WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological activity

  1. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  2. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  3. Biological activities of alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Mikinori; Oda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.

  4. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  5. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  6. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2017-01-01

    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  7. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones.

  8. Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, Leniher; Del Toro, Grisel; Fernández, Adolfo A; González, Manuel; Ortíz, Emilia; Lobo, Daliana

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.

  9. Biologically active sesquiterpene coumarins from Ferula species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Zeinab Esmail; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2011-03-01

    Extracts from different species of the genus Ferula (Apiaceae) have had various biomedical applications for many centuries. Many biological features of this genus such as cytotoxicity, antibacterial, antiviral, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory and antiinflammatory activity have been attributed to sesquiterpene coumarins; structures containing a common coumarin group and a sesquiterpene moiety. This both highlights the importance of sesquiterpene coumarins as biologically active natural products and necessitates further studies on these compounds. Taking into account the versatile biological properties of compounds isolated from Ferula and the unprecedented interest in the application of natural products as a new generation of therapeutics, the present review will discuss reports on biological activities of sesquiterpene coumarins of the genus Ferula, from 1990 onwards.

  10. Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Pyridoacridines are a class of strictly marine-derived alkaloids that constitute one of the largest chemical families of marine alkaloids. During the last few years, both natural pyridoacridines and their analogues have constituted excellent targets for synthetic works. They have been the subject of intense study due to their significant biological activities; cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, anti-HIV, and anti-parasitic activities. In the present review, 95 pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from marine organisms are discussed in term of their occurrence, biosynthesis, biological activities, and structural assignment.

  11. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  12. Biological activity of acetylated phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2007-01-10

    In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.

  13. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  14. Biologically Active Substances from Higher Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jikai

    2007-01-01

    As a part of our search for naturally occurring bioactive metabolites of mushrooms, we have investigated the chemical constituents of more than 100 Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and isolated over 300 including 150 new terpenoids,phenolics and nitrogen-containing compounds. The isolation, structural elucidation and biologically activity of the natural products from the higher fungi are briefly discussed.

  15. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo CAC; LL Leon

    2001-01-01

    There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammator...

  16. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

  17. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  18. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  19. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  20. Using synthetic biology to increase nitrogenase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin-Xin; Liu, Qi; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Shi, Hao-Wen; Chen, San-feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Nitrogen fixation has been established in protokaryotic model Escherichia coli by transferring a minimal nif gene cluster composed of 9 genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV) from Paenibacillus sp. WLY78. However, the nitrogenase activity in the recombinant E. coli 78-7 is only 10 % of that observed in wild-type Paenibacillus. Thus, it is necessary to increase nitrogenase activity through synthetic biology. Results In order to increase nitrogenase activity ...

  1. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksicek, R J

    1995-01-01

    A systematic survey of polycyclic phenols has been performed to identify members of this chemical group with estrogenic activity. Twelve compounds were found to be able to stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor expressed in cultured cells by transient transfection. These natural estrogens belong to several distinct, but chemically related classes including chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Selected examples of estrogenic flavonoids were further analyzed to determine their biological potencies and their relative affinities for binding to the estrogen receptor. These data are interpreted with respect to the molecular structure of polycyclic phenols required for hormonal activity as nonsteroidal estrogens.

  2. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  3. Spilanthol: occurrence, extraction, chemistry and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spilanthol (C14H23NO, 221.339 g/mol is a bioactive compound that is found in many different plants that are used as traditional remedies throughout the world. It is present in Heliopsis longipes and several species in the genus Acmella, including A. oleracea L., also known as paracress and jambu. Its leaves and flowers have sensory properties (pungency, tingling, numbing, mouth-watering that make it a popular spice and ingredient in several Brazilian dishes. Spilanthol can exert a variety of biological and pharmacological effects including analgesic, neuroprotective, antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antilarvicidal and insecticidal activities. So, the aim of this review is to present a literature review on the spilanthol that describes its occurrence, chemistry, extraction and biological activities.

  4. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  5. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Bin Li; Ya-Jun Guo; Gui-Fang Deng; En-Qin Xia

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial proper...

  6. Biologic activity of digoxin-specific antisera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J F; Butler, V P

    1972-03-01

    Digoxin-specific antibodies are capable of removing essentially all intracellular digoxin from rat renal cortical slices or from human erythrocytes. In removing digoxin from erythrocytes, these antibodies are capable of reversing an effect of the drug on cellular potassium transport. This study provides direct evidence that antibodies are capable of removing, and thereby reversing the biological effect of, physiologically active low molecular weight substances after they have been taken up by mammalian cells. This biologic property of digoxin-specific antibodies suggests that autidigoxin sera may prove useful in the reversal of digoxin toxicity. Rapid and essentially quantitative removal of digoxin from red cells by antibody is not accompanied by an immediate restoration of patassium influx to normal levels. Identification of the mechanism of this phenomenon may provide useful information concerning the mode of action not only of digoxin, but also of the cation transport system of human erythrocytes.

  7. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  8. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAC Araújo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.

  9. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  10. Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunghoon Cho

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.

  11. Biologically Active Metabolites Synthesized by Microalgae

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    Michele Greque de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have different morphological, physiological, and genetic traits that confer the ability to produce different biologically active metabolites. Microalgal biotechnology has become a subject of study for various fields, due to the varied bioproducts that can be obtained from these microorganisms. When microalgal cultivation processes are better understood, microalgae can become an environmentally friendly and economically viable source of compounds of interest, because production can be optimized in a controlled culture. The bioactive compounds derived from microalgae have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, among others. Furthermore, these microorganisms have the ability to promote health and reduce the risk of the development of degenerative diseases. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss bioactive metabolites produced by microalgae for possible applications in the life sciences.

  12. Litchi Flavonoids: Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the isolation, identification, biological activity, utilization and development prospects of flavonoids found in litchi fruit pericarp (LFP tissues is reviewed. LFP tissues account for approximately 15% by weight of the whole fresh fruit and are comprised of significant amount of flavonoids. The major flavonoids in ripe LFP include flavonols and anthocyanins. The major flavanols in the LFP are reported to be procyanidin B4, procyanidin B2 and epicatechin, while cyanindin-3-rutinside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinosde and quercetin-3-glucoside are identified as the important anthocyanins. Litchi flavanols and anthocyanins exhibit good potential antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of procyanidin B2 are greater than those of procyanidin B4 and epicatechin, while epicatechin has the highest α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· scavenging activity. In addition to the antioxidant activity, LFP extract displays a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on human breast cancer, which could be attributed, in part, to its inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through upregulation and down-regulation of multiple genes. Furthermore, various anticancer activities are observed for epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction of LFP tissue extracts. Procyanidin B4 and the ethyl acetate fraction show a stronger inhibitory effect on HELF than MCF-7 proliferation, while epicatechin and procyanidin B2 have lower cytotoxicities towards MCF-7 and HELF than paclitaxel. It is therefore suggested that flavonoids from LFP might be potentially useful components for functional foods and/or anti-breast cancer drugs.

  13. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  14. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  15. Biological active compounds from Georgian Galanthus shaoricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhadze, M; Kuchukhidze, J; Chincharadze, D; Murtazashvili, T

    2011-10-01

    Amaryllidaceae alkaloids exhibit antitumour, antiviral and anticholinergic activities. Some of them have been used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, myopathy and diseases of the nervous system. In this study, the characterization of these compounds from Amaryllidaceae plants along with some biological activities and some regulations to conserve the native flora will be reviewed. Plants materials: Galanthus shaoricus Kem.-Nath., were collected in 2007-2008 during the flowering period in Georgia. The preparation of extracts and fractions were obtained using methanolic maceration. Crude alkaloidal extracts were typically purified by liquid-liquid partitioning of their basic forms in chloroform. Lycorine, galantamine and tazettine has been found as one of the major alkaloid from Amaryllidaceae plants. Galanthus shaoricus have shown good antimalarial and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic extracts from bulbs demonstrated significant growth inhibition on human Hela and HCT-116 cells lines with IC50 (μg/mL) 16.3±1.8; 22.1±2.9 (aerial parts) and 12.8±1.7; 16.5±1.9 (Bulbs), respectively. Concerning the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, lycorine with IC50 (μM) 0.8±0.5 and 2.6±0.2, haemantaimene (IC50=1.1±0.7 and 2.7±0.8 μM), hamaine (IC50=3.4±1.0 and 6.2 ±1.4 μM), homolycorine (IC50=1.4±0.9 and 3.3±1.0 μM), hipeastrine (IC50=2.8±1.0 and 7.5±1.8 μM) were found to be responsible for the cytotoxic activity on HCT-116 and Hela cell lines, respectively.

  16. Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-05-15

    The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 μg/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 μg/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups.

  17. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  18. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patakova, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  19. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Carbonell

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 µg/ml of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  20. Biological activity of Serratia marcescens cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, G V; Amorim, C R N; Furumura, M T; Darini, A L C; Fonseca, B A L; Yano, T

    2003-03-01

    Serratia marcescens cytotoxin was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow column, followed by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G100 column. The molecular mass of the cytotoxin was estimated to be about 50 kDa. Some biological properties of the cytotoxin were analyzed and compared with well-characterized toxins, such as VT1, VT2 and CNF from Escherichia coli and hemolysin produced by S. marcescens. The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. Cytotoxin induced morphological changes such as cell rounding with cytoplasmic retraction and nuclear compactation which were evident 15 min after the addition of cytotoxin. The cytotoxic assays show that 15 min of treatment with the cytotoxin induced irreversible intoxication of the cells, determined by loss of cell viability. Concentrations of 2 CD50 (0.56 g/ml) of purified cytotoxin did not present any hemolytic activity, showing that the cytotoxin is distinct from S. marcescens hemolysin. Antisera prepared against S. marcescens cytotoxin did not neutralize the cytotoxic activity of VT1, VT2 or CNF toxin, indicating that these toxins do not share antigenic determinants with cytotoxin. Moreover, we did not detect gene sequences for any of these toxins in S. marcescens by PCR assay. These results suggest that S. marcescens cytotoxin is not related to any of these toxins from E. coli.

  1. Low intensity ultrasound stimulates biological activity of aerobic activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; YAN Yixin; WANG Wenyan; YU Yongyong

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to explore a procedure to improve biological wastewater treatment efficiency using low intensity ultrasound.The aerobic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant was used as the experimental material.Oxygen uptake rate(OUR)of the activated sludge (AS)was determined to indicate the changes of AS activity stimulated by ultrasound at 35 kHZ for 0-40 min with ultrasonic intensities of 0-1.2 W/cm2.The highest OUR was observed at the ultrasonic intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 and an irradiation period of 10 min;more than 15% increase was achieved immediately after sonication.More significantly,the AS activity stimulated by ultrasound could last 24 h after sonication,and the AS activity achieved its peak value within 8 h after sonication.or nearly 100% higher than the initial level after sonication.Therefore,to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of bioreactors,ultrasound with an intensity of 0.3 W/cm2 could be employed to irradiate a part of the AS in the bioreactor for 10 min every 8 h.

  2. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  3. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor); Rabolt, John (Inventor); Casper, Cheryl (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A functionalized electrospun matrix for the controlled-release of biologically active agents, such as growth factors, is presented. The functionalized matrix comprises a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin.

  4. Targeting Platinum Compounds: synthesis and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ZUTPHEN, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by cisplatin, the inorganic drug discovered by Barnett Rosenberg in 1965, the research described in this thesis uses targeting ligands, or ligands varied in a combinatorial fashion, to find platinum complexes with more specific modes of action. These studies have lead to the development of novel (solid-phase) synthetic methods and to the discovery of several compounds with promising biological properties.

  5. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  6. Matricryptins and matrikines: biologically active fragments of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Salza, Romain

    2014-07-01

    Numerous extracellular proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) undergo limited enzymatic cleavage resulting in the release of fragments exerting biological activities, which are usually different from those of the full-length molecules. In this review, we define matrikines and matricryptins, which are bioactive fragments released from the extracellular matrix proteins, proteoglycans and GAGs and report their major biological activities. These fragments regulate a number of physiopathological processes including angiogenesis, cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and wound healing. The challenges to translate these fragments from molecules biologically active in vitro and in experimental models to potential drugs are discussed in the last part of the review.

  7. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae: Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukranul Mawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae, its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents.

  8. Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, flower were investigated. Antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. The effects were pronounced in both models. It produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 µg mL-1. Extract showed good Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 43±1.5 µg mL-1. It exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. Its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and ISSN 0102-695X flavonoids in the extract.

  9. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

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    Eduardo Ferreira Mota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum.

  10. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Philanthotoxin Analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong An ZHANG; Ke Zhong LIU; Deng Yuan WANG; Yu Zhu WANG; Liang Jian QU; Chang Jin ZHU

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of four analogs of philanthotoxin is described. The preliminary bioassay showed that these compounds all had good insecticidal activities, and the compound 6a had the best killing effect.

  12. Total synthesis and biological activity of natural product Urukthapelstatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tantisantisom, Worawan; McAlpine, Shelli R

    2013-07-19

    Herein we report the first total synthesis of the natural product Urkuthaplestatin A (Ustat A) utilizing a convergent synthetic strategy. The characterization and biological activity match those of the previously published natural product. Interestingly, several intermediates, including the linear and serine cyclized precursors, show a 100-fold decrease in cytotoxicity, with IC50's in the low micromolar range. These data indicate that the rigidity and the consecutive aromatic heterocyclic system are responsible for the biological activity.

  13. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  14. Biological Activities of a Thai Luminescent Mushroom

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    Jiraporn BURAKORN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruit bodies of luminescent mushrooms were collected from wood stumps over a period covering August to October 2011 in the Kosumpisai forest, Mahasarakham province, in the Northeast of Thailand. A study of the morphological and genetic characteristics of the luminescent mushroom suggested that it was Neonothopanus nimbi KS. The fruiting bodies and mycelium of Neonothopanus nimbi KS were assayed for their antimicrobial activities, antifungal activity, inhibitory activity against avian influenza H5N1 neuraminidase (NA, and anticancer activity, using organic solvent extracts. The results showed that only the methanol extract of mycelia was effective against Bacillus sphaericus, with the widest inhibition zone of 11.66±2.71 mm, but this was not effective against the other 3 bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Escherichia coli. On the other hand, all of the fruit body extracts were inactive against all four bacteria. The ethylacetate extract of mycelia inhibited the NCI-H187 small lung cancer cell line, KB oral cavity cancer cell line, and the MCF7 breast cancer cell line, including Magnaporthe grisea and Curvularia lunata. The methanol extract of mycelia inhibited the KB oral cavity cell cancer cell line, Magnaporthe grisea, and Curvularia lunata at 96.66, 95.32 and 95.41 %, respectively. The results imply that polar extracts of mycelia are a resource of bioactive compounds, whereas extracts of fruit bodies have less inhibitory activity against cancer, phytopathogenic-fungi and H5N1 neuraminidase.

  15. Biologically active secondary metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Ma, Guoyi; El-Hela, Atef A; Mohammad, Abd-Elsalam I; Kottob, Saeid; El-Ghaly, Sayed; Cutler, Stephen J; Ross, Samir A

    2013-08-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm.et Vivi (Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of one new metabolite, 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2-naphthoic acid (1) as well as nine known compounds: asphodelin (2), chrysophanol (3), 8-methoxychrysophanol (4), emodin (5), 2-acetyl-1,8-dimethoxy-3-methylnaphthalene (6), 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-hydroxychrysophanol-9-anthrone (7), aloesaponol-III-8-methyl ether (8), ramosin (9) and aestivin (10). The compounds were identified by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Compounds 3, 6 and 10 were isolated for the first time from this species. Compounds 3 and 4 showed moderate to weak antileishmanial activity with IC50 values of 14.3 and 35.1 microg/mL, respectively. Compound 4 exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 15.0 microg/mL, while compounds 5, 7 and 10 showed good to potent activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values of 6.6, 9.4 microg/mL and 1.4 microg/mL respectively. Compounds 5, 8 and 9 displayed good activity against S. aureus with IC50 values of 3.2, 7.3 and 8.5 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 7 and 9 exhibited a potent cytotoxic activity against leukemia LH60 and K562 cell lines. Compound 10 showed potent antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 0.8-0.7 microg/mL without showing any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells.

  16. Transport and biological activities of bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Brittnee L; Agellon, Luis B

    2013-07-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important biological molecules that support the solubilization of various lipids and lipid-soluble compounds in the gut, and the regulation of gene expression and cellular function. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and eventually released into the small intestine. The majority of bile acids are recovered in the distal end of the small intestine and then returned to the liver for reuse. The components of the mechanism responsible for the recycling of bile acids within the enterohepatic circulation have been identified whereas the mechanism for intracellular transport is less understood. Recently, the ileal lipid binding protein (ILBP; human gene symbol FABP6) was shown to be needed for the efficient transport of bile acids from the apical side to the basolateral side of enterocytes in the distal intestine. This review presents an overview of the transport of bile acids between the liver and the gut as well as within hepatocytes and enterocytes. A variety of pathologies is associated with the malfunction of the bile acid transport system.

  17. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  18. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  19. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  20. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  1. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POLYKETONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail A.Alkskas; Altaher M.Alhubge; Faizul Azam

    2013-01-01

    Polyketone resins have been prepared by the Friedel-Crafts polymerization of dithiophenylidenecyclopentanone (Ⅰ),dithiophenylidenecyclohexanone (Ⅱ) and dithiophenylideneacetone (Ⅲ) with adipoyl,sebacoyl and terephthaloyl dichlorides using boron trifluoride as catalyst and carbon disulphide as solvent.Polymers were characterized with IR,1H-NMR,and the results showed the presence of carbonyl of ketonic groups in the main chain.The polyketones have inherent viscosities of 0.40-0.70 dL/g.All the polymers are semicrystalline and most of them are partially soluble in most common organic solvents but freely soluble in aprotic solvents.The temperatures of 50% weight loss are as high as 185℃ to 280℃ in air,indicating that these aromatic polyketones have excellent thermal stability.All the polyketones were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  2. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  3. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  4. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  5. Biological Activity of Curcuminoids Isolated from Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simay Çıkrıkçı

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the most important fraction of turmeric which is responsible for its biological activity. In this study, isolation and biological assessment of turmeric and curcumin have been discussed against standard bacterial and mycobacterial strains such as E.coli , S.aureus, E.feacalis, P.aeuroginosa, M.smegmatis, M.simiae, M.kansasii, M. terrae, M.szulgai and the fungi Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity of curcumin and turmeric were also determined by the CUPRAC method.

  6. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  7. Recent progress in biological activities of synthesized phenothiazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Krystian; Morak-Młodawska, Beata; Jeleń, Małgorzata

    2011-08-01

    This review summarizes recent medicinal chemistry investigations in vitro and in vivo in search for new phenothiazines of promising biological activities. New phenothiazine derivatives (over 50 main structures) contain dialkylaminoalkyl, cycloaminoalkyl and aminoalkyl substituents and their acyl and sulfonyl derivatives, and other substituents with varied the monocyclic (pyrazole, thiazole, oxadiazole, thiadiazole, tetrazole) and bicyclic (quinolizine, pyrazolopyrimidine, thiazolopyridine, azabicyclononane and spiro[chromanpyrimidine] heterocycles linked directly or via the alkyl chain with the thiazine nitrogen atom or with the benzene ring. The modifications of the tricyclic ring system with the bicyclic homoaromatic ring (naphthalene) and monocyclic and bicyclic azine rings (pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrazine and quinoline) led to compounds of significant biological activities. Recently obtained phenothiazines exhibit promising antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antifilarial, trypanocidal, anticonvulsant, analgesic, immunosuppressive and multidrug resistance reversal properties. These activities were the results of the actions of phenothiazines on biological systems via the interaction of the pharmacophoric substituent (in some cases of strict length), via the interaction of the multicyclic ring system (π-π interaction, intercalation in DNA) and via the lipophilic character allowing the penetration through the biological membranes. The activities were examined by using various biological systems such as cell lines, bacteria, viruses, parasites, laboratory mice, rats and rabbits, and monolayer and bilayer membranes. Some mechanisms of the actions are discussed. This review shows current tendency in the phenothiazine synthesis (without synthetic routes) and reveals the phenothiazine core to be very potent pharmacophoric moiety which can be a rich source of new compounds having desirable biological activities.

  8. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  9. TRIAZOLE: A POTENTIAL BIOACTIVE AGENT (SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandeya Surendra Nath; Pathak Ashish; Mishra Rupesh

    2011-01-01

    Azoles belong to very important class of Antimicrobial drugs. Triazole is very important Azole which exists in two isomeric forms namely 1, 2, 3-Triazole and 1, 2, 4-Triazole. This Review Article covers the Different approaches to synthesize Triazoles having different substitution and their different biological activity. This Review article can be useful to synthesize new compounds having Triazole nucleolus.

  10. Biologically active substances produced by antarctic cryptoendolithic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Friedmann, R; Friedmann, E I

    1993-01-01

    Researchers report results of laboratory studies of over 200 microbial strains of fungi, algae, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophic bacteria collected in the Ross Desert region of Antarctica. All of the 35 fungal strains produced substances that inhibited the growth of cyanobacteria and algae. The inhibitory effect of the biologically active substance was evident in crushed cell extract but less in spent broth.

  11. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  12. Polysaccharies of higher fungi: Biological role, structure and antioxidative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.S.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Vrvic, M.M.; Jakovljevic, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging bio-logical properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypo-lipidemic, immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application

  13. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  14. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    In this review the names, structures and occurrence of all new drimanes and rearranged drimanes, which have been published between January 1990 and January 2003 have been collected. Subjects that have been treated are biosynthesis, analysis, biological activities, with special attention to cytotoxic

  15. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Frolova; E. V. Kompantseva; T. M. Dementieva

    2016-01-01

    The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  16. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Frolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  17. Chemical composition and biological activity of the plum seed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Ivan M.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Savić-Gajić, Ivana M.; Kundaković, Tatjana D.; Stanojković, Tatjana P.; Najman, Stevo J.; id_orcid 0000-0002-2411-9802

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the biological activity of the plum seed extract and to define the chemical composition by using the ESI-MS method. During the investigation of the antioxidant activity, the extract showed a better ability to inhibit DPPH radicals compared with amygdalin standard. The results of the antimicrobial study indicate that the extract has a greater effect on Gram-negative bacteria compared with amygdalin. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi remained resistant in bo...

  18. Secondary Metabolites from Inula britannica L. and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ha Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula britannica L., family Asteraceae, is used in traditional Chinese and Kampo Medicines for various diseases. Flowers or the aerial parts are a rich source of secondary metabolites. These consist mainly of terpenoids (sesquiterpene lactones and dimmers, diterpenes and triterpenoids and flavonoids. The isolated compounds have shown diverse biological activities: anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. This review provides information on isolated bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacological potentials of I. britannica.

  19. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  20. Oscillatory Activities in Regulatory Biological Networks and Hopf Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-Wei; WANG Qi; XIE Bai-Song; ZHANG Feng-Shou

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting the nonlinear dynamics in the negative feedback loop, we propose a statistical signal-response model to describe the different oscillatory behaviour in a biological network motif. By choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we discuss the existence of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the periodic solutions of model equations with the centre manifold theorem and the normal form theory. It is shown that a periodic solution is born in a Hopf bifurcation beyond a critical time delay, and thus the bifurcation phenomenon may be important to elucidate the mechanism of oscillatory activities in regulatory biological networks.

  1. Synthesis of Lactosylated Piperazinyl Porphyrins and Their Biological Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,He-Ping; CAO,Zhong; XIAO,Hua-Wu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to synthesize of a new family of lactosylated piperazinly porphyrins, in which the galactoside piperazine moieties are linked to the tetra- and mono-phenyl rings of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP).5,10,15,20-Tetrakis[4-(4-lactobionylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]porphyrin (TLPP) and 5-mono[4-(4-lactobionylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (MLPP) have been synthesized. A detailed 1H NMR study gave their complete structural elucidation. The UV-Visible, mass spectra and elemental analysis are also presented. The biological activity on cancer cells and the pharmacokinetics have also been evaluated, showing a better biological activity, a very high liver to skin ratio and short retention time in tissues. It was suggested that such novel lactosylated piperazinly porphyrins, as potential hepatocyte-selective targeting drugs, exhibit a promising activity in photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  2. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feller, Georges, E-mail: gfeller@ulg.ac.b [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Centre for Protein Engineering, Institute of Chemistry B6a, University of Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 {sup 0}C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins. (topical review)

  3. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OXAZINE AND ITS DERIVATIVES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINDHU T J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxazine derivatives are an important class of heterocycles, which has attracted much synthetic interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Oxazine is a heterocyclic compound can be formally derived from benzene, and its reduction products, by suitable substitution of carbon (and hydrogen atoms by nitrogen and oxygen. In the last few years oxazine derivatives have proved to be valuable synthetic intermediates and also possess important biological activities like sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antitumour, antimalarial and antimicrobial. In these days, development of drug resistance is a major problem and to overcome this situation, it is necessary to synthesize new classes of compounds. The aim of the article is to review the generalization of the collected data about the synthesis of oxazine derivatives and their activities. We hope that this work will be a definite interest for researchers concerned with azines in generally and oxazines in particular.

  4. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi upon their antioxidative properties.

  5. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  6. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Marine Sponge Lectins: Actual Status on Properties and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.

  8. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  9. Marine Omega-3 Phospholipids: Metabolism and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Hoem

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs have been under extensive study for several decades. However, not much attention has been paid to differences of dietary forms, such as triglycerides (TGs versus ethyl esters or phospholipids (PLs. New innovative marine raw materials, like krill and fish by-products, present n-3 FAs mainly in the PL form. With their increasing availability, new evidence has emerged on n-3 PL biological activities and differences to n-3 TGs. In this review, we describe the recently discovered nutritional properties of n-3 PLs on different parameters of metabolic syndrome and highlight their different metabolic bioavailability in comparison to other dietary forms of n-3 FAs.

  10. Biological activities of secondary metabolites of the order Zoanthids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminikhoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Cnidaria is a large, diverse and ecologically important group of marine invertebrates, which produce powerful toxins and venoms. The number of marine natural product from cnidarians isolated from class Anthozoa. Among the Anthozoa, the order of zoanthids are sessile, clonal and mostly brightly colored invertebrate which produce high biodiversity of cytolitic, neurotoxic and cardiotoxic compounds. Zoanthids containing palytoxins are reportedly among the most toxic marine organisms known. In addition, a high concentration of zoanthamine alkaloids extracted from this group.The zoanthamine alkaloids were isolated over 20 years ago, exhibit a broad range of biological activities.The best studied and most well-known biological activity of zoanthamine derivative significantly suppressed bone resorption and enhanced bone formation.

  11. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Rajashekar; E Upender Rao; Srinivas P

    2012-01-01

    Bada Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the Pedalium murex compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of this plant. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of this compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of gokharu along with their safety evaluation.

  12. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  13. Fucoidans from brown alga Fucus evanescens: structure and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Menshova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Fucus evanescens, widespread in the Far Eastern seas of Russia, is valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides – fucoidans with beneficial biological activities. The most homogenous fraction of fucoidan from F. evanescens was shown to be molecule containing linear main chain of alternating 2-sulfated 1,3- and 1,4-linked α-L-fucose residues. Few sulfate groups were found in position 4 of some 1,3-linked fucose residues. Acetyl groups occupied free C-3 of 1,4-linked residues and/or the C-4 of 1,3-linked fucose residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis of native fucoidan were used for elucidation of the fine structural characteristics of fucoidan from F. evanescens. The aim of this review to summarize published data on biological activities of fucoidan from F. evanescens: antiviral, anticoagulant, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and their practical application.

  14. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Cajanus cajan (L Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L Millsp. (Sanskrit: Adhaki, Hindi: Arhar, English: Pigeon pea, Bengali: Tur (family: Fabaceae is the most important grain legume crop of rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid tropics. It is both a food crop and a cover/forage crop with high levels of proteins and important amino acids like methionine, lysine and tryptophan. During the last few decades extensive studies have been carried out regarding the chemistry of C. cajan and considerable progress has been achieved regarding its biological activities and medicinal applications. This review article gives an overview on the biological activities of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions and clinical studies of C. cajan extracts apart from its general details.

  15. Synthesis,Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Acrylamide Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; XU Zhong-jie; ZHANG Gong-sheng; ZHOU Kai; ZHAI Zhi-wei

    2008-01-01

    With dimethomorph and flumorph as the leading compounds,four novel acrylamide compounds with two types of structure were designed and synthesized by means of the method of"me too chemistry".The target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analysis.The influences of solvent and raw material on the yield were investigated and optimum processing conditions were determined.The results of preliminary biological tests show that all those compounds exhibit certain antifungal activities.

  16. Protein folding activity and the central dogma of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Ghosh; Dipankar, Chatterji

    2003-01-01

    Biological systems, in general, can function effectively when the products of the system are in proper configuration and harmful effects due to misaggregation are avoided. Folding of proteins and their functional consequences have been a subject of active research since several years now. However it is not clear whether during protein synthesis from genetic message, the same set of rules are employed or participation of new efforts take place. In this review we show that at least in the case ...

  17. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Kumar; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about...

  18. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  19. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy.

  20. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  1. Expression of biologically active murine interleukin-18 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Andalib, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Rezaei, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    The food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L. lactis to secrete murine IL-18. The mature murine IL-18 gene was inserted downstream of a nisin promoter in pNZ8149 plasmid and the construct was used to transform L. lactis NZ3900. The transformants were selected on Elliker agar and confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The expression and secretion of IL-18 protein was verified by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and ELISA. The biological activity of recombinant IL-18 was determined by its ability to induce interferon (IFN)-γ production in L. lactis co-cultured with murine splenic T cells. The amounts of IL-18 in bacterial lysates and supernatants were 3-4 μg mL(-1) and 0.6-0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The successfully generated L. lactis strain that expressed biologically active murine IL-18 can be used to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of IL-18 on mucosal surfaces.

