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Sample records for biological accumulation

  1. BIOLOGY OF POLYPHOSPHATE-ACCUMULATING BACTERIA INVOLVED IN ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTSTEE, GJJ; APPELDOORN, KJ; BONTING, CFC; VANNIEL, EWJ; VANVEEN, HW

    1994-01-01

    Recent research on the process of biological phosphorus removal in lab-scale treatment systems has indicated that: (i) the development of an actively polyP-accumulating bacterial community after the introduction of an anaerobic period may take at least 4 months; (ii) up to 80% of all aerobic bacteri

  2. Modulation of Gingival Fibroblast Minocycline Accumulation by Biological Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, J.D.; Nakkula, R.J.; Maney, P.

    2005-01-01

    Gingival fibroblasts actively accumulate tetracyclines, thereby enhancing their redistribution from blood to gingiva. Since growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate many fibroblast activities, they could potentially enhance fibroblast minocycline accumulation. To test this hypothesis, we treated gingival fibroblast monolayers for 1 or 6 hours with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF), or tumor necrosis fa...

  3. Biological Adsorption and Accumulation Analysis of Hizikia fusiforme Response to Copper Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidong LIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal water pollution is an important environmental problem now days. Hizikia fusiforme is cultivated in coastal water, being considered as a healthy food. However, little information exists concerning on this species responses to copper stress conditions. Experiments were conducted to distinguish biological adsorption and biological accumulation of H. fusiforme in regard to copper stress; it was determined the long-term stress with lower concentrations of copper (0.25 mg/L and 0.50 mg/L and short-term stress with higher concentrations of copper (1.5 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L on H. fusiforme. Results suggested that H. fusiforme has different response to various copper stresses; lower concentration stress could significantly enhance the growth of H. fusiforme, while H. fusiforme growth was inhibited and mitigated injured by 0.25-0.50 mg/L copper stress. Under the highest stress, H. fusiforme was extremely harmed, the biomass loss was significant and dry weight/fresh weight was also significantly decreased. Results suggested that lower and higher concentrations of copper stress have different impacts on H. fusiforme; the biological adsorption amount is lower than that of biological accumulation amount under low copper stress conditions, but the biological adsorption amount is much higher under high concentration copper stress. A better understanding of H. fusiforme responses to heavy metal stress should bring more data about its physiological adaptation mechanism under such conditions.

  4. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. PMID:26233656

  5. Absorption, accumulation and biological effects of depleted uranium in Peyer's patches of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digestive tract is the entry route for radionuclides following the ingestion of contaminated food and/or water wells. It was recently characterized that the small intestine was the main area of uranium absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract. This study was designed to determine the role played by the Peyer's patches in the intestinal absorption of uranium, as well as the possible accumulation of this radionuclide in lymphoid follicles and the toxicological or pathological consequences on the Peyer's patch function subsequent to the passage and/or accumulation of uranium. Results of experiments performed in Ussing chambers indicate that the apparent permeability to uranium in the intestine was higher (10-fold) in the mucosa than in Peyer's patches ((6.21 ± 1.21 to 0.55 ± 0.35) x 10-6 cm/s, respectively), demonstrating that the small intestinal epithelium was the preferential pathway for the transmucosal passage of uranium. A quantitative analysis of uranium by ICP-MS following chronic contamination with depleted uranium during 3 or 9 months showed a preferential accumulation of uranium in Peyer's patches (1355% and 1266%, respectively, at 3 and 9 months) as compared with epithelium (890% and 747%, respectively, at 3 and 9 months). Uranium was also detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes (∼5-fold after contamination with DU). The biological effects of this accumulation of depleted uranium after chronic contamination were investigated in Peyer's patches. There was no induction of the apoptosis pathway after chronic DU contamination in Peyer's patches. The results indicate no change in the cytokine expression (Il-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1) in Peyer's patches and in mesenteric lymph nodes, and no modification in the uptake of yeast cells by Peyer's patches. In conclusion, this study shows that the Peyer's patches were a site of retention for uranium following the chronic ingestion of this radionuclide, without any biological consequences of such

