore, there is also a growing realization that mitochondrial are a promising drug target in a wide range of pathologies. The application of interdisciplinary approaches at the interface between chemistry and biology are opening up new opportunities to understand mitochondrial function and in assessing the role of the organelle in biology. This work and the experience thus gained are leading to the development of new classes of therapies. Here, we overview the progress that has been made to date on exploring the chemical biology of the organelle and then focus on future challenges and opportunities that face this rapidly developing field. PMID:28382206

  5. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  7. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  8. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  9. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  10. Biochar and hydrochar reactivity assessed by chemical, physical and biological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisse, Christophe; Alexis, Marie; Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; pozzi, Alessandro; Carcaillet, Christopher; Criscuoli, Irene; Miglietta, Franco; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Field application of biochar is intended to increase soil carbon (C) storage. The assessment of C storage potential of biochars lacks methods and standard materials. In this study, we compared the chemical reactivity of biochars and hydrochars and their potential mineralisation before and after physical weathering as one possibility to evaluate their environmental stability. We used biochars produced by gasification (GSs) and hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTCs) produced from three different feedstocks as well as Holocene charcoals (150 and 2000 yr old). Their chemical reactivity was analysed after acid dichromate oxidation and their mineralisation potential after laboratory incubations before and after physical weathering. Our results showed that use of acid dichromate oxidation may allow for differentiation of the reactivity of modern biochars but that chemical reactivity of biochars is poorly suited to assess their environmental residence time because it may change with exposure time in soil. Physical weathering induced a carbon loss and increased biological stability of biochar, while reducing its positive priming effect on native soil organic matter. Model extrapolations based on our data showed that decadal C sequestration potential of GS and HTC is globally equivalent when all losses including those due to priming and physical weathering were taken into account. However, at century scale only GS may have the potential to increase soil C storage.

  11. Monitoring Chemical and Biological Electron Transfer Reactions with a Fluorogenic Vitamin K Analogue Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Mei-Ni; Godin, Robert; Durantini, Andrés M; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2016-12-21

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a two-segment fluorogenic analogue of vitamin K, B-VKQ, prepared by coupling vitamin K3, also known as menadione (a quinone redox center), to a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore (a lipophilic reporter segment). Oxidation-reduction reactions, spectroelectrochemical studies, and enzymatic assays conducted in the presence of DT-diaphorase illustrate that the new probe shows reversible redox behavior on par with that of vitamin K, provides a high-sensitivity fluorescence signal, and is compatible with biological conditions, opening the door to monitor remotely (i.e., via imaging) redox processes in real time. In its oxidized form, B-VKQ is non-emissive, while upon reduction to the hydroquinone form, B-VKQH2, BODIPY fluorescence is restored, with emission quantum yield values of ca. 0.54 in toluene. Density functional theory studies validate a photoinduced electron transfer intramolecular switching mechanism, active in the non-emissive quinone form and deactivated upon reduction to the emissive dihydroquinone form. Our results highlight the potential of B-VKQ as a fluorogenic probe to study electron transfer and transport in model systems and biological structures with optimal sensitivity and desirable chemical specificity. Use of such a probe may enable a better understanding of the role that vitamin K plays in biological redox reactions ubiquitous in key cellular processes, and help elucidate the mechanism and pathological significance of these reactions in biological systems.

  12. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in Weeks Bay, Alabama (June 1990 - May 2000) (NODC Accession 0116469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: This dataset contains ten years of physical, chemical, and biological data collected during shipboard surveys in Weeks Bay, Alabama, between June 1990 and...

  13. Contrasting patterns of tolerance between chemical and biological insecticides in mosquitoes exposed to UV-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2013-09-15

    Mosquitoes are vectors of major human diseases, such as malaria, dengue or yellow fever. Because no efficient treatments or vaccines are available for most of these diseases, control measures rely mainly on reducing mosquito populations by the use of insecticides. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors are known to modulate the efficacy of insecticides used in mosquito control. Mosquito breeding sites vary from opened to high vegetation covered areas leading to a large ultraviolet gradient exposure. This ecological feature may affect the general physiology of the insect, including the resistance status against insecticides. In the context of their contrasted breeding sites, we assessed the impact of low-energetic ultraviolet exposure on mosquito sensitivity to biological and chemical insecticides. We show that several mosquito detoxification enzyme activities (cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases, esterases) were increased upon low-energy UV-A exposure. Additionally, five specific genes encoding detoxification enzymes (CYP6BB2, CYP6Z7, CYP6Z8, GSTD4, and GSTE2) previously shown to be involved in resistance to chemical insecticides were found over-transcribed in UV-A exposed mosquitoes, revealed by RT-qPCR experiments. More importantly, toxicological bioassays revealed that UV-exposed mosquitoes were more tolerant to four main chemical insecticide classes (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, temephos), whereas the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) appeared more toxic. The present article provides the first experimental evidence of the capacity of low-energy UV-A to increase mosquito tolerance to major chemical insecticides. This is also the first time that a metabolic resistance to chemical insecticides is linked to a higher susceptibility to a bioinsecticide. These results support the use of Bti as an efficient alternative to chemical insecticides when a metabolic resistance to chemicals has been developed by mosquitoes.

  14. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, F., E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sannino, A.; Pollini, M. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag{sub 2}O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed.

  15. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  16. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  17. Physical, chemical, and biological data collected in Mobile Bay, Alabama in May 1989-December 1999 (NODC Accession 0116496)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during ten years of near-monthly shipboard surveys carried out in Mobile Bay between May 1989...

  18. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  19. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  20. Estimating Escherichia coli loads in streams based on various physical, chemical, and biological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Mohanty, Binayak P; Lesikar, Bruce J

    2013-05-01

    Microbes have been identified as a major contaminant of water resources. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator organism. It is well recognized that the fate of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by multiple physical, chemical, and biological factors. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the physical, chemical, and biological factors along with their interactions that are critical in the estimation of E. coli loads in surface streams. There are various models to predict E. coli loads in streams, but they tend to be system or site specific or overly complex without enhancing our understanding of these factors. Hence, based on available data, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) is presented for estimating E. coli loads based on physical, chemical, and biological factors in streams. The BNN has the dual advantage of overcoming the absence of quality data (with regards to consistency in data) and determination of mechanistic model parameters by employing a probabilistic framework. This study evaluates whether the BNN model can be an effective alternative tool to mechanistic models for E. coli loads estimation in streams. For this purpose, a comparison with a traditional model (LOADEST, USGS) is conducted. The models are compared for estimated E. coli loads based on available water quality data in Plum Creek, Texas. All the model efficiency measures suggest that overall E. coli loads estimations by the BNN model are better than the E. coli loads estimations by the LOADEST model on all the three occasions (three-fold cross validation). Thirteen factors were used for estimating E. coli loads with the exhaustive feature selection technique, which indicated that six of thirteen factors are important for estimating E. coli loads. Physical factors included temperature and dissolved oxygen; chemical factors include phosphate and ammonia; biological factors include suspended solids and chlorophyll. The results highlight that the LOADEST model

  1. [Asbestos substitutes and their biological effects. 2. Synthetic amphiboles--their physico-chemical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, E; Szczepaniak, M; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Woźniak, H

    1992-01-01

    Metal content in the chemical structure of asbestos and man-made mineral fibres can affect their carcinogenic properties. As the chemical composition (metal content) of man-made silicate substitutes for asbestos can be varied almost at will in the process of their manufacture, the search for potentially least carcinogenic silicates appears to be of utmost importance. This paper presents diffractometric characteristics, dimensional analysis and morphology data for 4 synthetic amphibole fibres with chemical compositions differing from that of natural crocidolite amphibole. Those included the following synthetic amphiboles: Na2Mg6Ge8O22(OH)2; Na2Ni6Si8O22(OH)2; Na2Mg6Si8O22(OH)2; Na2Co6Si8O22(OH)2. The studied amphiboles differed in fibre length and diameter. The magnesium amphibole contained the longest (6.03 microns) fibres, and the nickel amphibole contained the shortest (2.7 microns) fibres, resembling those of crocidolite. The highest content (54.7%) of respirable fibres was found in the magnesium amphibole, and the lowest (15.9%) in the natural crocidolite. The authors suggest that the detected differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of the synthetic amphiboles may affect their biological properties.

  2. Research and Analytical Evaluation of the Soviet Union and Modernization of Nuclear Weapons Forces in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Ministry "expert," Major General Anatoly Kuntsevich , and other Soviet officials held a press conference in Moscow on chemical weapons in which he stated...among other thinqs, that "the United Stated model of war is to fight on another’s territory and spill others’ blood." In reply to a question, Kuntsevich

  3. [Mechanism of intermolecular energy transfer and reception of ultralow action by chemical and biological systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall', L N; Gall', N R

    2009-01-01

    A novel concept of intermolecular energy transfer and reception of the ultralow action in living systems is proposed. The concept is based on the methods of nonlinear mathematical physics used in description of energy movement along molecular chains and on quantum mechanical ideas concerning signal formation in anisotropic media. A concept of a molecular cell as an indivisible structural unit and a constituent of a biological (chemical) system has been put forward and substantiated, which manifests collective features of the unity of molecules, physical fields, and energetically strained bound water media in processes of energy transfer and reception. Both intermolecular energy transfer and amplification of the ultralow action has been shown to be the components of a unified energy process in a living system, and the physical basis of both processes is the unity of molecules and water-field media in a molecular cell.