  2. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  3. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE MOLECULES ISOLATED FROM OBLIGATE MARINE FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KRISHNA SATYA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is a tremendous source of natural products. Marine microorganisms have become an important source of pharmacologically active metabolites Fungi are well known for their vast diversity of secondary metabolites that include many life-saving drugs and highly toxic mycotoxins. In general, fungal cultures producing such metabolites are immune to their toxic effects. However, some are known to produce self-toxic compounds that can pose production optimization challenges if the metabolites are needed in large amounts for chemical modification. Objective: The main objective of the present study was the isolation of new and preferably biologically active secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, especially marine-derived fungi. Method: Marine fungi had isolated from marine soil by serial dilution method from Rose Bengal medium. Single colony was isolated by microscopic and macroscopic observation. Secondary metabolites are produced by marine fungi. Biological evaluation was performed by microbial studies. TLC is performed to identify the number of sub compounds in the crude extract. Further species level identification and structure elucidation of the compound are to be done. Results: The isolated marine fungi Aspergillus sp, showed maximum activity against the Candida rugosa with a zone diameter of 16mm at a concentration of 200μg and for bacterial strains it showed maximum activity against the E.coli with a diameter of 24mm at a concentration of 200μg. From the thin layer chromatography it has nearly 2-3 compounds to be purified. Conclusion: The selected organism which produces the compounds contains the biological activities which include anti-bacterial and anti fungal activities.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  5. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  6. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Mimosine: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-08-01

    Mimosine [β-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-oxypyridyl)]-α-aminopropionic acid] is a non-protein amino acid found in the members of Mimosoideae family. There are a considerable number of reports available on the chemistry, methods for estimation, biosynthesis, regulation, and degradation of this secondary metabolite. On the other hand, over the past years of active research, mimosine has been found to have various biological activities such as anti-cancer, antiinflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-influenza, anti-virus, herbicidal and insecticidal activities, and others. Mimosine is a leading compound of interest for use in the development of RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-specific inhibitors for the treatment of various diseases/disorders, because PAK1 is not essential for the growth of normal cells. Interestingly, the new roles of mimosine in malignant glioma treatment, regenerative dentistry, and phytoremediation are being emerged. These identified properties indicate an exciting future for this amino acid. The present review is focused on the chemistry and recognized biological activities of mimosine in an attempt to draw a link between these two characteristics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  8. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  9. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... includes multipoint intermolecular interactions that probably involve aggregation of both polymorphic and monomorphic T cell surface molecules. Such aggregations have been shown in vitro to markedly enhance and, in some cases, induce T cell activation. The production of T-derived lymphokines that have been...... implicated in B cell activation is dependent on the T cell receptor for antigen and its associated CD3 signalling complex. T-dependent help for B cell activation is therefore similarly MHC-restricted and involves T-B intercellular interaction. Recent reports that describe antigen-independent B cell...

  10. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

    2005-01-01

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  12. Biological activities of triazine derivatives. Combining DFT and QSAR results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Larif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between activities and structures, a 3D-QSAR study is applied to a set of 43 molecules based on triazines. This study was conducted using the principal component analysis (PCA method, the multiple linear regression method (MLR and the artificial neural network (ANN. The predicted values of activities are in good agreement with the experimental results. The artificial neural network (ANN techniques, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with an 8-3-1 ANN model which is a good result. As a result of quantitative structure–activity relationships, we found that the model proposed in this study is constituted of major descriptors used to describe these molecules. The obtained results suggested that the proposed combination of several calculated parameters could be useful to predict the biological activity of triazine derivatives.

  13. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Mashino, T [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: mashino-td@pha.keio.ac.jp

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C{sub 60}-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C{sub 60}-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC{sub 50} values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  14. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  15. Bone-inducing Activity of Biological Piezoelectric Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To simulate the piezoelectric effect of nature bone, two kinds of biological piezoelectric composite ceramics consisted of hydroxyapatite ( HA ) and lithium sodium potassium riobate (LNK) ceramic of which the ratio of HA/ LNK was 1: 10 and 5:5( wt/ wt ) were prepared. Their piezoelectric property and growth of apatite crystal in the ceramics surface were investigated. With the increase of LNK amount, piezoelectric activity increased correspondingly. By immersing the poled piezoelectric ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ℃ for 7,14, and 21 days, apatite crystal was formed on negatively charged surfaces. After 21 days immersion in SBF,the thickest apatite crystal on the negatively charged surfaces increased to 3.337μm. The novel biological piezoelectric ceramics show an excellent piezoelectric property and superior potential bioactivity.

  16. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  17. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  18. Soil biological activity at European scale - two calculation concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. To assess the turnover conditions two model concepts are applied: (I) Biological active time (BAT) regression approach derived from CANDY model (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of air temperature, precipitation and soil texture as a timescale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. (II) Re_clim parameter within the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states the soil temperature and soil water to estimate soil biological activity. The modelling includes two strategies to cover the European scale and conditions. BAT was calculated on a 20x20 km grid basis. The European data sets of precipitation and air temperature (time period 1901-2000, monthly resolution), (Mitchell et al. 2004) were used to derive long-term averages. As we focus on agricultural areas we included CORINE data (2006) to extract arable land. The resulting BATs under co-consideration of the main soil textures (clay, silt, sand and loam) were investigated per environmental zone (ENZs, Metzger et al. 2005) that represents similar conditions for precipitation, temperature and relief to identify BAT ranges and hence turnover conditions for each ENZ. Re_clim was quantified by climatic time series of more than 250 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). Daily temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (maximal thermal extent) were used to calculate

  19. Biological activity of trisporoids and trisporoid analogues in Mucor mucedo (-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Boland, Wilhelm

    2005-06-01

    In the course of their sexual interactions, zygomycete fungi communicate via an elaborate series of carotene-derived compounds, namely trisporic acid and its biosynthetic progenitors. A novel building-block strategy allowed the systematic generation of structurally modified trisporoids along with putative early biosynthetic precursors for physiological tests. The impact of discrete structural elements was documented by the ability of individual compounds to induce sexually committed hyphae in Mucor mucedo. The activity screening contributed to establish general structure-function relationships for trisporoid action. Most crucial for activity were the dimension of the longer side chain, the polarity of functional groups at C(4) and C(13), and the number of conjugated double bonds in the side chain. The presence of an oxygen substituent at the cyclohexene ring is not essential for function. The overall biological activity apparently results from the combination of the various structural elements.

  20. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  1. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of Jordanian Chamomile Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Hassan Al Bahtiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Jordanian chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla has been researched more thoroughly to evaluate its useful properties. It is investigated and found that Jordanian chamomile is rich in phenolic compounds, with beneficial biological activities. By applying the most promising HPLC method, the content of total phenolics in methanolic extract was determined according to the Folin-Clocalteu procedure, and was found (GAE>20 mg/g. The flavonoid types were found as flavones and flavonolos.The minimum inhibitory concentration values for methanolic extracts of Jordanian chamomile were determined for different kinds of bacteria. The extracts have activity against Staphylococcus aurous, candida albicans, Esherichia Coli, Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris. The activity has been observed to be due to the tannins and a pigenin present in the extract. To utilize these significant sources of natural compounds, further characterization of phenolic composition is needed.

  2. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  3. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  4. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  5. Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of biochemical networks have analyzed network topology. Such work has suggested that specific types of network wiring may increase network robustness and therefore confer a selective advantage. However, knowledge of network topology does not allow one to predict network dynamical behavior – for example, whether deleting a protein from a signaling network would maintain the network's dynamical behavior, or induce oscillations or chaos. Results Here we report that the balance between activating and inhibiting connections is important in determining whether network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. We use a simple dynamical model of a network of interacting genes or proteins. Using the model, we study random networks, networks selected for robust dynamics, and examples of biological network topologies. The fraction of activating connections influences whether the network dynamics reach steady state or oscillate. Conclusion The activating fraction may predispose a network to oscillate or reach steady state, and neutral evolution or selection of this parameter may affect the behavior of biological networks. This principle may unify the dynamics of a wide range of cellular networks. Reviewers Reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Eugene Koonin, and Yu (Brandon Xia (nominated by Mark Gerstein. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  6. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  7. DAGESTAN HAWTHORN - A VALUABLE SOURCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omarieva L. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with hawthorn Dagestan. It is noted that the more than 100 species are found 14 species in Dagestan. The most common of them are studied as a source of biologically active substances and nutrients, and they can be used as food additives for various purposes. The content of biologically active substances and nutrients are defined. The high content of phenolic substances in C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, which play an important role in the formation of immunity and possessing P-vitamin activity is defined. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of the fruit of the hawthorn Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. et Kit, as the most valuable for using as food additives is defined by ionexchange and gas-liquid chromatography. Sixteen amino acids were identified and quantified in the protein component of hawthorn fruit. The high content of essential amino acids such as lysine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine. The amount of essential amino acids is 296.1 mg / 100 g. Chromatographic separation of fatty acid methyl esters has enabled us to establish the presence of the following fatty acids: palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic, including established the presence of essential fatty acids - the family of alpha-linolenic acid OMEGA -3 and linoleic acid family of OMEGA -6

  8. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  9. Functionalization of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene with biologically active fluorescent molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murali Sankar; Subhadeep Saha; K Seeni Meera; Tushar Jana

    2009-10-01

    A biologically active molecule, 2-chloro-4,6-bis(dimethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (CBDT), has been covalently attached at the terminal carbon atoms of the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) backbone. The modification of HTPB backbone by CBDT molecule does not affect the unique physico-chemical properties such as fluidity, hydroxyl value and microstructure of the parent HTPB. The formation of hydrogen bonding between the terminal hydroxyl groups and the nitrogen atoms of triazine moiety is the driving force for the terminal attachment chemistry. The functionalized HTPB (HTPB–CBDT) shows a strong fluorescence emission at 385 nm.

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-08-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we present a framework to design biology instruction that incorporates all active learning strategies. We review active learning research in undergraduate biology courses, present a framework for organizing active learning strategies, and provide clear implications and future research for designing instruction in introductory undergraduate biology courses.

  11. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  12. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of Rhein-cyclodextrin conjugate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Manshuo; Lv, Pin; Liao, Rongqiang; Zhao, Yulin; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodextrin conjugate complexation is a useful method to enhance the solubility and absorption of poorly soluble drugs. A series of new Rhein-β-cyclodextrin conjugates (Rh-CD conjugates) have been synthesized and examined. Rhein is covalently linked with the β-CD by amido linkage in a 1:1 molar ratio. The conjugates were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRMS, powder X-ray diffraction (powder XRD) as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results reveal that incorporation of β-CD could improve the aqueous solubility of Rhein and the cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line as well as antibacterial activity against three organisms. The improved biological activity and the satisfactory water solubility of the conjugates will be potentially useful for developing novel drug-cyclodextrin conjugates, such as herbal medicine.

  14. Posttranslational modulation on the biological activities of molecular chaperones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are a family of proteins that were first noticed to exist about 45 years ago from their increased transcription under heat shock conditions.As a result,the regulation of their encoding genes has been subject to extensive studies.Recent studies revealed that the biological activities of molecular chaperones can also be effectively modulated at the protein level.The ways of modulation so far elucidated include allosteric effect,covalent modification,protein-protein interaction,and con-formational alteration induced by such macro-environmental conditions as temperature and pH.These latter aspects were reviewed here.Emphasized here is the importance of such immediate structural alterations that lead to an immediate activity increase,providing the immediate protection needed for the cells to survive the stress conditions.

  15. Posttranslational modulation on the biological activities of molecular chaperones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG ZengYi

    2009-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are a family of proteins that were first noticed to exist about 45 years ago from their increased transcription under heat shock conditions. As a result, the regulation of their encoding genes has been subject to extensive studies. Recent studies revealed that the biological activities of molecular chaperones can also be effectively modulated at the protein level. The ways of modulation so far elucidated include allosteric effect, covalent modification, protein-protein interaction, and con-formational alteration induced by such macro-environmental conditions as temperature and pH. These latter aspects were reviewed here. Emphasized here is the importance of such immediate structural alterations that lead to an immediate activity increase, providing the immediate protection needed for the cells to survive the stress conditions.

  16. Distribution and biological activity of obestatin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Siok L; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Brailoiu, Eugen; Yang, Jun; Chang, Jaw Kang; Dun, Nae J

    2006-11-01

    Obestatin, a 23 amino acid peptide recently isolated from the rat stomach, is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin. With the use of an antiserum directed against the mouse/rat obestatin, obestatin immunoreactivity (irOBS) was detected in cells of the gastric mucosa, myenteric plexus, and in Leydig cells of the testis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Double labeling the myenteric plexus with obestatin antiserum and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) antiserum revealed that nearly all irOBS neurons were ChAT positive and vice versa. For comparative purposes, myenteric ganglion cells, cells in the gastric mucosa, and Leydig cells of the testis were shown to be immunoreactive to preproghrelin. The biological activity of obestatin on rat central neurons was assessed by the calcium microfluorimetric Fura-2 method. Obestatin (100 nM) administered to dissociated and cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in a population of cortical neurons. The result provides the first immunohistochemical evidence that obestatin is expressed in cells of the gastric mucosa and myenteric ganglion cells, and also in Leydig cells of the testis; the peptide is biologically active on central neurons.

  17. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  18. Inhalable DNase I microparticles engineered with biologically active excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rihab; Al Jamal, Khuloud T; Kan, Pei-Lee; Awad, Gehanne; Mortada, Nahed; El-Shamy, Abd-Elhameed; Alpar, Oya

    2013-12-01

    Highly viscous mucus poses a big challenge for the delivery of particulates carrying therapeutics to patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, surface modifying DNase I loaded particles using different excipients to achieve better lung deposition, higher enzyme stability or better biological activity had been exploited. For the purpose, controlled release microparticles (MP) were prepared by co-spray drying DNase I with the polymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the biocompatible lipid surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) using various hydrophilic excipients. The effect of the included modifiers on the particle morphology, size, zeta potential as well as enzyme encapsulation efficiency, biological activity and release had been evaluated. Powder aerosolisation performance and particle phagocytosis by murine macrophages were also investigated. The results showed that more than 80% of enzyme activity was recovered after MP preparation and that selected surface modifiers greatly increased the enzyme encapsulation efficiency. The particle morphology was greatly modified altering in turn the powders inhalation indices where dextran, ovalbumin and chitosan hydrochloride increased considerably the respirable fraction compared to the normal hydrophilic carriers lactose and PVP. Despite of the improved aerosolisation caused by chitosan hydrochloride, yet retardation of chitosan coated particles in artificial mucus samples discouraged its application. On the other hand, dextran and polyanions enhanced DNase I effect in reducing cystic fibrosis mucus viscosity. DPPC proved good ability to reduce particles phagocytic uptake even in the presence of the selected adjuvants. The prepared MP systems were biocompatible with lung epithelial cells. To conclude, controlled release DNase I loaded PLGA-MP with high inhalation indices and enhanced mucolytic activity on CF sputum could be obtained by surface modifying the particles with PGA or dextran.

  19. Comparison of biological activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. uralensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chun-Geon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of Glycyrrhiza (GLs extracts (GL-1, Glycyrrhiza glabra from Eumseong, Korea; GL-2, G. uralensis from Eumseong, Korea; GL-3, G. uralensis from Yeongcheon, Korea; GL-4, G. uralensis from Neimenggu, China: GL-5, G. uralensis purchased from Korea Medicine Herbal Association, Korea were investigated. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity against DPPH and OH radicals than G. glabra (GL-1. In addition, all GLs had antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and H. pylori. GL-3 inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus, while GL-1 had antibacterial activity against H. pylori. All GL extracts tested inhibited the lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inflammatory activity of RAW 264.7 cells. G. glabra and G. uralensis reduced NO generation. GL-3 also inhibited the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. GLs-3 and -4 showed the inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase. GL-4 had a higher total content of glycyrrhizin (1, glycyrrhetinic acid (2, glabridin (3, and isoliquiritigenin (4. G. uralensis (GLs-2, -3, -4, and -5 is thus more effective than G. glabra (GL-1.

  20. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia.

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of hydroxycinnamoyl containing antiviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochkova Maya G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven N-hydroxycinnamoyl amides were synthesized by EDC/HOBt coupling of the corresponding substituted cinnamic acids (p-coumaric-, ferulic-, sinapic- and caffeic acids with influenza antivirals (amantadine, rimantadine and oseltamivir. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging abilities and the inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity (using L-tyrosine as the substrate were investigated in vitro. Amongst the synthesized compounds, N-[(E-3-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoyl]oseltamivir (1 and N-[(E-3-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoyl]rimantadine (4, containing catechol moiety, exhibited the most potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Amide (1 displayed also tyrosinase inhibitory effect toward L-tyrosine as the substrate (~50%. Due to its biological activities revealed so far compound (1 can be considered as a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. The synthesized compounds were also investigated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against the replication of influenza virus A (H3N2.

  2. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  4. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashank; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  5. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  6. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  7. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  8. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  9. Phytochemical profi le and biological activity of Juglans regia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Panth; Keshav Raj Paudel; Rajendra Karki

    2016-01-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part ofJ. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes melitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientifi c attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profi le, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of theJ. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identifi cation of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as wel as screening various solvent extracts or fractions ofJ. regiain several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefi ts. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientifi c investigations ofJ. regia.

  10. Novel biological activity of ameloblastin in enamel matrix derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko KURAMITSU-FUJIMOTO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Enamel matrix derivative (EMD is used clinically to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. However, the effects of EMD on gingival epithelial cells during regeneration of periodontal tissues are unclear. In this in vitro study, we purified ameloblastin from EMD and investigated its biological effects on epithelial cells. Material and Methods Bioactive fractions were purified from EMD by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using hydrophobic support with a C18 column. The mouse gingival epithelial cell line GE-1 and human oral squamous cell carcinoma line SCC-25 were treated with purified EMD fraction, and cell survival was assessed with a WST-1 assay. To identify the proteins in bioactive fractions of EMD, we used proteome analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by identification with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. Results Purified fractions from EMD suppressed proliferation of GE-1 and SCC-25. LC-MS/MS revealed that ameloblastin in EMD is the component responsible for inhibiting epithelial cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of ameloblastin on the proliferation of GE-1 and SCC-25 was confirmed using recombinant protein. Conclusion The inhibitory effects of EMD on epithelial cell proliferation are caused by the biological activities of ameloblastin, which suggests that ameloblastin is involved in regulating epithelial downgrowth in periodontal tissues.

  11. Relationships between the stereochemistry and biological activity of fungal phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Toxins produced by phytopathogenic fungi assume great importance because of their involvement in several plant diseases. Although such pathogens are known to have seriously damaged crops, forest, and environmental resources, they represent a very important tool to develop new environmentally friendly herbicides and fungicides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for major forest plants and for damaging weeds and their stereochemistry. In particular, the methods used to determine their relative and/or absolute configuration will be illustrated. These include the application of Mosher's and Murata's methods, X-ray diffractometric analysis, circular dichroism, and the use of computational methods to determine the theoretical optical rotatory power as well as the CD spectrum. The importance of determining the absolute configuration to achieve the total synthesis of some phytotoxins, interesting for their potential practical application, is also discussed.

  12. Efficient expression and purification of biologically active human cystatin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2016-02-01

    Cystatins are reversible cysteine protease inhibitor proteins. They are known to play important roles in controlling cathepsins, neurodegenerative disease, and in immune system regulation. Production of recombinant cystatin proteins is important for biochemical and function characterization. In this study, we cloned and expressed human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C in Escherichia coli. Human stefin A, stefin B and cystatin C were purified from soluble fraction. For cystatin C, we used various chaperone plasmids to make cystatin C soluble, as it is reported to localize in inclusion bodies. Trigger factor, GroES-GroEL, DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperones lead to the presence of cystatin C in the soluble fraction. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography, glutathione sepharose and anion exchange chromatography techniques were employed for efficient purification of these proteins. Their biological activities were tested by inhibition assays against cathepsin L and H3 protease.

  13. Advances in the Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Chuanxiong

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    Jin-Ao Duan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuan-Xiong, CX, the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae, is one of the most popular plant medicines in the World. Modern research indicates that organic acids, phthalides, alkaloids, polysaccharides, ceramides and cerebrosides are main components responsible for the bioactivities and properties of CX. Because of its complex constituents, multidisciplinary techniques are needed to validate the analytical methods that support CX’s use worldwide. In the past two decades, rapid development of technology has advanced many aspects of CX research. The aim of this review is to illustrate the recent advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of CX, and to highlight new applications and challenges. Emphasis is placed on recent trends and emerging techniques.

  14. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  15. Infrared Spectra and Hydrogen Bonds of Biologically Active Benzaldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shimko, A. N.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2013-09-01

    IR-Fourier spectra of solutions and crystals of biologically active benzaldehyde derivatives were studied. Specific features of the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds were analyzed. Spectral signatures that characterized participation of the hydroxyl OH group and also the OCH3 and C=O groups in the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the three different types O-H···O-H, O-H···O-CH3, and O-H···O=C were revealed. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the types O-H···O-H and O-H···O-CH3 were absent for benzaldehyde derivatives in the crystal phase. Only hydroxyl and carbonyl groups participated in intermolecular interactions. This resulted in the formation of linear intermolecular dimers. Seven various configurations of the linear dimers were identified in solutions and crystals.

  16. Optimization of hypocrellin B derivative amphiphilicity and biological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; XIE Jie; ZHANG LuYong; CHEN HongXia; GU Ying; ZHAO JingQuan

    2009-01-01

    To satisfy the dual requirements of the fluent transportation in blood and the affinity to the target tissues of vascular diseases, hypocrellin derivatives with optimized amphiphilicity are expected. In this work, 3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid and 4-amino-1-butanesulfonic acid substituted hypocrellin B,named compounds 1 and 2, were designed, synthesized in high yields and characterized. Besides greatly strengthened red absorption, the maximum solubility of compound 2 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is 4.2 mg/mL which is just enough to prepare an aqueous solution for intravenous injection in clinically acceptable concentration, while the partition coefficient between n-octanol and PBS,5.6, benefits the cell-uptake and biological activity as well. Furthermore, EPR measurements reveal that the photosensitization activities of the two compounds to generate semiquinone anion radicals, superoxide anion radicals and singlet oxygen are a little bit higher than those of taurine substituted hypocrellin B (THB), but the photodynamic activities to human lung cancer A549 cells are several times that of THB, mainly due to increases in lipophilicity and cell-uptake.

  17. Immobilization biological activated carbon used in advanced drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.

  18. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  20. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  1. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  2. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

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    Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3(C6H11]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5 have been synthesized using in situ method. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental analysis revealed that all compounds were of good purity. Infrared spectra of the compounds showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450-1500 cm−1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 974-979 cm−1 indicated the bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbamato legends. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom in the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 196.29-199.82 ppm. Single crystal analysis from one of these compounds showed that the chelating mode of the dithiocarbamate groups was isobidentate. These compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Only one of these compounds shows promising results against S. aureus and S. typhi. Cytotoxicity screening on human leukemic promyelocyte HL-60 cells found that two of these compounds were very active with CD50 values of 0.87 and 0.18 µg mL−1. Conclusion: The studied compounds were found to have the potential in biological activity especially in cytotoxicity where this possibly can be used for clinical trials after further research.

  5. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  6. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, M. T.; Quail, P. H.

    1989-08-01

    To determine the functional homology between phytochromes from evolutionarily divergent species, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to express a monocot (oat) phytochrome cDNA in a dicot plant (tomato). Immunoblot analysis shows that more than 50% of the transgenic tomato plants synthesize the full-length oat phytochrome polypeptide. Moreover, leaves of light-grown transgenic plants contain appreciably less oat phytochrome than leaves from dark-adapted plants, and etiolated R1 transgenic seedlings have higher levels of spectrally active phytochrome than wild-type tomato seedlings in direct proportion to the level of immunochemically detectable oat polypeptide present. These data suggest that the heterologous oat polypeptide carries a functional chromophore, allowing reversible photoconversion between the two forms of the molecule, and that the far-red absorbing form (Pfr) is recognized and selectively degraded by the Pfr-specific degradative machinery in the dicot cell. The overexpression of oat phytochrome has pleiotropic, phenotypic consequences at all major phases of the life cycle. Adult transgenic tomato plants expressing high levels of the oat protein tend to be dwarfed, with dark green foliage and fruits. R1 transgenic seedlings have short hypocotyls with elevated anthocyanin contents. We conclude that a monocot phytochrome can be synthesized and correctly processed to a biologically active form in a dicot cell, and that the transduction pathway components that interact with the photoreceptor are evolutionarily conserved.

  7. Biological Activities of Phosphocitrate: A Potential Meniscal Protective Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphocitrate (PC inhibited meniscal calcification and the development of calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to examine the biological activities of PC in the absence of calcium crystals and test the hypothesis that PC is potentially a meniscal protective agent. We found that PC downregulated the expression of many genes classified in cell proliferation, ossification, prostaglandin metabolic process, and wound healing, including bloom syndrome RecQ helicase-like, cell division cycle 7 homolog, cell division cycle 25 homolog C, ankylosis progressive homolog, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases-1/cyclooxygenase-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase receptor. In contrast, PC stimulated the expression of many genes classified in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway, collagen fibril organization, and extracellular structure organization, including fibroblast growth factor 7, collagen type I, alpha 1, and collagen type XI, alpha 1. Consistent with its effect on the expression of genes classified in cell proliferation, collagen fibril organization, and ossification, PC inhibited the proliferation of OA meniscal cells and meniscal cell-mediated calcification while stimulating the production of collagens. These findings indicate that PC is potentially a meniscal-protective agent and a disease-modifying drug for arthritis associated with severe meniscal degeneration.

  8. Estimates of iodine in biological materials by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. (Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neurosciences, Fuchu (Japan)); Kato, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education)

    1982-01-01

    Iodine abundances in NBS biological SRMs and various organs of rats were evaluated by epithermal neutron activation analysis with a boron carbide filter. The detectability of iodine in different biological materials by this method is discussed.

  9. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  10. Actinobacteria from arid and desert habitats: diversity and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim eWink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lack of new antibiotics in the pharmaceutical pipeline guides more and more researchers to leave the classical isolation procedures and to look in special niches and ecosystems. Bioprospecting of extremophilic Actinobacteria through mining untapped strains and avoiding resiolation of known biomolecules is among the most promising strategies for this purpose. With this approach, members of acidtolerant, alkalitolerant, psychrotolerant, thermotolerant, halotolerant and xerotolerant Actinobacteria have been obtained from respective habitats. Among these, little survey exists on the diversity of Actinobacteria in arid areas, which are often adapted to relatively high temperatures, salt concentrations, and radiation. Therefore, arid and desert habitats are special ecosystems which can be recruited for the isolation of uncommon Actinobacteria with new metabolic capability.At the time of this writing, members of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, Cellulomonas, Amycolatopsis, Geodermatophilus, Lechevalieria, Nocardia and Actinomadura are reported from arid habitats. However, metagenomic data present dominant members of the communities in desiccating condition of areas with limited water availability that are not yet isolated. Furthermore, significant diverse types of polyketide synthase (PKS and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes are detected in xerophilic and xerotolerant Actinobacteria and some bioactive compounds are reported from them. Rather than pharmaceutically active metabolites, molecules with protection activity against drying such as Ectoin and Hydroxyectoin with potential application in industry and agriculture have also been identified from xerophilic Actinobacteria. In addition, numerous biologically active small molecules are expected to be discovered from arid adapted Actinobacteria in the future. In the current survey, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria

  11. [Studies on acetylspiramycin. II. Biological activities of spiramycin components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, A; Sato, K; Shuto, K; Yamashita, K; Ichikawa, S; Takahashi, K; Kita, K; Nishiie, Y; Sano, H; Yamaguchi, K

    1990-09-01

    Acetylspiramycin (ASPM) was fractionated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak fractions were named F1 to F7 successively in order of increasing retention times (Rt), i.e., increasing hydrophobicity, and studied for 1) antibacterial activities (MIC), 2) antibacterial potency against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, 3) therapeutic effect on mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae III, Staphylococcus aureus Smith, 4) acute toxicity by i.p. administration to mice (LD50) and 5) cytotoxicities to fibroblasts derived from Chinese-hamster lung (CHL), cow pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAE) and rat hepatic cells. The results obtained are summarized below. 1. Components F1 and 4'-acetylspiramycin F2 had significantly different biological activities from those of other components: F1 showed the lowest antibacterial potency of 492 micrograms (potency)/mg, F2 showed the highest antibacterial potency of 2,040 micrograms (potency)/mg and correspondingly the lowest LD50 value of 692 mg/kg (the highest toxicity). The therapeutic effect of F2 on infections in mice was found to be the second smallest and was superior only to that of F1. The LD50 value of F1 was 1,200 mg/kg and similar to that of ASPM. 2. Antibacterial potencies of F3, F4, F5 and F6 were 1,165, 1,266, 1,374 and 1,530 micrograms (potency)/mg, respectively; fraction with the higher antibacterial activities corresponded to the longer retention times, i.e., the greater hydrophobicities. The most hydrophobic component, F7, 3-propionyl-3",4"-diacetylspiramycin, however, showed a low antibacterial potency of 1,085 micrograms (potency)/mg, next to the lowest one, F1, a fact which was in contradiction to with the sequential relation between hydrophobicities and potencies from F3 to F6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  13. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond in Biologically Active o-Carbonyl Hydroquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Martínez-Cifuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IHBs play a central role in the molecular structure, chemical reactivity and interactions of biologically active molecules. Here, we study the IHBs of seven related o-carbonyl hydroquinones and one structurally-related aromatic lactone, some of which have shown anticancer and antioxidant activity. Experimental NMR data were correlated with theoretical calculations at the DFT and ab initio levels. Natural bond orbital (NBO and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP calculations were used to study the electronic characteristics of these IHB. As expected, our results show that NBO calculations are better than MEP to describe the strength of the IHBs. NBO energies (∆Eij(2 show that the main contributions to energy stabilization correspond to LPàσ* interactions for IHBs, O1…O2-H2 and the delocalization LPàπ* for O2-C2 = Cα(β. For the O1…O2-H2 interaction, the values of ∆Eij(2 can be attributed to the difference in the overlap ability between orbitals i and j (Fij, instead of the energy difference between them. The large energy for the LP O2àπ* C2 = Cα(β interaction in the compounds 9-Hydroxy-5-oxo-4,8, 8-trimethyl-l,9(8H-anthracenecarbolactone (VIII and 9,10-dihydroxy-4,4-dimethylanthracen-1(4H-one (VII (55.49 and 60.70 kcal/mol, respectively when compared with the remaining molecules (all less than 50 kcal/mol, suggests that the IHBs in VIII and VII are strongly resonance assisted.

  14. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  15. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepecka-Stojko, Anna; Stojko, Jerzy; Kurek-Górecka, Anna; Górecki, Michał; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Kubina, Robert; Moździerz, Aleksandra; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-04

    Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3' and C4' positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  16. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL ARYL AND HETROARYL CHALCONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribhuvan Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Heterocyclic chalcones showed diversified biological activities. In view of potential biological activities of Heterocyclic chalcones derivative were prepared by claisen-Schmidt condensation technique. The compound were screened for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  17. Investigating the Use of Inquiry & Web-Based Activities with Inclusive Biology Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Waller, Patricia L.; Edwards, Lana; Darlene Kale, Santoro

    2007-01-01

    A Web-integrated biology program is used to explore how to best assist inclusive high school students to learn biology with inquiry-based activities. Classroom adaptations and instructional strategies teachers may use to assist in promoting biology learning with inclusive learners are discussed.

  18. Electrodermal screening of biologically active points for upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between the electrical resistance of the skin at biologically active points (BAPs) on the main meridians and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Electrical resistance to direct current at 20 BAPs on the fingers and toes of 100 patients with (38 men, 12 women; mean age [range], 58.20 ± 19.62 [18-83] years) and without (27 men, 23 women; 49.54 ± 12.12 [22-74] years) UGIB was measured through electrodermal screening (EDS), based on the theory of electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV). Data were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and logistic regression. The initial readings were lower in the UGIB group, indicating blood and energy deficiency due to UGIB. Significant differences in indicator drop values were observed at nine BAPs (p < 0.05) on the bilateral small intestine, bilateral stomach, bilateral circulation, bilateral fibroid degeneration, and right lymph meridians. The area under the ROC curve values of the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians were larger than 0.5, suggesting the diagnostic accuracy of EDS for UGIB on the basis of the indicator drop of these BAPs. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator drop of the BAP on the left stomach meridian increased by one score, the risk of UGIB increased by about 1.545-3.523 times. In conclusion, the change in the electrical resistance of the skin measured by EDS at the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians provides specific information on UGIB.