  6. Accumulation and biological effects of gallium in malignant cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation and biological effects of gallium (Ga) in malignant cells in vitro were studied. Biological effects were investigated cytokinetically and morphologically. The malignant cultured FM3A cells (originated from mammary carcinoma of C3H mice) accumulated 67Ga actively. This accumulation was more intensive in proliferating cells than in non-proliferating cells. 6.5 percent of 67Ga accumulated in the cultured FM3A cells was bound loosely at the cell surface. The colony forming capacity of C2W cells (originated from amelanotic melanoma of C57 Black mice ) was studied. The capacity decreased markedly when stable Ga was added to the medium in low concentration, but it decreased very little more in the range of rather high concentration. The growth response of FM3A cells to various concentrations of stable Ga was studied. The saturation density decreased and the doubling time became prolonged with increased Ga concentration. When 0.5 mM of stable Ga was added to the medium, the speed of proliferation changed markedly. The doubling time increased 1.7 times as compared to that before addition of Ga. The shape of the FM3A cells was usually spheroid in the medium. Swelling of the cells was observed when stable Ga was added to the culture medium. In particular, several per cent of these cells showed remarkable changes; that is, the cells were flattened and adhered to the dish and showed remarkable locomotion. It may be that these results are related to cell differentiation rather than to the cytotoxicity of stable Ga. (auth.)

  7. Biological and physical contributions to the accumulation of strombid gastropods in a Pliocene shell bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geary, D.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Allmon, W.D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Before the evolutionary and ecological information contained in shell beds can be interpreted, the conditions of shell bed formation must be understood. Here the authors investigate the mode and time scale of accumulation of a dense layer of Strombus floridanus in the Pliocene Pinecrest Beds of Florida. They utilize a variety of comparative taphonomic data, including the extent of encrustation and boring on strombid shells of different ontogenetic ages, and on accompanying pelecypods of different ecological types. The taphonomic comparisons enable them to reconstruct more accurately the events of shell bed formation. The formation of the strombid shell layer involved both biological and physical components. The characteristically gregarious behavior of Strombus is reflected in the large number of individuals preserved in this layer. Based on average densities of individuals in strombid colonies today, the authors estimate that a time period of tens to hundreds of years was required to accumulate these fossils. Repeated sediment winnowing by storms, followed by rapid reburial in a regime of at least episodically high sedimentation rates, is the most likely mechanism of accumulation, and accounts for the observed patterns of encrustation and boring on the shells of Strombus and various associated pelecypods. The origin of Florida's Plio-Pleistocene shelly sands is poorly understood; analysis of this bed may provide a working model for future taphonomic studies.

  8. Stabilization of Desert Surfaces and Accumulation of Dust Under Biological Soil Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, K. M.; Mcnicol, G.; Pfeiffer, M.; Amundson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) are known to play a critical role in the stabilization of desert surfaces by helping to protect sediment from wind and water erosion and aiding in the trapping of airborne particles. The crusts are often composed of cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi, and occupy the upper few cm of a soil. Due to their high tolerance of desiccation and ability to utilize fog and dew sources, BSC are able to exist in environments that may otherwise be too dry for vascular plants. In the hyperarid Atacama Desert, decades or more between measurable precipitation events has created a landscape devoid of macroscopic life. While precipitation is rare, coastal fog occurs regularly and microbial communities capable of utilizing fog and dew water are able to persist. Here we found cyanobacteria and lichen living in association with a thin sulfate and dust crust (~2 cm) covering the surface of 'dust plateaus'. Topographically the region is highly irregular and part of a largely erosional landscape. We hypothesized that these flat-topped plateaus are accretionary features that have been able to maintain dust accumulation for thousands of years as a result of the surface crusts. To test this hypothesis we conducted radiocarbon analysis of crusts and soil profiles at two sites approximately 30 km apart, one in a high fog zone and another in lower fog frequency zone. The radiocarbon analysis shows that sediment has been accumulating in the 'plateaus' for the past 15,000 years and that biological activity and rates of C cycling in the crust increase with increasing fog frequency and intensity. The ages of organic material in the dust decrease monotonically with decreasing soil thickness, suggestive of progressive upward growth by dust accumulation. Our data indicate that the BSC are capable of surviving in hyperarid the Atacama Desert, a Mars analogue, through the utilization of fog water, and that their presence can leave a visible geomorphic imprint on the landscape.