  4. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  5. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  6. Expanding the chemical palate of cells by combining systems biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kathleen A; Alper, Hal S

    2012-07-01

    The field of Metabolic Engineering has recently undergone a transformation that has led to a rapid expansion of the chemical palate of cells. Now, it is conceivable to produce nearly any organic molecule of interest using a cellular host. Significant advances have been made in the production of biofuels, biopolymers and precursors, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, and commodity and specialty chemicals. Much of this rapid expansion in the field has been, in part, due to synergies and advances in the area of systems biology. Specifically, the availability of functional genomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics data has resulted in the potential to produce a wealth of new products, both natural and non-natural, in cellular factories. The sheer amount and diversity of this data however, means that uncovering and unlocking novel chemistries and insights is a non-obvious exercise. To address this issue, a number of computational tools and experimental approaches have been developed to help expedite the design process to create new cellular factories. This review will highlight many of the systems biology enabling technologies that have reduced the design cycle for engineered hosts, highlight major advances in the expanded diversity of products that can be synthesized, and conclude with future prospects in the field of metabolic engineering.

  7. Enhanced detectability of fluorinated derivatives of N,N-dialkylamino alcohols and precursors of nitrogen mustards by gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for verification of chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Prabhat; Purohit, Ajay; Tak, Vijay K; Dubey, D K

    2009-11-06

    N,N-Dialkylamino alcohols, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine and triethanolamine are the precursors of VX type nerve agents and three different nitrogen mustards respectively. Their detection and identification is of paramount importance for verification analysis of chemical weapons convention. GC-FTIR is used as complimentary technique to GC-MS analysis for identification of these analytes. One constraint of GC-FTIR, its low sensitivity, was overcome by converting the analytes to their fluorinated derivatives. Owing to high absorptivity in IR region, these derivatives facilitated their detection by GC-FTIR analysis. Derivatizing reagents having trimethylsilyl, trifluoroacyl and heptafluorobutyryl groups on imidazole moiety were screened. Derivatives formed there were analyzed by GC-FTIR quantitatively. Of these reagents studied, heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) produced the greatest increase in sensitivity by GC-FTIR detection. 60-125 folds of sensitivity enhancement were observed for the analytes by HFBI derivatization. Absorbance due to various functional groups responsible for enhanced sensitivity were compared by determining their corresponding relative molar extinction coefficients ( [Formula: see text] ) considering uniform optical path length. The RSDs for intraday repeatability and interday reproducibility for various derivatives were 0.2-1.1% and 0.3-1.8%. Limit of detection (LOD) was achieved up to 10-15ng and applicability of the method was tested with unknown samples obtained in international proficiency tests.

  8. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  9. Handheld hyperspectral imager for standoff detection of chemical and biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Jensen, James O.; McAnally, Gerard

    2004-08-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small hand held imaging spectrometer, Sherlock, for gas leak and aerosol detection and imaging. The system is based on a patented technique, (IMSS Image Multi-spectral Sensing), that uses diffractive optics and image processing algorithms to detect spectral information about objects in the scene of the camera. This cameras technology has been tested at Dugway Proving Ground and Dstl Porton Down facilities looking at Chemical and Biological agent simulants. In addition to Chemical and Biological detection, the camera has been used for environmental monitoring of green house gases and is currently undergoing extensive laboratory and field testing by the Gas Technology Institute, British Petroleum and Shell Oil for applications for gas leak detection and repair. In this paper we will present some of the results from the data collection at the TRE test at Dugway Proving Ground during the summer of 2002 and laboratory testing at the Dstl facility at Porton Down in the UK in the fall of 2002.

  10. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-07-06

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed.

  11. Structural, Chemical and Biological Aspects of Antioxidants for Strategies Against Metal and Metalloid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties.

  12. Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    performance, reliability , etc. may require additional weapons and spare barrels. d. Whenever a certain minimum number of weapons is specified in...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Small Arms Systems Division (TEDT-AT-FP-S) US Army Aberdeen Test Center 400 Colleran Road Aberdeen...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), AD No.: This TOP supersedes

  13. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  14. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Reality theory: A means to control the public`s fear of chemical weapons use. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    On 20 March 1995 terrorists released the chemical nerve agent sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 10 commuters and changing the public`s attitude about the most basic aspect of their lives: the air they breathe and the daily ritual of their commute to work. This is the new threat the United States must face: terrorism and its attack on the will of the people forcing governments to yield to the terrorists` position. Yet there is a different public response in warfare compared with a peacetime terrorist attack. This paper examines the psychological response of people in wartime and applies this description to chemical weapons use in war and in peace. The public`s response can be predicted if one uses reality theory, a concept leaders can use to mitigate responses that would prevent the execution of national strategy.

  16. Predicting Salmonella populations from biological, chemical, and physical indicators in Florida surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Mootian, Gabriel; Goodridge, Lawrence D; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2013-07-01

    Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and various physicochemical water characteristics have been suggested as indicators of microbial water quality or index organisms for pathogen populations. The relationship between the presence and/or concentration of Salmonella and biological, physical, or chemical indicators in Central Florida surface water samples over 12 consecutive months was explored. Samples were taken monthly for 12 months from 18 locations throughout Central Florida (n = 202). Air and water temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, and conductivity were measured. Weather data were obtained from nearby weather stations. Aerobic plate counts and most probable numbers (MPN) for Salmonella, E. coli, and coliforms were performed. Weak linear relationships existed between biological indicators (E. coli/coliforms) and Salmonella levels (R(2) Salmonella levels (R(2) Salmonella levels. The lack of good correlations between biological indicators and Salmonella levels and between physicochemical indicators and Salmonella levels shows that the relationship between pathogens and indicators is complex. However, Escherichia coli provides a reasonable way to predict Salmonella levels in Central Florida surface water through logistic regression.

  17. Reactive species and DNA damage in chronic inflammation: reconciling chemical mechanisms and biological fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonkar, Pallavi; Dedon, Peter C

    2011-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has long been recognized as a risk factor for many human cancers. One mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer involves the generation of nitric oxide, superoxide and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by macrophages and neutrophils that infiltrate sites of inflammation. Although pathologically high levels of these reactive species cause damage to biological molecules, including DNA, nitric oxide at lower levels plays important physiological roles in cell signaling and apoptosis. This raises the question of inflammation-induced imbalances in physiological and pathological pathways mediated by chemical mediators of inflammation. At pathological levels, the damage sustained by nucleic acids represents the full spectrum of chemistries and likely plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This suggests that DNA damage products could serve as biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in clinically accessible compartments such as blood and urine. However, recent studies of the biotransformation of DNA damage products before excretion point to a weakness in our understanding of the biological fates of the DNA lesions and thus to a limitation in the use of DNA lesions as biomarkers. This review will address these and other issues surrounding inflammation-mediated DNA damage on the road to cancer.

  18. Analytical Applications of Nanomaterials in Monitoring Biological and Chemical Contaminants in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Young-Rok

    2016-09-28

    The detection of food pathogens is an important aspect of food safety. A range of detection systems and new analytical materials have been developed to achieve fast, sensitive, and accurate monitoring of target pathogens. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of selected nanomaterials and their applications in food, and place focus on the monitoring of biological and chemical contaminants in food. The unique optical and electrical properties of nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles, nanorods, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, nanopores, and polydiacetylene nanovesicles, are closely associated with their dimensions, which are comparable in scale to those of targeted biomolecules. Furthermore, their optical and electrical properties are highly dependent on local environments, which make them promising materials for sensor development. The specificity and selectivity of analytical nanomaterials for target contaminants can be achieved by combining them with various biological entities, such as antibodies, oligonucleotides, aptamers, membrane proteins, and biological ligands. Examples of nanomaterial-based analytical systems are presented together with their limitations and associated developmental issues.

  19. Biological activities and chemical constituents of some mangrove species from Sundarban estuary: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritra Simlai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review represents the studies performed on some beneficial mangrove plants such as Ceriops decandra, Xylocarpus granatum, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Excoecaria agallocha, Sarcolobus globosus, Sonneratia caseolaris and Acanthus ilicifolius from the Sundarban estuary spanning India and Bangladesh with regard to their biological activities and chemical investigations till date. Sundarban is the largest single chunk of mangrove forest in the world. The forest is a source of livelihood to numerous people of the region. Several of its plant species have very large applications in the traditional folk medicine; various parts of these plants are used by the local people as cure for various ailments. Despite such enormous potential, remarkably few reports are available on these species regarding their biological activities and the active principles responsible for such activities. Though some chemical studies have been made on the mangrove plants of this estuary, reports pertaining to their activity-structure relationship are few in number. An attempt has been made in this review to increase the awareness for the medicinal significance as well as conservation and utilization of these mangrove species as natural rich sources of novel bioactive agents.

  20. Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Li; Kai Jiang; Wanguo Wei; Yan Shi; Sheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells,including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells,hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development,homeostasis and pathology,and for treating numerous devastating diseases.Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology,and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine.Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell selfrenewal,lineage differentiation,reprogramming and regeneration.These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes.Ultimately,this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation.

  1. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  2. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schineider Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS, were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

  3. ChemProt: A disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of chemistry, biology, and informatics to study drug actions across multiple biological targets, pathways, and biological systems is an emerging paradigm in drug discovery. Rather than reducing a complex system to simplistic models, fields such as chemogenomics and translational...... chemical biology, drug repurposing, and off-target effects prediction....