  19. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  20. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  1. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  2. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  3. Biological Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Phytoalexins and Selected Natural and Synthetic Stilbenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    for their effects on economically important plant pathogenic fungi of the genera Colletotrichum, Botrytis, Fusarium, and Phomopsis. We further...hypogaea, peanuts, groundnuts, stilbenoids, resveratrol, phytoalexins, biological activity, antifungal, antitumor, anticancer , cytotoxic, antioxidant...prenylated flavonoids have been identified as constituents in plants, and display biological activities, such as anticancer , antiandrogen, anti-Leishmania, and

  4. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Benzoyl Hydrazines Containing Pyrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 于淑晶; 刘鹏飞; 刘卓; 王宝雷; 熊丽霞; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign compounds with high biological activity, low toxicity and low resistance, 8 novel benzoyl hydrazines containing pyrazole were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by I H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that most of title compounds exhibited certain insecticidal activities against M),thimna separata Walker at 200 mg L-1 but excellent fungicidal activities against six fungus at 50 mg L-1, which were better than the control.

  5. Using Active Learning to Teach Concepts and Methods in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms.

  6. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  7. Phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava (Phaeophyceae): biological activities and potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Yoon, Na Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from seaweeds have gained much attention. Ecklonia cava Kjellman is an edible seaweed, which has been recognized as a rich source of bioactive derivatives mainly, phlorotannins. These phlorotannins exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, antihypertensive, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition, radioprotective, and antiallergic activities. This review focuses on biological activities of phlorotannins with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.

  8. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μmbiological waste (spent AC) from BAC process.

  9. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  10. Biological Opinion Compliance Report and Permit Activity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    T.W. Custer. 1986. Hatching Success of Caspian Terns Nesting on the Lower Laguna Madre , Texas , USA. Colonial Birds. 9(1). Pp 86-89. Persons working with...U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on November 14,’ 1 990. Initial District implementation of that Biological Opinion began in 1 992, following the...known as the "Red Book." The Red Book was reviewed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and approved for implementation by the Missouri River Division

  11. Evaluation of in vivo biological activity profile of isoorientin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpeli, Esra; Aslan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Yesilada, Erdem

    2004-01-01

    Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the known C-glycosyl flavonoid, isoorientin, were studied in rats and mice. For the anti-nociceptive activity assessment the p-benzoquinone-induced writing test, for the anti-inflammatory activity the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice, and for the gastroprotective activity the EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats were used. Isoorientin was shown to possess significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities at 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg doses, without inducing any apparent acute toxicity as well as gastric damage. However, the compound did not possess any significant gastroprotective activity against EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis.

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of benzamide DNA minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gul Shahzada; Pilkington, Lisa I; Barker, David

    2016-02-01

    A range of di- and triaryl benzamides were synthesised to investigate the effect of the presence and nature of a polar sidechain, bonding and substitution patterns and functionalisation of benzylic substituents. These compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity as well as their DNA binding activity. The most active compounds in all assays were unsymmetrical triaryl benzamides with a bulky or alkylating benzylic substituent and a polar amino sidechain.

  13. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chotigeat, W.; Phongdara, A.; Choosawad, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at ...

  14. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3-Dioxolane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nine title compounds were synthesized. Their strucures were identified by means of IR, EA, 1H NMR and MS. The results from the primary biological test show that all the compounds have some activitiies of fungicide and plant growth regulator. When R group is 2,4-Cl2C6H3, compound 2 or compound 4 shows better biological activities.

  15. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  16. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  17. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  18. Synthesis and Antiplatelet Activity of Antithrombotic Thiourea Compounds: Biological and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenço

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hematological disorders has increased steadily in Western countries despite the advances in drug development. The high expression of the multi-resistance protein 4 in patients with transitory aspirin resistance, points to the importance of finding new molecules, including those that are not affected by these proteins. In this work, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derivatives using in vitro and in silico approaches. New designed compounds inhibit the arachidonic acid pathway in human platelets. The most active thioureas (compounds 3d, 3i, 3m and 3p displayed IC50 values ranging from 29 to 84 µM with direct influence over in vitro PGE2 and TXA2 formation. In silico evaluation of these compounds suggests that direct blockage of the tyrosyl-radical at the COX-1 active site is achieved by strong hydrophobic contacts as well as electrostatic interactions. A low toxicity profile of this series was observed through hemolytic, genotoxic and mutagenic assays. The most active thioureas were able to reduce both PGE2 and TXB2 production in human platelets, suggesting a direct inhibition of COX-1. These results reinforce their promising profile as lead antiplatelet agents for further in vivo experimental investigations.

  19. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  20. Chemical Constituents of Descurainia sophia L. and its Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal H. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven coumarin compounds were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of DescurainiaSophia L. identified as scopoletine, scopoline, isoscopoline, xanthtoxol, xanthtoxin, psoralene and bergaptane.Three flavonoids namely kaempferol, quercetine and isorhamnetine and three terpenoid compounds -sitosterol-amyrine and cholesterol were also isolated and identified by physical and chemical methods; melting point, Rfvalues, UV and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free and protein amino acidsusing amino acid analyzer were performed. The plant contains 15 amino acids as free and protein amino acidswith different range of concentrations. Fatty acid analysis using GLC, revealed the presence of 10 fatty acids,the highest percentage was palmitic acid (27.45 % and the lowest was lauric acid (0.13%. Biological screeningof alcoholic extract showed that the plant is highly safe and has analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

  1. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Artemisia herba-alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou El-Hamd H. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia, one of the larger genera in the family Asteraceae and the largest genus in the tribe Anthemideae, comprises from 200 to more than 500 taxa at the specific or subspecific level. Many Artemisia species have a high economic value in several fields, as food plants and as antihelminthic and antimalaria in medicine. Artemisia herba-alba was known for its therapeutic and medicinal properties, it was used in both traditional and modern medicine. Several papers have been published on the chemical composition of specimens of A. herba-alba. The aim of this work is to review all available scientific literature published on A. herba-alba. The focus will be on the chemical constitutions which have been identified from this species, in addition to all of the reported biological activites of this species have been included as well as the pharmacology and toxicology

  2. Isolation, biological activity, synthesis, and medicinal chemistry of the pederin/mycalamide family of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosey, R Adam; Floreancig, Paul E

    2012-09-01

    This review highlights the broad range of science that has arisen from the isolation of pederin, the mycalamides, theopederins, and onnamides, and psymberin. Specific topics include structure determination, biological activity, synthesis, and analog preparation and analysis.

  3. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming: Biologically Active Elements Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify...

  4. Bioactive Components and Functional Properties of Biologically Activated Cereal Grains: A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2015-10-14

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  5. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  6. Biological activity of fucoidan from leafy bladderwort (Utricularia aurea Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotigeat, W.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan extracted from aquatic plant Utricularia aurea was 1.3% of dry weight and comprised glucuronic acid 62.5% and fucose 4.98% of the crude extract and 28.74% of the fucose was sulfate. The fucoidan was investigated for antibacterial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of crude fucoidan against Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli was 20 and 10 mg/ml. Moreover, the fucoidan had anticoagulant activity. The crude fucoidan had activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT at 4.47 IU/mg.

  7. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of novel tiliroside derivants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Li, Chun-Bao; Jin, Mei-Na; Shi, Li-Huan; Duan, Hong-Quan; Niu, Wen-Yan

    2011-10-01

    A series of new tiliroside derivatives were synthesized and characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. All of the compounds were evaluated for anti-diabetic properties in vitro using HepG2 cells. Compounds 3c, 3d, and 3i-l caused significant enhancements in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant HepG2 cells compared with control cells and cells that were exposed to metformin (an anti-diabetic drug). Moreover, compound 3l significantly activated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Thus, the tiliroside derivative 3l offers potential to be developed as a new approach for treating type II diabetes.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  10. Baltic cyanobacteria- A source of biologically active compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazur-Marzec, H.; Błaszczyk, A; Felczykowska, A; Hohlfeld, N; Kobos, J.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A; PrabhaDevi; Montalva`o, S.; DeSouza, L.; Tammela, P.; Mikosik, A; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Węgrzyn, G.

    and chemotypes were tested in a wide variety of assays. The cyanobacteria showed strain-specific differences in the induced effects. The extracts from Nodularia spumigena CCNP1401 were active in the highest number of tests, including protease and phosphatase...

  11. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF GINKGOLIDE A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-HONG HU; ZHONG-LIANG CHEN; YU-YUAN XIE

    2001-01-01

    Amide derivatives of ginkgolide A were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro ability to inhibit the PAF-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. They showed less activities than their parent compound ginkgolide A.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Camphor Hydrazone and Imine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson T.; da Silva Araújo, Adriele; Moraes, Adriana M.; de Souza, Leidiane A.; Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Both sonochemical and classical methodologies have been employed to convert camphor, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, C9H16C=O, into a number of derivatives including hydrazones, C9H16C=N-NHAr 3, imines, C9H16C=N-R 7, and the key intermediate nitroimine, C9H16C=N-NO2 6. Reactions of nitroamine 6 with nucleophiles by classical methods provided the desired compounds in a range of yields. In evaluations of activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compound 7j exhibited the best activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 µg/mL), comparable to that of the antitubercular drug ethambutol. The other derivatives displayed modest antimycobacterial activities at 25–50 µg/mL. In in vitro tests against cancer cell lines, none of the synthesized camphor compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of nifuroxazide and analogs. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, L C; Chisté, J J; Santos, M G; Penna, T C

    1999-09-01

    Nifuroxazyde and six analogs were synthesized by varying the substitute from the para-position of the benzenic ring and the heteroatom of the heterocyclic ring. The MIC of seven resultant compounds was determined by serial dilutions, testing the ATCC 25923 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant increase in the anti-microbial activity of thyophenic analogs, as compared with furanic and pyrrholic analogs, was observed. In addition, unlike the cyano and hydroxyl groups, the acetyl group promoted anti-microbial activity.

  14. Chromatography methods in investigation of lipophilicity of the biological active substances

    OpenAIRE

    Odović Jadranka V.; Trbojević-Stanković Jasna B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the review of the methods used in research of the biological active substances hydrophobicity, a very important property. The biological activity of some substances depends on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These processes depend on the molecule's capability to interact with two different media: aqueous (cells interior) and non-aqueous (cells membrane), or on the molecule lipophilicity. Today, great attention is given to investigation and systematic determina...

  15. Terpenes from the soft corals of the genus Sarcophyton: chemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin-Fu; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2013-12-01

    This review covers structural diversity and biological activities of terpenes from soft corals of the genus of Sarcophyton, reported from 1995 to July, 2011. During this period, besides undefined species, 16 species of the genus Sarcophyton, from different geographical areas, had been chemically examined. Two hundred and five terpenes had been isolated from this genus, including eleven sesquiterpenes, 165 diterpenes, 29 biscembranoids, some of which had novel skeletons. They exhibited various biological features, such as antifeedant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifouling activities.

  16. Using Active Learning in a Studio Classroom to Teach Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…

  17. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  18. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer’s disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods.

  19. Biologic therapy improves psoriasis by decreasing the activity of monocytes and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Saeki, Hidehisa; Kondo, Makoto; Gabazza, Esteban C; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Therapy with monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 subunit has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with psoriasis. These antibodies inhibit the effects of the target cytokines and thus the major concern during their use is the induction of excessive immunosuppression. Recent studies evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of biologic therapy in psoriasis have shown no significant appearance of serious adverse effects including infections and malignancies. However, the immunological consequence and the mechanism by which the blockade of a single cytokine by biologics can successfully control the activity of psoriasis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of biologic therapy on cytokine production of various lymphocytes and on the activity of monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic patients. Neutrophils, monocytes and T cells were purified from heparinized peripheral venous blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and γ-interferon, TNF-α and IL-17 production from lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometer. The activation maker of neutrophils and the activated subsets of monocytes were also analyzed. Biologic therapy induced no significant changes in the cytokine production by lymphocytes from the skin and gut-homing T cells. However, neutrophil activity and the ratio of activated monocyte population increased in severely psoriatic patients were normalized in psoriatic patients receiving biologic therapy. The present study showed that biologic therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms and controls the immune response in patients with psoriasis.

  20. Current parallel chemistry principles and practice: application to the discovery of biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul J

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the use of parallel chemistry techniques for drug discovery, based on publications from January 2006 to December 2008. Chemical libraries that yielded active compounds across a range of biological targets are presented, together with synthetic details when appropriate. Background information for the biological targets involved and any SAR that could be discerned within members of a library series also is discussed. New technological developments, as applied to library design and synthesis and, more generally, in the discovery of biologically active entities, are highlighted. In addition, the likely future directions for parallel chemistry in its ability to impact upon drug discovery are also presented.

  1. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  2. The chemistry and biological activity of heterocycle-fused quinolinone derivatives: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, Tomoya; Fukaya, Takayuki; Tobe, Masanori

    2015-06-05

    Among all heterocycles, the heterocycle-fused quinolinone scaffold is one of the privileged structures in drug discovery as heterocycle-fused quinolinone derivatives exhibit various biological activities allowing them to act as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antipsychotic agents. This wide spectrum of biological activity has attracted a great deal of attention in the field of medicinal chemistry. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the biological and pharmacological properties of various heterocycle-fused quinolinone scaffolds and discuss the synthetic methods of some of their derivatives.

  3. Spectroscopic study of molecular structure, antioxidant activity and biological effects of metal hydroxyflavonol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonowicz, Mariola; Regulska, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    Flavonols with varied hydroxyl substitution can act as strong antioxidants. Thanks to their ability to chelate metals as well as to donate hydrogen atoms they have capacity to scavenge free radicals. Their metal complexes are often more active in comparison with free ligands. They exhibit interesting biological properties, e.g. anticancer, antiphlogistic and antibacterial. The relationship between molecular structure and their biological properties was intensively studied using spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, IR, Raman, NMR, ESI-MS). The aim of this paper is review on spectroscopic analyses of molecular structure and biological activity of hydroxyflavonol metal complexes.

  4. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  5. Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-05-30

    In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate.

  6. Biological activity of Terminalia arjuna on Human Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Javed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s population relies chiefly on traditional medicinal plants, using their extracts or active constituents. Terminalia arjuna of family Combretaceae reported to be effective as aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, sweet, acrid, purgative, laxative, astringent, diuretic, astringent, cirrhosis, cardioprotective and cancer treatment.   In present study, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxic effect of Terminalia arjuna was performed. Our results showed that methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna leaves has moderate antifungal effect against Microsporm canis and fruit extract possess good antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus  and  Preudomonas aeroginosa. Moreover, Dichloromethane extract of Terminalia arjuna bark and fruit posses moderate phytotoxic activity

  7. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Substituted Triazolethione Schiff Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN, Xiao-Hong; TAO, Yan; LIU, Yuan-Fa; CHEN, Bang

    2007-01-01

    Six novel Schiff bases have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-amino-5-(4-pyridyl)-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione with various benzaldehydes. The structures of the compounds have been confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay indicated that the title compounds possessed good fungicidal activities to several vegetable pathogens.

  8. Biological activity of Schinus molle on Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A A; Werdin González, J O; Sánchez Chopa, C

    2006-07-01

    Hexanic extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle were tested for repellent and insecticidal properties against first instar nymphs and eggs of Triatoma infestans, the vector of Chagas' disease. Leaf and fruit extracts were highly repellent for first nymphs. Fruit extracts had also ovicidal activity.

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of salinomycin conjugates with floxuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huczyński, Adam; Antoszczak, Michał; Kleczewska, Natalia; Lewandowska, Marta; Maj, Ewa; Stefańska, Joanna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Janczak, Jan; Celewicz, Lech

    2015-03-26

    As part of our program to develop anticancer agents, we have synthesized new compounds, which are conjugates between well-known anticancer drug, floxuridine and salinomycin which is able to selectivity kill cancer stem cells. The conjugates were obtained in two ways i.e. by copper(I) catalysed click Huisgen cycloaddition reaction performed between 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorouridine and salinomycin propargyl amide, and by the ester synthesis starting from salinomycin and floxuridine under mild condition. The compounds obtained were characterized by spectroscopic methods and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against seven human cancer cell lines as well as antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). The conjugate obtained by esterification reaction showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity against the drug-resistant cancer cells and lower toxicity than those of salinomycin and floxuridine towards normal cells, as well as standard anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin and doxorubicin. The conjugate compound revealed also moderate activity against MRSA and MRSE bacterial strains. Very high activity of floxuridine and 5-fluorouracil against MRSA and MRSE has been also observed.

  10. Programming biological operating systems: genome design, assembly and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    The DNA technologies developed over the past 20 years for reading and writing the genetic code converged when the first synthetic cell was created 4 years ago. An outcome of this work has been an extraordinary set of tools for synthesizing, assembling, engineering and transplanting whole bacterial genomes. Technical progress, options and applications for bacterial genome design, assembly and activation are discussed.

  11. Biologically active dibenzofurans from Pilidiostigma glabrum, an endemic Australian Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Qingyao; Banbury, Linda K; Renshaw, Dane E; Lambley, Eleanore H; Mon, Htwe; Macfarlane, Graham A; Griesser, Hans J; Heinrich, Michael M; Wohlmuth, Hans

    2012-09-28

    In an effort to identify new anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents with potential application in wound healing, five new dibenzofurans, 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylbutanoyl)dibenzofuran (1), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (2), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-4,6-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (3), 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2-(2-methylbutanoyl)-8-(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (4), and 1,3,7,9-tetrahydroxy-4,6-dimethyl-2,8-di(2-methylpropionyl)dibenzofuran (5), were isolated from the leaves of Pilidiostigma glabrum together with one previously described dibenzofuran. Structure elucidation was achieved by way of spectroscopic measurements including 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions had potent antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive strains (MIC in the low micromolar range), while compounds with 4,6-acyl substitutions were less active. All compounds except 3 inhibited the synthesis of nitric oxide in RAW264 macrophages with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Compounds with 2,8-acyl substitutions also inhibited the synthesis of PGE(2) in 3T3 cells, whereas 4,6-acyl-substituted compounds were inactive. None of the compounds inhibited the synthesis of TNF-α in RAW264 cells. The compounds showed variable but modest antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. These findings highlight that much of the Australian flora remains unexplored and may yet yield many new compounds of interest. Initial clues are provided on structure/activity relationships for this class of bioactives, which may enable the design and synthesis of compounds with higher activity and/or selectivity.

  12. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  13. Biological function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritu; DiMenna, Lauren J; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Evans, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) is an essential regulator of B cell diversification, but its full range of action has until recently been an enigma. Based on homology, it was originally proposed to be an RNA-editing enzyme, but so far, no RNA substrates are known. Rather, it functions by deaminating cytidine, and in this manner, coupled with base-excision repair or mismatch repair machinery, it is a natural mutator. This allows it to play a central role in adaptive immunity, whereby it initiates the processes of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation to help generate a diverse and high-affinity repertoire of immunoglobulin isotypes. More recently, it has been appreciated that methylated cytidine, already known as a key epigenetic mark on DNA controlling gene expression, can also be a target for AID modification. Coupled with repair machinery, this can facilitate the active removal of methylated DNA. This activity can impact the process of cellular reprogramming, including transition of a somatic cell to pluripotency, which requires major reshuffling of epigenetic memory. Thus, seemingly disparate roles for AID in controlling immune diversity and epigenetic memory have a common mechanistic basis. However, the very activity that is so useful for B cell diversity and cellular reprogramming is dangerous for the integrity of the genome. Thus, AID expression and activity is tightly regulated, and deregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. Here, we review the range of AID functions with a focus on its mechanisms of action and regulation. Major questions remain to be answered concerning how and when AID is targeted to specific loci and how this impacts development and disease.

  14. Mangiferin: A review of sources and interventions for biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotshna; Khare, Puja; Shanker, Karuna

    2016-09-10

    Xanthones are naturally synthesized in various biological systems such as plants, lichens, and fungi and are stored as by-products. In addition to taxonomic significance they are also important in the treatment/management of a number of human disorders. Mangiferin and its derived lead molecule have never qualified for use in a clinical trial despite a number of pharmacological studies that have proven its effectiveness as an antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, chemopreventive, radioprotective, cardiotonic, immunomodulatory, and diuretic. For centuries in the traditional practice of medicine in India and China the use of plants containing mangiferin has been a major component for disease management and health benefits. While it resembles biflavones, the C-glucosyl xanthone (mangiferin) has great nutritional and medicinal significance due to its unique structural characteristics. The C-glycoside link of mangiferin, mimicked to nucleophilic phloroglucinol substitution, facilitates its bioavailability and also is responsible for its antioxidant properties. Researchers have also utilized its xanthonic framework for both pharmacophoric backbone and for its use as a substitution group for synthesis and prospects. To date more than 500 derivatives using about 80 reactions have been generated. These reactions include: lipid peroxidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, methylation, fermentation, deglycosylation, hydrolysis, polymerization, sulfation, acylation, etherification, peroxidation among others. Multiple studies on efficacy and safety have increased the global demand of mangiferin-based food supplements. This review highlights the distribution of mangiferin in plants, its isolation, and assay methods applicable to different sample matrices. In addition we include updates on various strategies and derived products intended for designated pharmacological actions. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):504-514, 2016.

  15. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  16. Synthesis and biological activity studies of some thiazolidinones and azetidinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4-thiazolidinones and 2-azetidinones have been synthesized by condensation of 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulphone with various aromatic or heterocyclic aldehydes to yield the Schiff′s bases. Cyclocondensation of Schiff′s bases with 2-mercaptopropionic acid afforded 4-thiazolidinone derivatives, and cyclocondensation of Schiff′s bases with chloroacetylchloride in presence of triethylamine afforded 2-azetidinone derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral (IR, NMR, and Mass data. All these compounds were evaluated for their in vitro growth-inhibitory activity against several microbes. Compound 4b and 4c exhibited equipotent antibacterial activity with the reference standard ampicillin against Bacillus subtilis.

  17. Structure-biological activity relationship of synthetic trihydroxilated chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devia Cristina M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriostatic activity of 2?,4?,2-trihydroxychalcone; 2?,4?,3-trihydroxychalcone and 2?,4?,4-trihydroxychalcone, prepared by condensation of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and benzaldehyde substituted, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was assayed by agar plate method. The three compounds presented important inhibition halos. In order to elucidate structure-activity relationships, the minimal inhibitory concentrations against S. aureus were determined by the broth dilution method and the results obtained were compared to that of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. The sequence observed was: MIC 2?,4?,3-(OH3 > MIC 2?,4?-(OH2 > MIC 2?,4?,4-(OH3 > > MIC 2?,4?,2-(OH3. These results showed that the introduction of an electron donating group (-OH in the aromatic B-ring causes an increase in bioactivity, and that the intensity of action depends on the position of the OH substitute.

  18. Microwave assisted synthesis and biological activity of novel coumarinyltriazolothiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 3-(4-methylcoumarinyl-7-oxymethyl-6-substitutedphenyl-5,6-dihydro-s-triazolo (3,4-b(1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2(a-j have been synthesized by reacting 5-(4-methyl coumarinyl-7-oxymethyl-4-amino-3-mercapto(4H-1,2,4-triazole with various aromatic aldehydes by microwave assisted organic synthesis. The structure of the compounds 2 (a-j has been confirmed by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. All the compounds were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Among the compounds tested, compounds 2d (4-dimethyl amino phenyl derivative and 2h (3,4-dimethoxy phenyl derivative showed better antimicrobial and antioxidant activity than rest of the compounds in the series.

  19. Synthesis and biological activity of Wuweizisu C and analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J B; Wang, Q; Li, Y F

    2009-01-01

    Lignans are widely distributed in nature. The earliest recorded medicinal use of lignans dated back to over 1000 years ago. Lignan-rich plant products were also active ingredients in Chinese and Japanese folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The dried root and stem of this plant are listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gastric, duodenal ulcers and many other diseases. This review highlights synthetic strategies for the Wuweizisu C analogs and the important pharmacological activities as well as therapeutic findings related to the treatment of HBV and other diseases. Notably a significant and ongoing project on Wuweizisu C and its analogs has led to the discovery and development of two potent derivatives alpha-DDB and BICYCLOL which are currently in clinical trials against HBV, especially in lowering elevated SGPT levels. Further design, synthesis, and evaluation of Wuweizisu C analogs are discussed.

  20. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

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    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  1. New Conjugated Benzothiazole-N-oxides: Synthesis and Biological Activity

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    Pavlína Foltínová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new 2-styrylbenzothiazole-N-oxides have been prepared by aldol – type condensation reactions between 2-methylbenzothiazole–N-oxide and para-substituted benzaldehydes. Compounds with cyclic amino substituents showed typical push-pull molecule properties. Four compounds were tested against various bacterial strains as well as the protozoan Euglena gracilis as model microorganisms. Unlike previously prepared analogous benzothiazolium salts, only weak activity was recorded.

  2. Chemical or Biological Activity in Open Chaotic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Karolyi, G; Toroczkai, Z; Tél, T; Grebogi, C; Karolyi, Gy.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of particle ensembles in open chaotic hydrodynamical flows. Active processes of the type A+B --> 2B and A+B --> 2C are considered in the limit of weak diffusion. As an illustrative advection dynamics we consider a model of the von Kármán vortex street, a time periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder. We show that a fractal unstable manifold acts as a catalyst for the process, and the products cover fattened-up copies of this manifold. This may account for the observed filamental intensification of activity in environmental flows. The reaction equations valid in the wake are derived either in the form of dissipative maps or differential equations depending on the regime under consideration. They contain terms that are not present in the traditional reaction equations of the same active process: the decay of the products is slower while the productivity is much faster than in homogeneous flows. Both effects appear as a consequence of underlying fractal st...

  3. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

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    Ashraf A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40–60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8 mm and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm at concentration of 5 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 µg/disc and less than 2.5 µg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  4. Chemical or biological activity in open chaotic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolyi, G. [Department of Civil Engineering Mechanics, Technical University of Budapest, Muegyetem rkp. 3, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Pentek, A. [Marine Physical Laboratory, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0238 (United States); Toroczkai, Z. [Center for Stochastic Processes in Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virgina 24061-0435 (United States); Toroczkai, Z.; Tel, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Grebogi, C. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of particle ensembles in open chaotic hydrodynamical flows. Active processes of the type A+B{r_arrow}2B and A+B{r_arrow}2C are considered in the limit of weak diffusion. As an illustrative advection dynamics we consider a model of the von K{acute a}rm{acute a}n vortex street, a time-periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder. We show that a fractal unstable manifold acts as a catalyst for the process, and the products cover fattened-up copies of this manifold. This may account for the observed filamental intensification of activity in environmental flows. The reaction equations valid in the wake are derived either in the form of dissipative maps or differential equations depending on the regime under consideration. They contain terms that are not present in the traditional reaction equations of the same active process: the decay of the products is slower while the productivity is much faster than in homogeneous flows. Both effects appear as a consequence of underlying fractal structures. In the long time limit, the system locks itself in a dynamic equilibrium state synchronized to the flow for both types of reactions. For particles of finite size an emptying transition might also occur leading to no products left in the wake. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

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    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  6. Core biological marker candidates of Alzheimer's disease - perspectives for diagnosis, prediction of outcome and reflection of biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, H; Mitchell, A; Blennow, K; Frank, R A; Brettschneider, S; Weller, L; Möller, H-J

    2004-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative dementing illness. Over the past few years, however, remarkable advances have taken place in understanding both the genetic and molecular biology with the intracellular processing of amyloid and tau and the changes leading to the pathologic formation of extracellular amyloid plaques and the intraneuronal aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau into neurofibrillary tangles. This progress in our understanding of the molecular pathology has set the stage for clinically meaningful advances in the development of biomarkers. Emerging diagnostic methods that are based on biochemical and imaging biomarkers of disease specific pathology hold the potential to provide effective measures of natural history (marker of disease that is predictive of outcome), biological activity (such as magnitude and frequency of response correlating with drug potency) and markers of surrogate endpoints (single or composite marker that accounts for clinical benefit of the therapy). Markers of biological activity should be also evaluated regarding their value to reflect disease progression, heterogeneity of the clinical population, for early decision making and characterization of new treatments. We focussed on the current status of core analytes which provide reasonable evidence for association with key mechanisms of pathogenesis or neurodegeneration in AD. In addition, feasibility was important, such as availability of a validated assay for the biological measure in question, with properties that included high precision and reliability of measurement, reagents and standards well described. On this basis we reviewed the body of literature that has examined CSF total tau (t-tau) and beta-amyloid 1-42 (Abeta(1-42)), phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and beta-amyloid-antibodies as diagnostic tests for AD versus clinically representative comparison groups. Measurement of t-tau and Abeta(1-42) in the CSF seems useful to discriminate early and incipient

  7. Biological Activities and Cytotoxicity of Diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins

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    Fabiano de S. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5% at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%. Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3% and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9% at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%, kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%, kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%, and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%, respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  8. Biological activities and cytotoxicity of diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Vargas, Fabiano; D O de Almeida, Patrícia; Aranha, Elenn Suzany P; de A Boleti, Ana Paula; Newton, Peter; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Junior, Valdir F Veiga; Lima, Emerson S

    2015-04-09

    Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5%) at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%). Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3%) and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9%) at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%), kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%), kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%), and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%), respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  9. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  10. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV) Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Normah Awang; Ibrahim Baba; Yamin, Bohari M.; Mohd S. Othman; Nurul F. Kamaludin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3)(C6H11)]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5) have been synthesized using in situ method. The...

  12. Synthesis and biological activity of fluorescent neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Langlois, Paul; Cunha, Thomas; Seraphin, Denis; Thany, Steeve H

    2014-08-01

    Here, we describe the synthesis of two new fluorescent derivatives of thiamethoxam and compared their toxicity on aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and their mode of action on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on the sixth abdominal ganglion. The compound 3 with two 2-chlorothiazole moieties was found to be more toxic using toxicological bioassays 24 h and 48 h after exposure while compound 4 appeared more active using cockroach ganglionic depolarization. Interestingly, thiamethoxam appeared more effective than component 3 and 4, respectively. Our results demonstrated that component 3 and 4 act as agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  13. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  14. Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Synthetic Approaches, Derivatives and Biological Activity

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    Pedro Laborda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a common viral disease, influenza has very negative consequences, causing the death of around half a million people each year. A neuraminidase located on the surface of the virus plays an important role in viral reproduction by contributing to the release of viruses from infected host cells. The treatment of influenza is mainly based on the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors. The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir, laninamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir have been commercialized and have been demonstrated to be potent influenza viral neuraminidase inhibitors against most influenza strains. In order to create more potent neuraminidase inhibitors and fight against the surge in resistance resulting from naturally-occurring mutations, these anti-influenza drugs have been used as templates for the development of new neuraminidase inhibitors through structure-activity relationship studies. Here, we review the synthetic routes to these commercial drugs, the modifications which have been performed on these structures and the effects of these modifications on their inhibitory activity.