  9. Monitoring intracellular polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems by quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Carvalheira, Mónica; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2014-01-01

    A rapid methodology for intracellular storage polyphosphate (poly-P) identification and monitoring in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is proposed based on quantitative image analysis (QIA). In EBPR systems, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is usually combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate the microbial community. The proposed monitoring technique is based on a QIA procedure specifically developed for determining poly-P inclusions within a biomass suspension using solely DAPI by epifluorescence microscopy. Due to contradictory literature regarding DAPI concentrations used for poly-P detection, the present work assessed the optimal DAPI concentration for samples acquired at the end of the EBPR aerobic stage when the accumulation occurred. Digital images were then acquired and processed by means of image processing and analysis. A correlation was found between average poly-P intensity values and the analytical determination. The proposed methodology can be seen as a promising alternative procedure for quantifying intracellular poly-P accumulation in a faster and less labour-intensive way. PMID:24901627

  10. Uranium accumulation in mixed-liquor suspended solids during biological wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of uranium by mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) has been of growing interest to regulatory officials and governmental agencies which process radioactive materials, especially in light of more stringent environmental standards and increasing liability concerns. Uranium uptake by MLSS can be significant, potentially creating a problem for disposal of the waste activated sludge. The goal of this research was to determine bioconcentration factors under different wastewater treatment operating conditions using continuous flow, stirred tank reactors with recycle. Wastewater, consisting of approximately 95% domestic sewage and 5% industrial waste which contained trace amounts of uranium, was used to study uranium build-up by the MLSS. A total of six biological reactors were included in the study, with three reactors operated at 20C and three reactors operated at 5C. Sludge ages of ∼ 5, 15, and 20 days were established in the reactors at the two operating temperatures. Uranium accumulation by the sludge solids was evaluated under different temperatures and sludge ages. Mixed-liquor samples were collected and separated into solid and supernatant fractions by centrifugation before uranium analysis. Uranium (both total and U235) was sequestered by the MLSS from the subject wastewater in all reactors during the study. Uranium uptake capacities ranged from 5-30μg/g dry solids, and distribution coefficients ranged from approximately 1,300 to 5,800 cm3/g . Due to higher than optimum pH and extremely low uranium concentration gradients, the observed specific uranium uptake capacities were much lower than those reported in the literature for laboratory biosorption experiments conducted at optimum pH values and large uranium concentration gradients. Total suspended solids concentration and sludge age influenced the specific uranium uptake as well as the total uranium sorbed

  11. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater...

  12. Cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumula-tion under water stress in Vicia faba leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大鹏; 何芳莲; 贾文锁

    2001-01-01

    Water stress-induced ABA accumulation is a cellular signaling process from water stress perception to activation of genes encoding key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, of which the water stress-signal perception by cells or triggering mechanism of the ABA accumulation is the center in the whole process of ABA related-stress signaling in plants. The cell biological mechanism for triggering of ABA accumulation under water stress was studied in leaves of Vicia faba. Mannitol at 890 mmol· kg-1 osmotic concentration induced an increase of more than 5 times in ABA concentra-tion in detached leaf tissues, but the same concentration of mannitol only induced an increase of less than 40 % in ABA concentration in protoplasts. Like in detached leaf tissues, ABA concentra-tion in isolated cells increased more than 10 times under the treatment of mannitol at 890 mmol·kg-1 concentration, suggesting that the interaction between plasmalemma and cell wall was essential to triggering of the water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Neither Ca2+-che- lating agent EGTA nor Ca2+ channel activator A23187 nor the two cytoskeleton inhibitors, colchicine and cyto-chalasin B, had any effect on water stress-induced ABA accumulation. Interestingly water stress-induced ABA accumulation was effectively inhibited by a non-plasmalemma-perme- able sulfhy-dryl-modifier PCMBS (p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonic acid), suggesting that plasmalemma pro-tein(s) may be involved in the triggering of water stress-induced ABA accumulation, and the protein may contain sulfhydryl group at its function domain.