  4. Response of the bacterial community in oil-contaminated marine water to the addition of chemical and biological dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Almeida Couto, Camila Rattes; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may

  5. Temporal changes in physical, chemical and biological sediment parameters in a tropical estuary after mangrove deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Nguyen, Ngoc Tuong Giang; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Michelsen, Anders; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Doan, Nhu Hai; Kristensen, Erik; Weckström, Kaarina; Son, Tong Phuoc Hoang; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

    2014-04-01

    Dated sediment cores taken near the head and mouth of a tropical estuary, Nha-Phu/Binh Cang, in south central Viet Nam were analyzed for changes over time in physical, chemical and biological proxies potentially influenced by removal of the mangrove forest lining the estuary. A time-series of satellite images was obtained, which showed that the depletion of the mangrove forest at the head of the estuary was relatively recent. Most of the area was converted into aquaculture ponds, mainly in the late 1990's. The sediment record showed a clear increase in sedimentation rate at the head of the estuary at the time of mangrove deforestation and a change in diatom assemblages in the core from the mouth of the estuary indicating an increase in the water column turbidity of the entire estuary at the time of the mangrove deforestation. The proportion of fine-grained sediment and the δ13C signal both increased with distance from the head of the estuary while the carbon content decreased. The nitrogen content and the δ15N signal were more or less constant throughout the estuary. The proportion of fine-grained material and the chemical proxies were more or less stable over time in the core from the mouth while they varied synchronously over time in the core from the head of the estuary. The sediment proxies combined show that mangrove deforestation had large effects on the estuary with regard to both the physical and chemical environment with implications for the biological functioning.

  6. Late effects from whole body irradiation and protection by chemical and biological agents. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisin, J.R. [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Gerber, G.B.

    2000-07-01

    This review described studies attempting to reduce damage of exposure to ionizing radiation with an application of chemical or biological agents by illustrating authors' data to point out which possibilities such protectors might hold in future. Authors described their studies on mice exposed to a single or fractionated dose of X-rays at the Belgian Atomic Center at Mol. Mice were irradiated with 250 kV of X-rays at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min or underwent the fractionated irradiation of 1-week intervals with total dose of 2-25 Gy. Before irradiation, some animals were given glutathione, mercaptoethylamine, cystein, serotonine-creatine, 2{beta}-aminoethylisothiuronium, and other agents, alone or as a mixture. Results indicated that radioprotectors reduced many specific late diseases to different degrees together with protection against tumor induction which other investigators had shown. Future prospects were considered for ideal radioprotectors and searches for new radioprotectors and for combination of biological agents (e.g., cytokines with polysaccharides or prostaglandins) were described. (K.H.)

  7. Bioluminescent bioreporter assays for targeted detection of chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven; Jegier, Pat; Johnson, Courtney; Moser, Scott; Islam, Syed; Sayler, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Bioluminescent bioreporters carrying the bacterial lux gene cassette have been well established for the sensing and monitoring of select chemical agents. Their ability to generate target specific visible light signals with no requirement for extraneous additions of substrate or other hands-on manipulations affords a real-time, repetitive assaying technique that is remarkable in its simplicity and accuracy. Although the predominant application of lux-based bioluminescent bioreporters has been towards chemical compound detection, novel genetic engineering schemes are yielding a variety of new bioreporter systems that extend the lux sensing mechanism beyond mere analyte discrimination. For example, the unique specificity of bacteriophage (bacterial viruses) has been exploited in lux bioluminescent assays for specific identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. With the concurrent ability to interface bioluminescent bioreporter assays onto integrated circuit microluminometers (BBICs; bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuits), the potential exists for the development of sentinel microchips that can function as environmental monitors for multiplexed recognition of chemical and biological agents in air, food, and water. The size and portability of BBIC biosensors may ultimately provide a deployable, interactive network sensing technology adaptable towards chem/bio defense.

  8. Bridging gaps in discovery and development: chemical and biological sciences for affordable health, wellness and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prem Man Singh

    2011-05-01

    To commemorate 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists organized its 15th International Conference on 'Bridging Gaps in Discovery and Development: Chemical and Biological Sciences for Affordable Health, Wellness and Sustainability' at Hotel Grand Bhagwati, in association with Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India. Anamik Shah, President of the Indian Society of Chemists and Biologists, was organizing secretary of the conference. Nicole Moreau, President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and Secretary General of the Comité National de la Chimie, National Centre for Scientific Research France, was chief guest of the function. The four-day scientific program included 52 plenary lectures, 24 invited lectures by eminent scientists in the field and 12 oral presentations. A total of 317 posters were presented by young scientists and PhD students in three different poster sessions. Approximately 750 delegates from India, the USA, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Japan and other countries attended the conference. The majority of the speakers gave presentations related to their current projects and areas of interest and many of the talks covered synthesis, structure-activity relationships, current trends in medicinal chemistry and drug research.

  9. ChemProt: a disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Nielsen, Sonny Kim; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emergent area that studies drug action across multiple scales of complexity, from molecular and cellular to tissue and organism levels. There is a critical need to develop network-based approaches to integrate the growing body of chemical biology knowledge with network...... biology. Here, we report ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database, which is based on a compilation of multiple chemical-protein annotation resources, as well as disease-associated protein-protein interactions (PPIs). We assembled more than 700 000 unique chemicals with biological annotation for 30...... evaluation of environmental chemicals, natural products and approved drugs, as well as the selection of new compounds based on their activity profile against most known biological targets, including those related to adverse drug events. Results from the disease chemical biology database associate citalopram...

  10. 32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation of privately owned weapons and... owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms and ammunition will be transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time,...

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Heterocyclyl linked anilines and benzaldehydes as precursors for biologically significant new chemical entities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman K Verma; Vijay Kumar; Prithwish Ghosh; Lalit K Wadhwa

    2012-09-01

    Benzylidene and benzyl thiazolidinediones, oxazolidinediones, isoxazolidinediones and their acyclic analogs like alpha alkylthio/alkoxy phenylpropanoic acids, beta-keto esters and tyrosine-based compounds possess broad therapeutic potential in general and as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) agonists in particular in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). We have synthesised and characterized some novel and suitably substituted heterocyclyl linked benzaldehydes and anilines, which can be easily and very readily derivatized to all the above mentioned classes to generate new chemical entities of broader biological significance. Synthesis of their benzylidene thiazolidinedione and diethyl malonate and also benzyl diethyl malonate and alpha-bromoesters derivatives is reported in some of the cases in the present work.

  14. Molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycete isolates in seeking bioactive peptide metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamedi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Due to the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains, screening of natural resources, especially actinomycetes, for new therapeutic agents discovery has become the interests of researchers. In this study, molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycetes was carried out in order to search for peptide-producing actinomycetes.Materials and Methods: 60 actinomycetes were isolated from soils of Iran. The isolates were subjected to molecular screening for detection NRPS (non-ribosomal peptide synthetases gene. Phylogenic identification of NRPS containing isolates was performed. Chemical screening of the crude extracts was performed using chlorine o-dianisidine as peptide detector reagent and bioactivity of peptide producing strains was determined by antimicrobial bioassay. High pressure liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS with UV-visible spectroscopy was performed for detection of the metabolite diversity in selected strain.Results: Amplified NRPS adenylation gene (700 bp was detected among 30 strains. Phylogenic identification of these isolates showed presence of rare actinomycetes genera among the isolates and 10 out of 30 strains were subjected to chemical screening. Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 showed antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal test pathogens. HPLC-MSand UV-visible spectroscopy results from the crude extract showed that this strain has probably the ability to produce new metabolites.Conclusion: By application of a combined approach, including molecular, chemical and bioactivity analysis, a promising strain of Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 was obtained. This strain had significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Strain Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 produce five unknown and most probably new metabolites with molecular weights of 274.2, 390.3, 415.3, 598.4 and 772.5. This strain had showed 99% similarity to Nocardia ignorata DSM 44496 T.

  15. Biological and Chemical Technologies Research at OIT: Annual Summary Report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, G.

    1998-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1 997 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1997 (ASR 97) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization; selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1 997; detailed descriptions of individual projects; and a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by the program.

  16. Chemical cross-linking and native mass spectrometry: A fruitful combination for structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinz, Andrea; Arlt, Christian; Chorev, Dror; Sharon, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming increasingly popular in the field of structural biology for analyzing protein three-dimensional-structures and for mapping protein-protein interactions. In this review, the specific contributions of chemical crosslinking and native MS are outlined to reveal the structural features of proteins and protein assemblies. Both strategies are illustrated based on the examples of the tetrameric tumor suppressor protein p53 and multisubunit vinculin-Arp2/3 hybrid complexes. We describe the distinct advantages and limitations of each technique and highlight synergistic effects when both techniques are combined. Integrating both methods is especially useful for characterizing large protein assemblies and for capturing transient interactions. We also point out the future directions we foresee for a combination of in vivo crosslinking and native MS for structural investigation of intact protein assemblies.

  17. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  18. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  19. Chem2Bio2RDF: a semantic framework for linking and data mining chemogenomic and systems chemical biology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huijun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there has been an explosion of new data sources about genes, proteins, genetic variations, chemical compounds, diseases and drugs. Integration of these data sources and the identification of patterns that go across them is of critical interest. Initiatives such as Bio2RDF and LODD have tackled the problem of linking biological data and drug data respectively using RDF. Thus far, the inclusion of chemogenomic and systems chemical biology information that crosses the domains of chemistry and biology has been very limited Results We have created a single repository called Chem2Bio2RDF by aggregating data from multiple chemogenomics repositories that is cross-linked into Bio2RDF and LODD. We have also created a linked-path generation tool to facilitate SPARQL query generation, and have created extended SPARQL functions to address specific chemical/biological search needs. We demonstrate the utility of Chem2Bio2RDF in investigating polypharmacology, identification of potential multiple pathway inhibitors, and the association of pathways with adverse drug reactions. Conclusions We have created a new semantic systems chemical biology resource, and have demonstrated its potential usefulness in specific examples of polypharmacology, multiple pathway inhibition and adverse drug reaction - pathway mapping. We have also demonstrated the usefulness of extending SPARQL with cheminformatics and bioinformatics functionality.