  15. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  16. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2015-07-15

    Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them.

  17. Biological activities of lignin hydrolysate-related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siseon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignin hydrolysates contain many different chemical species,including ferulic acid, coumaric acid, vanillic acid, vanillin,syringaldehyde and furfural. From the perspective of biofuels,these compounds are problematic and can cause downstreamloss of product if not removed prior to beginning the fermentativeprocess. In contrast, a search for these compounds withinthe literature turns up many papers where the same compoundshave beneficial properties pertaining to human health,including as antioxidants and in cancer prevention, or are involvedin bacterial cell-to-cell signaling. Consequently, this articlereviews the dual nature of these and other compoundsfound in lignin hydrolysates, highlighting both their detrimentaland beneficial activities. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(5:265-274

  18. SOURCE, PRODUCTION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PICEATANNOL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kukreja*, A. Mishra and A. Tiwari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are group of molecules which contain different families of secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites, are abundantly found in plants and are mostly categorized into two major groups: non-soluble compounds and soluble compounds. Stilbenes which come under the category of soluble compounds of phenolics are small molecules, ranges in their weight from ~200 to 300 g/mol and are found in diverse plants. These compounds are produced in plants via phenylpropanoid pathway. Under unfavourable conditions such as microbial or viral attack, ultraviolet light exposure and disease in plants, stilbenes are synthesized and act as natural agents to protect plants. Piceatannol, a natural stilbene, is found in different plant species and is beneficial for human health. It possesses various pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. This review paper focuses on piceatannol, its sources, chemical synthesis mechanism, production and its useful applications in various diseases.

  19. The cell biology of inflammasomes: Mechanisms of inflammasome activation and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-06-20

    Over the past decade, numerous advances have been made in the role and regulation of inflammasomes during pathogenic and sterile insults. An inflammasome complex comprises a sensor, an adaptor, and a zymogen procaspase-1. The functional output of inflammasome activation includes secretion of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and induction of an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis. Recent studies have highlighted the intersection of this inflammatory response with fundamental cellular processes. Novel modulators and functions of inflammasome activation conventionally associated with the maintenance of homeostatic biological functions have been uncovered. In this review, we discuss the biological processes involved in the activation and regulation of the inflammasome.

  20. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

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    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  1. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

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    Hee Jae Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed.

  2. Molecular design, synthesis and biological activities of amidines as new ketol-acid reductoisomerase inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Lei Wang; Yong Hong Li; Jian Guo Wang; Yi Ma; Zheng Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Diamidine (A) was identified in our in vitro bio-assay as a possible inhibitor of ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) from the ACD database search based on the known three-dimensional crystal structure of KARI. An investigation on interaction of A on KARI active sites, led to the design and synthesis of 15 novel monoamidines. Some of those showed better biological activity than A on rice KARI (in vitro) and in greenhouse herbicidal tests (in vivo). The structure-biological activity relationship was investigated, which provides valuable information to further study of potential KARI inhibitors.

  3. Spectral Response and Diagnostics of Biological Activity of Hydroxyl-Containing Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Mayer, G. V.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using IR Fourier spectra and employing quantum-chemical calculations of electronic structure, spectra, and proton-acceptor properties, synthetic derivatives of aminophenol exhibiting biological activity in the suppression of herpes, influenza, and HIV viruses have been investigated from a new perspective, with the aim of establishing the spectral response of biological activity of the molecules. It has been experimentally established that the participation of the aminophenol hydroxyl group in intramolecular hydrogen bonds is characteristic of structures with antiviral properties. A quantum-chemical calculation of the proton-acceptor ability of the investigated aminophenol derivatives has shown that biologically active structures are characterized by a high proton-acceptor ability of oxygen of the hydroxyl group. A correlation that has been obtained among the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond, high proton-acceptor ability, and antiviral activity of substituted aminophenols enables us to predict the pharmacological properties of new medical preparations of the given class of compounds.

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Microbial Resources and Their Biological Activities of the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available East China Sea is one of the four sea areas in China, which possesses peculiar ecological environment and many kinds of living creatures, especially the microorganisms. We established the East China Sea microorganism library (during 2006–2010 for the first time, which stored about 30000 strains that covered most kinds of the species. In this paper, 395 pure strains of East China Sea microorganism library which belong to 33 different genera were mainly introduced. Sulfitobacter, Halomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina were the most dominant species. On the large-scale biological activity screening of the 395 strains, 100 strains possess different biological activities based on different screening models, of which 11.4% strains have antibacterial activities, 15.9% have cytotoxicity activities, and 6.1% have antioxidation activities. Besides, the secondary metabolites of 6 strains with strong biological activities were studied systematically; diketopiperazines and macrocyclic lactones are the active secondary metabolites. The species and the biological activity of microorganisms diversity, the abundant structure type of the secondary metabolites, and their bioactivities all indicate that East China Sea is a potent marine microorganisms-derived developing resource for drug discovery.

  5. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003.

  6. Effects of heat on the biological activity of wild Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkai Wu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggested that heat treatment does not adversely affect SOD or DNase activity, polysaccharide content, or cordycepin dissolution. Thus, heat treatment might be a safe processing method to extend the storage time of wild C. sinensis without compromising biological activity.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1973-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  8. [Progress in study of flavonoids from Annonaceae and biological activities of these compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Mei; Wu, Jiu-Hong

    2007-05-01

    More than 50 new flavonoids derived from Annonaceae are reported in the last two decades. Many genuses in Annonaceae contain flavonoids having structural novelty and broad pharmacological activities. Due to the pharmacological interest of some of these compounds, chemical investigations on this topic have grown considerably in the decades. Here the biological activities of some of these flavonoids are also briefly discussed.

  9. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  10. Antiproliferative Pt(IV) complexes: synthesis, biological activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Luini, Mara; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gaviglio, Luca; Osella, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Several Pt(IV) complexes of the general formula [Pt(L)2(L')2(L'')2] [axial ligands L are Cl-, RCOO-, or OH-; equatorial ligands L' are two am(m)ine or one diamine; and equatorial ligands L'' are Cl- or glycolato] were rationally designed and synthesized in the attempt to develop a predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model. Numerous theoretical molecular descriptors were used alongside physicochemical data (i.e., reduction peak potential, Ep, and partition coefficient, log Po/w) to obtain a validated QSAR between in vitro cytotoxicity (half maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, on A2780 ovarian and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines) and some features of Pt(IV) complexes. In the resulting best models, a lipophilic descriptor (log Po/w or the number of secondary sp3 carbon atoms) plus an electronic descriptor (Ep, the number of oxygen atoms, or the topological polar surface area expressed as the N,O polar contribution) is necessary for modeling, supporting the general finding that the biological behavior of Pt(IV) complexes can be rationalized on the basis of their cellular uptake, the Pt(IV)-->Pt(II) reduction, and the structure of the corresponding Pt(II) metabolites. Novel compounds were synthesized on the basis of their predicted cytotoxicity in the preliminary QSAR model, and were experimentally tested. A final QSAR model, based solely on theoretical molecular descriptors to ensure its general applicability, is proposed.

  11. Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübler Alexander C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains of BMP receptors. In the present study the biological effect of a BMP-2 double mutant with antagonistic activity was evaluated in vivo. Methods Equine-derived collagenous carriers were loaded with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 in a well-known dose to provide an osteoinductive stimulus. The study was performed in a split animal design: carriers only coupled with rhBMP-2 (control were implanted into prepared cavities of lower limb muscle of rats, specimens coupled with rhBMP-2 as well as BMP-2 double mutant were placed into the opposite limb in the same way. After 28 days the carriers were explanted, measured radiographically and characterized histologically. Results As expected, the BMP-2 loaded implants showed a typical heterotopic bone formation. The specimens coupled with both proteins showed a significant decreased bone formation in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The antagonistic effect of a specific BMP-2 double mutant could be demonstrated in vivo. The dose dependent influence on heterotopic bone formation by preventing rhBMP-2 induced osteoinduction suggests a competitive receptor antagonism.

  12. Clustering and rule-based classifications of chemical structures evaluated in the biological activity space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Brown, Nathan; Ertl, Peter; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Selzer, Paul; Hamon, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Classification methods for data sets of molecules according to their chemical structure were evaluated for their biological relevance, including rule-based, scaffold-oriented classification methods and clustering based on molecular descriptors. Three data sets resulting from uniformly determined in vitro biological profiling experiments were classified according to their chemical structures, and the results were compared in a Pareto analysis with the number of classes and their average spread in the profile space as two concurrent objectives which were to be minimized. It has been found that no classification method is overall superior to all other studied methods, but there is a general trend that rule-based, scaffold-oriented methods are the better choice if classes with homogeneous biological activity are required, but a large number of clusters can be tolerated. On the other hand, clustering based on chemical fingerprints is superior if fewer and larger classes are required, and some loss of homogeneity in biological activity can be accepted.

  13. Polysaccharides from Arctium lappa L.: Chemical structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Juliane; de Souza, Lauro M; Baggio, Cristiane H; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-10-01

    The plant Arctium lappa L. is popularly used to relieve symptoms of inflammatory disorders. A crude polysaccharide fraction (SAA) resulting of aqueous extraction of A. lappa leaves showed a dose dependent anti-edematogenic activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, which persisted for up to 48h. Sequential fractionation by ultrafiltration at 50kDa and 30kDa cut-off membranes yielded three fractions, namely RF50, RF30, and EF30. All these maintained the anti-edematogenic effect, but RF30 showed a more potent action, inhibiting 57% of the paw edema at a dose of 4.9mg/kg. The polysaccharide RF30 contained galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, and mannose in a 7:4:2:1:2:1 ratio and had a Mw of 91,000g/mol. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy indicated that RF30 is mainly constituted by a type I rhamnogalacturonan branched by side chains of types I and II arabinogalactans, and arabinan.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Biologically Active Lanthanide (III) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.; Trendafilova, N.; Georgieva, I.; Rastogi, V. K.; Kiefer, W.

    2008-11-01

    The complexation ability and the binding mode of the ligand coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Dy(III) lanthanide ions (Ln(III)) are elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques as well as DFT quantum chemical calculations were used for characterization of the binding mode and the structures of lanthanide(III) complexes of HCCA. The metal—ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different Ln—CCA structures using B3LYP/6-31G(d) method combined with a large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanide ion. The energies obtained predict bidentate coordination of CCA- to Ln(III) ions through the carbonylic oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA- and Ln(III) complexes based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal—ligand binding mode. The natural bonding analysis predicts strongly ionic character of the Ln(III)-CCA bonding in the- complexes studied. With the relatively resistant tumor cell line K-562 we obtained very interesting in-vitro results which are in accordance with our previously published data concerning the activity of lanthanide(III) complexes with other coumarin derivatives.

  15. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  16. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  17. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  18. Biological response of tissues with macrophagic activity to titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Evelson, Pablo; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2008-03-15

    The titanium dioxide layer is composed mainly of anatase and rutile. This layer is prone to break, releasing particles to the milieu. Therefore, corrosion may cause implant failure and body contamination. We have previously shown that commercial anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-anatase) is deposited in organs with macrophagic activity, transported in the blood by phagocytic-mononuclear cells, and induces an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of rutile-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-rutile). Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with a suspension of TiO(2)-rutile powder at a dose of 1.60 g/100 g b.w. Six months postinjection, the presence of Ti was assessed in serum, blood cells, liver, spleen, and lung. Titanium was found in phagocytic mononuclear cells, serum, and in the parenchyma of all the organs tested. TiO(2)-rutile generated a rise in the percentage of reactive cells, which was smaller than that observed when TiO(2)-anatase was employed in a previous study. Although TiO(2)-rutile provoked an augmentation of ROS, it failed to induce damage to membrane lipids, possibly due to an adaptive response. The present study reveals that TiO(2)-rutile is less bioreactive than TiO(2)-anatase.

  19. Biologically active substances of hydrophytes Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Zostera noltii: composition, properties, applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Novichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary, the author places special emphasis on the study of traditional technologies for processing of geophytes. Modern development trends in biotechnology demand of expansion of the raw material base. The increase in needs medicine, food and feed industries in biologically active substances pay attention to new unconventional sources of renewable raw materials. From this perspective, higher aquatic plants Zostera noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. can be considered as a perspective object due to its high content of unique biologically active substances with different properties. Rationale of choosing of plant material and identifications of optimum performance and operational conditions for the production of biologically active substances: alcohol extraction in the mixer at room temperature limited to 7-10 days. Studied the organoleptic, physicochemical and microbial properties of end products – aqueous-alcoholic extracts of hydrophytes. Experimentations (UV spectrophotometric analysis, thin layer chromatography, mass spectrometry indicate that the composition of plants and extracts contains different biologically active substances. The high content of quercetin and pigments in the extracts of Z. noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. shows the future use of hydrophytes in the Volga river and the Northern Caspian sea as an additional natural source of flavonoids and antioxidants. Therefore, plant preparations (aqueousalcoholic extracts of zostera and pondweed are combinations of various compounds, which have a high biological activity with different properties: adsorptive capacity, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Products of studied plants after extraction with water-alcohol can be used in the food industry as a source-native with minerals, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alcohols, aliphatic acids and etc. Find an opportunity of use of biologically active substances from eelgrass and pondweed

  20. Biological activity of the alkaloids of Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, M; Salemink, C A; Khan, I

    1984-05-01

    The cultivated Erythroxylum varieties E. coca var. coca, E. coca var. ipadu, E. novogranatense var. novogranatense and E. novogranatense var. truxillense contain 18 alkaloids, identified so far, belonging to the tropanes, pyrrolidines and pyridines, with cocaine as the main alkaloid. The biological activity of the following alkaloids has been reported in the literature: cocaine, cinnamoylcocaine, benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, pseudotropine, benzoyltropine, tropacocaine, alpha- and beta-truxilline, hygrine, cuscohygrine and nicotine. The biological activity of cocaine and nicotine is not reviewed here, because it is discussed elsewhere in the literature. Hardly anything is known about the biological activity of the other alkaloids present in the four varieties mentioned. The biosynthesis of the coca alkaloids has been outlined.

  1. NetDecoder: a network biology platform that decodes context-specific biological networks and gene activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Ung, Choong Yong; McGehee, Cordelia D; Correia, Cristina; Li, Hu

    2016-06-02

    The sequential chain of interactions altering the binary state of a biomolecule represents the 'information flow' within a cellular network that determines phenotypic properties. Given the lack of computational tools to dissect context-dependent networks and gene activities, we developed NetDecoder, a network biology platform that models context-dependent information flows using pairwise phenotypic comparative analyses of protein-protein interactions. Using breast cancer, dyslipidemia and Alzheimer's disease as case studies, we demonstrate NetDecoder dissects subnetworks to identify key players significantly impacting cell behaviour specific to a given disease context. We further show genes residing in disease-specific subnetworks are enriched in disease-related signalling pathways and information flow profiles, which drive the resulting disease phenotypes. We also devise a novel scoring scheme to quantify key genes-network routers, which influence many genes, key targets, which are influenced by many genes, and high impact genes, which experience a significant change in regulation. We show the robustness of our results against parameter changes. Our network biology platform includes freely available source code (http://www.NetDecoder.org) for researchers to explore genome-wide context-dependent information flow profiles and key genes, given a set of genes of particular interest and transcriptome data. More importantly, NetDecoder will enable researchers to uncover context-dependent drug targets.

  2. Chromatography methods in investigation of lipophilicity of the biological active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odović Jadranka V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the review of the methods used in research of the biological active substances hydrophobicity, a very important property. The biological activity of some substances depends on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These processes depend on the molecule's capability to interact with two different media: aqueous (cells interior and non-aqueous (cells membrane, or on the molecule lipophilicity. Today, great attention is given to investigation and systematic determination of drugs lipophilicity. In these researches chromatography methods have an important role.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Water-soluble Metalloporphyrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of a series of metal porphyrins were described. The complexes 3a~3e were prepared from the reaction of compound 2 with M(OAc)2 in CHCl3, and the treatment of 3a~3f with pyridine gave corresponding complexes 4a~4f. These new compounds were identified by absorption spectroscopies, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The results of biological activity testing revealed that 4a and 4c had stronger inhibiting action for Escherichia coli (CCTCC AB91115).

  4. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  5. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  6. Temporal and spatial variability of soil biological activity at European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallast, Janine; Rühlmann, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The CATCH-C project aims to identify and improve the farm-compatibility of Soil Management Practices including to promote productivity, climate change mitigation and soil quality. The focus of this work concentrates on turnover conditions for soil organic matter (SOM). SOM is fundamental for the maintenance of quality and functions of soils while SOM storage is attributed a great importance in terms of climate change mitigation. The turnover conditions depend on soil biological activity characterized by climate and soil properties. Soil biological activity was investigated using two model concepts: a) Re_clim parameter within the ICBM (Introductory Carbon Balance Model) (Andrén & Kätterer 1997) states a climatic factor summarizing soil water storage and soil temperature and its influence on soil biological activity. b) BAT (biological active time) approach derived from model CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamic) (Franko & Oelschlägel 1995) expresses the variation of soil moisture, soil temperature and soil aeration as a time scale and an indicator of biological activity for soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. During an earlier stage both model concepts, Re_clim and BAT, were applied based on a monthly data to assess spatial variability of turnover conditions across Europe. This hampers the investigation of temporal variability (e.g. intra-annual). The improved stage integrates daily data of more than 350 weather stations across Europe presented by Klein Tank et al. (2002). All time series data (temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and soil texture derived from the European Soil Database (JRC 2006)), are used to calculate soil biological activity in the arable layer. The resulting BAT and Re_clim values were spatio-temporal investigated. While "temporal" refers to a long-term trend analysis, "spatial" includes the investigation of soil biological activity variability per environmental zone (ENZ, Metzger et al. 2005 representing similar

  7. Active learning not associated with student learning in a random sample of college biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T M; Leonard, M J; Colgrove, C A; Kalinowski, S T

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning.

  8. Biological activities and potential health benefits of fucoxanthin derived from marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pangestuti, Ratih

    2011-01-01

    The importance of marine algae as sources of functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and investigation of novel bioactive ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have attracted great attention. Among functional ingredients identified from marine algae, fucoxanthin has received particular interest. Fucoxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Fucoxanthin has been reported to exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and neuroprotective activities. In this chapter, the currently available scientific literatures regarding the most significant activities of fucoxanthin are summarized.

  9. The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, A B

    2000-07-01

    Plantago major L. leaves have been used as a wound healing remedy for centuries in almost all parts of the world and in the treatment of a number of diseases apart from wound healing. These include diseases related to the skin, respiratory organs, digestive organs, reproduction, the circulation, against cancer, for pain relief and against infections. P. major contains biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, lipids, caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides and terpenoids. Alkaloids and some organic acids have also been detected. A range of biological activities has been found from plant extracts including wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, weak antibiotic, immuno modulating and antiulcerogenic activity. Some of these effects may attribute to the use of this plant in folk medicine.

  10. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored...... thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid...... structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-atocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid...

  11. Bioactive cotton fabrics containing chitosan and biologically active substances extracted from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, G; Nichifor, M; Mihai, D; Oproiu, L C

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the obtaining of bioactive textiles using chitosan-coated fabrics, in which biologically active substances contained by Viola Tricolor (VT) - an extract of three Viola species (Violaceae) - were immobilized. Chitosan was applied on cotton fabric or on chemically modified cotton (having reactive -CHO or carboxymethyl groups), as tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked fine particles, or by use of glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. The amount of VT retained on the fabrics was found to depend on the procedure of chitosan application on the cotton. The obtained bioactive textiles are expected to have antioxidant activity due to the biologically active substances from VT; they can be used for obtaining clothes for people with allergies or other skin problems, assuring a controlled release of biomolecules. The study focuses on the in vitro release of VT retained on the fabrics, as well as on its antioxidant activity.

  12. Studies on Syntheses and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing Phosphorodithioate Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; CHEN Xiao; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen new triazole organic phosphorus compounds were synthesized. Their structures were confirmed with IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and MS. The primary biological tests show that the titled compounds have the fungicidal activities, which are influenced by R groups and the substituents attached to the P atom.

  13. Studies on Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole compounds Containing Thiophene Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; ZHANG Shu-sheng; HU Zhi-qiang; JIAO Kui

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen new triazole compounds containing thiophene groups were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by means of 1H NMR, IR, MS spectroscopies and elemental analyses. The preliminary biological tests show that the titled compounds exhibit some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  14. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  15. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Rao Ambati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′-carotene-4,4′-dione is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

  16. Long alkyl chain bis-quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids as biologically active xanthene dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Swierczynska, Anna; Walkiewicz, Filip [Poznan Univ. of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Chemical Technology; Krystkowiak, Ewa [A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry; Maciejewski, Andrzej [A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Centre of Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

    2009-07-01

    New examples of air- and moisture-stable, hydrophobic and hydrophilic bis-quaternary ammonium derived ionic liquids have been prepared. These ionic liquids have been proposed to act as biological active dyes with characteristic unique physicochemical properties, providing alternatives to some conventional anionic xanthene dyes such as eosine Y, fluorescein and erythrosine. (author)

  17. Natural occurrence, biological activities and synthesis of eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered ring lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. C. Ferraz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence, biological activities and synthetic approaches to natural eight-, nine-, and eleven-membered lactones is reviewed. These medium ring lactones are grouped according to ring size, and their syntheses are discussed. The structures of some natural products early identified as medium-ring lactones were revised after total synthesis.

  18. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K.

    1966-09-15

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min.

  19. Case study: Comparison of biological active compounds in milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conflicting reports of the quantities of biologically active compounds present in milk from organic grass-fed and conventional herds show that more research is required, especially as these compounds are linked to human health benefits and can improve the health value consumers place on dairy produc...

  20. Moooving forward on determining biologically active compounds in milk and their impact on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some of the lesser studied components in milk, known as biologically active compounds (BACs), may provide potential benefits to human health. The added health-value of raw milk and milk from organic and grass-fed herds is strongly debated because of limited, an...

  1. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...

  2. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-07

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

  3. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  4. Research of resisting of the biological active point for constant and alternative current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Peregudov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Is conducted research of resistance of biologically active point (BAT on a direct and variable current. Research results are presented. The estimation of intercommunication between resistance of skin and by an electromagnetic radiation in BAT is done. Is shown possibility of the use of experimental information for diagnostics of the state of human to the organism.

  5. New materials and biologically active preparations on the basis of (organilthio) chloroacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (Organylthio)chloroacetylenes [RSC≡CCl, 1], the object of our systematic research, provide a promising source of new classes of polyfunctional compounds of acetylenic and polyheterocyclic seriesamong which biologically active substances, monomers and precursors for the preparation of new materials possessing a whole complex of valuable properties have been recognized.

  6. New materials and biologically active preparations on the basis of (organilthio) chloroacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D'yachkova; S.; G.

    2005-01-01

    (Organylthio)chloroacetylenes [RSC≡CCl, 1], the object of our systematic research, provide a promising source of new classes of polyfunctional compounds of acetylenic and polyheterocyclic seriesamong which biologically active substances, monomers and precursors for the preparation of new materials possessing a whole complex of valuable properties have been recognized.……

  7. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  8. The biological activity of wheat, rye and triticale varieties harvested in four consecutive years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Piasecka-Kwiatkowska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the four consecutive crop years including precipitation on the selected biological activities in the three cereal grains genus each two varieties Lama and Puma-wheat, Motto and Amilo-rye, Presto and Vero-triticale was the aim of this study. In the analysed cereals total protein content, extractable protein content, amylolytic activity and antiamylolytic and antitryptic activity against enzymes from mammalian and insect origin were estimated. Precipitation statistically significantly affected only endogenous amylolytic activity and inhibitory activities against hog pancreas α-amylase of studied cereals. The analysis of variance has shown statistically significant influence of variety, genus, and the year of harvest as well as interaction between them on the inhibitory activities against S. granarius and T. confusum α-amylase and antitryptic activity of cereal seeds studied. However, precipitation did not statistically significantly affect inhibitor activities against all the studied α-amylase insects.

  9. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-Oxides: Biological Activities and Mechanisms of Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guyue; Sa, Wei; Cao, Chen; Guo, Liangliang; Hao, Haihong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) have manifold biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antitrypanosomal and antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities. These diverse activities endow them broad applications and prospects in human and veterinary medicines. As QdNOs arouse widespread interest, the evaluation of their medicinal chemistry is still in progress. In the meantime, adverse effects have been reported in some of the QdNO derivatives. For example, genotoxicity and ba...

  10. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic(Isophthalic) Acid Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Tao; YU Guan-ping; LIU Peng-fei; XIONG Li-xia; YU Shu-jing; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low resistance,a series of novel anthranilic(isophthalic) acid esters was designed and synthesized based on the structure of ryanodine modulating agent.All the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectra,elemental analysis or high resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicate that some of the title compounds exhibit certain but unremarkable insecticidal activity against Mythimna separata Walker at 200 mg/L and fungicidal activities against five funguses at 50 mg/L.

  11. Role of the phenolic hydroxyl group in the biological activities of simplified analogue of aplysiatoxin with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Ryo C; Kamachi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Murakami, Akira; Nakagawa, Yu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nagai, Hiroshi; Irie, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-15

    The 18-deoxy derivative (3) of a simplified analogue (1) of aplysiatoxin with antiproliferative activity was synthesized to examine the role of the phenolic hydroxyl group at position 18 in the biological activities of 1. Compound 3 as well as 1 showed significant affinity for protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and the antiproliferative activity of 3 was slightly higher than that of 1. However, the anti-tumor-promoting activity of 3 was less than that of 1 in vitro, suggesting that the phenolic hydroxyl group of 1 is necessary for the anti-tumor-promoting activity but not for the binding of PKCδ and antiproliferative activity. Moreover, PKC isozyme selectivity of 3 was similar to that of 1, suggesting non-PKC receptors for these compounds to play some roles in the anti-tumor-promoting activity of 1.

  12. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  13. Occurrence, biological activities and {sup 13}C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled {sup 13}C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  14. The biological activities and chemical composition of Pereskia species (Cactaceae)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Scio, Elita

    2014-09-01

    The exploration of nature as a source of sustainable, novel bioactive substances continues to grow as natural products play a significant role in the search for new therapeutic and agricultural agents. In this context, plants of the genus Pereskia (Cactaceae) have been studied for their biological activities, and are evolving as an interesting subject in the search for new, bioactive compounds. These species are commonly used as human foodstuffs and in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review focuses on the bioactivity and chemical composition of the genus Pereskia, and aims to stimulate further studies on the chemistry and biological potential of the genus.

  15. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from activated sludge system; Eliminacion biologica del fosfor en aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidre Bocardo, J. R.; Toja Santillana, J.; Alonso Alvarez, E. [Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    A literature review of enhanced biological phosphorus removal was performed. This biological removal is based on the selective enrichment of bacteria accumulating inorganic polyphosphate, obtained at a cyclic regime of alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions; or anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones for combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Some bacterial groups may to be implicate in this process, the gen Acinetobacter has been the most studied. In this paper a study of phosphorate forms from wastewater for a conventional activated sludge system is presented. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Phoebe K; Wheatley, Paul S; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A; Megson, Ian L; Chapman, Karena W; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E [St Andrews

    2012-04-02

    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  17. CHANGE OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOILS OF NORTH CAUCASUS IN RELATION TO CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozun Y. S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions have considerable impact on biological properties of soils of the South of Russia. From all studied indicators the most dependent on climate there was maintenance of a humus and activity of polyphenoloxidases and peroxidases. Values of the integrated indicator of a biological condition (IIBC on a profile of soils decrease in process of increase in an amount of precipitation, decrease in temperature, and increase in height of the district in next order: meadow subalpine → brown forest → gray forest → black leached soil → black typical soil → black ordinary soi

  18. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson C. do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae. Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts.

  19. New insight into the biological treatment by activated sludge: the role of adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Xinrun; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Faming

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adsorption on the biological treatment process of wastewater. In the absence of substrate in the water, activated sludge developed well in the first hour, indicating that the growth of microorganism was not directly related to substrate concentration and the dissolved organic matter in the water assays were performed, no organic matter was detected out, revealing that there was no desorption in the activated sludge adsorption process. Activated sludge batch growth experiments in the presence of different adsorption capacities indicated that specific growth rate increased as specific adsorption capacity increased. The experiment on the relationship of adsorption capacity and substrate concentration or sludge concentration was also carried out. Specific adsorption capacity increased as sludge load increased, presenting linear correlation. The experiment results showed that adsorption should be taken into account in the study of the biological treatment process of wastewater.

  20. Biological activities and potential health benefits of polysaccharides from Poria cocos and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yichun

    2014-07-01

    Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea and Thailand. It is a kind of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom. The chemical compositions of Poria cocos mainly include triterpenes, polysaccharides, steroids, amino acids, choline, histidine, etc. Great advances have been made in chemical and bioactive studies on Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP) and their derivatives in recent decades. These PCP and their derivatives exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Therefore, PCP and their derivatives have great potential for further development as therapy or adjuvant therapy for cancer, immune-modulatory and antiviral drugs. This paper presents an overview of biological activities and potential health benefits of PCP and their derivatives.

  1. In vitro and in vivo biological activities of anthocyanins from Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Hu, Na; Ding, Chenxi; Zhang, Qiulong; Li, Wencong; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun; Bai, Bo; Ding, Chenxu

    2016-03-01

    Anthocyanins are the main compounds in Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. The enrichment and purification of anthocyanins on macroporous resins were investigated. Regarding anthocyanin purification, static adsorption and desorption were studied. The optimal experimental conditions were the following: resin type: X-5; static adsorption time: 6h; desorption solution: ethanol-water-HCl (80:19:1, V/V/V; pH 1); desorption time: 40min. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the anthocyanins were evaluated. The anthocyanins showed ideal scavenging effects on free radicals in vitro, especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radical (OH). In the animal experiment, blood lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats was regulated by anthocyanin contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hyperlipidemia rats were also improved by anthocyanins. These results showed that anthocyanins from N. tangutorun Bobr. fruits had potential biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro.

  2. Biological Activity of Polynesian Calophyllum inophyllum Oil Extract on Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lupo, Elise; Mijouin, Lily; Guillot, Samuel; Butaud, Jean-François; Ho, Raimana; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Oil from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum, locally called "Tamanu oil" in French Polynesia, was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and ailments. The skin-active effect of "Tamanu oil emulsion" was investigated on human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) and showed cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan and collagen production, and wound healing activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the treated cells revealed gene expression modulation including genes involved in the metabolic process implied in O-glycan biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. The presence of neoflavonoids as bioactive constituents in Tamanu oil emulsion may contribute to these biological activities. Altogether, consistent data related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought new highlights on the mechanisms involved in these biological processes induced by Tamanu oil effects in skin cells.