  13. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO4-), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata

  14. Effects of pollutant accumulation by the invasive weed saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Mary A. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: mary.sorensen@ucr.edu; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Hydroponic greenhouse studies were used to investigate the effect of four anthropogenic pollutants (perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI))) on the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata Brulle. Contaminant concentrations were quantified for experimental Tamarix ramosissima Ledab. plants and D. elongata beetles. Growth of larvae was significantly reduced by Se contamination, but was not affected by the presence of perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI). All of the contaminants were transferred from plants to D. elongata beetles. Only Cr (VI) was accumulated at greater levels in beetles than in their food. Because T. ramosissima grows in disturbed areas, acquires salts readily, and utilizes groundwater, this plant is likely to accumulate anthropogenic pollutants in contaminated areas. This study is one of the first to investigate the potential of an anthropogenic pollutant to influence a weed biological control system. - The presence of Se, but not perchlorate, Mn, or Cr (VI), in foliage of the invasive weed saltcedar was shown to reduce growth of the biological control agent Diorhabda elongata.

  15. Using ANN to predict E. coli accumulation in coves based on interaction amongst various physical, chemical and biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, D.; Mohanty, B. P.; Lesikar, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    The accumulation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in canals, coves and streams is the result of a number of interacting processes operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Fate and transport of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by different physical, chemical, and biological processes. Various models developed to quantify each of these processes occurring at different scales are not so far pooled into a single predictive model. At present, very little is known about the fate and transport of E. coli in the environment. We hypothesize that E. coli population heterogeneity in canals and coves is affected by physical factors (average stream width and/ depth, secchi depth, flow and flow severity, day since precipitation, aquatic vegetation, solar radiation, dissolved and total suspended solids etc.); chemical factors (basic water quality, nutrients, organic compounds, pH, and toxicity etc.); and biological factors (type of bacterial strain, predation, and antagonism etc.). The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the interactions between E. coli and various coupled physical, chemical and biological factors; (2) examine the interactions between E. coli and toxic organic pollutants and other pathogens (viruses); and (3) evaluate qualitatively the removal efficiency of E. coli. We suggest that artificial neural networks (ANN) may be used to provide a possible solution to this problem. To demonstrate the application of the approach, we develop an ANN representing E. coli accumulation in two polluted sites at Lake Granbury in the upper part of the Brazos River in North Central Texas. The graphical structure of ANN explicitly represents cause- and-effect relationship between system variables. Each of these relationships can then be quantified independently using an approach suitable for the type and scale of information available. Preliminary results revealed that E. coli concentrations in canals show seasonal variations regardless of change

  16. Biology of PrPsc accumulation in two natural scrapie-infected sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplazi, Patrick; O'Rourke, Katherine; Wolf, Cynthia; Shaw, Daniel; Baszler, Timothy V