  20. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials...State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under...Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk

  1. Chemical biology tools for regulating RAS signaling complexity in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hattum, Hilde; Waldmann, Herbert

    2014-09-18

    Rat sarcoma (RAS) family members are small GTPases that control a number of signaling pathways important for normal cellular proliferation. Therefore, it is no surprise that a significant portion of human tumors express constitutively active mutated RAS proteins, which leads to deregulation of RAS signaling pathways, resulting in pathological perturbations of cell growth and death. Although the molecular details of RAS signaling cascades are well understood, there is still a largely unmet need for small molecule probes to control RAS signaling in space and time. More broadly, given the prevalence of mutated RAS in cancer, the need to translate the insights obtained from using small molecule probes into clinically useful drugs is also significant. In this review, we introduce RAS proteins and the signaling pathways they are involved in, and discuss some of the innovative chemical biology approaches to regulate RAS signaling, which include the exploitation of newly identified binding pockets, covalent inhibitors for mutated RAS, and RAS localization impairment.

  2. Chemical constituents and biological activities of species of Justicia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geone M. Corrêa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs, and the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this family requires urgent documentation as several of its species are near extinction. Justicia is the largest genus of Acanthaceae, with approximately 600 species. The present work provides a review addressing the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus Justicia. In addition, the biological activities of compounds isolated from the genus are also covered. The chemical and pharmacological information in the present work may inspire new biomedical applications for the species of Justicia, considering atom economy, the synthesis of environmentally benign products without producing toxic by-products, the use of renewable sources of raw materials, and the search for processes with maximal efficiency of energy.

  3. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  4. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  5. Traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activities of Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; Di Fabio, Giovanni; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Sideritis species have been used in folk medicine for their antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, digestive and anti-inflammatory properties. Over the years, the phytochemistry of the genus Sideritis has been studied, and various terpenoids, sterols, coumarins and especially flavonoid aglycones and glycosides have been identified. In particular, species from the Balkan Peninsula have been studied and were found to be rich in flavonoids, with valuable antioxidant activity. In the folk medicine of the Balkan countries, Sideritis raeseri is used as a herbal tea in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders and coughs, and also as a tonic, whereas extracts are used as a component of dietary supplements for anaemia. Its dried inflorescences are used to prepare a beverage called 'mountain tea'. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry, pharmacological properties and commercial value of S. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., we review and summarise the available literature on these plants. The review details the chemical composition of the essential oil, its mineral and polyphenol contents, the naming of these plants and their physicochemical characterisation, and the nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data and biological properties associated with the plant extracts, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Chemically and biologically modified activated carbon sorbents for the removal of lead ions from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Osman, Maher M; Ahmed, Somia B

    2012-01-01

    A method is described for hybridization of the adsorption and biosorption characteristics of chemically treated commercial activated carbon and baker's yeast, respectively, for the formation of environmental friendly multifunctional sorbents. Activated carbon was loaded with baker's yeast after acid-base treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy were used to characterize these sorbents. Moreover, the sorption capabilities for lead (II) ions were evaluated. A value of 90 μmol g(-1) was identified as the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon. Acid-base treatment of activated carbon was found to double the sorption capacity (140-180 μmol g(-1)). Immobilization of baker's yeast on the surface of activated carbon sorbents was found to further improve the sorption capacity efficiency of lead to 360, 510 and 560 μmol g(-1), respectively. Several important factors such as pH, contact time, sorbent dose, lead concentration and interfering ions were examined. Lead sorption process was studied and evaluated by several adsorption isotherms and found to follow the Langmuir and BET models. The potential applications of various chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents for removal of lead from real water matrices were also investigated via multistage micro-column technique and the results referred to excellent recovery values of lead (95.0-99.0 ± 3.0-5.0 %).

  7. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  8. Biological and chemical treatment of Cedrela fissilis seeds for controlling Rhizoctonia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lazarotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effect of a fungicide and a biological product, singly and combined, for the control of pathogens, especially Rhizoctonia sp., in seeds of Cedrela fissilis. Before the seeds treatment, the inoculation of Rhizoctonia sp., isolated from C. fissilis seeds in blotter-test and considered pathogenic for the specie, was done on half of the seeds used. After, the seeds were subjected to treatments with powder organic product based on Trichoderma spp. (singly, powder fungicide Captan (also singly, combination of two products in a maximum dose considered (100% and combination of half dose of both products, besides the control. After the seeds treatments the following tests were done: germination, emergence in vermiculite, with evaluations of seedlings and sanitary by blotter-test. No treatment could eradicate Rhizoctonia sp. inoculated seed, but the treatment with 100% of the dose of both products reduced its incidence. The combination of chemical and biological products can be a viable alternative for the treatment of C. fissililis seeds, especially in the control of Rhizoctonia sp.

  9. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  10. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  11. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benomari, Fatima Zahra; Djabou, Nassim; Medbouhi, Ali; Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Bendahou, Mourad; Selles, Chaouki; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2016-11-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. collected in 24 Algerian localities was investigated from the first time using GC-FID, GC/MS and (13) C-NMR. Altogether, 83 components which accounted for 94.7% of the total oil composition were identified. The main compounds were trans-sesquisabinene hydrate (1; 20.9%), α-terpinyl acetate (2; 19.8%), globulol (3; 4.9%), caryophyllene oxide (4; 4.3%), β-bisabolol (5; 2.9%) and trans-7-epi-sesquisabinene hydrate (6; 2.6%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Algerian M. inodora oil and indicated that 1 might be used as taxonomical marker. The study of the chemical variability allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential-oil compositions and the soil nature of the harvest locations. Biological activity of M. inodora essential oil was assessed against fourteen species of microorganisms involved in nosocomial infections using paper disc diffusion and dilution agar assays. The in vitro study demonstrated a good activity against Gram-positive strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis, and moderate activity against Candida albicans. These results might be useful for the future commercial valorization of M. inodora essential oil as a promising source of natural products with potential against various nosocomial community and toxinic infections.

  12. Chemical and biological activity in open flows: A dynamical system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tel, Tamas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518, Budapest (Hungary); Moura, Alessandro de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grebogi, Celso [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil) and Max-Plank-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: grebogi@if.usp.br; Karolyi, Gyoergy [Center for Applied Mathematics and Computational Physics, and Department of Structural Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Mueegyetem rkp. 3, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-07-01

    Chemical and biological processes often take place in fluid flows. Many of them, like environmental or microfluidical ones, generate filamentary patterns which have a fractal structure, due to the presence of chaos in the underlying advection dynamics. In such cases, hydrodynamical stirring strongly couples to the reactivity of the advected species: the outcome of the reaction is then typically different from that of the same reaction taking place in a well-mixed environment. Here we review recent progress in this field, which became possible due to the application of methods taken from dynamical system theory. We place special emphasis on the derivation of effective rate equations which contain singular terms expressing the fact that the reaction takes place on a moving fractal catalyst, on the unstable foliation of the reaction free advection dynamics.

  13. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  14. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  15. Fusion of chemical, biological, and meteorological observations for agent source term estimation and hazard refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Paul E.; Rodriguez, Luna M.; Sykes, Ian; Hurst, Jonathan; Vandenberghe, Francois; Weil, Jeffrey; Bieberbach, George, Jr.; Parker, Steve; Cabell, Ryan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and biological (CB) agent detection and effective use of these observations in hazard assessment models are key elements of our nation's CB defense program that seeks to ensure that Department of Defense (DoD) operations are minimally affected by a CB attack. Accurate hazard assessments rely heavily on the source term parameters necessary to characterize the release in the transport and dispersion (T&D) simulation. Unfortunately, these source parameters are often not known and based on rudimentary assumptions. In this presentation we describe an algorithm that utilizes variational data assimilation techniques to fuse CB and meteorological observations to characterize agent release source parameters and provide a refined hazard assessment. The underlying algorithm consists of a combination of modeling systems, including the Second order Closure Integrated PUFF model (SCIPUFF), its corresponding Source Term Estimation (STE) model, a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Plume Model (LEPM), its formal adjoint, and the software infrastructure necessary to link them. SCIPUFF and its STE model are used to calculate a "first guess" source estimate. The LEPM and corresponding adjoint are then used to iteratively refine this release source estimate using variational data assimilation techniques. This algorithm has undergone preliminary testing using virtual "single realization" plume release data sets from the Virtual THreat Response Emulation and Analysis Testbed (VTHREAT) and data from the FUSION Field Trials 2007 (FFT07). The end-to-end prototype of this system that has been developed to illustrate its use within the United States (US) Joint Effects Model (JEM) will be demonstrated.

  16. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Allium roseum L. var. grandiflorum Briq. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touihri, Imen; Boukhris, Maher; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José; Hanchi, Belgacem; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4.64 µg/mL and 8.22 µg/mL respectively. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP assay, was 285 µmol equivalent Trolox/g of essential oil. The scavenging effect on DPPH radicals of essential oil was estimated as IC50 values at 156 µg/mL. The inhibition of superoxide anion production in a model of cancer cell lines was significant for both lines HT29 and CACO2 with IC50 of 20.25 µg/mL and 29.12 µg/mL respectively. Allium roseum essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans given by an MIC value of 0.019 mg/mL. This biological effect appears to be related mainly to the presence of organosulfur compounds.