  3. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  4. Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Calyn; Hoo, Pearl Ching-Xin; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Pusparajah, Priyia; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development. PMID:28003804

  5. 2-Deoxy Glucose Modulates Expression and Biological Activity of VEGF in a SIRT-1 Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhiraman, Haritha; Edatt, Lincy; Thekkeveedu, Sruthi; Poyyakkara, Aswini; Raveendran, Viji; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Sudhakaran, Perumana; Kumar, Sameer V B

    2017-02-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism particularly switching over of cells to aerobic glycolysis leading to accumulation of lactate is a hallmark of cancer. Lactate can induce angiogenesis, an important process underlying tumor growth and metastasis. VEGF is one of the most important cytokines which regulate this process and the present study was designed to examine if blocking glycolytic pathway in tumor cells can affect its angiogenic potency with respect to VEGF. For this, the expression and biological activity of VEGF synthesized and secreted by tumor derived cell lines in the presence or absence of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glycolysis was determined. The results suggested that inhibition of glycolysis using sub-lethal doses of 2-DG down-regulated the expression of VEGF and also significantly reduced its biological activity. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the down regulation of VEGF gene expression by 2-DG was due to an increase in SIRT-1 activity and the reduced biological activity was found to be due to an increase in the PAR modification of VEGF. Activity of SIRT-1 and PAR modification of VEGF in turn, was found to be correlated to the cellular NAD(+) levels. The results presented here therefore suggest that treatment of cancer cells with 2-DG can significantly reduce its overall angiogenic potency through transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 252-262, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lipińska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins. Ellagitannins belong to the class of hydrolysable tannins, they are esters of hexahydroxydiphenoic acid and monosaccharide (most commonly glucose. Ellagitannins are slowly hydrolysed in the digestive tract, releasing the ellagic acid molecule. Their chemical structure determines physical and chemical properties and biological activity. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits (pomegranate, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, nuts (walnuts, almonds, and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-infl ammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Furthermore, they improve the health of blood vessels. The paper discusses the metabolism and bioavailability of ellagitannins and ellagic acid. Ellagitannins are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal microbiota. They are stable in the stomach and undergo neither hydrolysis to free ellagic acid nor degradation. In turn, ellagic acid can be absorbed in the stomach. This paper shows the role of cancer cell lines in the studies of ellagitannins and ellagic acid metabolism. The biological activity of these compounds is broad and thus the focus is on their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. Ellagitannins exhibit antimicrobial activity against fungi, viruses, and importantly, bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. The terminal structure plays an important role in the biological activity of cecropin CMIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦非; 谢维; 董雪吟; 徐贤秀

    1999-01-01

    Antibacterial peptides have received increasing attention as a new pharmaceutical substance. But the molecular mechanism of lysis is still poorly understood. CMIV gene and mutant CMIV gene in GST fusion system were expressed. After cleaving with different cleavage reagents, the peptide with an excess of N-terminus and with an un-amidated C-terminus stopped the activity while the peptide with an excess Asn at the C-terminus had the activity level the same as natural CMIV. The results showed that the terminal structure of cecropin CMIV played an important role in its biological activity.

  8. A review on biological sources, chemistry and pharmacological activities of pinostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neeraj K; Jaiswal, Gaurav; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2016-09-01

    Pinostrobin, a dietary bioflavonoid discovered more than 6 decades ago in the heart-wood of pine (Pinus strobus), has depicted many pharmacological activities including anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-leukaemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aromatase activities. It is an inhibitor of sodium channel and Ca(2+) signalling pathways and also inhibits intestinal smooth muscle contractions. In spite of the fact that pinostrobin has an application as functional foods, till-to-date no comprehensive review on pinostrobin has been carried out. Hence, the present review deals with the biological sources, chemistry and pharmacological activities of pinostrobin.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation.

  10. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  11. Automated Structure-Activity Relationship Mining: Connecting Chemical Structure to Biological Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Mathias J; Jaramillo, David E; Dančík, Vlado; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Shamji, Alykhan F; Wagner, Bridget K; Schreiber, Stuart L; Clemons, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of small molecules is important for developing probes and novel therapeutic agents in chemical biology and drug discovery. Increasingly, multiplexed small-molecule profiling assays allow simultaneous measurement of many biological response parameters for the same compound (e.g., expression levels for many genes or binding constants against many proteins). Although such methods promise to capture SARs with high granularity, few computational methods are available to support SAR analyses of high-dimensional compound activity profiles. Many of these methods are not generally applicable or reduce the activity space to scalar summary statistics before establishing SARs. In this article, we present a versatile computational method that automatically extracts interpretable SAR rules from high-dimensional profiling data. The rules connect chemical structural features of compounds to patterns in their biological activity profiles. We applied our method to data from novel cell-based gene-expression and imaging assays collected on more than 30,000 small molecules. Based on the rules identified for this data set, we prioritized groups of compounds for further study, including a novel set of putative histone deacetylase inhibitors.

  12. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF BROWN FOREST SOILS UNDER AGRICULTURAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozun Y. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use leads to a significant transformation of soils. The first to use the soil for cultivation react most sensitive biological indicators. The purpose of the study - to establish the effect of using the brown forest soils for planting apple orchards for their biological activity, in particular on the humus content, enzyme activity (catalase and dehydrogenase. For the control, we have selected forest area adjacent to arable land. Because of violations of the natural vegetation, there are changes in hydrothermal conditions of the soil. Humidity soil plowed off under forest, while temperatures gets considerably higher. Plowing, compared with the control, revealed significant loss of humus (50% in the upper most disturbed horizons. In the lower horizons of the values of this index were quite low (1.5% on all sections of the test. The decline in humus content, as well as overheating and draining soil tillage results in a change of enzymatic activity not only in the surface layers, but also in the whole profile. Due to the movement of the most favorable hydrothermal conditions in the underlying horizons, an increase of enzyme activity over control values in the deeper layers of the soil. The article shows a possibility of the use of biological indicators as indicators of changes in the brown forest soils as a result of agricultural use

  13. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...

  14. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Zulane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and ethanol (EtOH and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL. By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50% with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.

  15. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  16. Supercritical Algal Extracts: A Source of Biologically Active Compounds from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the potential applicability of the process of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE in the production of algal extracts with the consideration of the process conditions and yields. State of the art in the research on solvent-free isolation of biologically active compounds from the biomass of algae was presented. Various aspects related with the properties of useful compounds found in cells of microalgae and macroalgae were discussed, including their potential applications as the natural components of plant protection products (biostimulants and bioregulators, dietary feed and food supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Analytical methods of determination of the natural compounds derived from algae were discussed. Algal extracts produced by SFE process enable obtaining a solvent-free concentrate of biologically active compounds; however, detailed economic analysis, as well as elaboration of products standardization procedures, is required in order to implement the products in the market.

  17. [Biological activities of exogenous polysaccharides via controlling endogenous proteoglycan metabolism in vascular endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Chika; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2008-05-01

    Proteoglycan contains glycosmainoglycans, which are endogenous sulfated polysaccharides, in the molecule. The metabolism of proteoglycans regulates cell behavior and cellular events. It is possible that exogenous polysaccharide-related molecules exhibit their biological activities by two mechanisms. One is the interaction with cells and the other is the interaction with growth factors/cytokines that regulate proteoglycans. In this review, we describe sodium spirulan, a sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a hot-water extract of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, as an exogenous polysaccharide that stimulates the release of proteoglycans from vascular endothelial cells. Factors that regulate endothelial proteoglycan metabolism are also being described as possible target molecules of exogenous polysaccharides. Further research is required to obtain exogenous polysaccharide-related molecules that exhibit useful biological activities through controlling endothelial proteoglycan metabolism for protection against vascular lesions such as atheroslcerosis.

  18. The effect of stereochemistry on the biological activity of natural phytotoxins, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Phytotoxins are secondary microbial metabolites that play an essential role in the development of disease symptoms induced by fungi on host plants. Although phytotoxins can cause extensive-and in some cases devastating-damage to agricultural crops, they can also represent an important tool to develop natural herbicides when produced by fungi and plants to inhibit the growth and spread of weeds. An alternative strategy to biologically control parasitic plants is based on the use of plant and fungal metabolites, which stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host plant. Nontoxigenic fungi also produce bioactive metabolites with potential fungicide and insecticide activity, and could be applied for crop protection. All these metabolites represent important tools to develop eco-friendly pesticides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins, seed germination stimulants, fungicides and insecticides, and their stereochemistry.

  19. Effects of fulvestrant on biological activity and Wnt expression in rat GH3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiwei Bai; Yan Wang; Chuzhong Li; Yazhuo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of anti-estrogen treatment (fulvestrant) on pituitary adenoma cell line GH3 biological activity, the estrogen receptor α pathway, the WnT pathway, and mechanisms of decreased Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression in GH3 cells. Results showed that fulvestrant suppressed GH3 cell proliferation and reduced hormone secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Estrogen receptor α and Wnt4 expression decreased, but Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression increased in a dose-dependent manner following fulvestrant treatment, and β-catenin expression remained unchanged. Inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone modification upregulated Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression. Results suggested that fulvestrant suppressed biological activity of GH3 cells via the estrogen receptor α and Wnt pathways. These results suggested that decreased Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression in GH3 cells played a role in epigenetic mechanisms. Anti-estrogen therapies could provide novel treatments for growth hormone adenomas.

  20. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  1. Introduction to the Symposium "Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Miller, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    The broad aim of this symposium and set of associated papers is to motivate the use of inquiry-based, active-learning teaching techniques in undergraduate quantitative biology courses. Practical information, resources, and ready-to-use classroom exercises relevant to physicists, mathematicians, biologists, and engineers are presented. These resources can be used to address the lack of preparation of college students in STEM fields entering the workforce by providing experience working on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary problems in mathematical biology in a group setting. Such approaches can also indirectly help attract and retain under-represented students who benefit the most from "non-traditional" learning styles and strategies, including inquiry-based, collaborative, and active learning.

  2. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  3. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  4. Expression of feline recombinant interferon-gamma in baculovirus and demonstration of biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyle, D J; Harris, M; Lawrence, C; McBride, K; Barron, R; McGillivray, C; Onions, D E

    1998-07-08

    We have previously reported the cloning of the coding sequence for feline-specific interferon-gamma. Here, we describe the expression of this sequence in a baculovirus system and demonstrate the biological activity of the recombinant protein. The coding sequence for feline interferon was directionally cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pAcCL29-1. Transfer vector and linearized wild-type AcMNPV (BacPAK6) were used to co-transfect Sf9 cells by calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Subsequently, wild-type and recombinant viruses were separated by plaque assay. Recombinant plaques were expanded and a master stock of virus is produced. Production of biologically active interferon-gamma from infected Sf9 cells was demonstrated using a standard cytopathic effect reduction assay, utilising vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and an MHC class II induction assay.

  5. Application of the blind assay to biological activity and tobacco smoke terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.H.; Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1976-12-01

    The blind assay technique was applied to the chromatographic data generated from gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) profiles of terpene-enriched fractions from the total particulate matter (TPM) of eight experimental cigarettes. Correlation of the entire terpene fraction peak area and 16 individual peaks with data from three skin-painting bioassay parameters indicated that the terpene fraction as a whole and at least 12 of its constituents correlate well with biological activity. Six correlating peaks were tentatively identified as d-limonene, damascenone, norphytene, neophytadiene, phytol, and squalene. High correlations were also observed between the TPM concentrations of these constituents and the total terpene fraction. Of the terpenes visualized, d-limonene would act as the best indicator of the tobacco smoke biological activity.

  6. Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; BI Wen-zhao; SHANG Yu-qing; ZHAI Zhi-wei; YI Xu

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen novel triazole compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were synthesized from 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)acetohydrazide and carbon disulfide by several step reactions. The target compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, and X-ray crystallography. The results of preliminary biological tests show that all the compounds exhibit certain fungicidal activities.

  7. Biologically active substances of hydrophytes Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Zostera noltii: composition, properties, applications

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Novichenko

    2016-01-01

    Primary, the author places special emphasis on the study of traditional technologies for processing of geophytes. Modern development trends in biotechnology demand of expansion of the raw material base. The increase in needs medicine, food and feed industries in biologically active substances pay attention to new unconventional sources of renewable raw materials. From this perspective, higher aquatic plants Zostera noltii and Potamogeton perfoliatus L. can be considered as a perspective objec...

  8. Biological activity of the alkaloids of Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The cultivated Erythroxylum varieties E. coca var. coca, E. coca var. ipadu, E. novogranatense var. novogranatense and E. novogranatense var. truxillense contain 18 alkaloids, identified so far, belonging to the tropanes, pyrrolidines and pyridines, with cocaine as the main alkaloid. The biological activity of the following alkaloids has been reported in the literature: cocaine, cinnamoylcocaine, benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, pseudotropine, benzoyltropine, tropacocaine, α- and β-truxilline...

  9. O2 and N2O Activation by Binuclear, Trinuclear, and Tetranuclear Cu Clusters in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Edward I.; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Woertink, Julia S.; Augustine, Anthony J.; Yoon, Jungjoo; Ghosh, Somdatta

    2007-01-01

    Copper cluster sites in biology exhibit unique spectroscopic features reflecting exchange coupling between oxidized Cu’s and e− delocalization in mixed valent sites. These novel electronic structures play critical roles in O2 binding and activation for electrophilic aromatic attack and H atom abstraction, the 4e−/4H+ reduction of O2 to H2O, and in the 2e−/2H+ reduction of N2O. These electronic structure/reactivity correlations are summarized below.

  10. O2 and N2O activation by Bi-, Tri-, and tetranuclear Cu clusters in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Edward I; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Woertink, Julia S; Augustine, Anthony J; Yoon, Jungjoo; Ghosh, Somdatta

    2007-07-01

    Copper-cluster sites in biology exhibit unique spectroscopic features reflecting exchange coupling between oxidized Cu's and e (-) delocalization in mixed valent sites. These novel electronic structures play critical roles in O 2 binding and activation for electrophilic aromatic attack and H-atom abstraction, the 4e (-)/4H (+) reduction of O 2 to H 2O, and in the 2e (-)/2H (+) reduction of N 2O. These electronic structure/reactivity correlations are summarized below.

  11. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  13. Biological anoxic phosphorus removal in a continuous-flow external nitrification activated sludge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapagiannidis, A. G.; Aivasidis, A.

    2009-07-01

    Application of Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in wastewater treatment is necessitated for the protection of water bodies from eutrophication. an alternative BNR method is tested for simultaneous Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) removal in a continuous-flow bench scale plant for municipal wastewater treatment. The plant operation is based on the activity of two microbial populations which grow under different operational conditions (two sludge system). (Author)

  14. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul eIkram; Xin eZhan; Xiwu ePan; Brian Christropher eKing; Henrik Toft Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesi...

  15. Detection of biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in kaymak

    OpenAIRE

    Ökten, Sevtap; Gönç, Siddik; Tokusoglu, Özlem; Sibel Akalin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous physiological effects are attributed to conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Biologically active isomers of CLA ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2) and trans- 10, cis- 12 (C18:2)) have been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antioxidative and antiatherosclerotic properties. Relatively rich sources of CLA include milk fat-containing foods such as kaymak. Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow's milk mainly in Turkey . The objective of this s...

  16. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  17. Structure-property relationship of quinuclidinium surfactants--Towards multifunctional biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočibušić, Mirjana; Odžak, Renata; Štefanić, Zoran; Križić, Ivana; Krišto, Lucija; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Primožič, Ines; Jurašin, Darija

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by diverse biological and pharmacological activity of quinuclidine and oxime compounds we have synthesized and characterized novel class of surfactants, 3-hydroxyimino quinuclidinium bromides with different alkyl chains lengths (CnQNOH; n=12, 14 and 16). The incorporation of non conventional hydroxyimino quinuclidinium headgroup and variation in alkyl chain length affects hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of surfactant molecule and thereby physicochemical properties important for its application. Therefore, newly synthesized surfactants were characterized by the combination of different experimental techniques: X-ray analysis, potentiometry, electrical conductivity, surface tension and dynamic light scattering measurements, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Comprehensive investigation of CnQNOH surfactants enabled insight into structure-property relationship i.e., way in which the arrangement of surfactant molecules in the crystal phase correlates with their solution behavior and biologically activity. The synthesized CnQNOH surfactants exhibited high adsorption efficiency and relatively low critical micelle concentrations. In addition, all investigated compounds showed very potent and promising activity against Gram-positive and clinically relevant Gram-negative bacterial strains compared to conventional antimicrobial agents: tetracycline and gentamicin. The overall results indicate that bicyclic headgroup with oxime moiety, which affects both hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of CnQNOH molecule in addition to enabling hydrogen bonding, has dominant effect on crystal packing and physicochemical properties. The unique structural features of cationic surfactants with hydroxyimino quinuclidine headgroup along with diverse biological activity have made them promising structures in novel drug discovery. Obtained fundamental understanding how combination of different functionalities in a single surfactant molecule affects its physicochemical

  18. Outer membrane vesicles mediate transport of biologically active Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC from V. cholerae strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Elluri

    Full Text Available Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC, is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied.OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor.Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and induces toxicity on mammalian cells and

  19. Stability and biological activity evaluations of PEGylated human basic fibroblast growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Hadadian, Shahin; Shamassebi, Dariush Norouzian; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Bouzari, Saeid; Sepahi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human basic fibroblast growth factor (hBFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor and stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells and tissues causing survival properties and its stability and biological activity improvements have received much attention. Materials and Methods: In the present work, hBFGF produced by engineered Escherichia coli and purified by cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, was PEGylated under appropriate condition employing 10 kD pol...

  20. [Biosynthesis of biologically active low-molecular weight compounds by fungi of the genus Penicillium (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskii, A G; Antipova, T V; Zhelifonova, V P

    2015-01-01

    The recent data on exometabolite biosynthesis in fungi of the genus Penicillium is summarized. The study of creative species, as well as those isolated from extreme ecotopes, resulted in the identification of a number of novel, biologically active compounds. Alkaloid biosynthesis has been shown to begin on.the first day of fungus cultivation and to proceed throughout the cultivation period. Idiophase kinetics was observed for the biosynthesis of polyketide metabolites. The mechanisms of regulation of biosynthesis of promising bioactive compounds are discussed.

  1. Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (family: Moringaceae) growing in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Alfy, Taha S.; Shahira M. Ezzat; Hegazy, Ahmed K.; Amer, Aziza M. M.; Kamel, Gehan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. Materials and Methods: The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anti...

  2. Biological activities of the sulfated polysaccharide from the vascular plant Halodule wrightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. C. Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated polysaccharide (SPSG was successfully isolated from seagrass Halodule wrightii Asch., Cymodoceaceae, and its antioxidant and anticoagulant activities were investigated. The data presented here showed that the SPSG is a 11 kDa sulfated heterogalactan with a sulfatation degree of 20.63% and it also contains glucose and xylose. SPSG antioxidant activities were evaluated using several in vitro assays and the anticoagulant activity was evaluated by aPTT and PT tests. These assays suggested that the SPSG possessed remarkable antioxidant properties in different in vitro assays and an outstanding anticoagulant activity 2.5-fold higher than that of heparin Clexane® in the aPTT test. This data represents the first reported on the sulfated polysaccharide biological activities from seagrass. These results indicate that SPSG can be considered in the future as a drug utilized in treating diseases from these systems.

  3. Biological activity of 1. cap alpha. -hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, L.E.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The biological activity of 1..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ has been determined in vitamin D-deficient rats. In the calcification of the rachitic epiphyseal plate, 1..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ is more active than 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, while it is equally active in stimulating intestinal calcium absorption. On the other hand, it is much less active (one-third to one-fifth) than 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in the mobilization of calcium from bone. In both the intestinal and bone responses, 1..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ (312 pmol) is active in nephrectomized rats while 15-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ is not.

  4. Composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds polluting the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriyev, M.T.; Rastyannikov, Y.G.; Sotnikov, Y.Y.; Volkov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising method of removal of biologically active compounds such as microorganisms, antibiotics, food and other household waste from industrial waste gases is to destroy them by thermal destruction including burning. In this case, products of thermodestruction enter into the atmosphere along with carbon dioxide and steam and can unfavorably affect the population. Thus, mass spectrometric analyses have determined in the waste gases of antibiotics production aldehydes and ketones (croton- and adipalaldehydes, acetone), alcohols (propanol and butanol), amines, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds was identified by their pyrolysis at 700/sup 0/C for 2 min. in the presence of air. The main components were proteins and amino acids. The products of pyrolysis were analyzed by chromato-mass-spectrometric and gas-chromatographic methods by means of a two-flame thermionic detector. No significant difference between the thermodestruction products of proteins and amino acids was found. Many of detected substances can be not only toxic but also emit strong unpleasant odors. The studies revealed toxic substances that pollute the atmospheric air during removal of biologically-active compounds from waste gases.

  5. Biological Activities of 2, 5-Disubstituted – 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARVIND K. SINGH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic compound has been known for several years and investigations in field have been indentified due to the large no. of uses & application in most diverse area. Heterocyclic compounds has been an interesting area for the study of synthesis and biological activity of novel oxadiazole derivatives for a long time.Oxadiazole are the major compound of heterocyclic nucleus for the development of new drugs and the drugs of oxadiazole were the first effective chemotherapeutic agent to be employed systemically for the prevention & cure of bacterial infection. Oxadiazole have accelerated interest in various field like medicinal chemistry, polymer industry, etc. Literature survey reveals that the compound are well known to have a no. of broad spectrum biological activities like as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anticancer, antitubercular,anti-diabetic, antihelmintic, analgesic etc.Therefore, the synthesis of new 2,5-di-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives that possess a promising biological activity for the future development to get a safer & effective compounds

  6. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  7. A concise review of applications of micellar liquid chromatography to study biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępnik, Katarzyna E

    2017-01-01

    The features of micellar systems are outstanding compared with conventional RP-LC ones. Therefore, the unique properties of micellar chromatography (MLC) are widely recognized. In this short review the applicability of MLC as an in vitro method for the determination of biological activity is discussed. For this purpose many specific examples of MLC applications supported by the theoretical backgrounds of the cited biological activity areas as well as the factors affecting them are presented. This study collects and organizes the most important references of bioactivity determination which were created both recently and in the past, using the MLC method. Although there are many papers on the MLC there is no literature review focused particularly on its applicability in the study of biological activity of various compounds. This work can be treated as a significant review of so far published papers which particularly emphasizes the importance of MLC as in vitro method for determination of bioactivity of different compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Kinetic Modeling of the Arabidopsis Cryptochrome Photocycle: FADHo Accumulation Correlates with Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Link, Justin; Engle, Dorothy; Witczak, Jacques; Ritz, Thorsten; Ahmad, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors with multiple signaling roles during plant de-etiolation and development. Arabidopsis cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) absorb light through an oxidized flavin (FADox) cofactor which undergoes reduction to both FADH° and FADH− redox states. Since the FADH° redox state has been linked to biological activity, it is important to estimate its concentration formed upon illumination in vivo. Here we model the photocycle of isolated cry1 and cry2 proteins with a three-state kinetic model. Our model fits the experimental data for flavin photoconversion in vitro for both cry1 and cry2, providing calculated quantum yields which are significantly lower in cry1 than for cry2. The model was applied to the cryptochrome photocycle in vivo using biological activity in plants as a readout for FADH° concentration. The fit to the in vivo data provided quantum yields for cry1 and cry2 flavin reduction similar to those obtained in vitro, with decreased cry1 quantum yield as compared to cry2. These results validate our assumption that FADH° concentration correlates with biological activity. This is the first reported attempt at kinetic modeling of the cryptochrome photocycle in relation to macroscopic signaling events in vivo, and thereby provides a theoretical framework to the components of the photocycle that are necessary for cryptochrome response to environmental signals. PMID:27446119

  9. Kinetic Modeling of the Arabidopsis Cryptochrome Photocycle: FADH(o) Accumulation Correlates with Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Link, Justin; Engle, Dorothy; Witczak, Jacques; Ritz, Thorsten; Ahmad, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors with multiple signaling roles during plant de-etiolation and development. Arabidopsis cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) absorb light through an oxidized flavin (FADox) cofactor which undergoes reduction to both FADH° and FADH(-) redox states. Since the FADH° redox state has been linked to biological activity, it is important to estimate its concentration formed upon illumination in vivo. Here we model the photocycle of isolated cry1 and cry2 proteins with a three-state kinetic model. Our model fits the experimental data for flavin photoconversion in vitro for both cry1 and cry2, providing calculated quantum yields which are significantly lower in cry1 than for cry2. The model was applied to the cryptochrome photocycle in vivo using biological activity in plants as a readout for FADH° concentration. The fit to the in vivo data provided quantum yields for cry1 and cry2 flavin reduction similar to those obtained in vitro, with decreased cry1 quantum yield as compared to cry2. These results validate our assumption that FADH° concentration correlates with biological activity. This is the first reported attempt at kinetic modeling of the cryptochrome photocycle in relation to macroscopic signaling events in vivo, and thereby provides a theoretical framework to the components of the photocycle that are necessary for cryptochrome response to environmental signals.

  10. Biological activities of the homologous loop regions in the laminin α chain LG modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Yuji; Urushibata, Shunsuke; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-06-10

    Each laminin α chain (α1-α5 chains) has chain-specific diverse biological functions. The C-terminal globular domain of the α chain consists of five laminin-like globular (LG1-5) modules and plays a critical role in biological activities. The LG modules consist of a 14-stranded β-sheet (A-N) sandwich structure. Previously, we described the chain-specific biological activities of the loop regions between the E and F strands in the LG4 modules using five homologous peptides (G4EF1-G4EF5). Here, we further analyze the biological activities of the E-F strands loop regions in the rest of LG modules. We designed 20 homologous peptides (approximately 20 amino acid length), and 17 soluble peptides were used for the cell attachment assay. Thirteen peptides promoted cell attachment activity with different cell morphologies. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, G2EF1, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by heparin, and peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, and G2EF1 specifically bound to syndecan-overexpressing cells. Cell attachment to peptides G2EF3, G3EF1, G3EF3, G5EF1, G5EF3, and G5EF5 was inhibited EDTA. Further, cell attachment to peptides G3EF3, G5EF1, and G5EF5 was inhibited by both anti-integrin α2 and β1 antibodies, whereas cell attachment to peptide G5EF3 was inhibited by only anti-integrin β1 antibody. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF4, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by both heparin and EDTA and was not inhibited by anti-integrin antibodies. The active peptide sequence alignments suggest that the syndecan-binding peptides contain a "basic amino acid (BAA)-Gly-BAA" motif in the middle of the molecule and that the integrin-binding peptides contain an "acidic amino acid (AAA)"-Gly-BAA motif. Core-switched peptide analyses suggested that the "BAA-Gly-BAA" motif is critical for binding to syndecans and that the "AAA-Gly-BAA" motif has potential to recognize integrins. These findings are useful for understanding chain-specific biological activities of laminins and to evaluate

  11. Prediction of biological activity spectra of a few phytoconstituents of Azadirachta indicia A. Juss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pramely

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The use of drug substances derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, and marine organisms are ‘‘Mother Nature Gift’’ for diseases of mankind. Many of these are discovered serendipitously and have a long tradition in medicine. Till date, the use of natural products, their semi synthetic and synthetic derivatives have been mostly confined to their ethnic use. But it has been well known that each substance has a wide spectrum of biological activities as evident from some new uses of many old drugs. PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances has been employed as a strong potential tool to predict the biological activity spectrum of synthetic substances for the discovery of new drugs. But the potential of PASS to predict the biological activity spectra of natural products is still underestimated. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate and correlate the biological activity spectrum of the main phytoconstituent of Azadirachta indica with their reported biological activities in order to evaluate the applicability of PASS. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Surface mixing and biological activity in the four Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS are characterized by a high productivity of plankton associated with large commercial fisheries, thus playing key biological and socio-economical roles. Since they are populated by several physical oceanic structures such as filaments and eddies, which interact with the biological processes, it is a major challenge to study this sub- and mesoscale activity in connection with the chlorophyll distribution. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study of these four upwelling systems focussing on their surface stirring, using the Finite Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs, and their biological activity, based on satellite data. First, the spatial distribution of horizontal mixing is analysed from time averages and from probability density functions of FSLEs, which allow us to divide each areas in two different subsystems. Then we studied the temporal variability of surface stirring focussing on the annual and seasonal cycle. We also proposed a ranking of the four EBUS based on the averaged mixing intensity. When investigating the links with chlorophyll concentration, the previous subsystems reveal distinct biological signatures. There is a global negative correlation between surface horizontal mixing and chlorophyll standing stocks over the four areas. To try to better understand this inverse relationship, we consider the vertical dimension by looking at the Ekman-transport and vertical velocities. We suggest the possibility of a changing response of the phytoplankton to sub/mesoscale turbulence, from a negative effect in the very productive coastal areas to a positive one in the open ocean. This study provides new insights for the understanding of the variable biological productivity in the ocean, which results from both dynamics of the marine ecosystem and of the 3-D turbulent medium.

  13. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  14. A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin from the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, R N

    2001-01-01

    A new biologically active triterpenoid saponin m.f. C42H68O13, m.p. 315 degrees-317 degrees C was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Lepidagathis hyalina. Its structure was characterized as 3-beta-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->4)O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]16-alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en(13)-28-oic acid by several spectral and chemical analysis. This new triterpenoid saponin showed antimicrobial activity against various plants pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  15. Mode of action of antimicrobial proteins, pore-forming toxins and biologically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Schmidt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins are important effectors in innate immune defencereactions. But their mode of action, comprising the insertion into cholesterol-containing membranes isnot known. Here we explore the mechanical implications of pore-formation by extracellular proteinassemblies that drive cellular uptake reactions by leverage-mediated (LM processes, whereoligomeric adhesion molecules bent membrane-receptors around ‘hinge’-like lipophorin particles. Theinteractions of antimicrobial peptides, pore-forming toxins and biologically active proteins with LMassembliesprovide a new paradigm for the configurational specificity and sterical selectivity ofbiologically active peptides.

  16. Barbiturate bearing aroylhydrazine derivatives: Synthesis, NMR investigations, single crystal X-ray studies and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giziroglu, Emrah; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Aygün, Muhittin; Basbulbul, Gamze; Soyleyici, H. Can; Firinci, Erkan; Kirkan, Bulent; Alkis, Ayse; Saylica, Tayfur; Biyik, Halil

    2016-03-01

    A series of barbituric acid aroylhydrazine derivatives have been prepared from their corresponding 1,3-dimethyl-5-acetyl barbituric acid and aroylhydrazines. All compounds have been fully characterized by using FT-IR, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C) and Mass (MS) spectrometry. We also describe the X-ray crystal structure of 3a, which crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group. The crystal structure is stabilized with infinite linear chains of dimeric units. Furthermore, all compounds were investigated for their tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activies. The results from biological activity assays have shown that all of compounds have excellent antioxidant, significant tyrosinase inhibition and moderate antimicrobial activity.