    2004-11-01

    Sheep scrapie is a prion disease that requires interaction of exogenous prions with host prion protein (PrP) supporting prion formation. Disease is associated with deposition of a host-generated conformational variant of PrP, PrPsc, in a variety of tissues, including brain, resulting in fatal spongiform encephalopathy. Efficiency of PrPsc formation is determined by polymorphisms in the PrP-coding sequence. This article adds to previous data of natural sheep scrapie, concentrating on the effect of host genotype and age on PrPsc accumulation patterns during preclinical and clinical disease. Two entire scrapie-infected, predominantly Suffolk-cross, sheep flocks euthanized for regulatory purposes were genotyped and analyzed for PrPsc deposition in various tissues using single- and dual-label immunohistochemistry. Scrapie, as defined by PrPsc deposition, occurred in 13/80 sheep. Preclinical disease was evident in nearly 70% of infected sheep, ranging in age from 14 months to 7 years. PrPsc accumulated systemically in the nervous tissue, various lymphoid tissues, both alimentary tract related and non-alimentary tract related, and the placenta. Clinical neurological illness was always associated with spongiform encephalopathy and PrPsc deposition in the brain. Only 6 of 9 sheep with preclinical scrapie had PrPsc deposition in the brain but widespread PrPsc deposition in peripheral lymphoid tissue, supporting previous data showing peripheral PrPsc accumulation preceding deposition in the brain. PrPsc colocalized with a marker for follicular dendritic cells throughout the lymphoid system. PrPsc also accumulated in the peripheral nervous system, particularly the nervous supply of the gastrointestinal tract. Abundant PrPsc was evident in trophoblast cells of placentomes but not in the endometrium, myometrium, or associated nervous plexus. PrPsc deposits were not observed in the mammary parenchyma or bone marrow. Scrapie susceptibility was defined genetically by PrP codon 171

  17. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.;

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency. In this...... study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after the...... exposure, glyphosate was continuously translocated. Shikimic acid levels were lin-ear correlated with glyphosate levels. After two months, however, glyphosate appeared to have reduced activity. In the greenhouse, multiple applications resulted in higher internal glyphosate concentrations.The time of...

  18. Accumulation and biological cycling of heavy metal in four salt marsh species, from Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pools of Zn, Cu, Cd and Co in leaf, stem and root tissues of Sarcocornia fruticosa, Sarcocornia perennis, Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima were analyzed on a bimonthly basis, in a Tagus estuary salt marsh. All the major concentrations were found in the root tissues, being the concentrations in the aboveground organs neglectable for sediment budget proposes, as seen by the low root-aboveground translocation. Metal annual accumulation, root turnovers and cycling coefficients were also assessed. S. maritima showed the higher root turnovers and cycling coefficients for most of the analyzed metals, making this a phytostabilizer specie. By contrast the low root turnover, cycling coefficient and low root necromass generation makes S. perennis the most suitable specie for phytoremediation processes. Although the high amounts of metal return to the sediments, due to root senescence, salt marshes can still be considered sinks of heavy metals, cycling heavy metals mostly between sediment and root. - The efficiency of the phytoremediative processes and metal budgets are greatly influenced by the turnover periods and necromass generation.

  19. The accumulation of 137Cs in the biological compartment of forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples were collected in various forest stands, located about 40 km north-west from Uppsala. The various stands were: (1) Clear cut area made in 1987, (2) Normal forest with 50-100 old Norway spruce and Scots pine and with a thick humic layer of about 10 cm; (3) Raised bog with 50-year-old Scots pine and Sphagnum moss layer over peat soil. (4) Rocky area with old Scots pine, growing on a shallow soil, mainly of organic origin. (5) Normal forest with nearly 100-year-old spruce and pine, growing a shallow humic layer over sandy soil. Soil blocks of about 20x20 cm and down to a depth of 10-15 cm were collected on each site. The soil samples were mechanically separated into various fractions: bulk, rhizosphere and soil-root interface. The results showed that 137Cs was unevenly distributed between the three soil fractions. The highest activity concentrations -- 3-4 times higher than in the other two fractions -- as well as the highest organic content -- usually more than 95% -- were found in the soil-root interface fraction. Of the total 137Cs activity in the soil, 18% as a mean value was found in the soil-root interface fraction. The results thus show that a substantial fraction of the 137Cs in the soils in some way associated with the biological part of the soil, probably with the fungal component

  20. Systems biology and metabolic modelling unveils limitations to polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in sugarcane leaves; lessons for C4 engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQualter, Richard B; Bellasio, Chandra; Gebbie, Leigh K; Petrasovits, Lars A; Palfreyman, Robin W; Hodson, Mark P; Plan, Manuel R; Blackman, Deborah M; Brumbley, Stevens M; Nielsen, Lars K