  17. Analytical applications of oscillatory chemical reactions: determination of some pharmaceuticaly and biologically important compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Nataša D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel analytical methods for quantitive determination of analytes based on perturbations of oscillatory chemical reactions realized under open reactor conditions (continuosly fed well stirred tank reactor, CSTR, have been developed in the past twenty years. The proposed kinetic methods are generally based on the ability of the analyzed substances to change the kinetics of the chemical reactions matrix. The unambiguous correlation of quantitative characteristics of perturbations, and the amount (concentration of analyte expressed as a regression equation, or its graphics (calibration curve, enable the determination of the unknown analyte concentration. Attention is given to the development of these methods because of their simple experimental procedures, broad range of linear regression ( 10-7 10-4 mol L-1 and low limits of detection of analytes ( 10-6 10-8 mol L1, in some cases even lower than 10-12 mol L-1. Therefore, their application is very convenient for routine analysis of various inorganic and organic compounds as well as gases. This review summarizes progress made in the past 5 years on quantitative determination of pharmaceutically and biologically important compounds.

  18. Spreading chromatin into chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, C David; Muir, Tom W

    2011-01-24

    Epigenetics, broadly defined as the inheritance of non-Mendelian phenotypic traits, can be more narrowly defined as heritable alterations in states of gene expression ("on" versus "off") that are not linked to changes in DNA sequence. Moreover, these alterations can persist in the absence of the signals that initiate them, thus suggesting some kind of "memory" to epigenetic forms of regulation. How, for example, during early female mammalian development, is one X chromosome selected to be kept in an active state, while the genetically identical sister X chromosome is "marked" to be inactive, even though they reside in the same nucleus, exposed to the same collection of shared trans-factors? Once X inactivation occurs, how are these contrasting chromatin states maintained and inherited faithfully through subsequent cell divisions? Chromatin states, whether active (euchromatic) or silent (heterochromatic) are established, maintained, and propagated with remarkable precision during normal development and differentiation. However, mistakes made in establishing and maintaining these chromatin states, often executed by a variety of chromatin-remodeling activities, can lead to mis-expression or mis-silencing of critical downstream gene targets with far-reaching implications for human biology and disease, notably cancer. Though chromatin biologists have identified many of the "inputs" that are important for controlling chromatin states, the detailed mechanisms by which these processes work remain largely opaque, in part due to the staggering complexity of the chromatin polymer, the physiologically relevant form of our genome. The primary objective of this article is to serve as a "call to arms" for chemists to contribute to the development of the precision tools needed to answer pressing molecular problems in this rapidly moving field.

  19. Chemical biology based on target-selective degradation of proteins and carbohydrates using light-activatable organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshima, Kazunobu

    2013-05-01

    Proteins and carbohydrates play crucial roles in a wide range of biological processes, including serious diseases. The development of novel and innovative methods for selective control of specific proteins and carbohydrates functions has attracted much attention in the field of chemical biology. In this account article, the development of novel chemical tools, which can degrade target proteins and carbohydrates by irradiation with a specific wavelength of light under mild conditions without any additives, is introduced. This novel class of photochemical agents promise bright prospects for finding not only molecular-targeted bioprobes for understanding of the structure-activity relationships of proteins and carbohydrates but also novel therapeutic drugs targeting proteins and carbohydrates.

  20. Methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael C.; Simeon, Fritz; Hatton, Trevor Alan

    2016-04-05

    The present invention generally relates to methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction. In some embodiments, the pH-influenced reaction involves the conversion of CO.sub.2 to a dissolved species.

  1. Methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Aly Eldeen O.; Stern, Michael C.; Hatton, Trevor Alan

    2017-02-14

    The present invention generally relates to methods and systems for carrying out a pH-influenced chemical and/or biological reaction. In some embodiments, the pH-influenced reaction involves the conversion of CO.sub.2 to a dissolved species.

  2. A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic.

  3. The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J

    2016-11-01

    Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions.

  4. Comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological and chemical routes with pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina Alves Dos; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Ingle, Avinash P; Rai, Mahendra

    2016-08-01

    The authors report the comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological (using Fusarium oxysporum) and chemical routes in the presence and absence of pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent. The production of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by UV-visible spectra, with absorbance at about 420 nm in the case of both biological and chemical synthesis. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of face-centred cubic structure (FCC plane). The nanoparticles characterised by transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed spherical silver nanoparticles with size range of 5-40 and 10-70 nm in the case of biologically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles, respectively. Addition of pluronic F68 showed the stabilisation of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles demonstrated different inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles showed higher activity as compared with chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesised in the presence of pluronic F68 by the chemical route exhibited synergism in antibacterial activity as compared with those synthesised without pluronic F68. On the contrary, biogenic silver nanoparticles without pluronic F68 showed higher antibacterial potential.

  5. Chemical and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L. Van Royen leaves (Sapotaceae cultivated in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin M Fayek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manilkara zapota (L. Van Royen is an evergreen tree, native to the tropical Americas and introduced to Egypt as a fruiting tree in 2002. No previous study was reported on the plant cultivated in Egypt. Materials and Methods: In this study, the leaves of the plant cultivated in Egypt were subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The lipoidal matter was analyzed by GLC. Five compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of the alcoholic extract of the leaves by chromatographic fractionation on silica gel and sephadex, the structures of these compounds were identified using IR, UV, MS, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. The LD 50 of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves was determined and their antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities were tested by enzymatic colorimetric methods using specific kits. Results: Unsaturated fatty acids represent 32.32 % of the total fatty acids, oleic acid (13.95%, linoleidic acid (10.18 % and linoleic acid (5.96 % were the major ones. The isolated compounds were identified as lupeol acetate, oleanolic acid, apigenin-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside and caffeic acid. This is the first report about isolation of these compounds from Manilkara zapota except myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, which was previously isolated from the plant growing abroad. The LD 50 recorded 80 g/Kg b. wt. for both the tested extracts, so they could be considered to be safe. They exhibited antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The observed biological activities were attributed to the different chemical constituents present in the plant mainly its phenolic constituents.

  6. Chemical and biological tracers to determine groundwater flow in karstic aquifer, Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenczewski, M.; Leal-Bautista, R. M.; McLain, J. E.

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about the extent of pollution in groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula; however current population growth, both from international tourism and Mexican nationals increases the potential for wastewater release of a vast array of contaminants including personal care products, pharmaceuticals (Rx), and pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens and Rx in groundwater can persist and can be particularly acute in this region where high permeability of the karst bedrock and the lack of top soil permit the rapid transport of contaminants into groundwater aquifers. The objective of this research is to develop and utilize novel biological and chemical source tracking methods to distinguish between different sources of anthropogenic pollution in degraded groundwater. Although several methods have been used successfully to track fecal contamination sources in small scale studies, little is known about their spatial limitations, as source tracking studies rarely include sample collection over a wide geographical area and with different sources of water. In addition, although source tracking methods to distinguish human from animal fecal contamination are widely available, this work has developed source tracking distinguish between separate human populations is highly unique. To achieve this objective, we collected water samples from a series of drinking wells, cenotes (sinkholes), wastewater treatment plants, and injection wells across the Yucatan Peninsula and examine potential source tracers within the collected water samples. The result suggests that groundwater sources impacted by tourist vs. local populations contain different chemical stressors. This work has developed a more detailed understanding of the presence and persistence of personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and fecal indicators in a karstic system; such understanding will be a vital component for the protection Mexican groundwater and human health. Quantification of different pollution sources

  7. Mimicking/extracting structure and functions of natural products: synthetic approaches that address unexplored needs in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Go

    2015-04-01

    Natural products are often attractive and challenging targets for synthetic chemists, and many have interesting biological activities. However, synthetic chemists need to be more than simply suppliers of compounds to biologists. Therefore, we have been seeking ways to actively apply organic synthetic methods to chemical biology studies of natural products and their activities. In this personal review, I would like to introduce our work on the development of new biologically active compounds inspired by, or extracted from, the structures of natural products, focusing on enhancement of functional activity and specificity and overcoming various drawbacks of the parent natural products.

  8. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S El-Hawary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Essential oils of Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family Meliaceae leaves and flowers were prepared by hydrodistillation method. The chemical composition of the oil samples was investigated by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of the leaves oil .The major compounds were β-Elemene (33.39%, γ- Elemene (9.89%, Germacrene D (9.72%, Caryophyllene (6.8% and Bicyclogermacrene (5.23% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were (5.04% mainly attributed to sesquiterpene oxide. On the other hand, flowers oil hydrocarbons constituted 63.22% composed mainly of pentacosane (18.58%, tetracosane (10.65%, β-germacrene (9.73%, β- caryophyllene (5.84% and dodecene (4.54% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were 28.3% mainly attributed to octadecanol (16.7%, verdiflorol (5.32%, farnesol (1.63% and α– terpineol (1.51%. The antioxidant properties determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, antifungal and larvicidal activities were promising and in relation with the chemical composition of the essential oils. The results indicated that essential oil of flowers could be especially promising as an inexpensive source of effective antioxidant /antimicrobial /larvicidal agents tantamount to fixed oil of the neem seeds.Industrial relevance. The use of medicinal plants is a universal phenomenon. Natural products from plants are rich source to identify, select and process new drugs for medicinal use. Most of research focused on fixed oil of neem seeds but very little was concerned about volatile oils of leaves and flowers. The diverse biological activities of Neem essential oils can be applied on a large scale as antioxidant, antimicrobial and larvicidal agents comprising many important benefits including their volatility, lower level of risk to the environment than with synthetic ones.Keywords. Azadirachta indica; Neem; essential oil; GC/MS; antioxidant

  9. Biophysics and medical effects of enhanced radiation weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Glen I

    2012-08-01

    Enhanced radiation weapons (ERW) are fission-fusion devices where the massive numbers of neutrons generated during the fusion process are intentionally allowed to escape rather than be confined to increase yield (and fallout products). As a result, the energy partition of the weapon output shifts from blast and thermal energies toward prompt radiation. The neutron/gamma output ratio is also increased. Neutrons emitted from ERW are of higher energy than the Eave of neutrons from fission weapons. These factors affect the patterns of injury distribution; delay wound healing in combined injuries; reduce the therapeutic efficacy of medical countermeasures; and increase the dose to radiation-only casualties, thus potentiating the likelihood of encountering radiation-induced incapacitation. The risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is also increased. Radiation exposure to first responders from activation products is increased over that expected from a fission weapon of similar yield. However, the zone of dangerous fallout is significantly reduced in area. At least four nations have developed the potential to produce such weapons. Although the probability of detonation of an ERW in the near future is very small, it is nonzero, and clinicians and medical planners should be aware of the medical effects of ERW.