  17. Late-stage functionalization of biologically active heterocycles through photoredox catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirocco, Daniel A; Dykstra, Kevin; Krska, Shane; Vachal, Petr; Conway, Donald V; Tudge, Matthew

    2014-05-05

    The direct CH functionalization of heterocycles has become an increasingly valuable tool in modern drug discovery. However, the introduction of small alkyl groups, such as methyl, by this method has not been realized in the context of complex molecule synthesis since existing methods rely on the use of strong oxidants and elevated temperatures to generate the requisite radical species. Herein, we report the use of stable organic peroxides activated by visible-light photoredox catalysis to achieve the direct methyl-, ethyl-, and cyclopropylation of a variety of biologically active heterocycles. The simple protocol, mild reaction conditions, and unique tolerability of this method make it an important tool for drug discovery.

  18. Crystallization of Escherichia coli CdtB, the biologically active subunit of cytolethal distending toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontz, Jill S.; Villar-Lecumberri, Maria T.; Dreyfus, Lawrence A.; Yoder, Marilyn D.

    2006-01-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a secreted protein toxin produced by several bacterial pathogens. The biologically active CDT subunit CdtB is an active homolog of mammalian type I DNase. Internalization of CdtB and subsequent translocation into the nucleus of target cells results in DNA-strand breaks, leading to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. CdtB crystals were grown using microbatch methods with polyethylene glycol 8000 as the precipitant. The CdtB crystals contain one molecule of MW 30.5 kDa per asymmetric unit, belong to space group P212121 and diffract to 1.72 Å. PMID:16511299

  19. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F., E-mail: valdirveiga@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 {mu}g/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  20. Biologically active components of soybeans and soy protein products: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans provide a source of low-cost protein with good nutritional and physico-chemical properties. Recently, soybean has received much attention because of its potential role in preventing and treating several diseases including cancer and other human chronic diseases. Health benefits of soy diet are attributed to the minor soybean constituents (calledphytochemicals. Soybean contains a variety of phytochemicals with demonstrated anticancer activity, including bioactive proteins andpolypeptides (trypsin inhibitors and the most recently discoveredpeptide lunasin, isofl avones, phytic acid, phytosterols and saponins. The present review provides an overview of recent knowledge about biologically active components of soybean.

  1. 78 FR 33846 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...; Biological Products: Reporting of Biological Product Deviations and Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and... biological product deviations in manufacturing and human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue- based... techniques, when appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Biological Products: Reporting...

  2. Search for biological activities from an invasive shrub species rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRAWAN WIJAYA KUSUMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kusuma IW, Ainiyati N, Suwinarti W. 2016. Search for biological activities from an invasive shrub species rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 55-59. Research into the potential of diversity, ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology and bioactivity of Indonesia plants is essential. In continuation of our search into biologically-active substances from plant sources, the ethanol extract of fruit, leaves, twig and stem of masisin or rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and toxicity. Antioxidant property was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Antimicrobial activity was examined by agar well diffusion against Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Propionibacterium acnes and Candida albicans. Toxicity of the plant was determined by brine shrimp lethality test. The plant ethanolic extracts showed the occurrences of flavonoid, triterpenoid and carbohydrate in the phytochemical analysis. In the antioxidant assay, the plant extracts exhibited 90-93% of DPPH radical scavenging activity at 50 ppm. Ascorbic acid, a standard compound showed 96-98% activity at the same concentration tested. In the antimicrobial assay, the activities against B. cereus and C. albicans were displayed by the fruit and leaves of R. tomentosa with activity index (AI of 0.42 and 0.35, respectively. Leaves, stem, twig and fruit of the plant showed activity against S. typhi and P. acnes with AI of 0.19-0.50 in comparison to that of reference compound, chloramphenicol. In the brine shrimp lethality test, leaves and fruit showed cytotoxicity with LD50 of 43.4 and 8.5 μg/mL. The stem and twig ethanolic extracts were shown to be cytotoxic inactive. The present results showed potential of R. tomentosa extracts as natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  3. Mn(II) complexes with bipyridine, phenanthroline and benzoic acid: Biological and catalase-like activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Kani; Özlem Atlier; Kiymet Güven

    2016-04-01

    Five mononuclear Mn(II) complexes, [Mn(phen)2(ClO4)2] (1), [Mn(phen)3](ClO4)2(H2CO3)2(2), [Mn(bipy)2(ClO4)2] (3), [Mn(bipy)3](ClO4)2) (4), and Mn(phen)2(ba)(H2O)](ClO4)(CH3OH) (5), where bipy = 2,2’-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and ba = benzoic acid were prepared and characterized by Xray, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, and their catalase-like and biological activities were studied. The presence of two different types and the number of chelating NN-donor neutral ligands allowed for analysis of their effects on the catalase and biological activities. It was observed that the presence and number of phen ligands improved the activity more than the bipy ligand. Complexes 1 and 2, which contain more basic phen ligands, disproportionate H2O2 faster than complexes 3 and 4, which contain less basic bipy ligands. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of all the complexes were also tested against seven bacterial strains by microdilution tests. All the bacterial isolates demonstrated sensitivity to the complexes and the antifungal (anticandidal) activities of the Mn(II) complexes were remarkably higher than the reference drug ketoconazole.

  4. Biological activities and chemical constituents of some mangrove species from Sundarban estuary: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritra Simlai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review represents the studies performed on some beneficial mangrove plants such as Ceriops decandra, Xylocarpus granatum, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Excoecaria agallocha, Sarcolobus globosus, Sonneratia caseolaris and Acanthus ilicifolius from the Sundarban estuary spanning India and Bangladesh with regard to their biological activities and chemical investigations till date. Sundarban is the largest single chunk of mangrove forest in the world. The forest is a source of livelihood to numerous people of the region. Several of its plant species have very large applications in the traditional folk medicine; various parts of these plants are used by the local people as cure for various ailments. Despite such enormous potential, remarkably few reports are available on these species regarding their biological activities and the active principles responsible for such activities. Though some chemical studies have been made on the mangrove plants of this estuary, reports pertaining to their activity-structure relationship are few in number. An attempt has been made in this review to increase the awareness for the medicinal significance as well as conservation and utilization of these mangrove species as natural rich sources of novel bioactive agents.

  5. Study on immunocapture-chemiluminescence assay of lipase activity in a biological sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichibangase, Tomoko; Hamabe, Chie; Ohba, Yoshihito; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kayamori, Yuzo; Kang, Dongchon; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for the determination of lipase (triacylglycerol lipase, EC.3.1.1.3) activity in a biological sample was investigated by combining an immunocapture technique with a chemiluminescence (CL) assay method in order to eliminate interference with CL detection. The proposed method consists of an immunocapture step to trap lipase and a subsequent step for CL detection of the activity of the captured lipase. The CL detection is based on the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction and utilizes a proenhancer substrate [a lauric acid ester of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenylimidazole (HDI)] which liberates an active enhancer, HDI, by enzymatic hydrolysis. A polyclonal antibody prepared with porcine pancreas lipase was used for the immunocapture. The proposed immunocapture-CL method effectively eliminated the interference with the CL reaction from biological components and enabled the determination of spiked porcine pancreas lipase activity in serum samples in the range 0.41-1.1 U(HDI) (1 U(HDI) corresponds to the amount which liberates 1 pmol HDI/min at 37 degrees C from the substrate). The method was further applied to the assay of the activity for human pancreas lipase in serum and the results showed good correlation (r = 0.871) with those by the conventional colorimetric method.

  6. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akinobu; Zhu, Qinchang; Tan, Hui; Horiba, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Mori, Yasuhiro; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Iwamoto, Akira; Kawahara, Hiroharu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-06-18

    Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  7. Refolding Techniques for Recovering Biologically Active Recombinant Proteins from Inclusion Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamaguchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  8. Biological Activities and Phytochemical Profiles of Extracts from Different Parts of Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products.

  9. The Biological Activities of Troponoids and Their Use in Agriculture A Review

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    Saniewski Marian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical compounds containing the tropone structure (2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one, in their molecule, called troponoids, characterized by a seven-membered ring, are distributed in some plants, bacteria and fungi, although they are relatively rare. ß-Thujaplicin (2-hydroxy-4-isopropyl-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one, also known as hinokitiol, is a natural compound found in several plants of the Cupressaceae family. Besides hinokitiol, related compounds were identified in Cupressaceae trees. It has been demonstrated that hinokitiol and its derivatives have various biological effects, such as antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumor, anti-ischemic, iron chelating and the inhibitory activity against polyphenol oxidase activity. Activity similar to ß-thujaplicin has tropolone and its derivatives, which are not present nature. Due to the high scientific and practical interest, synthetic ß-thujaplicin and other troponoids have been produced for many years. In this review, the major biological effects of troponoids, mostly ß-thujaplicin and tropolone, on tyrosinase and polyphenol oxidase activity, ethylene production, antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities, and biotransformation of ß-thujaplicin by cultured plant cells are presented. Accumulation of ß-thujaplicin and related troponoids has been shown in cell cultures of Cupressus lusitanica and other species of Cupressaceae. The biosynthetic pathway of the troponoids in plants, bacteria and fungi has been also briefly described.

  10. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

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    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  11. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  12. Medicinal properties of mangiferin, structural features, derivative synthesis, pharmacokinetics and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Outhiriaradjou; Chi, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    The identification of biologically active and potentially therapeutically useful pharmacophores from natural products has been a long-term focus in the pharmaceutical industry. The recent emergence of a worldwide obesity and Type II diabetes epidemic has increased focus upon small molecules that can modulate energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity and fat biology. Interesting preliminary work done on mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L., portends potential for this pharmacophore as a novel parent compound for treating metabolic disorders. MGF is comprised of a C-glucosylated xanthone. Owing to the xanthone chemical structure, MGF has a redox active aromatic system and has antioxidant properties. MGF exerts varied and impressive metabolic effects in animals, improving metabolic disorders. For example we have discovered that MGF is a novel activator of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, leading to enhancement of carbohydrate utilization in oxidative metabolism, and leading to increased insulin sensitivity in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, recent unbiased proteomics studies revealed that MGF upregulates proteins pivotal for mitochondrial bioenergetics and downregulates proteins controlling de novo lipogenesis in liver, helping to explain protective effects of MGF in prevention of liver steatosis. Several chemical studies have achieved synthesis of MGF, suggesting possible synthetic strategies to alter its chemical structure for development of structure-activity relationship (SAR) information. Ultimately, chemical derivatization studies could lead to the eventual development of novel therapeutics based upon the parent pharmacophore structure. Here we provide comprehensive review on chemical features of MGF, synthesis of its derivatives, its pharmacokinetics and biological activities.

  13. Stirring a fluid at low Reynolds numbers: Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Raymond; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-04-01

    Most of the proteins in the cell, including not only molecular motors and machines, but also enzymes, are active. When ATP or other substrates are supplied, these macromolecules cyclically change their conformations. Therefore, they mechanically stir the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm, so that non-thermal fluctuating flows are produced. As we have recently shown (Mikhailov and Kapral, 2015), stochastic advection by such flows might lead to substantial diffusion enhancement of particles inside a living cell. Additionally, when gradients in the concentrations of active particles or in the ATP/substrate supply are present, chemotaxis-like drift should take place. Here, the motion of passive tracers with various sizes in a mixture of different kinds of active proteins is analyzed. Moreover, effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the motion of active proteins are explored. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data for ATP-dependent diffusion of natural and microinjected particles in biological cells.

  14. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.

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    S Saeidnia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and 4 μg.ml−1, respectively. Aqueous methanol (50% extracts were also effective. None of the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of the algae showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by the Broth-dilution method. Only the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC = 2 μg.ml−1 on S. aureus. In conclusion, G. salicornia and H. flagelliformis could be a promising source of cytotoxic components.

  15. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

  16. Investigating the spectrum of biological activity of ring-substituted salicylanilides and carbamoylphenylcarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otevrel, Jan; Mandelova, Zuzana; Pesko, Matus; Guo, Jiahui; Kralova, Katarina; Sersen, Frantisek; Vejsova, Marcela; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Coffey, Aidan; Csollei, Jozef; Richardson, Des R; Jampilek, Josef

    2010-11-10

    In this study, a series of twelve ring-substituted salicylanilides and carbamoylphenylcarbamates were prepared and characterized. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. Moreover, their site of action in the photosynthetic apparatus was determined. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against mycobacterial, bacterial and fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than the standards 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, isoniazid, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin or fluconazole. The most active compounds showed minimal anti-proliferative activity against human cells in culture, indicating they would have low cytotoxicity. For all compounds, the relationships between lipophilicity and the chemical structure are discussed.

  17. Investigating the Spectrum of Biological Activity of Ring-Substituted Salicylanilides and Carbamoylphenylcarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Jampilek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twelve ring-substituted salicylanilides and carbamoylphenylcarbamates were prepared and characterized. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. They were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Moreover, their site of action in the photosynthetic apparatus was determined. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against mycobacterial, bacterial and fungal strains. Several compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than the standards 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea, isoniazid, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin or fluconazole. The most active compounds showed minimal anti-proliferative activity against human cells in culture, indicating they would have low cytotoxicity. For all compounds, the relationships between lipophilicity and the chemical structure are discussed.

  18. Radioimmunoassay for anaphylatoxins: a sensitive method for determining complement activation products in biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.L.; Hugli, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Activation of the blood complement system generates bioactive fragments called anaphylatoxins. The three anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a, and C5a are released during classical pathway activation while only C3a and C5a are released when the alternative pathway of complement is activated. Radioimmunoassays were designed to individually detect and quantitate the activation fragments C3a, C4a, and C5a in biological fluids without interference from the precursor molecules C3, C4, and C5. Kinetics of complement activation in fresh human serum exposed to the activators zymosan, heat-aggregated immunoglobulin, or cobra venom factor were monitored using the radioimmunoassay technique. For the first time, activation of components C3, C4, and C5 was followed simultaneously in a single serum sample. Analysis of the patterns and extent of anaphylatoxin formation during activation in serum may be used to screen for deficiencies or defects in the complement cascade. Levels of the anaphylatoxins in freshly drawn serum were much higher than levels detected in EDTA-plasma. Detection of low-level complement activation in patient's blood, urine, or synovial fluid, using anaphylatoxin formation as an indicator, may prove useful in signaling numerous forms of inflammatory reactions. The demonstration of anaphylatoxins in clinical samples is being recognized as a valuable diagnostic tool in monitoring the onset of immune disease.

  19. Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-Oxides: Biological Activities and Mechanisms of Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guyue; Sa, Wei; Cao, Chen; Guo, Liangliang; Hao, Haihong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) have manifold biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antitrypanosomal and antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities. These diverse activities endow them broad applications and prospects in human and veterinary medicines. As QdNOs arouse widespread interest, the evaluation of their medicinal chemistry is still in progress. In the meantime, adverse effects have been reported in some of the QdNO derivatives. For example, genotoxicity and bacterial resistance have been found in QdNO antibacterial growth promoters, conferring urgent need for discovery of new QdNO drugs. However, the modes of actions of QdNOs are not fully understood, hindering the development and innovation of these promising compounds. Here, QdNOs are categorized based on the activities and usages, among which the antimicrobial activities are consist of antibacterial, antimycobacterial and anticandida activities, and the antiprotozoal activities include antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, antitrichomonas, and antiamoebic activities. The structure-activity relationship and the mode of actions of each type of activity of QdNOs are summarized, and the toxicity and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed, providing insight for the future research and development of these fascinating compounds.

  20. Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides: Biological activities and mechanisms of actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyue eCheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline 1, 4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs have manifold biological properties, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, antitrypanosomal and antiinflammatory/antioxidant activities. These diverse activities endow them broad applications and prospects in human and veterinary medicines. As QdNOs arouse widespread interest, the evaluation of their medicinal chemistry is still in progress. In the meantime, adverse effects have been reported in some of the QdNO derivatives. For example, genotoxicity and bacterial resistance have been found in QdNO antibacterial growth promoters, conferring urgent need for discovery of new QdNO drugs. However, the modes of actions of QdNOs are not fully understood, hindering the development and innovation of these promising compounds. Here, QdNOs are categorized based on the activities and usages, among which the antimicrobial activities are consist of antibacterial, antimycobacterial and anticandida activities, and the antiprotozoal activities include antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, antitrichomonas and antiamoebic activities. The structure-activity relationship and the mode of actions of each type of activity of QdNOs are summarized, and the toxicity and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed, providing insight for the future research and development of these fascinating compounds.

  1. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  2. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G

    2014-12-15

    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols.

  3. Symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction calculation of the photoelectron spectra of famous biological active steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyar, Fatemeh; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2014-11-01

    The photoelectron spectra of some famous steroids, important in biology, were calculated in the gas phase. The selected steroids were 5α-androstane-3,11,17-trione, 4-androstane-3,11,17-trione, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, dexamethasone, estradiol and cholesterol. The calculations were performed employing symmetry-adapted cluster/configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method using the 6-311++G(2df,pd) basis set. The population ratios of conformers of each steroid were calculated and used for simulating the photoelectron spectrum of steroid. It was found that more than one conformer contribute to the photoelectron spectra of some steroids. To confirm the calculated photoelectron spectra, they compared with their corresponding experimental spectra. There were no experimental gas phase Hesbnd I photoelectron spectra for some of the steroids of this work in the literature and their calculated spectra can show a part of intrinsic characteristics of this molecules in the gas phase. The canonical molecular orbitals involved in the ionization of each steroid were calculated at the HF/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory. The spectral bands of each steroid were assigned by natural bonding orbital (NBO) calculations. Knowing the electronic structures of steroids helps us to understand their biological activities and find which sites of steroid become active when a modification is performing under a biological pathway.

  4. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant.

  5. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m-2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m-2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher density

  6. Comparison of growth methods and biological activities of brazilian marine Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Granato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the study of the growth and the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of the extracts of the marine microorganisms Streptomyces acrymicini and Streptomyces cebimarensis, the latter a new strain. Both microorganisms were collected from coastal marine sediments of the north coast of São Paulo state. Growth was performed in a shaker and in a bioreactor using Gym medium and the broths of both microorganisms were extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Three extracts, two organic and one aqueous, from each microorganism were obtained and tested for cytotoxic and antitumor activity using the SF-295 (Central Nervous System, HCT-8 (Colon cell lines, and the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The growth methods were compared and show that, although the shaker presented reasonable results, the bioreactor represents the best choice for growth of these microorganisms. The biological activity of the different extracts was evaluated and it was demonstrated that the growth methodology may influence the secondary metabolite production and the biological activity.

  7. Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Models for Pharmacophores’ 3D-Interactions

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    Mihai V. Putz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within medicinal chemistry nowadays, the so-called pharmaco-dynamics seeks for qualitative (for understanding and quantitative (for predicting mechanisms/models by which given chemical structure or series of congeners actively act on biological sites either by focused interaction/therapy or by diffuse/hazardous influence. To this aim, the present review exposes three of the fertile directions in approaching the biological activity by chemical structural causes: the special computing trace of the algebraic structure-activity relationship (SPECTRAL-SAR offering the full analytical counterpart for multi-variate computational regression, the minimal topological difference (MTD as the revived precursor for comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA; all of these methods and algorithms were presented, discussed and exemplified on relevant chemical medicinal systems as proton pump inhibitors belonging to the 4-indolyl,2-guanidinothiazole class of derivatives blocking the acid secretion from parietal cells in the stomach, the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl]-6-(phenylthiothymine congeners’ (HEPT ligands antiviral activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus of first type (HIV-1 and new pharmacophores in treating severe genetic disorders (like depression and psychosis, respectively, all involving 3D pharmacophore interactions.

  8. Chemical Structure-Biological Activity Models for Pharmacophores’ 3D-Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V.; Duda-Seiman, Corina; Duda-Seiman, Daniel; Putz, Ana-Maria; Alexandrescu, Iulia; Mernea, Maria; Avram, Speranta

    2016-01-01

    Within medicinal chemistry nowadays, the so-called pharmaco-dynamics seeks for qualitative (for understanding) and quantitative (for predicting) mechanisms/models by which given chemical structure or series of congeners actively act on biological sites either by focused interaction/therapy or by diffuse/hazardous influence. To this aim, the present review exposes three of the fertile directions in approaching the biological activity by chemical structural causes: the special computing trace of the algebraic structure-activity relationship (SPECTRAL-SAR) offering the full analytical counterpart for multi-variate computational regression, the minimal topological difference (MTD) as the revived precursor for comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA); all of these methods and algorithms were presented, discussed and exemplified on relevant chemical medicinal systems as proton pump inhibitors belonging to the 4-indolyl,2-guanidinothiazole class of derivatives blocking the acid secretion from parietal cells in the stomach, the 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)-methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine congeners’ (HEPT ligands) antiviral activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus of first type (HIV-1) and new pharmacophores in treating severe genetic disorders (like depression and psychosis), respectively, all involving 3D pharmacophore interactions. PMID:27399692

  9. Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.

  10. MOLECULAR CLONING, SEQUENCING, EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) INTERFERON-GAMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Bao-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Fu; Wu, Xu-Jin; Ma, Qing-Yi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-29

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and indigenous to China. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is the only member of type □ IFN and is vital for the regulation of host adapted immunity and inflammatory response. Little is known aboutthe FN-γ gene and its roles in giant panda.In this study, IFN-γ gene of Qinling giant panda was amplified from total blood RNA by RT-CPR, cloned, sequenced and analysed. The open reading frame (ORF) of Qinling giant panda IFN-γ encodes 152 amino acidsand is highly similar to Sichuan giant panda with an identity of 99.3% in cDNA sequence. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence was ligated to the pET32a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells. Expression of recombinant IFN-γ protein of Qinling giant panda in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Biological activity assay indicated that the recombinant IFN-γ protein at the concentration of 4-10 µg/ml activated the giant panda peripheral blood lymphocytes,while at 12 µg/mlinhibited. the activation of the lymphocytes.These findings provide insights into the evolution of giant panda IFN-γ and information regarding amino acid residues essential for their biological activity.

  11. Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Franco, Christopher M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers have been valued for many centuries as a tonic and functional food, dietary delicacies and important ingredients of traditional medicine in many Asian countries. An assortment of bioactive compounds has been described in sea cucumbers. The most important and abundant secondary metabolites from sea cucumbers are triterpene glycosides (saponins). Due to the wide range of their potential biological activities, these natural compounds have gained attention and this has led to their emergence as high value compounds with extended application in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical products. They are characterized by bearing a wide spectrum of structures, such as sulfated, non-sulfated and acetylated glycosides. Over 700 triterpene glycosides have been reported from the Holothuroidea in which more than 145 are decorated with an acetoxy group having 38 different aglycones. The majority of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides are of the holostane type containing a C18 (20) lactone group and either Δ7(8) or Δ9(11) double bond in their genins. The acetoxy group is mainly connected to the C-16, C-22, C-23 and/or C-25 of their aglycone. Apparently, the presence of an acetoxy group, particularly at C-16 of the aglycone, plays a significant role in the bioactivity; including induction of caspase, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds. This manuscript highlights the structure of acetylated saponins, their biological activity, and their structure-activity relationships. PMID:27527190

  12. Three-dimensional structure and cyanobacterial activity within a desert biological soil crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raanan, Hagai; Felde, Vincent J M N L; Peth, Stephan; Drahorad, Sylvie; Ionescu, Danny; Eshkol, Gil; Treves, Haim; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Berkowicz, Simon M; Keren, Nir; Horn, Rainer; Hagemann, Martin; Kaplan, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    Desert biological soil crusts (BSCs) are formed by adhesion of soil particles to polysaccharides excreted by filamentous cyanobacteria, the pioneers and main producers in this habitat. Biological soil crust destruction is a central factor leading to land degradation and desertification. We study the effect of BSC structure on cyanobacterial activity. Micro-scale structural analysis using X-ray microtomography revealed a vesiculated layer 1.5-2.5 mm beneath the surface in close proximity to the cyanobacterial location. Light profiles showed attenuation with depth of 1%-5% of surface light within 1 mm but also revealed the presence of 'light pockets', coinciding with the vesiculated layer, where the irradiance was 10-fold higher than adjacent crust parts at the same depth. Maximal photosynthetic activity, examined by O2 concentration profiles, was observed 1 mm beneath the surface and another peak in association with the 'light pockets'. Thus, photosynthetic activity may not be visible to currently used remote sensing techniques, suggesting that BSCs' contribution to terrestrial productivity is underestimated. Exposure to irradiance higher than 10% full sunlight diminished chlorophyll fluorescence, whereas O2 evolution and CO2 uptake rose, indicating that fluorescence did not reflect cyanobacterial photosynthetic activity. Our data also indicate that although resistant to high illumination, the BSC-inhabiting cyanobacteria function as 'low-light adapted' organisms.

  13. Lipid peroxidation generates biologically active phospholipids including oxidatively N-modified phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sean S; Guo, Lilu

    2014-07-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts "inert" phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.

  14. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  15. Synthetic and Biological Studies of Sesquiterpene Polygodial: Activity of 9-Epipolygodial Against Drug Resistant Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C.; Middleton, Kelsey N.; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N. M.; Frolova, Liliya V.; Rossato, Mateus F.; De La Chapa, Jorge J.; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F.; Pillai, Akshita; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B.; Calixto, João B.; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C.; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Polygodial, a terpenenoid dialdehyde isolated from Polygonum hydropiper L., is a known TRPV1 agonist. In this investigation a series of polygodial analogues were prepared and investigated for TRPV1 agonistic and anticancer activities. These experiments led to the identification of 9-epipolygodial, possessing antiproliferative potency significantly exceeding that of polygodial. Epipolygodial maintained potency against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells as well as those displaying the MDR phenotype. In addition, a chemical feasibility for the previously proposed mechanism of action of polygodial, involving the Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation with a lysine residue on the target protein, was demonstrated through the synthesis of a stable polygodial pyrrole derivative. These studies reveal rich chemical and biological properties associated with polygodial and its direct derivatives. They should inspire further work in this area aimed at the development of new pharmacological agents or exploration of novel mechanisms of covalent modification of biological molecules with natural products. PMID:26434977

  16. Role of peptide bond in the realization of biological activity of short peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavinson, V Kh; Tarnovskaya, S I; Lin'kova, N S; Chervyakova, N A; Nichik, T E; Elashkina, E V; Chalisova, N I

    2015-02-01

    We performed a comparative analysis of biological activity of Lys-Glu peptide and its amino acid constituents. It was established that Lys-Glu stimulated proliferation of splenic cells in organotypic culture, while the mixture of glutamic acid and lysine inhibited culture growth. Using the method of molecular docking, we showed that glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide can interact with different DNA sequences. The energy of interaction and the most beneficial localization of glutamic acid, lysine, and Lys-Glu peptide in DNA molecule was calculated. We demonstrated the interaction of the peptide and amino acids with DNA along the minor groove. The energy of DNA interaction with the peptide is higher than with individual amino acids. The peptide bonds increase the interaction of Lys-Glu peptide with DNA, which potentiates the biological effect on cell proliferation in organotypic culture of splenic cells.

  17. Biologically active cis-cinnamic acid occurs naturally in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The biologically active cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) has been perceived as a synthetic plant growth regulator for decades. However, in the present study, we found that cis-CA actually exists as a naturally occurring compound in a Brassica plant. This natural growth- regulating substance presents in both the sunlight-irradiated leaf tissue and the non-irradiated root tissue. The concentrations of cis-CA in both tissues are comparable to the biologically effective levels of those major plant hormones. The presence of cis-CA in root tissue suggests that it may be produced through both light-dependent and -independent path- ways or it can be transported from a plant organ to another.

  18. Recent insights into the biological activities and drug delivery systems of tanshinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuee Cai,1,* Wenji Zhang,2,* Zirong Chen,3 Zhi Shi,1,2 Chengwei He,1 Meiwan Chen1 1State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cell Biology & Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tanshinones, the major lipid-soluble pharmacological constituents of the Chinese medicinal herb Tanshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza, have attracted growing scientific attention because of the prospective biomedical applications of these compounds. Numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardio-cerebrovascular protection activities, are exhibited by the three primary bioactive constituents among the tanshinones, ie, tanshinone I (TNI, tanshinone IIA (TNIIA, and cryptotanshinone (CPT. However, due to their poor solubility and low dissolution rate, the clinical applications of TNI, TNIIA, and CPT are limited. To solve these problems, many studies have focused on loading tanshinones into liposomes, nanoparticles, microemulsions, cyclodextrin inclusions, solid dispersions, and so on. In this review, we aim to offer an updated summary of the biological activities and drug delivery systems of tanshinones to provide a reference for these constituents in clinical applications. Keywords: tanshinones, biological activities, drug delivery systems, bioavailability, solubility

  19. Identification of the biologically active liquid chemistry induced by a nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Williams, Paul; Dalluge, Joe; Gaens, Wouter Van; Aboubakr, Hamada; Bischof, John; von Woedtke, Thomas; Goyal, Sagar M; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Masur, Kai; Bruggeman, Peter J

    2015-06-06

    The mechanism of interaction of cold nonequilibrium plasma jets with mammalian cells in physiologic liquid is reported. The major biological active species produced by an argon RF plasma jet responsible for cell viability reduction are analyzed by experimental results obtained through physical, biological, and chemical diagnostics. This is complemented with chemical kinetics modeling of the plasma source to assess the dominant reactive gas phase species. Different plasma chemistries are obtained by changing the feed gas composition of the cold argon based RF plasma jet from argon, humidified argon (0.27%), to argon/oxygen (1%) and argon/air (1%) at constant power. A minimal consensus physiologic liquid was used, providing isotonic and isohydric conditions and nutrients but is devoid of scavengers or serum constituents. While argon and humidified argon plasma led to the creation of hydrogen peroxide dominated action on the mammalian cells, argon-oxygen and argon-air plasma created a very different biological action and was characterized by trace amounts of hydrogen peroxide only. In particular, for the argon-oxygen (1%), the authors observed a strong negative effect on mammalian cell proliferation and metabolism. This effect was distance dependent and showed a half life time of 30 min in a scavenger free physiologic buffer. Neither catalase and mannitol nor superoxide dismutase could rescue the cell proliferation rate. The strong distance dependency of the effect as well as the low water solubility rules out a major role for ozone and singlet oxygen but suggests a dominant role of atomic oxygen. Experimental results suggest that O reacts with chloride, yielding Cl2(-) or ClO(-). These chlorine species have a limited lifetime under physiologic conditions and therefore show a strong time dependent biological activity. The outcomes are compared with an argon MHz plasma jet (kinpen) to assess the differences between these (at least seemingly) similar plasma sources.