    2016-02-01

    In planta production of the bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one important way in which plant biotechnology can address environmental problems and emerging issues related to peak oil. However, high biomass C4 plants such as maize, switch grass and sugarcane develop adverse phenotypes including stunting, chlorosis and reduced biomass as PHB levels in leaves increase. In this study, we explore limitations to PHB accumulation in sugarcane chloroplasts using a systems biology approach, coupled with a metabolic model of C4 photosynthesis. Decreased assimilation was evident in high PHB-producing sugarcane plants, which also showed a dramatic decrease in sucrose and starch content of leaves. A subtle decrease in the C/N ratio was found which was not associated with a decrease in total protein content. An increase in amino acids used for nitrogen recapture was also observed. Based on the accumulation of substrates of ATP-dependent reactions, we hypothesized ATP starvation in bundle sheath chloroplasts. This was supported by mRNA differential expression patterns. The disruption in ATP supply in bundle sheath cells appears to be linked to the physical presence of the PHB polymer which may disrupt photosynthesis by scattering photosynthetically active radiation and/or physically disrupting thylakoid membranes. PMID:26015295

  1. Biological accumulations in archaeological sites: Amalda VII and Esquilleu III-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yravedra Sainz de los Terreros, José

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithic and bone associations from Paleolithic sites are usually assumed to be episodes of human activity when taphonomic studies are not carried out. Nevertheless, such concentrations are occasionally caused by diverse agents. Here we present the study carried out on the bone assemblage of goat and chamois of the Palaeolithic sites of the level VII of Amalda Cave (Zestoa, Guipuzcoa and the III and IV of the Esquilleu Cave (Castro Cillorigo, Cantabria which are the result of a biological contribution by carnivores and not by humans. After each site is analysed and compared we can suggest which carnivore type produced these bone assemblages and propose some traits about carnivore behaviour observed in these assemblages.

    Es frecuente que las asociaciones líticas y óseas de los yacimientos paleolíticos sean asociadas con episodios de actividad antrópica, en los que es el ser humano fuera el principal responsable de dichas acumulaciones óseas. Sin embargo, en numerosas ocasiones tales concentraciones obedecen a procesos diferentes ocasionados por agentes diversos. En este caso, se dan argumentos que muestran como los restos osteológicos de Capra pyrenaica y Rupicapra rupicapra de los yacimientos paleolíticos del nivel VII de la cueva Amalda (Zestoa, Guipúzcoa y los III y IV de la cueva del Esquilleu (Castro Cillorigo, Cantabria, responden a un aporte biológico no humano.
    Tras ver esto, se comparan las evidencias presentadas en cada yacimiento con la información publicada sobre el comportamiento de los diferentes carnívoros, con el fin de diferenciar qué carnívoro es el responsable de las concentraciones óseas de cada yacimiento, para tratar de proponer al final del trabajo algunos rasgos diferenciales del comportamiento de los carnívoros sobre sus acumulaciones óseas.

  2. Ecological and biological determinants of trace elements accumulation in liver and kidney of Pontoporia blainvillei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work tested whether ecological and biological variables have an influence on the assimilation of trace elements by the tissues of a cetacean from the Western South Atlantic Ocean. No significant differences were observed in the concentrations for both sexes. As individuals from the two sampling areas belong to distinct genetic and morphological populations, animals of similar body length were older on the southeastern than on the southern coast. The liver showed the highest concentrations of mercury, whereas the highest levels of cadmium were found in the kidney. Hepatic mercury, cadmium and selenium in individuals from the south coast were about four times as high as those from the southeast coast. However, arsenic in the liver and kidney were similar in both coastal areas. Hepatic mercury, cadmium and selenium concentrations increased with body length in individuals from the southeastern coast, although no significant correlations (P > 0.05) were observed between body length from either area and the renal and hepatic As concentrations. A significant positive linear relationship was observed between molar concentrations of Hg and Se in the liver of all individuals from both areas (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.001), presenting Se:Hg ratios close to 4. Differences found among the concentrations of Hg, Cd and Se in dolphins from both areas were probably due to the preferred prey, bioavailability of elements in each marine environment, and environment variables (water temperature, net primary production). As a consequence, concentrations of trace elements in the tissues of this species can be considered to be a result of the surrounding environment