  10. Nanomaterial based detection and degradation of biological and chemical contaminants in a microfluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamohan, Harikrishnan

    Monitoring and remediation of environmental contaminants (biological and chemical) form the crux of global water resource management. There is an extant need to develop point-of-use, low-power, low-cost tools that can address this problem effectively with minimal environmental impact. Nanotechnology and microfluidics have made enormous advances during the past decade in the area of biosensing and environmental remediation. The "marriage" of these two technologies can effectively address some of the above-mentioned needs. In this dissertation, nanomaterials were used in conjunction with microfluidic techniques to detect and degrade biological and chemical pollutants. In the first project, a point-of-use sensor was developed for detection of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. A self-organizing nanotubular titanium dioxide (TNA) synthesized by electrochemical anodization and functionalized with photocatalytically deposited platinum (Pt/TNA) was applied to the detection. The morphology and crystallinity of the Pt/TNA sensor was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dis- persive x-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor could detect TCE in the concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ppm. The room-temperature operation capability of the sensor makes it less power intensive and can potentially be incorporated into a field-based sensor. In the second part, TNA synthesized on a foil was incorporated into a flow-based microfluidic format and applied to degradation of a model pollutant, methylene blue. The system was demonstrated to have enhanced photocatalytic performance at higher flow rates (50-200 muL/min) over the same microfluidic format with TiO2 nanoparticulate (commercial P25) catalyst. The microfluidic format with TNA catalyst was able to achieve 82% fractional conversion of 18 mM methylene blue in comparison to 55% in the case of the TiO2 nanoparticulate layer at a flow rate of 200 L/min. The microfluidic device was

  11. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., an Indian medicinal herb: traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Giovanni; Romanucci, Valeria; Di Marino, Cinzia; Pisanti, Antonio; Zarrelli, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is one of the most important medicinal plants that grows in tropical forests in India and South East Asia. Its active ingredients and extracts of leaves and roots are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments and they are present in the market for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products. Commercial products based on substances of plant origin that are generally connoted as natural have to be subjected to monitoring and evaluation by health authorities for their potential impacts on public health. The monitoring and evaluation of these products are critical because the boundary between a therapeutic action and a functional or healthy activity has not yet been defined in a clear and unambiguous way. Therefore, these products are considered borderline products, and they require careful and rigorous studies, in order to use them as complement and/or even replacement of synthetic drugs that are characterized by side effects and high economic costs. This review explores the traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activity of G. sylvestre extracts, providing a general framework on the most interesting extracts and what are the necessary studies for a complete definition of the range of activities.

  12. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Amar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of "contamination" is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article.

  13. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  14. Physicochemical and biological quality of soil in hexavalent chromium-contaminated soils as affected by chemical and microbial remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yingping; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial methods are the main remediation technologies for chromium-contaminated soil. These technologies have progressed rapidly in recent years; however, there is still a lack of methods for evaluating the chemical and biological quality of soil after different remediation technologies have been applied. In this paper, microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria and chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate were used for the remediation of soils contaminated with Cr(VI) at two levels (80 and 1,276 mg kg(-1)) through a column leaching experiment. After microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, the average concentration of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the soils was reduced to less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Soil quality was evaluated based on 11 soil properties and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, including fuzzy mathematics and correlative analysis. The chemical fertility quality index was improved by one grade using microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, and the biological fertility quality index increased by at least a factor of 6. Chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate, however, resulted in lower levels of available phosphorus, dehydrogenase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase. The result showed that microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria was more effective for remedying Cr(VI)-contaminated soils with high pH value than chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate. In addition, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was proven to be a useful tool for monitoring the quality change in chromium-contaminated soils.

  15. Zanthoxylum caribaeum (Rutaceae) essential oil: chemical investigation and biological effects on Rhodnius prolixus nymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J; Mourão, S C; Dolabela, I B; Santos, M G; Mello, C B; Kelecom, A; Mexas, R; Feder, D; Fernandes, C P; Gonzalez, M S; Rocha, L

    2014-11-01

    A chemical investigation and bioassays against fifth-instar nymphae of the hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, vector of Chagas disease, were conducted with the essential oil from Zanthoxylum caribaeum. The main results may be summarized as follows: (i) 54 components were identified, corresponding to 90.4% of the relative composition; sesquiterpenes (47.3%) and monoterpenes (41.2%) are the major constituents; (ii) muurola-4,5-trans-diene and isodaucene are described for the first time as chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of this species; (iii) topical treatment with the crude essential oil induced high levels of paralysis (from 18.88 to 33.33%) and mortality (from 80 to 98.9%) depending on the dose applied (0.5 to 5.0 μl per insect); (iv) feeding treatment with the crude essential oil also induced high levels of mortality (from 48.8 to 100%) but low levels of paralysis (from 2.22 to 7.77%) depending on the dose applied (0.5 to 5.0 μl/ml of blood); (v) in the continuous treatment, only the dose of 5.0 μl/cm(2) was able to promote statistical significant levels of mortality (63.3%) but no paralysis were detected. However in this group, occasionally, only few insects displayed malformations of legs and wings after treatment; and (vi) any treatment was able to disrupt the metamorphosis process since the low adult stage emergence observed to all groups was due the high insect mortality. These observations suggest the interference of Z. caribaeum compounds on the triatomine neuroendocrine system. The significance of these results in relation to the relevant biological events in R. prolixus as well as the possible use of insect growth regulators present in Z. caribaeum oil in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species is herein discussed.

  16. [Stability testing of amphotericin B nasal spray solutions with chemical and biological analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittler, András; Mayer, Anna; Kocsis, Béla; Gerlinger, Imre; Fónay, Fruzsina; Botz, Lajos

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the presence of fungal cells in the nasal mucosa may play an important role in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In 2006 a pilot clinical trial was organized by the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the Pharmaceutical Institute of the Medical University of Pécs for the treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In our study we investigated the stability of the 5 mg/ml amphotericin B solutions (Fungizone) with chemical (spectrophotometry) and biological (bioassay) detection. The effect of storage temperature and the addition of 5% glucose was evaluated on the stability of the solutions for three months. The two detection methods showed different results. According to the chemical analysis the samples are considered relatively stable under all observed conditions (loss of concentration is: 14.2% at 20 degrees C and 4.5% at 4 degrees C). The bioassay shows complete loss of antifungal activity after 35 days of storage at room temperature and notable decrease can be observed at 4 degrees C (glucose containing solution 17.6%; glucose free solution 37.2%). Storage temperature had significant effect (p 0.05) on the stability of the examined solutions. Bioassay is considered to be the official quantitative analytical method for the analysis of amphotericin B recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia 4. Thus we estimated the shelf life of the glucose-free solutions, being stored at 4 degrees C, to be 30 days in accordance with our bioassay results.

  17. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses.

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Chemical Biology Strategies for Biofilm Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Givskov, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbes live as densely populated multicellular surface-attached biofilm communities embedded in self-generated, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs serve as a scaffold for cross-linking biofilm cells and support development of biofilm architecture and functions. Biofilms can have a clear negative impact on humans, where biofilms are a common denominator in many chronic diseases in which they prime development of destructive inflammatory conditions and the failure of our immune system to efficiently cope with them. Our current assortment of antimicrobial agents cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms. For industrial applications, the removal of biofilms within production machinery in the paper and hygienic food packaging industry, cooling water circuits, and drinking water manufacturing systems can be critical for the safety and efficacy of those processes. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process that involves microbial cell migration, cell-to-cell signaling and interactions, EPS synthesis, and cell-EPS interactions. Recent progress of fundamental biofilm research has shed light on novel chemical biology strategies for biofilm control. In this article, chemical biology strategies targeting the bacterial intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways will be discussed.

  1. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup.

  2. Biological and chemical control of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of chemical and biological control agents against larvae of the Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow), in turfgrass under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions were determined. In field trials where insecticides were applied preventively against eggs and young larvae, the molt-accelerating compound halofenozide and the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were ineffective, whereas another neonicotinoid, clothianidin, provided 62-93% control. In greenhouse experiments against third instars in pots, the carbamate insecticide carbaryl was ineffective, whereas the organophosphate trichlorfon provided 71-83% control. In laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments, the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema glaseri Steiner (not tested in the field) were ineffective against third instars, whereas S. scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer provided excellent control. In microplot field experiments at a rate of 2.5 x 10(9) infective juveniles per ha, H. bacteriophora provided 12-33% control and S. scarabaei 71-86% control. Combinations of S. scarabaei and imidacloprid did not provide more control of third instars compared with S. scarabaei alone.