  20. Cholesteryl Ester Hydroperoxides Are Biologically Active Components of Minimally Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Almazan, Felicidad; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Miller, Yury I.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) occurs in vivo and significantly contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. An important mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo is its modification with 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO). We have developed a model of minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL) in which native LDL is modified by cells expressing 12/15LO. This mmLDL activates macrophages inducing membrane ruffling and cell spreading, activation of ERK1/2 and Akt signaling, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we found that many of the biological activities of mmLDL were associated with cholesteryl ester (CE) hydroperoxides and were diminished by ebselen, a reducing agent. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy demonstrated the presence of many mono- and polyoxygenated CE species in mmLDL but not in native LDL. Nonpolar lipid extracts of mmLDL activated macrophages, although to a lesser degree than intact mmLDL. The macrophage responses were also induced by LDL directly modified with immobilized 12/15LO, and the nonpolar lipids extracted from 12/15LO-modified LDL contained a similar set of oxidized CE. Cholesteryl arachidonate modified with 12/15LO also activated macrophages and contained a similar collection of oxidized CE molecules. Remarkably, many of these oxidized CE were found in the extracts of atherosclerotic lesions isolated from hyperlipidemic apoE–/– mice. These results suggest that CE hydroperoxides constitute a class of biologically active components of mmLDL that may be relevant to proinflammatory activation of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:18263582

  1. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Cardenas Odila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10 is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. Results The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Conclusion Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as

  2. Designing, syntheses, characterization, computational study and biological activities of silver-phenothiazine metal complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Upadhyay, Niraj; Manhas, Anu

    2015-11-01

    A noble biologically active compound Ag(I)-PTZ metal complex (1) with spherical morphology was synthesized first time. Entire characterization tool (spectral, elemental, mass and thermal analysis) was supported a distorted tetrahedral structure, where two water compounds were coordinated with Ag(I) including one phenothiazine and one nitrate group. For the better insight, obtained spectral/structural results were supported by 3D molecular modeling. Compound 1 had shown excellent activities against the Salmonella typhimurium and Aspergillus fumigatus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 20 mg/L and 25 mg/L. The observed antioxidant radical scavenging activity (in %) of compound 1 (62.74%) was more than control ascorbic acid (28.58%). The observed protein (BSA) binding constant of 1 was 8.86 × 104 M-1, which is similar to binding constant of salicylic acid with BSA protein. Initial studies have revealed that synthesized compound 1 may act as multipurpose drug analogue in future.

  3. Analogs of sex pheromone of processionary moth,Thaumetopoea pityocampa: Synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, F; Fabriàs, G; Gasol, V; Guerrero, A; Hernández, R; Montoya, R

    1988-05-01

    The synthesis and biological activity of some analogs of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate1, the major component of the sex pheromone of the processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa is described. The analogs have been formally derived by structural modification of the enyne and acetate functions of the parent compound1. In field tests, trifluoroacetate ester16 and the analog,11, with fluorine substitution at the olefin site, decreased the pheromone action, whereas epoxy derivative,10, from epoxidation of the olefin moiety in1, and propionate ester15 gave synergistic activity. The formate14 had a variable effect according to the composition of the lure. Formal reduction of the enyne to give the acetylene2 was found to retain activity. Alcohols12 and13, resulting from hydrolysis of the enyne1 and acetylene2, respectively, inhibited the action of their parent compounds.

  4. Polyphenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Jurikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid—active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  5. Polyphenolic profile and biological activity of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri; Rop, Otakar; Mlcek, Jiri; Balla, Stefan; Szekeres, Ladislav; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-12-06

    Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) fruits are rich in polyphenols (e.g., epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1, hyperoside, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid)--active compounds that exert beneficial effects. This review summarizes all information available on polyphenolic content and methods for their quantification in Chinese hawthorn berries and the relationships between individual polyphenolic compounds as well. The influence of species or cultivars, the locality of cultivation, the stage of maturity, and extract preparation conditions on the polyphenolic content were discussed as well. Currently, only fruits of C. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Recent trials have demonstrated the efficacy of Chinese hawthorn fruit in lowering blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The fruit has also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour activities. This review deals mainly with the biological activity of the fruit related to its antioxidant properties.

  6. Recent insights into the biological activities and drug delivery systems of tanshinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuee; Zhang, Wenji; Chen, Zirong; Shi, Zhi; He, Chengwei; Chen, Meiwan

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinones, the major lipid-soluble pharmacological constituents of the Chinese medicinal herb Tanshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), have attracted growing scientific attention because of the prospective biomedical applications of these compounds. Numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardio-cerebrovascular protection activities, are exhibited by the three primary bioactive constituents among the tanshinones, ie, tanshinone I (TNI), tanshinone IIA (TNIIA), and cryptotanshinone (CPT). However, due to their poor solubility and low dissolution rate, the clinical applications of TNI, TNIIA, and CPT are limited. To solve these problems, many studies have focused on loading tanshinones into liposomes, nanoparticles, microemulsions, cyclodextrin inclusions, solid dispersions, and so on. In this review, we aim to offer an updated summary of the biological activities and drug delivery systems of tanshinones to provide a reference for these constituents in clinical applications.

  7. EFFECTS OF STATINS AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS UPON ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shirinsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this study, we evaluated effects of statins and other biological preparations upon spontaneous and stimulated activation of МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 in monocytes from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from RA patients and healthy donors. PBMC were cultured in presence of 0, 0.1, 1 or 10 мM mevastatin, 10 мg/ml IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 5 мg/ml infliximab, and 5 мg/ml soluble pegylated p55 TNF-receptor (r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI. To study the mechanisms of mevastatin effects upon МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 activities, L-mevalonate was added to the cultures. The cells were stained with anti-phospho-MAPK p38, or anti-phospho-ERK1/2, and analyzed with flow cytometry. We have shown that IL-1Ra and r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI inhibited spontaneous MAPK р38 activation. Mevastatin reduced spontaneous MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Mevastatininduced suppression of MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 activation was not dose-dependent. L-mevalonate completely prevented mevastatin-induced reduction of MAPK р38 phosphorylation and partially reversed inhibition of МАРК ERK1/2. In conclusion, decrease in MAPK activation represents a common mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects exerted by statins and some other biologicals.

  8. Potential Amoebicidal Activity of Hydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Behavior, Theoretical Study and Evaluation of the Biological Activity

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    Yanis Toledano-Magaña

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new hydrazones were synthesized by the condensation of the selected hydrazine and the appropriate nitrobenzaldehyde. A complete characterization was done employing 1H- and 13C-NMR, electrochemical techniques and theoretical studies. After the characterization and electrochemical analysis of each compound, amoebicidal activity was tested in vitro against the HM1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica. The results showed the influence of the nitrobenzene group and the hydrazone linkage on the amoebicidal activity. meta-Nitro substituted compound 2 presents a promising amoebicidal activity with an IC50 = 0.84 μM, which represents a 7-fold increase in cell growth inhibition potency with respect to metronidazole (IC50 = 6.3 μM. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 show decreased amoebicidal activity, with IC50 values of 7, 75 and 23 µM, respectively, as a function of the nitro group position on the aromatic ring. The observed differences in the biological activity could be explained not only by the redox potential of the molecules, but also by their capacity to participate in the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Redox potentials as well as the amoebicidal activity can be described with parameters obtained from the DFT analysis.

  9. Isolation and characterization of biologically active melanin from Actinoalloteichus sp. MA-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Melanins are enigmatic pigments and biological macromolecules that are produced by a wide variety of microorganisms including several species of bacteria and fungi. The present study was carried out on isolation and characterization of melanin from marine actinobacteria, Actinoalloteichus sp. MA-32. Medium composition and culture conditions for the melanin production by Actinoalloteichus sp. MA-32 were optimized using two statistical methods: Plackett-Burman design applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of melanin production and central composite design used to optimize the concentration of the four significant variables: glycerol, L-tyrosine, NaCl and trace salt solution. The melanin was optimally active at pH 7-9 and temperature 45-60°C and it was most stable up to pH 11 and 4% of NaCl concentration. Melanin was examined by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and infrared spectrometry. Melanin has potential antibacterial activity as it showed greater antagonistic and it has a strong antioxidant potential observed in the in vitro evaluation of its DPPH radical-scavenging activity, superoxide radical-scavenging activity, nitric oxide-scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The observed activities indicate that melanin might be a novel potential antioxidant. This study suggested that the melanin could potentially be used as a natural antioxidant in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Ontogenetic Variation in Biological Activities of Venoms from Hybrids between Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops neuwiedi Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Marcelo Larami; do Carmo, Thaís; Cunha, Bruna Heloísa Lopes; Alves, André Fonseca; Zelanis, André; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Sant’Anna, Savio Stefanini; Barbaro, Katia Cristina; Fernandes, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Lance-headed snakes are found in Central and South America, and they account for most snakebites in Brazil. The phylogeny of South American pitvipers has been reviewed, and the presence of natural and non-natural hybrids between different species of Bothrops snakes demonstrates that reproductive isolation of several species is still incomplete. The present study aimed to analyze the biological features, particularly the thrombin-like activity, of venoms from hybrids born in captivity, from the mating of a female Bothrops erythromelas and a male Bothrops neuwiedi, two species whose venoms are known to display ontogenetic variation. Proteolytic activity on azocoll and amidolytic activity on N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (BAPNA) were lowest when hybrids were 3 months old, and increased over body growth, reaching values similar to those of the father when hybrids were 12 months old. The clotting activity on plasma diminished as hybrids grew; venoms from 3- and 6-months old hybrids showed low clotting activity on fibrinogen (i.e., thrombin-like activity), like the mother venom, and such activity was detected only when hybrids were older than 1 year of age. Altogether, these results point out that venom features in hybrid snakes are genetically controlled during the ontogenetic development. Despite the presence of the thrombin-like enzyme gene(s) in hybrid snakes, they are silenced during the first six months of life. PMID:26714190

  11. Production of Biologically Activated Carbon from Orange Peel and Landfill Leachate Subsequent Treatment Technology

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    Zhigang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve adsorption of macromolecular contaminants and promote the growth of microorganisms, active carbon for biological wastewater treatment or follow-up processing requires abundant mesopore and good biophile ability. In this experiment, biophile mesopore active carbon is produced in one-step activation with orange peel as raw material, and zinc chloride as activator, and the adsorption characteristics of orange peel active carbon is studied by static adsorption method. BET specific surface area and pore volume reached 1477 m2/g and 2.090 m3/g, respectively. The surface functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The surface of the as-prepared activated carbon contained hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group. The analysis based on X-ray diffraction spectrogram (XRD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum indicated that the as-prepared activated carbon, with smaller microcrystalline diameter and microcrystalline thickness and enhanced reactivity, exhibited enhanced adsorption performance. This research has a deep influence in effectively controlling water pollution, improving area water quality, easing orange peel waste pollution, and promoting coordinated development among society, economy, and environment.

  12. Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk. Fiori. (family: Moringaceae growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha S El-Alfy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. Materials and Methods: The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anticancer activity. The aqueous and ethanolic extract as well as its different fractions were tested for antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Results: Investigation of the different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of M. peregrina yielded lupeol acetate (1, β-amyrin (2, α-amyrin (3, β-sitosterol (4, β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5, apigenin (6, rhamnetin (7, neochlorogenic acid (10, rhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (12, and 6-methoxy-acacetin-8-C-β-glucoside (13 which were isolated for the first time from the plant. Compound (13 was isolated for the first time from genus Moringa. In addition, quercetin (8, chryseriol-7-O-rhamnoside (9 and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (11 were also isolated. Identification has been established by spectral data (UV, MS, IR, 1H, 1H -1H COSY, and 13C-NMR. The major isolated compounds were found to have valuable cytotoxic activities against breast (MCF 7 and colon (HCT 116 cancer cell lines and their activities were comparable to the reference drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts as well as the n-hexane fraction were found to have potent antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Conclusion: The Egyptian plant M. peregrina is rich in biologically active ingredients which showed potent cytotoxic activity and also its ethanolic extraxt exert a significant antihyperglycemic effect.

  13. Jackbean, soybean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases: biological effects unrelated to ureolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, Cristian; Real-Guerra, Rafael; Wasserman, German E; Olivera-Severo, Deiber; Carlini, Célia R

    2004-04-01

    In this work we compared two plant ureases, jackbean urease (JBU) and embryo-specific soybean urease (SBU) and a bacterial (Bacillus pasteurii) urease, for kinetic parameters and other biological properties described recently for ureases that are independent of the ureolytic activity. The insecticidal effect of ureases was investigated in feeding trials with the cotton sucker bug, Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera) as an insect model. Contrasting with B. pasteurii urease (PBU), both plant ureases presented potent insecticidal activity, with LD(50) values of 0.017% (w/w) and 0.052% (w/w) for JBU and SBU, respectively. The insecticidal property of JBU or SBU was not affected by treatment with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, an irreversible inhibitor of ureolytic activity of both proteins. Also, contrasting with canatoxin - a urease isoform from jackbean seeds that displays a toxic effect in mice (LD(50) = 2 mg x kg(-1)) - no lethality was seen in mice injected intraperitoneally with JBU or SBU (20 mg x kg(-1)). Similarly to canatoxin, the three enzymes promoted aggregation of blood platelets (EC(50) = 400.0 micro g x mL(-1), 22.2 micro g x mL(-1), 15.8 micro g x mL(-1) for BPU, SBU and JBU, respectively). This platelet activating property was also independent of urease activity. Comparison of the kinetic properties indicated that SBU is fivefold less susceptible than JBU to inhibition by acetohydroxamic acid, a chelator of Ni(+2) and Zn(+2) ions. The ureases also showed different susceptibility to agents that modify cysteine residues, such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and p-benzoquinone. Altogether, these data emphasize that biological properties that are independent of ureolytic activity are not restricted to jackbean ureases and that these proteins may have a role in plant defense against insect predators.

  14. Visual Literacy Skills of Students in College-Level Biology: Learning Outcomes Following Digital or Hand-Drawing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Justine C.

    2014-01-01

    To test the claim that digital learning tools enhance the acquisition of visual literacy in this generation of biology students, a learning intervention was carried out with 33 students enrolled in an introductory college biology course. This study compared learning outcomes following two types of learning tools: a traditional drawing activity, or…

  15. Characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of propolis from Al-Bahah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakady, Yasser A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Franke, Raimo; Abutaha, Nael; Ebaid, Hossam; Baabbad, Mohannad; Omar, Mohamed O. M.; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A.

    2017-02-01

    Propolis has been used to treat several diseases since ancient times, and is an important source of bioactive natural compounds and drug derivatives. These properties have kept the interest of investigators around the world, leading to the investigation of the chemical and biological properties and application of propolis. In this report, the chemical constituents that are responsible for the anticancer activities of propolis were analyzed. The propolis was sourced from Al-Baha in the southern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Standard protocols for chemical fractionation and bioactivity-guided chemical analysis were used to identify the bio-active ethyl acetate fraction. The extraction was performed in methanol and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major compounds are triterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 74.0%; steroids, with a relative concentration of 9.8%; and diterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 7.9%. The biological activity was characterized using different approaches and cell-based assays. Propolis was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-α-tubulin antibodies and cell cycle analysis indicated that tubulin and/or microtubules are the cellular targets of the L-acetate fraction. This study demonstrates the importance of Saudi propolis as anti-cancer drug candidates.

  16. Tracking SERS-active nanoprobe intracellular uptake for chemical and biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregas, Molly K.; Yan, Fei; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Wang, Hsin-Neng; Khoury, Christopher; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-01

    A critical aspect of the use of nanoprobes for intracellular studies in chemical and biological sensing involves a fundamental understanding of their uptake and trajectory in cells. In this study, we describe experiments using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and mapping to track cellular uptake of plasmonics-active labeled nanoparticles. Three different Raman-active labels with positive, negative, and neutral charges were conjugated to silver colloidal nanoparticles with the aim of spatially and temporally profiling intracellular delivery and tracking of nanoprobes during uptake in single mammalian cells. 1-D Raman spectra and 2-D Raman mapping are used to identify and locate the probes via their SERS signal intensities. Because Raman spectroscopy is very specific for identification of chemical and molecular signatures, the development of functionalized plasmonics-active nanoprobes capable of exploring intracellular spaces and processes has the ability to provide specific information on the effects of biological and chemical pollutants in the intracellular environment. The results indicate that this technique will allow study of when, where, and how these substances affect cells and living organisms.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVED CHALCONES AND IT’S PYRIMIDINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar Padarthi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contribution increasing rapidly due to invasion by the pathogenic organisms like bacteria, fungi and virus in the present disease burden of human health. To treat these diseases many potent and broad spectrum antibiotics were discovered e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, ofloxacin and tetracycline etc., Even though antibiotics are life saving drugs in therapeutics but they are potentially harmful. These harmful effects include allergic and anaphylactic reaction, development of resistance, destruction of normal non-pathogenic bacterial flora and selective toxicity like aplastic anemia, kidney damage. As the microbial resistance make anti-microbial therapy very complex, there is a definite need of novel anti-microbials or drugs for combination therapy with standard antibiotics. Our aim was to synthesize and explore the anti-microbial activity of chalcones and its derived pyrimidines against various pathological micro organisms. Novel imidazole derived chalcones were synthesized and characterization was carried out by analyzing melting point, IR, 1H NMR data. The synthesized chalcones and pyrimidines are tested for their antimicrobial activity against various bacteria as well as fungi. Further synthesis of novel heterocyclic chalcones, structural elucidation, spectral analysis, biological activity of synthesized chalcones and its derived pyrimidines gives a hope for enhanced biological action using QSAR Studies.

  18. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival.

  19. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Weili; He, Shengbing

    2013-09-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable. Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP, the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system. The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2, i.e., BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1. The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated. After the saturation, the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average. Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation. A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria, which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp., was isolated, enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3 x day), the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment. Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective, cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  20. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  1. IN VITRO ANALYSIS OF τ PHOSPHORYLATION SITES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To explore the association between the abnormal phosphorylation sites found in Alzheimer disease (AD) τ and the inhibition of its biological activity. Methods.Ultracentrifugation,chromatography,manual Edman degradation and autosequence techniques were used to prepare and phosphorylate human recombinant τ ,isolate and purify 32P τ peptides and determine phosphorylation sites. Results.Phosphorylation of τ by casein kinase 1 (CK 1),cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) and glycogen synthetase kinase 3 (GSK 3) separately inhibited its biological activity and the inhibition of this activity by GSK 3 was significantly increased if τ was prephosphorylated by CK 1 or PKA.The most potent inhibition was seen by a combined phosphorylation of τ with PKA and GSK 3.The treatment of τ by PKA and GSK 3 combination induced phosphorylation of τ at Ser 195,Ser 198,Ser 199,Ser 202,Thr 205,Thr 231,Ser 235,Ser 262,Ser 356,Ser 404,whereas Thr 181,Ser 184,Ser 262,Ser 356 and Ser 400 were phosphorylated by GSK 3 alone under the same condition. Conclusion.Phosphorylation of τ by PKA plus GSK 3 at Thr 205 might play a key role in τ pathology in AD.

  2. Biological activities of procyanidins from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengge; Du, Xueyu; Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    The extraction and biological activities of procyanidins from the bark of Pinus caribaea Morelet (P. caribaea) have been studied for the first time in our research. The main factors influencing the extraction, including solvent, temperature and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, were discussed. The results illustrate that the suitable conditions for the extraction of procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea are as follows: extraction temperature at 50 degrees C, L/S ratio at 11 : 1 and ethanol volume fraction at 70%. The focus of this study is to investigate the biological activities of the procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea. Free-radical scavenging activity of the procyanidins was measured by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and it was clear that the procyanidins product had a strong radical scavenging ability. Furthermore, the inhibition effect of the procyanidins from the bark of P. caribaea on different human cancer cells cultured in vitro was investigated. The results indicated that the procyanidins extracted with water had a stronger inhibition on promycelocytic cells HL-60, an effective inhibition on human stomach adenocarcinoma cells BGC-823 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells BEL-7402, but no effect on human lung carcinoma cells A549, whereas the procyanidins extracted with ethanol had an effective inhibition on HL-60 and BGC-823, but no effect on A549 or BEL-7402.

  3. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorash E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, possessing antitoxic, antioxidant, radiation protective, cholesterol-lowering and lipid correcting qualities, and also a source of vitamins C, B9 (folic acid and P-active substances, possessing antioxidant properties. Due to high content in food red beet of a complex of microelements – iron, zinc, manganese and copper, and a complex of macro elements – potassium and magnesium, it can be recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases of heart and vascular system, and for prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia. Thus, the research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances showed that food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety are a high quality component ingredient for creation of food products of specialized and functional purpose

  4. TERPENOIDS FROM THE STEM BARK OF JATROPHA PLANTS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manggau Marianti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three terpenoids, including two diterpenes (curcusone B and jatrophone and a triterpene (stigmasterol have beenisolated from the stem bark of Jatropha plants. Curcusone B and stigmasterol were isolated from J. curcas, meanwhilejatrophone and stigmasterol were from J. gossypifolia. The biological activities of these compounds have beenevaluated toward bacteria, fungi and tumour cells. Isolation was carried out in vacuum liqiud cromatography (VLCtechnique with silica gel as an adsorben and some solvents as eluents. The compound structures were determined byspectroscopic methodes i.e. UV-vis, FTIR, NMR (1-D, 2-D and were then compared based on their spectroscopic datawith similiar data from literatures. The biological properties of these compounds were evaluated against four strains ofbacteria (Acetobacter sp., Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus sp., 4 strains of fungi (Aspergilusniger, Penicillium sp. (grey, Penicillium sp. (white and Rhizopus sp. and murine leukemia P-388 cells. The resultsshowed that cytotoxic property of curcusone B towards murine leukemia P-388 cells is better than jatrophone andstigmasterol which are IC50 = 0.57 μg/mL (1.93 μM for curcusone B and IC50 > 100 μg/mL for jatrophone andstigmasterol. Meanwhile, activities against bacteria, jatrophone is better than curcusone B and stigmasterol. Jatrophoneis the most active against S. aureus (bacteria with growth inhibition zone 36 mm and A.niger (fungi is 44 mm. Furtherstudy indicated that jatrophone was bacteriostatic against S. aureus.

  5. Noribogaine (12-hydroxyibogamine): a biologically active metabolite of the antiaddictive drug ibogaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, M H; Pablo, J P; Ali, S F; Rothman, R B; Mash, D C

    2000-09-01

    Ibogaine (IBO) is a plant-derived alkaloid that is being evaluated as a possible medication for substance use disorders. When administered peripherally to monkeys and humans, IBO is rapidly converted to an o-demethylated metabolite, 12-hydroxyibogamine (NORIBO). We have found in rats that peak blood levels of NORIBO can exceed those of the parent compound, and NORIBO persists in the bloodstream for at least 24 h. Surprisingly few studies have examined the in vivo biological activity of NORIBO. In the present series of experiments, we compared the effects of intravenous (i.v.) administration of IBO and NORIBO (1 and 10 mg/kg) on unconditioned behaviors, circulating stress hormones, and extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens of male rats. IBO caused dose-related increases in tremors and forepaw treading, whereas NORIBO did not. Both IBO and NORIBO produced significant elevations in plasma corticosterone and prolactin, but IBO was more potent as a stimulator of corticosterone secretion. Neither drug affected extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens. However, both IBO and NORIBO increased extracellular 5-HT levels, and NORIBO was more potent in this regard. The present data demonstrate that NORIBO is biologically active and undoubtedly contributes to the in vivo pharmacological profile of IBO in rats. Most importantly, NORIBO appears less likely to produce the adverse effects associated with IBO (i.e., tremors and stress-axis activation), suggesting that the metabolite may be a safer alternative for medication development.

  6. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning; Dam, Svend; Lorentzen, Andrea; Miehe, Michaela; Jabs, Frederic; Jakob, Thilo; Plum, Melanie; Spillner, Edzard

    2016-04-01

    TH2-biased immunity to parasites and allergens is often associated with increased levels of antigen-specific and high affinity IgE. The role in reacting against minute amounts of target structures and to provoke severe anaphylactic reactions renders IgE a mechanistically outstanding isotype. IgE represents the least abundant serum antibody isotype and exhibits a variety of peculiarities including structure, extensive glycosylation and effector functions. Despite large progress in antibody technologies, however, the recombinant access to isotypes beyond IgG such as IgE still is scarce. The capacity of expression systems has to meet the complex structural conformations and the extensive posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for biological activity. In order to provide alternatives to mammalian expression systems with often low yield and a more complex glycosylation pattern we established the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the rIgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the IgE isotype.

  7. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  8. Proteome profile and biological activity of caprine, bovine and human milk fat globules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertino, Stefano; Cipriani, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Upon combining bidimensional electrophoresis with monodimensional separation, a more comprehensive analysis of the milk fat globule membrane has been obtained. The proteomic profile of caprine milk fat globules revealed the presence of butyrophilin, lactadherin and perilipin as the major proteins, they were also associated to bovine and human milk fat globule membranes. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase has been detected only in monodimensional gels. Biological activity of milk fat globules has been evaluated in Caco2-cells, as a representative model of the intestinal barrier. The increase of cell viability was indicative of a potential nutraceutical role for the whole milk fat globule, suggesting a possible employment in milk formula preparation.

  9. Design and Synthesis of (+)-Discodermolide-Paclitaxel Hybrids Leading to Enhanced Biological Activity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B.; Sugasawa, Keizo; Atasoylu, Onur; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2011-01-01

    Potential binding modes of (+)-discodermolide at the paclitaxel binding site of tubulin have been identified by computational studies based on earlier structural and SAR data. Examination of the prospective binding modes reveal that the aromatic pocket occupied by the paclitaxel side-chain is unoccupied by (+)-discodermolide. Based on these findings, a small library of (+)-discodermolide-paclitaxel hybrids have been designed and synthesized. Biological evaluation reveals a two- to eight- fold increase in antiproliferative activity compared to the parent molecule using the A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. PMID:21870795

  10. Semisynthetic analogues of the microtubule-stabilizing agent discodermolide: preparation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Longley, Ross E; Isbrucker, Richard A

    2002-12-01

    A series of 12 semisynthetic discodermolide analogues, 2-13, have been prepared using natural (+)-discodermolide (1) and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against cultured murine P-388 leukemia and A-549 human adenocarcinoma cells. These semisynthetic analogues showed a significant variation of cytotoxicity and confirmed the importance of the C-7 through C-19 molecular fragment for potency. Specifically, these analogues suggested the importance of the C-11 and C-17 hydroxyl groups and the C-13 double bond for the potency of discodermolide. The preparation, structure elucidation, and biological activity of these new analogues are described.

  11. Design and synthesis of (+)-discodermolide-paclitaxel hybrids leading to enhanced biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B; Sugasawa, Keizo; Atasoylu, Onur; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2011-09-22

    Potential binding modes of (+)-discodermolide at the paclitaxel binding site of tubulin have been identified by computational studies based on earlier structural and SAR data. Examination of the prospective binding modes reveal that the aromatic pocket occupied by the paclitaxel side chain is unoccupied by (+)-discodermolide. Based on these findings, a small library of (+)-discodermolide-paclitaxel hybrids have been designed and synthesized. Biological evaluation reveals a two- to eight-fold increase in antiproliferative activity compared to the parent molecule using the A549 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines.

  12. Biologically active acylglycerides from the berries of saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, H; Tyler, V E; McLaughlin, J L

    1997-04-01

    Brine shrimp lethality-directed fractionation of the 95% EtOH extract of the powdered, dried berries of Serenoa repens (Bart.) Small (saw-palmetto) (Palmae) led to the isolation of two monoacylglycerides, 1-monolaurin (1) and 1-monomyristin (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate biological activities in the brine shrimp lethality test and against renal (A-498) and pancreatic (PACA-2) human tumor cells; borderline cytotoxicity was exhibited against human prostatic (PC-3) cells. The fruits and extracts of saw-palmetto are taken orally as an herbal medicine to prevent prostatic hyperplasias.

  13. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of a New Fluorescent Indicator for the Intracellular Calcium Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Huaizhen; LEI Lei; LI Jianli; SHI Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A novel calcium-selective fluorescent indicator Fluo-3M AM was synthesized by introduction of a methyl group into the Ca2+-chelating moiety and adequately characterized by spectral methods (1H NMR, GC-MS, IR and MALDI-TOF MS). Meanwhile, its fluorescence spectra and some biological activities have been also studied. The results indicate that the new fluorescent indicator has relatively high affinity to calcium and a strong fluorescence signal, which should be useful for biomedical researchers to investigate the effects of calcium ions in biosystems.

  15. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on ligno celluloses and their biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulose material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulose materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  16. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Melaleuca L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Almeida Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from species Melaleuca genus, especially M. alternifolia (Maiden & Betche Cheel, have been widely used worldwide in various industries. This review is a contribution to Melaleuca knowledge and describes five important essential oil-producing species and two subspecies of Melaleuca in terms of their essential oil chemical composition, medicinal applications, and leaf morphoanatomy. Some relationships between essential oil composition of these species and important biological activities are presented. Useful parameters for the certification of the essential oils are also highlighted.

  17. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  18. Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation.

  19. Impact of membrane solid-liquid separation on design of biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M; Wentzel, M C; Merritt, R; Ekama, G A; Young, T; Buckley, C A

    2005-03-20

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only in the design of the BNR system itself, but also in the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multizone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic zones (i.e., fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the interreactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage in membrane BNR systems over conventional BNR systems with SSTs, because it allows for changing of the mass fractions to optimize biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios in the upper range (f(q) approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) secondary settling tanks is not as large (40% to 60%), the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilization costs. Moving from a flow-unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow-balanced (f(q) = 1), low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilization. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be paid from the savings from the increased WWTP capacity.