  3. Accumulation of radioactivity in mushrooms and its relation with the mycophagous rodents biology in an Abies religiosa forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays the society expresses its concern by the action of the nuclear energy with respect to installations safety, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive waste management, nuclear accidents and nuclear tests. The concern is based to the fear of radioactive explosion which contaminates the environment and the damages to the public health. The mathematical models which establish and define the behavior and the exposure conditions of radioactive substances in the human beings as well as the systematic deposit in the terrestrial surface of the particles suspended in the air which contain radioactive material are called fallout, that is a contamination indicator. The objective of this work is to identify the little rodents species with greater accumulation of radionuclides of artificial origin. Due to the mushrooms are good bio indicators of radioactive contamination and the rodents consume them often, both are of greater assistance as indicators of this type of contamination and contribute to the knowledge of the 137 Cs and 40 K dynamics at the forest system. This work forms part of the environmental radiological surveillance of the Mexican Nuclear Center (CNM) in which are analysed several samples which will be used as biological indicators of radioactive contamination which serve for the transfer coefficient calculations of the different routes by which the radiation can to arrive to the human being, being able to be evaluated the dose to the people who live at the CNM surrounding area. Due to not always it is possible to detect so lowest levels of radioactivity in some environmental samples (air, water and, foods) it is necessary to quantify them in other animals or plants which accumulate them. (Author)

  4. "Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis": A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis". Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  5. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J.; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis”. Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  6. Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-02-01

    Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO₂-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite. PMID:23771179

  7. In situ identification of polyphosphate- and polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating traits for microbial populations in a biological phosphorus removal process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.-T.; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Wu, JH;

    2001-01-01

    Polyphosphate- and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)- accumulating traits of predominant microorganisms in an efficient enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process were investigated systematically using a suite of non-culture-dependent methods. Results of 16S rDNA clone library and fluorescence......, electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was used to validate the staining specificity of 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for intracellular polyphosphate and revealed the composition of polyphosphate granules accumulated in predominant bacteria as mostly P, Ca and Na. As a result, DAPI...... and PHA staining procedures could be combined with FISH to identify directly the polyphosphate- and PHA-accumulating traits of different phylogenetic groups. Members of Accumulibacter phosphatis and the novel gamma-proteobacterial group were observed to accumulate both polyphosphate and PHA. In addition...

  8. Data Mining in the Molecular Biology Era — A Study Directed to Carbohydrates Biosynthesis and Accumulation in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vicentini, Renato; Menossi, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The immensity of the information explosion in biology presents the challenge of how these data sets will be organized and mined in standard and easily accessible forms. To successfully iterate through the cycle described in Fig. 1, we need high-quality quantitative data and a flexible software platform that integrates arbitrary data types and that is coupled to data visualization and analysis tools. It will allow scientists to study and understand biological dynamics, to create a detailed mod...

  9. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs. PMID:27026539

  10. Influence of nitrite accumulation on "Candidatus Accumulibacter" population structure and enhanced biological phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Wang, Xiangdong; Bai, Xinlong; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-02-01