  3. Handheld hyperspectral imager system for chemical/biological and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob

    2004-08-01

    A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

  4. Enzymatic degradation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic plants and relations to biological Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A R; Sakakibara, Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the removal performance of trace phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants, batch and continuous experiments were conducted using floating and submerged plants. The EDCs used in this study were bisphenol A, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and nonylphenol. The feed concentration of each EDC was set at 100 μg/L. Continuous experiments showed that every EDC except pentachlorophenol was efficiently removed by different aquatic plants through the following reaction, catalyzed by peroxidases: EDCs+H(2)O(2)→Products+H(2)O(2). Peroxidases were able to remove phenolic EDCs in the presence of H(2)O(2) over a wide pH range (from 3 to 9). Histochemical localization of peroxidases showed that they were located in every part of the root cells, while highly concentrated zones were observed in the epidermis and in the vascular tissues. Although pentachlorophenol was not removed in the continuous treatment, it was rapidly removed by different aquatic plants when Fe(2+) was added, and this removal occurred simultaneously with the consumption of endogenous H(2)O(2). These results demonstrated the occurrence of a biological Fenton reaction and the importance of H(2)O(2) as a key endogenous substance in the treatment of EDCs and refractory toxic pollutants.

  5. Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Maturity of Pig Manure Compost at Different C/N Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aerobic static pile composting (mechanical turning every 3 days) of pig manure was prepared at 8 m3 windrow heaps. Sawdust was used as the bulking agent to provide additional carbon and to increase the porosity of the substrate. Two treatments at initial C/N ratios of 30 and 15, respectively, were designed in the study. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble NH4+-N, C/N ratios in solid and aqueous phases, E4/E6 ratios, and seed germination index (GI) were determined to evaluate the maturity of the co-composts. Seed germination index, a biological parameter, was suggested as one of the most reliable maturity indicators for organic compost. The results showed that the treatment at the initial C/N ratio of 30 reached maturity after 49 days of composting; however, the treatment at the initial C/N ratio of 15 should require composting time of longer than 63 days to obtain maturation. Chemical multi-indicator evaluation was necessary, and the GI measurement was the recommended approach for maturity evaluation in the study.

  6. Chemical and biological Evaluation of Maturity of Pig Manure Compost at Different C/N Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGGUOFENG; J.W.C.WONG; 等

    2001-01-01

    Aerobic static pile composting(Mechanical turning every 3 days) of pig manure was prepared at 8 m3 windrow heaps .Sawdust was used as the bulking aagent to provide additional carbon and to increase the porosity of the substrate Two treatments at initial C/N ratios of 30 and 15,respectively,were designed in the study,Dissolved organic carbon(DOC),soluble NH4+-N,C/N ratios in solid and aqueous phases,E4/E6 ratios,and seed germination index(GI) were determined to evaluate the maturity of the co-composts.Seed germination index,a biological parameter,was suggested as one of the most reliable maturity indicators for organic compost.The results showed that the treatment at the initial C/N ratio of 30 reached maturity after 49 days of composting ;however,the treatment at the initial C/N ration of 15 should require composting time of longer than 63 days to obtain maturation.Chemical multi-indicator evaluation was necessary,and the GI measurement was the recommended approach for maturity evaluation in the study.

  7. Chemical and Biological Sensing using Diatom Photonic Crystal Biosilica with In-Situ Growth Plasmonic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Squire, Kenny; Li, Erwen; LeDuff, Paul; Rorrer, Gregory; Tang, Suning; Chen, Bin; McKay, Christopher; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Wang, Alan

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, we described a new type of bioenabled nano-plasmonic sensors based on diatom photonic crystal biosilica with in-situ growth silver nanoparticles and demonstrated label-free chemical and biological sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERs) from complex samples. Diatoms are photosynthetic marine micro-organisms that create their own skeletal shells of hydrated amorphous silica, called frustules, which possess photonic crystal-like hierarchical micro- & nano-scale periodic pores. Our research shows that such hybrid plasmonic-biosilica nanostructures formed by cost-effective and eco-friendly bottom-up processes can achieve ultra-high limit of detection for medical applications, food sensing, water/air quality monitoring and geological/space research. The enhanced sensitivity comes from the optical coupling of the guided-mode resonance of the diatom frustules and the localized surface plasmons of the silver nanoparticles. Additionally, the nanoporous, ultra-hydrophilic diatom biosilica with large surface-to-volume ratio can concentrate more analyte molecules to the surface of the SERS substrates, which can help to detect biomolecules that cannot be easily adsorbed by metallic nanoparticles.

  8. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environment health science. Awareness of the potential effects of low-level chemical exposures is rising. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in which samples were collected from 38 streams in 25 States to provide an overview of contaminants found in stream water across the Nation. Additionally, biological screening assays were used to help determine any potential ecological and human-health effects of these chemical mixtures and to prioritize target chemicals for future toxicological studies. This report describes the site locations and the sampling and analytical methods and quality-assurance procedures used in the study.

  9. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    In recent years, the development of autonomous weapon systems and so-called ‘killer robots’, has caused a number of serious legal and ethical concerns in the international community, including questions of compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of Armed Conflict. On the other...... hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...

  10. Relationship between chemical composition and biological function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide: effect on human neutrophil chemotaxis and oxidative burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Fomsgaard, A; Conrad, R S;

    1991-01-01

    There are conflicting data on the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the function of human neutrophils. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between chemical composition and the modulatory effect of LPS on human neutrophil function. LPS was extracted from five ...... composition of the LPS molecule may play an important role in biological activity of LPS.......There are conflicting data on the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the function of human neutrophils. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between chemical composition and the modulatory effect of LPS on human neutrophil function. LPS was extracted from five...... no effect on neutrophil chemotaxis and a slight effect on chemiluminescence. The major differences in chemical composition of the LPS from these two strains are in the rhamnose and heptose content of the O side chain and in the alanine content of the core region. These data indicate that chemical...

  11. Chemical and biological assessment of two offshore drilling sites in the Alaskan Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefry, John H; Dunton, Kenneth H; Trocine, Robert P; Schonberg, Susan V; McTigue, Nathan D; Hersh, Eric S; McDonald, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    A retrospective chemical and biological study was carried out in Camden Bay, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, where single exploratory oil wells were drilled at two sites more than two decades ago. Barium from discharged drilling mud was present in sediments at concentrations as high as 14%, ~200 times above background, with significantly higher concentrations of Ba, but not other metals, within 250 m of the drilling site versus reference stations. Elevated concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were found only at two stations within 25 m of one drilling site. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; however, TPAH were elevated in Ba-rich layers from naturally occurring perylene in ancient formation cuttings. Infaunal biomass and species abundance were not significantly different at reference versus drilling-site stations; infauna were less diverse at drilling-site stations. Our assessment showed that discharges from single wells within large areas caused minimal long-term, adverse impacts to the benthic ecosystem.

  12. Effects of barriers on chemical and biological properties of two dual resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocca, Giuseppina; Iori, Andrea; Rossini, Carlo; Martorana, Giuseppe E; Ciasca, Gabriele; Arcovito, Alessandro; Cordaro, Massimo; Lupi, Alessandro; Marigo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of conversion, monomer release, and cytotoxicity of two dual-cure resin cements (Cement-One and SmartCem2), light-cured across two indirect restorative materials in an attempt to simulate in vitro the clinical conditions. The results obtained show that the degree of conversion was influenced by both barriers, but the effect of the composite material was greater than that of the ceramic one. The amount of monomers released from the polymerized materials in the absence of barriers was significantly lower than that released in the presence of either the ceramic or the composite barrier. However, a higher amount of monomers was released in the presence of the ceramic barrier. All materials, in all the experimental conditions employed, induced slight cytotoxicity (5-10%) on human pulp cells. Our examinations showed that the two resin cements had similar chemical and biological properties. The decreased degree of conversion of the dual-curing self-adhesive composite showed that the light-curing component of these materials has an important role in the polymerization process. In clinical practice, it is therefore important to pay attention to the thickness of the material used for the reconstruction.

  13. [Hygienic, chemical and ecotoxicological aspects of the disinfection of biologically treated waste water by ozone and UV light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, U; Nelle, T; Oberg, C; Rudolph, K U; Zander-Hauck, S

    1996-02-01

    Biologically treated waste water from two different municipal treatment plants with mainly domestic waste water on the one hand and industrial influenced waste water on the other hand was disinfected by UV-irradiation and ozonation. Hygienic, chemical and eco-toxic effects of the disinfection step were examined. It was found that by ozonation as well as by UV-irradiation the required guide and imperative values for fecal and total coliform bacteria were fulfilled. The UV-irradiation induces no changes concerning chemical waste water quality and toxic effects. In contrast to these results ozonation can lead to alterations in chemistry and toxicity depending on the waste water composition.

  14. A comparative study on biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles induced Heat Shock Proteins on fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girilal, M; Krishnakumar, V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Mohammed Fayaz, A; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-11-01

    The wide applicability of silver nanoparticles in medicine and pharmaceutical industries leads to its over exploitation and thus contaminating our environment. Majority of these nanoscale dimension particles finally accumulates in fresh water and marine ecosystem. As the nanoparticles behave entirely different from its corresponding bulk material, a better understanding of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. The study was focused on a comparative stress physiology analysis of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles and biogenic silver nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of biologically synthesized and chemically synthesized nanoparticles was found out (30μg/mL and 20μg/mL respectively). The Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) secretion was analysed in the fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus after exposing to different concentrations of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles along with the silver in its ionic form. The intense immune-histochemical staining of fish tissues (muscle, kidney and liver) analyzed proportionately reflected the stress created. The colour intensity was directly proportional to the stress created or the stress protein released. High level of HSP70 expression was observed in all of the fish tissues exposed to silver ions and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles, when compared to that of biologically synthesized. The results revealed the significance of comparatively safe and less toxic biogenic nanoparticles compared to the chemically synthesized.