  20. Field and Laboratory GPR Monitoring of Biological Activity in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, Georgios; Schillig, Peter; McGlashan, Michael; Roberts, Jennifer; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of "biogeophysics". The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present a field study and a laboratory experiment that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Three competing mechanisms are postulated to cause the changes observed in the radar data: 1) biogenic gas production, 2) mineral dissolution, and 3) biomass growth. However, due to the inherent complexity and uncertainties associated with field experimentation, the relative effect of each mechanism on the GPR signal could not be confirmed. To overcome the limitations of field observations in assessing the response of GPR signals to biomass formation, a 90-day laboratory

  1. Conferring biological activity to native spider silk: A biofunctionalized protein-based microfiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Quan, David N; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Liu, Yi; Terrell, Jessica L; Luo, Xiaolong; Yang, Jen-Chang; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2017-01-01

    Spider silk is an extraordinary material with physical properties comparable to the best scaffolding/structural materials, and as a fiber it can be manipulated with ease into a variety of configurations. Our work here demonstrates that natural spider silk fibers can also be used to organize biological components on and in devices through rapid and simple means. Micron scale spider silk fibers (5-10 μm in diameter) were surface modified with a variety of biological entities engineered with pentaglutamine tags via microbial transglutaminase (mTG). Enzymes, enzyme pathways, antibodies, and fluorescent proteins were all assembled onto spider silk fibers using this biomolecular engineering/biofabrication process. Additionally, arrangement of biofunctionalized fiber should in of itself generate a secondary level of biomolecular organization. Toward this end, as proofs of principle, spatially defined arrangement of biofunctionalized spider silk fiber was shown to generate effects specific to silk position in two cases. In one instance, arrangement perpendicular to a flow produced selective head and neck carcinoma cell capture on silk with antibodies complexed to conjugated protein G. In a second scenario, asymmetric bacterial chemotaxis arose from asymmetric conjugation of enzymes to arranged silk. Overall, the biofabrication processes used here were rapid, required no complex chemistries, were biologically benign, and also the resulting engineered silk microfibers were flexible, readily manipulated and functionally active. Deployed here in microfluidic environments, biofunctional spider silk fiber provides a means to convey complex biological functions over a range of scales, further extending its potential as a biomaterial in biotechnological settings. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 83-95. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Extraction of flavonoids from Tagetes patula: process optimization and screening for biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Munhoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of Tagetes patula L., Asteraceae, commonly known as French marigold, are used in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic, blood purifier and insect repellent. This study was conducted to optimize the extraction process through the biomonitoring of flavonoids, using a statistical mixture simplex-centroid design, to evaluate the effect of the solvents water, ethanol and acetone, as well as mixtures of these solvents, assessed by the total flavonoid content. The extracts were tested for dry residue, radical scavenging activity, chromatographic profile, and larvicidal activity. The acetone extract had the highest total flavonoid content, 25.13 ± 1.02% (4.07%; and the best radical scavenging activity, with IC50 of 15.74 μg/ml ± 1.09 (6.92%, but with lower dry residue, 6.62 ± 1.33% (20.10%. The water extracts showed higher levels of dry residue, but lower total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity than the acetone extract. The positive correlation between the total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity of the extracts showed that flavonoids contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity. The statistical mixture design allowed us to optimize the extraction of flavonoids from flowers of T. patula, with acetone as the best extraction solvent. Preliminary studies on the biological activity of the optimized extracts demonstrated a larvicidal effect of the acetone extract on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

  3. Neutron flux measurements at the TRIGA reactor in Vienna for the prediction of the activation of the biological shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Stefan [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Djuricic, Mile [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Villa, Mario; Boeck, Helmuth [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.at [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    The activation of the biological shield is an important process for waste management considerations of nuclear facilities. The final activity can be estimated by modeling using the neutron flux density rather than the radiometric approach of activity measurements. Measurement series at the TRIGA reactor Vienna reveal that the flux density next to the biological shield is in the order of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at maximum power; but it is strongly influenced by reactor installations. The data allow the estimation of the final waste categorization of the concrete according to the Austrian legislation. - Highlights: > Neutron activation is an important process for the waste management of nuclear facilities. > Biological shield of the TRIGA reactor Vienna has been topic of investigation. > Flux values allow a categorization of the concrete concerning radiation protection legislation. > Reactor installations are of great importance as neutron sources into the biological shield. > Every installation shows distinguishable flux profiles.

  4. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  5. Sensitive, rapid, quantitative and in vitro method for the detection of biologically active staphylococcal enterotoxin type E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infections and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens that activa...

  6. [Effects of biological organic fertilizer on microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Jie; Hu, Ting; Gao, Hua; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Qin, Qing-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Zhashui County of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China in 2011 to study the effects of biological organic fertilizer on the microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Three treatments were installed, i. e., control, compound fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at harvest, and the metabolic activity was tested by Biolog method. In the treatment of biological organic fertilizer, the average well color development, Shannon evenness, richness, and McIntosh indices of microbial community were all significantly higher than the other two treatments. As compared with the control, applying biological organic fertilizer improved the ability of soil microbes in utilizing the carbon sources of carbohydrates and polymers, while applying compound fertilizer was in opposite. The principal component analysis demonstrated that there was an obvious difference in the soil microbial community among different treatments, mainly depending on the species of carbohydrates and amino acids.

  7. Application of terahertz spectroscopy for characterization of biologically active organic molecules in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaliūnas, Mindaugas; Jakštas, Vytautas; Nasser, Kinan E.; Venckevičius, Rimvydas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a comparative research of biologically active organic molecules in its natural environment using the terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy (TDS) and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) systems is carried out. Absorption coefficient and refractive index of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves containing nicotine, Cannabis sativa L. leaves containing tetrahydrocannabinol, and Humulu lupulus L. leaves containing α-acids, active organic molecules that obtain in natural environment, were measured in broad frequency range from 0.1 to 13 THz at room temperature. In the spectra of absorption coefficient the features were found to be unique for N. tabacum, C. sativa and H. lupulus. Moreover, those features can be exploited for identification of C. sativa sex and N. tabacum origin. The refractive index can be also used to characterize different species.

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of novel small peptides with aminophosphonates moiety as NOP receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Emilia D; Todorov, Petar T; Mateeva, Polina I; Zamfirova, Rositza N; Pavlov, Nikola D; Todorov, Simeon B

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was the synthesis and the biological screening of new analogs of Ac-RYYRWK-NH2, modified at the N-terminal with 1-[(methoxyphosphono)methylamino]cycloalkanecarboxylic acids. The four newly synthesized ligands for the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor (NOP) have been prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis--Fmoc-strategy. These compounds were tested for agonistic activity in vitro on electrically stimulated smooth-muscle preparations isolated from vas deferens of Wistar rats. Our data showed that substitution of Arg at position 1 with aminophosphonates moiety decreased significantly the affinity of ligands to the NOP receptor. Furthermore, the enlargement of the cycle (with 5-8 carbon atoms) additionally diminished both the activity and the selectivity for NOP-receptor.

  9. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  10. Recent Advancements and Biological Activities of Aryl Propionic Acid Derivatives: (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Dhall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aryl propionic acid derivatives belong to an important class of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Ibuprofen, chemically called 2-(4-isobutyl phenyl propionic acid, is a well known NSAID. Aryl propionic acid derivatives possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-cancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Apart from very potent compounds in the field of analgesics and antipyrectics as Ibuprofen, Oxaprozin, Ketoprofen, Fenoprofen; aryl propionic acid derivatives plays important role to treat other ailments also. Through this review, an attempt has been made to emphasize on recent work done and recent advancements in arena of aryl propionic acid derivatives in view of medicinal chemistry.

  11. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA of industrial sludge from the aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, specific methanogenic activity (SMA tests were performed on textile sludge and food industry sludge. The textile sludge from an activated sludge was collected at the entrance of the secondary biologic clarifier and the food sludge was collected in a UASB reactor. Once collected, the sludges were characterized and tested for SMA. It was found that the microrganisms present in the food sludge had SMA of 0.17 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 and 337.05 mL of methane production, while the microrganisms of the textile sludge presented 0.10 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 of SMA and 3.04 mL of methane production. Therefore, the food sludge was more suitable to be used as a starting inoculum in UASB.

  12. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  13. Aloe vera : Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad H Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities.

  14. Crystallization of Escherichia coli CdtB, the biologically active subunit of cytolethal distending toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontz, Jill S.; Villar-Lecumberri, Maria T.; Dreyfus, Lawrence A.; Yoder, Marilyn D., E-mail: yoderm@umkc.edu [Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5007 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin subunit CdtB from E. coli strain 9142-88 was purified and crystallized. Crystals belonging to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} diffract to a resolution of 1.72 Å. Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a secreted protein toxin produced by several bacterial pathogens. The biologically active CDT subunit CdtB is an active homolog of mammalian type I DNase. Internalization of CdtB and subsequent translocation into the nucleus of target cells results in DNA-strand breaks, leading to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. CdtB crystals were grown using microbatch methods with polyethylene glycol 8000 as the precipitant. The CdtB crystals contain one molecule of MW 30.5 kDa per asymmetric unit, belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffract to 1.72 Å.

  15. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence herbal tonic and Essiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, C; Richardson, M A; Diamond, S; Skoda, I

    2000-02-01

    The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

  16. Anthraquinones and Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungi: Structural Diversity and Selected Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Fouillaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.

  17. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs.

  18. Ab initio computational study of vincristine as a biological active compound: NMR and NBO analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Joohari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vincristine is a biological active alkaloid that has been used clinically against a variety of neoplasms. In the current study we have theoretically investigated the magnetic properties of titled compound to predict physical and chemical properties of vincristine as a biological inhibitor. Ab initio computation using HF and B3LYP with 3-21G(d and 6-31G(d level of theory have been performed and then magnetic shielding tensor (, ppm, shielding asymmetry (, magnetic shielding anisotropy (aniso, ppm, the skew of a tensor (K, chemical shift anisotropy ( and chemical shift ( were calculated to indicate the details of the interaction mechanism between microtubules and vincristine. Moreover, EHOMO, ELUMO and Ebg were evaluated. The maximum and minimum values of Ebg were found in HF/3-21g and B3LYP/3-21g respectively. It was also uggested that O24, O37, O49 and O55 with minimum values of iso, are active sites of titled compound. Furthermore the calculated chemical shifts were compared with experimental data in DMSO and CDCl3 solvents.

  19. Membranolytic Activity of Bile Salts: Influence of Biological Membrane Properties and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Blume

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The two main steps of the membranolytic activity of detergents: 1 the partitioning of detergent molecules in the membrane and 2 the solubilisation of the membrane are systematically investigated. The interactions of two bile salt molecules, sodium cholate (NaC and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC with biological phospholipid model membranes are considered. The membranolytic activity is analysed as a function of the hydrophobicity of the bile salt, ionic strength, temperature, membrane phase properties, membrane surface charge and composition of the acyl chains of the lipids. The results are derived from calorimetric measurements (ITC, isothermal titration calorimetry. A thermodynamic model is described, taking into consideration electrostatic interactions, which is used for the calculation of the partition coefficient as well as to derive the complete thermodynamic parameters describing the interaction of detergents with biological membranes (change in enthalpy, change in free energy, change in entropy etc. The solubilisation properties are described in a so-called vesicle-to-micelle phase transition diagram. The obtained results are supplemented and confirmed by data obtained from other biophysical techniques (DSC differential scanning calorimetry, DLS dynamic light scattering, SANS small angle neutron scattering.

  20. Nerolidol: A Sesquiterpene Alcohol with Multi-Faceted Pharmacological and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Keong Chan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alcohol that is present in various plants with a floral odor. It is synthesized as an intermediate in the production of (3E-4,8-dimethy-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, a herbivore-induced volatile that protects plants from herbivore damage. Chemically, nerolidol exists in two geometric isomers, a trans and a cis form. The usage of nerolidol is widespread across different industries. It has been widely used in cosmetics (e.g., shampoos and perfumes and in non-cosmetic products (e.g., detergents and cleansers. In fact, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has also permitted the use of nerolidol as a food flavoring agent. The fact that nerolidol is a common ingredient in many products has attracted researchers to explore more medicinal properties of nerolidol that may exert beneficial effect on human health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile and consolidate the data on the various pharmacological and biological activities displayed by nerolidol. Furthermore, this review also includes pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies of nerolidol. In summary, the various pharmacological and biological activities demonstrated in this review highlight the prospects of nerolidol as a promising chemical or drug candidate in the field of agriculture and medicine.

  1. Relationship between Coordination Structure and Biological Activity of Copper(Ⅱ) Nicotinate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; LI Qing-Lu; HUANG Zhi-Jian; LI Jian-Sheng; LI Ru

    2006-01-01

    The copper(Ⅱ) complexes of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) and pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid) were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectrum, powder X-ray diffraction and so on. The results show that under experimental conditions, the ligands of synthesized copper nicotinate and copper isonicotinate are coordinated simultaneity with copper(Ⅱ) via the nitrogen of pyridine group and an oxygen of carboxylic acid group to form bidentate chelates. The crystal of copper nicotinate with two six-membered chelate rings belongs to monoclinic system, while that of copper isonicotinate having two five-membered chelate rings is of triclinic system. The tests show that the biological activities, such as the improvement of feed utilization, growth, anti-oxidation ability of organism and disease-resistant power, are different when copper nicotinate, copper inicotinate, copper-lysine chelate, copper-methionine chelate and copper sulphate are added in pig's feed, respectively. Due to its higher biological activity, less pollution and lower toxicity,copper nicotinate has wide potential applications as a feed additive.

  2. Incorporation and characterization of biological molecules in droplet-interface bilayer networks for novel active systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarles, Stephen A.; Ghanbari Bavarsad, Pegah; Leo, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    Biological molecules including phospholipids and proteins offer scientists and engineers a diverse selection of materials to develop new types of active materials and smart systems based on ion conduction. The inherent energy-coupling abilities of these components create novel kinds of transduction elements. Networks formed from droplet-interface bilayers (DIB) are a promising construct for creating cell mimics that allow for the assembly and study of these active biological molecules. The current-voltage relationship of symmetric, "lipid-in" dropletinterface bilayers are characterized using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). "Lipid-in" diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) droplet-interface bilayers have specific resistances of nearly 10MΩ•cm2 and rupture at applied potentials greater than 300mV, indicating the "lipid-in" approach produces higher quality interfacial membranes than created using the original "lipid-out" method. The incorporation of phospholipids into the droplet interior allows for faster monolayer formation but does not inhibit the selfinsertion of transmembrane proteins into bilayer interfaces that separate adjacent droplets. Alamethicin proteins inserted into single and multi-DIB networks produce a voltage-dependent membrane conductance and current measurements on bilayers containing this type of protein exhibit a reversible, 3-4 order-of-magnitude conductance increase upon application of voltage.

  3. Leishmania tropica: the effect of darkness and light on biological activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir

    2011-08-01

    Leishmania parasites can be exposed to effects of light in their vectors and hosts, at various periods. However, there is no information about the effects of light on Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of light on various cell parameters of Leishmania tropica, in vitro. All experiments were conducted on L. tropica promastigotes and amastigote-macrophage cultures, using flow cytometric analysis, MTT and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, DAPI and Giemsa. The results showed that the morphology of parasites has changed; the cell cycle has been affected and this caused parasites to remain at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore the proliferation, infectivity, glucose consumption and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activities of parasites were decreased. Thus, for the first time, in this study, the effects of light on biological activities of Leishmania parasites were shown. These new information about parasites' biology, would be very important to investigate the effects of light on the parasites in infected vectors and hosts.

  4. Reclaimation of petroleum-based wastewater by noval ozone immobilized biological activated carbon process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation in the petroleum industries in Northern China is important because of the shortage of water resource. Conventional treatment technology used in treating petroleum-based wastewater,namely the 3-phase biological process, typically removes COD, BOD, grease, volatile hydrobenzenes, cyanides, sulfides and suspended solids. However, the process is often ineffective in ammonia-nitrogen removal,and thus the treated effluent quantity can't meet the required standards for reuse. This paper investigated a novel ozone immobilized biological activated carbon (O3-IBAC) process for ammonia nitrogen removal from petroleum-based wastewater. Operated at a HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 15 minutes in IBAC1 and 27 minutes in IBAC2, the O3-IBAC process achieved ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency of 91%. In addition, the removal efficiencies of COD, volatile hydrobenzenes, suspended solids, turbidity and petroleum-based micropollutants were all above 90%. Competition between the autotrophs and heterotrophs was observed, which was indicated by an increase of ammonia nitrogen removal with a decrease of COD removal, and vise versa. Nitrite accumulation in IBAC1 followed by erobic shortcut denitrification in IBAC2 led to 28% of the Total Nitrogen removal efficiency. Pollutant reduction in the IBAC process was achieved by a rapid physical adsorption and biodegradation on the activated carbon, which effectively retained the pollutants in the system despite the short hydraulic retention time.

  5. Intralaboratory validation of cell-free translation assay for detecting ricin toxin biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Richardson, Jenny D; Brown, J Edward; Hale, Martha L

    2007-01-01

    A cell-free translation (CFT) assay for determining ricin biological activity was validated. The statistical data from the validation study showed a high level of precision within and between runs of the assay. The assay was specific for determining ricin biological activity in food-based matrixes and discriminated ricin from other ribosome-inactivating proteins. The mean bias (relative error) between measured ricin concentrations of 3 validation samples and their nominal concentrations was 1.1, 6.6, and 20.3%, while the coefficient of variation (CV) was 14.1, 7.7, and 13.5%, respectively, demonstrating good precision, accuracy, and linearity. The CVs of ricin concentrations in 2 ricin-containing samples calculated from a dilution series were <5 and <12%, respectively, demonstrating very good parallelism. The analyte stability of ricin-containing samples stored for 1 month either at 4 or -20 degrees C, the stability of ricin stock solutions, and the results of assays executed by different analysts and using different luminometers were evaluated. The statistical validation data confirmed that the 4-parameter logistic equation, y = (a - d)/[1 + (x/c)b] + d, provided an accurate representation of a sigmoidal relationship between the measured response and the observed ricin concentration for the CFT assay.

  6. Evaluation of biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. using the chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Bednarczyk, Marek; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (cat's claw) was evaluated by application of the chicken embryo model. Among three groups of eggs (n = 360) with twelve-day old embryos, two were injected with different doses of cat's claw extracts (0.0492 and 0.492 mg/200 lambda). To the third control group 200 lambda of physiological salt was applied. All eggs were incubated in conventional forced-air apparatus until hatched. Hatchability, chicken weight and wholesomeness were analyzed. Selected parameters of blood including number of erythrocytes (RBC), number of leukocytes (WBC), mean red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin concentration (HGB), mean amount of cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and embryo weight (MAS) were assayed and compared. Significant differences with ANOVA were observed for MCV (P = 0.002), MCHC (P = 0.00001) and MCH (P = 0.02). Applying the chicken embryo model brought new information about the biological activity of U. tomentosa showing an unfavourable effect on some morphological blood parameters.

  7. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF): Biological Activities and Relation with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Camila Cristina Guimarães; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Lanza, Daniel Carlos Ferreira; Andrade, Vânia Sousa; Fernandes, José Veríssimo

    2017-04-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) emerged in recent years as an important inflammation mediator, playing a prominent role in the pathogenesis of various types of malignant neoplasm. MIF is a glycoprotein that presents a wide spectrum of biological activities and exerts a complex interaction with various cellular signaling pathways, causing imbalance of homeostasis. Experimental and clinical studies show that high levels of MIF are found in almost all types of human cancers and are implicated in seemingly all stages of development of the tumors. The production of MIF is triggered through an autocrine signal emitted by tumor cells, and stimulates the production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth as well as angiogenic factors that lead to growth of the tumor, increasing its aggressiveness and metastatic potential. MIF is produced by virtually all types of human body cells, in response to stress caused by different factors, leading to pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and immunomodulation with suppression of immune surveillance and of immune response against tumors, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. In this review, we present recent advances on the biological activity of MIF, the signaling pathways with which it is involved and their role in tumorigenesis.

  8. Prokaryotic Expression and Biological Activity Analysis of Human Ar-resten Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zifang; ZHENG Qichang; LI Wei; XIONG Jun; SHANG Dan; SHU Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    To express recombinant arresten in Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and investigate its biological activity, prokaryotic expression vector of human arresten gene was constructed by gene engineering. Human arresten gene was amplified from recombinant plasmid pGEMArr by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pRSET containing T7 promoter. Restriction analysis and DNA sequencing verified that the arresten gene was correctly cloned into the expression vector. The recombinant plasmid pRSETAt was subsequently transformed into E. Coli BL21 (DE3), and the target gene was expressed under induction of IPTG. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 29 kD (1 kD=0. 992 1 ku) amounted to 29 % of the total bacterial proteins. After purification and renaturation, the recombinant protein could significantly suppress the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These results suggested that the expression of a biologically active form of human arresten in the pRSET expression system laid a foundation for further study on the mechanistic insight into arresten action on angiogenesis and the development of powerful anti-cancer drugs.

  9. Metabolic activities of five botryticides against Botrytis cinerea examined using the Biolog FF MicroPlate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hancheng; Wang, Jin; Li, Licui; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Maosheng; Shang, Shenghua; Yu, Zhihe

    2016-08-05

    Tobacco grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important fungal disease worldwide. Boscalid, carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and propiconazole are representative botryticides for grey mold management. This research investigated the sensitivities of B. cinerea from tobacco to these chemicals using the Biolog FF Microplate. All five chemicals showed inhibitory activity, with average EC50 values of 0.94, 0.05, 0.50, 0.61 and 0.31 μg ml(-1), respectively. B. cinerea metabolized 96.8% of tested carbon sources, including 29 effectively and 33 moderately, but the metabolic fingerprints differed under pressures imposed by these botryticides. For boscalid, B. cinerea was unable to metabolize many substrates related to tricarboxylic acid cycle. For carbendazim, carbon sources related to glycolysis were not metabolized. For iprodione, use of most carbon substrates was weakly inhibited, and the metabolic profile was similar to that of the control. For propiconazole, no carbon substrates were metabolized and the physiological and biochemical functions of the pathogen were totally inhibited. These findings provide useful information on metabolic activities of these botryticides, and may lead to future applications of the Biolog FF Microplate for examining metabolic effects of other fungicides on other fungi, as well as providing a metabolic fingerprint of B. cinerea that could be useful for identification.

  10. A truncated Wnt7a retains full biological activity in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maltzahn, Julia; Zinoviev, Radoslav; Chang, Natasha C.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2013-11-01

    Wnt signaling has essential roles during embryonic development and tissue homoeostasis. Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified and the attachment of a palmitate moiety at two conserved residues is believed to be a prerequisite for the secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Here we demonstrate that a mammalian Wnt protein can be fully functional without palmitoylation. We generate a truncated Wnt7a variant, consisting of the C-terminal 137 amino acids lacking the conserved palmitoylation sites and show that it retains full biological activity in skeletal muscle. This includes binding to and signaling through its receptor Fzd7 to stimulate symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells by activating the planar-cell polarity pathway and inducing myofibre hypertrophy by signaling through the AKT/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, this truncated Wnt7a shows enhanced secretion and dispersion compared with the full-length protein. Together, these findings open important new avenues for the development of Wnt7a as a treatment for muscle-wasting diseases and have broad implications for the therapeutic use of Wnts as biologics.

  11. Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Eker, Serkan; Uygur, Ahmet

    2005-08-01

    Chlorophenol compounds present in many chemical industry wastewaters are resistant to biological degradation because of the toxic effects of such compounds on microorganisms. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) was subjected to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit. Effects of feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP, and toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 10 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. The Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for assessment of toxicity for the feed and effluent wastewater. Percent COD, DCP, and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, DCP, and toxicity levels increased with increasing feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) because of inhibitory effects of DCP. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) resulting in lower COD and DCP removal rates. The system should be operated at feed DCP concentrations of less than 150 mgl(-1) in order to obtain high COD, DCP, and toxicity removals.

  12. Spectral, XRD, SEM and biological activities of transition metal complexes of polydentate ligands containing thiazole moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, M. A.; Marriappan, S. S.; Dharmaraja, J.; Jeyakumar, T.; Muthukumaran, K.

    2008-11-01

    Metal complexes of o-vanillidene-2-aminobenzothiazole have been prepared and characterized by elemental and spectral (vibrational, electronic, 1H NMR and EPR) data as well as magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermo gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA). The low molar conductance values reveal the non-electrolytic nature of these complexes. The elemental analysis suggests that the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand). Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic spectra suggest that two ligands coordinate to each metal atom by phenolic oxygen and imino nitrogen to form high spin octahedral complex with Co(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II). The fifth and sixth position of metal ion is satisfied with water molecules. The thermal behaviour (TG/DTA) of the synthesised complexes shows that the complexes loss water molecules in the first step followed by decomposition of the ligand. Spin Hamiltonian parameters predict a distorted tetrahedral geometry for the copper complex. XRD and SEM analysis provide the crystalline nature and the morphology of the metal complexes. The in vitro biological activity of the metal chelates is tested against the Gram positive bacteria ( Bacillus amyloliquifacians) and gram negative bacteria ( Pseudomonas species), fungus ( Aspergillus niger) and yeast ( Sacchromyces cereviaceae). Most of the metal chelates exhibited higher biological activities.

  13. In vivo and in vitro techniques to determine the biological activity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for determination of the biological activity of food allergens comprise both determination of the allergenic potency, i.e. the capability to elicit an allergic reaction in an already sensitized individual, and the allergenic potential, i.e. the risk for sensitizing a hitherto non-allergic......Methods for determination of the biological activity of food allergens comprise both determination of the allergenic potency, i.e. the capability to elicit an allergic reaction in an already sensitized individual, and the allergenic potential, i.e. the risk for sensitizing a hitherto non......-allergic individual. Several methods are discussed for determination of potency including the double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, skin testing, in vitro effector cell assays such as basophil histamine release, and IgE-based techniques such as RAST and RAST inhibition. No reliable methods have yet been...... developed which can predict the allergenic potential of a food or a food allergen. The progress in the areas of stability studies and animal models for food allergy are discussed....

  14. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-06

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors.

  15. [Soil biological activities at maize seedling stage under application of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Liang, Chenghua; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Weicheng; Yang, Defu

    2006-06-01

    With pot experiment and simulating field ecological environment, this paper studied the effects of different slow/ controlled release N fertilizers on the soil nitrate - reductase and urease activities and microbial biomass C and N at maize seedling stage. The results showed that granular urea amended with dicyandiamide (DCD) and N-(n-bultyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) induced the highest soil nitrate-reductase activity, granular urea brought about the highest soil urease activity and microbial biomass C and N, while starch acetate (SA)-coated granular urea, SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD, methyl methacrylate (MMA) -coated granular urea amended with DCD, and no N fertilization gave a higher soil urease activity. Soil microbial C and N had a similar variation trend after applying various kinds of test slow/controlled release N fertilizers, and were the lowest after applying SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD and NBPT. Coated granular urea amended with inhibitors had a stronger effect on soil biological activities than coated granular urea, and MMA-coating had a better effect than SA-coating.

  16. Chemically and biologically modified activated carbon sorbents for the removal of lead ions from aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Osman, Maher M; Ahmed, Somia B

    2012-01-01

    A method is described for hybridization of the adsorption and biosorption characteristics of chemically treated commercial activated carbon and baker's yeast, respectively, for the formation of environmental friendly multifunctional sorbents. Activated carbon was loaded with baker's yeast after acid-base treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy were used to characterize these sorbents. Moreover, the sorption capabilities for lead (II) ions were evaluated. A value of 90 μmol g(-1) was identified as the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon. Acid-base treatment of activated carbon was found to double the sorption capacity (140-180 μmol g(-1)). Immobilization of baker's yeast on the surface of activated carbon sorbents was found to further improve the sorption capacity efficiency of lead to 360, 510 and 560 μmol g(-1), respectively. Several important factors such as pH, contact time, sorbent dose, lead concentration and interfering ions were examined. Lead sorption process was studied and evaluated by several adsorption isotherms and found to follow the Langmuir and BET models. The potential applications of various chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents for removal of lead from real water matrices were also investigated via multistage micro-column technique and the results referred to excellent recovery values of lead (95.0-99.0 ± 3.0-5.0 %).

  17. Sulfated polysaccharides from Loligo vulgaris skin: potential biological activities and partial purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics, biological properties, and purification of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from squid (Loligo vulgaris) skin were investigated. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin (SPSS) contained 85.06% sugar, 2.54% protein, 1.87% ash, 8.07% sulfate, and 1.72% uronic acid. The antioxidant properties of SPSS were investigated based on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 19.42 mg mL(-1)), hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.91 mg mL(-1)), and β-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50 = 2.79 mg mL(-1)) assays. ACE-inhibitory activity of SPSS was also investigated (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL(-1)). Further antimicrobial activity assays indicated that SPSS exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Those polysaccharides did not display hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography showed three major absorbance peaks. Results of this study suggest that sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin are attractive sources of polysaccharides and promising candidates for future application as dietary ingredients.

  18. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kashoury, El-Sayeda A; El-Askary, Hesham I; Kandil, Zeinab A; Salem, Mohamed A; Sleem, Amany A

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodistilled oils of the fresh aerial parts of Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. cultivated in Egypt were prepared from samples collected along the four seasons. The percentage yields of these essential oils were 0.50%, 0.52%, 0.60%, and 0.47% of the dry weight for winter, spring, summer, and autumn samples. GC/MS analyses of all samples revealed a qualitative and quantitative variability in the oil composition. The total number of compounds identified was 46 among which 15 were common in all samples. The oxygenated compounds constituted about 45%, 46%, 63%, and 44% of the total composition of the oils for winter, spring, summer, and autumn samples, respectively. Carvone was the major constituent in spring, summer, and autumn samples (about 31%, 56%, and 35%, respectively), while limonene (ca. 26%) was the major constituent of the winter sample followed by carvone (ca. 25%). The essential oil of the highest yield (full-flowering summer sample), with the highest oxygenated constituents and carvone contents, was screened for certain biological activities. It exhibited analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory activities (75% and 82% relative to indomethacin). It also showed a potent in vivo antioxidant activity (96% relative to vitamin E). In addition, it exerted moderate cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, and in vitro antioxidant activities. Moreover, the oil had a potent antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 4 microg/ml), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC = 5.2 microg/ml), and Aspergillus niger (MIC = 6.8 microg/ml).

  19. [Activities of the National Information Center for Biological Agents present at workplace and preliminary analysis of data collected by the National Register of Biological Agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2009-01-01

    The National Information Centre for Biological Agents Present at Workplaces and the National Register of Biological Agents were established in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in 2005. The former carries out consultation and education activities concerned with occupational exposure and risk assessment, planning and implementation of preventive programs and accurate registration of reliable information about the use of biological agents. The latter aims at collecting and analyzing the aforesaid information obtained from employers for research, diagnostic or industrial purposes. The data base is a source of information for occupational environment supervising inspections and occupational health service. useful among others in planning various forms of prevention. As of December 10, 2008 there were 281 notifications from companies using biological agents (for the following purposes: research--34, diagnostic--225 and industrial--22). The majority of notifications were obtained from different diagnostic laboratories and universities/ research institutes. In total, 2197 workers, including 2011 (91.5%) women and 186 (8.5%) men were exposed to biological agents, were registered.

  20. Soybean seed treatment with nickel improves biological nitrogen fixation and urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José eLavres Junior

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is an essential micronutrient required for plants’ metabolism due to its role as a structural component of urease and hydrogenase, which in turn perform nitrogen (N metabolism in many legume species. Seed treatment with cobalt, molybdenum and Bradyrhizobium strains has been widely practiced to improve crops. Additionally, seed treatment together with Ni fertilization of soybean might improve the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, boosting grain dry matter yield and N content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soybean seed treatment with Ni rates (0, 45, 90,135, 180, 360 and 540 mg kg-1 on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, directly by the 15N natural abundance method (δ15N‰ and by measurement of urease [E.C. 3.5.1.5] activity, as well as indirectly by nitrogenase (N-ase activity [E.C. 1.18.6.1]. Soybean plants (cultivar BMX Potência RR were grown in a sandy soil up to the R7 developmental stage (grain maturity, at which point the nutrient content in the leaves, chlorophyll content, urease and N-ase activities, Ni and N content in the grains, nodulation (at R1 - flowering stage, as well as the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (δ15N ‰, were evaluated. The proportion of N derived from N2 fixation varied from 77 to 99% using the natural 15N abundance method and non-nodulating Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris canariensis as references. A Ni rate of 45 mg kg-1 increased BNF by 12% compared to the control. The increased N uptake in the grains was closely correlated with chlorophyll content in the leaves, urease and N-ase activities, as well as with nodulation. Grain dry matter yield and aerial part dry matter yield increased, respectively, by 84% and 51% in relation to the control plants at 45 mg kg-1 Ni via seed treatment. Despite, Ni concentration was increased with Ni-seed treatment, Ni rates higher than 135 mg kg-1 promoted negative effects on plant growth and yield. In these