  15. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 1. Kinetics of biological organic matter mineralization and chemical sulfur oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, M.P.M. van; Dorleijn, A.S.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    After dredged sediments have settled in a temporary upland disposal site, ripening starts, which turns waterlogged sediment into aerated soil. Aerobic biological mineralization of organic matter (OM) and chemical oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds are the major biochemical ripening processes. Qua

  16. Determining the Chemical and Biological Availability of Zinc in Urban Stormwater Retention Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2005-12-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems due to transport of contaminants that accumulate on road surfaces. Metals such as copper and zinc are major components of automobile brake pads and tires, respectively. As these automobile parts are degraded, these metal containing particulates are deposited on the roadway and are washed into storm water retention ponds and surface water bodies during precipitation events. It has been estimated that 15 to 60% of the Zn in urban stormwater runoff comes from tire wear and that tire wear is a significant source of Zn to the environment with release inventories comparable to waste incineration sources. In urban and sub-urban systems, this large source of Zn can accumulate in stormwater retention ponds which serve as habitat for a variety of species. Understanding the chemical and biological availability of Zn to biota is integral to assessing the habitat quality of retention ponds. This study is a first effort to relate the amount and speciation of Zn in a retention pond to Zn inputs through highway-derived runoff events. In addition, results suggest that the chemical speciation and availability of particulate Zn can be related to the bioavailability and toxicity of Zn to pond organisms (i.e. larval amphibians). The study site in Owings Mills, MD is located next to a four-lane highway from which it receives runoff through a single culvert. Five species of anurans are known to utilize the pond as a breeding site and Zn in amphibian tissues and retention pond sediments were highly elevated at this site in 2001 and 2002. A recent analysis of pond sediments, soils, roadway dust and storm water collected at this site suggests that roadway particulate matter transported during runoff events is the dominant source of Zn in this system. Overall, Zn and other trace metals were found to be most abundant in the clay sized faction of pond sediments and soils. The pond cores were found to have higher Zn and Cu

  17. Characterization and Modeling of a Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological Experimental Facility at DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Maher, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Uzunlar, N.; Conrad, M. E.; Jones, T. L.; Olsen, N. J.

    2010-12-01

    A design is being formulated for a large-scale subsurface experimental facility at the 4850 foot level of the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) processes in fractured rock under stress and would be part of the proposed Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Key questions we propose to answer are: 1) What are the effective reaction rates for mineral-fluid interaction in fractured rock under stress?; 2) How does mineral and fluid chemistry affect fracture mechanical behavior and permeability changes under stress at elevated temperatures?; and 3) How do microbial communities evolve in fractured rock under a thermal gradient and under changing stress conditions? In addition to the experiment as an in-situ laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has significant benefits for evaluating stimulation and production in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Design and planning of the experiment included characterization of the geological, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of the rock and seeping fluids, thermal-hydrological and reactive transport modeling. During a reconnaissance study, strong heterogeneity in fracture fluxes and permeability were observed at the block site with some open boreholes continuously flowing at up to 1 liter/minute, and locally elevated fluid temperatures. A two-dimensional thermal-hydrological model was developed to evaluate fluid fluxes and temperatures as a function of heat input and borehole heater configuration. The dual permeability model considers fluid flow and heat transfer between an array of fractures and rock matrix, both having permeability anisotropy. A horizontal rock matrix permeability of 10-18 m2 was based on recent lab measurements, with a vertical matrix permeability estimated to be one order-of-magnitude higher to account for the strong nearly vertical foliation in the Homestake and Poorman

  18. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  19. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  20. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  1. Chemical and biological properties of phosphorus-fertilized soil under legume and grass cover (Cerrado region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernando Pereira Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops has been suggested as an effective method to maintain and/or increase the organic matter content, while maintaining and/or enhancing the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The fertility of Cerrado soils is low and, consequently, phosphorus levels as well. Phosphorus is required at every metabolic stage of the plant, as it plays a role in the processes of protein and energy synthesis and influences the photosynthetic process. This study evaluated the influence of cover crops and phosphorus rates on soil chemical and biological properties after two consecutive years of common bean. The study analyzed an Oxisol in Selvíria (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in a randomized block, split plot design, in a total of 24 treatments with three replications. The plot treatments consisted of cover crops (millet, pigeon pea, crotalaria, velvet bean, millet + pigeon pea, millet + crotalaria, and millet + velvet bean and one plot was left fallow. The subplots were represented by phosphorus rates applied as monoammonium phosphate (0, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 P2O5. In August 2011, the soil chemical properties were evaluated (pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation as well as biological variables (carbon of released CO2, microbial carbon, metabolic quotient and microbial quotient. After two years of cover crops in rotation with common bean, the cover crop biomass had not altered the soil chemical properties and barely influenced the microbial activity. The biomass production of millet and crotalaria (monoculture or intercropped was highest. The biological variables were sensitive and responded to increasing phosphorus rates with increases in microbial carbon and reduction of the metabolic quotient.

  2. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear training issues in India: A fresh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate training is the key to the right level of preparedness against any disaster, and Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN disasters are no different. The presence of contamination precludes rescue operations to commence soon after the event and it takes a systematic approach to detect and decontaminate the CBRN hazard. Achieving such interventions poses a critical challenge because humans do not possess any inborn, natural sensors with which to recognize these dangers early enough. This requires special training besides the right tools to achieve the objective. CBRN training in India has evolved over the years as a pure military-related concept to a disaster-level response training involving the first responders. The complex nature of CBRN agents requires a methodical and systematic approach to counter the response successfully, and the training for this necessitates adoption of proven modern principles of education management, like training needs analysis, operational research, etc. Simulation as a training and planning offers repeatability, controllability and the possibility for evaluation and is being successfully used in some advanced countries for training responders in the relatively unknown and mysterious domain of CBRN disaster management training. There is also a perceived need to integrate and standardize the curricula to suit the respective first responder. It is strongly felt that with the able support of apex agencies like National Disaster Management Authority and guidance of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, the training effort in CBRN disaster management will get the right impetus to achieve a stature of a modern, progressive and mature endeavour. This will enable India to develop a strong CBRN defence posture very much in line with the country′s emerging status globally as a technological power.

  3. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin. Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

  4. Comparison of some chemical and physico-chemical properties of natural and model sodium humates and of the biological activity of both substances in tomato water cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gumiński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural humate from compost and the model sunstance obtained from p-benzoquinone were dissolved in an acetone-water mixture and subjected to chromatography on a column of aluminium oxide. Similar fractions were obtained which were chemically and spectrophotometrically investigated for the content of functional groups. The particle size of these substances was determined by filtration on Sephadex molecular sieves. Experiments were performed with tomato in water cultures on stagnant nutrient solution. The biological activity of the corresponding fractions of natural and model humates was found to be analogous. The results are discussed and confronted with functional groups content and particle size of the respective substances.

  5. How Clean is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt (Sorensen), B.M.

    2003-04-03

    This report describes a U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Chemical and Biological National Security Program project that sought to establish what is known about decontamination of structures, objects, and people following an exposure to chemical or biological materials. Specifically we sought to identify the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the factors determining when people were (or were not) decontaminated, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  6. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abdul Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II, prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III, while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X. Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law.

  7. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  8. Power Systems and Energy Storage Modeling for Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    electron laser kW Kilo-watt LCS Littoral Combat Ship LAWS Laser Weapon System MLD Maritime Laser Demonstration MW Mega -watt NiMH Nickel metal...and various littoral combat ships. Also, an accurate, working model of the capacitor energy bank is being developed and the flywheel model is being

  9. North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and No Good Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    How would Pyongyang’s development of the capability to target the United States with nuclear weapons influence North Korea’s foreign policy? I argue that it would cause more dangerous crises than those of the last decade, and predict that these crises would eventually cause Kim Jong Un and his se...

  10. Chemical biology: Knockout for malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Joanna; Sieber, Stephan A.

    2014-02-01

    Discovering and validating new targets is urgently required to tackle the rise in resistance to antimalarial drugs. Now, inhibition of the enzyme N-myristoyltransferase has been shown to prevent the formation of a critical subcellular organelle in the parasite that causes malaria, leading to death of the parasite.

  11. CBRN Decontamination: Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    artillery attacks. a. CW Agents and Delivery Means. Typically classified by their effects on the body, CW agents consist of choking, nerve , blood...chemical agents, especially nerve agents, kill within minutes. a. Chemical. (1) Use the SDK within 1 minute of contamination of the exposed skin...shoulder, and reattaches them to the hook-and-pile fasteners. He loosens the draw cord on Buddy 2’s hood. The M40 voice amplifier (M7) and the M42A2

  12. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  13. Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

    2014-01-01

    This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

  14. 36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.13 Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The... other weapons is prohibited unless: (1) In the possession of a Federal, state or local law...

  15. 76 FR 23515 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event... material and would add new event notification requirements on the theft or loss of enhanced weapons... ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (76 FR 6087) , the draft Regulatory Guide DG-5020, ``Applying for...

  16. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 1540.111 - Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries... § 1540.111 Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals. (a) On an individual's... individual may not have a weapon, explosive, or incendiary, on or about the individual's person or...

  18. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  19. The Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Weapon Problem And Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglio, James R.

    1984-08-01

    An amendment to the 1984 Defense Authorization Act prevents testing against objects in space of an American F-15 launched anti-satellite weapon until the President certifies that the testing is necessary to prevent harm to the national security, and that he is willing to negotiate an ASAT treaty with the Soviet Union. This extraordinary action by the Congress was taken because many members of Congress feared that the weapon was being developed without due consideration for its impact on arms control, that temporary technical superiority was being given greater importance than the long-term security of the nation. This increased Congressional scrutiny could have an impact on future weapons development programs. "Now a crucial moment is really coming: Either the interested parties will sit down at the negotiating table without delay to begin drawing up a treaty prohibiting the placement in space of weapons of any kind, or the arms race will spill over into space." YURI ANDROPOV, April 28, 1983, in response to petition from American Scientists.

  20. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.