    A modified University of Cape Town (MUCT) process was used to treat real municipal wastewater with low carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). To our knowledge, this is the first study where the influence of nitrite accumulation on "Candidatus Accumulibacter" clade-level population structure was investigated during nitritation establishment and destruction. Real time quantitative PCR assays were conducted using the polyphosphate kinase 1 gene (ppk1) as a genetic marker. Abundances of total "Candidatus Accumulibacter", the relative distributions and population structure of the five "Candidatus Accumulibacter" clades were characterized. Under complete nitrification, clade I using nitrate as electron acceptor was below 5% of total "Candidatus Accumulibacter". When the reactor was transformed into nitritation, clade I gradually disappeared. Clade IID using nitrite as electron acceptor for denitrifying phosphorus (P) removal was always the dominant "Candidatus Accumulibacter" throughout the operational period. This clade was above 90% on average in total "Candidatus Accumulibacter", even up to nearly 100%, which was associated with good performance of denitrifying P removal via nitrite pathway. The nitrite concentrations affected the abundance of clade IID. The P removal was mainly completed by anoxic P uptake of about 88%. The P removal efficiency clearly had a positive correlation with the nitrite accumulation ratio. Under nitritation, the P removal efficiency was 30% higher than that under complete nitrification, suggesting that nitrite was appropriate as electron acceptor for denitrifying P removal when treating carbon-limited wastewater. PMID:26439519

  11. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of biological tissues: contribution to the study of trace element accumulation as a function of aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of trace elements in various organs as a function of age was studied in rats, in connection with tissue aging phenomena. Part one reviews the various methods available to develop a programme of simultaneous multi-element analysis in biological matrices. Part two studies the precision and accuracy offered by neutron activation analysis. Special attention is paid to the problem of sample contamination by the silica glass irradiation supports. The possible causes of this effect are mentioned and a procedure limiting its harmful influence is proposed. Part three defines the restrictions introduced by the use of a method to separate the activable matrix. The fourth and last chapter describes the development of a multielement chemical separation system, designed to work semi-automatically for the simultaneous treatment of three samples and a standard in a shielded cell of small dimensions. The principles of a multi-comparator calibration where a knowledge of certain conventional but imprecise nuclear data is unnecessary owing to an experimental expedient are outlined briefly. Finally the separation method is tried out on various biological samples, including a reference (bovine liver SRM1577-NBS), and some results are given

  12. Resource accumulation and biological characteristics of Solanum nigrum L. in Qinghai Province%青海省龙葵生物学特性及资源储量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏旭; 刘玉萍; 吴学明

    2012-01-01

    Solarium nigrum L. Is a kind of important medical plant in Qing-Tibet Plateau and the whole plant could be used as medicine. It abundantly contains several kinds of alkaloids including biological alkaline, solanine, solaso-nine, etc. They have pharmacological effects on antiinflammation, antitussive and expectorant, leavening concentration of blood sugar and adjusting excitability of the central nervous system and so on. Meanwhile, the fruit of Sola-rum nigrum L. Have abundant nutritious components consisting of fructose, minerals, manifold amino acids, etc. But the resource of wild plant decreases markedly because of excessively exploration and execrable natural environmental conditions in Qing-Tibet Plateau, which is detrimental to ecological environmental protection of Qing-Tibet Plateau and sustainable utilization and exploitation of medical plants. In this paper, the biological characteristics, populated botanical characteristics, community and quantity characteristics and resource accumulation of Solarium nigrum L. In Qinghai Province were investigated by the method of pointing field, the least sample and statistics. Furthermore , the resource accumulation of it was calculated.%龙葵是青藏高原一种重要的野生药用植物,全草入药,富含生物甙、龙葵碱、澳洲茄碱等多种生物碱,具有抗炎、镇咳祛痰、影响血糖浓度以及调节中枢神经系统兴奋性等药理作用.同时,龙葵果营养成分丰富,富含果糖、矿物质和多种氨基酸等.但由于青藏高原自然环境条件恶劣,加之近年来对野生植物资源的过度开采,使得该野生植物资源量呈显著下降趋势,这对于青藏高原的生态环境保护及药用植物的开发利用都是不利的.文章采用野外定点法、最小样方法和统计学方法分别对青海省龙葵的植物学特性、群落数量特征和资源量进行了研究,并计算出龙葵的资源储量.

  13. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  14. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  15. Evaluation of nitrite accumulation in biological treatment systems, aiming at shortcut denitrification - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.10798

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Hossaka; Fernando Fernandes; Sandra Márcia Cesário Pereira da Silva; Deize Dias Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Biological treatment of landfill leachate faces some difficulties by influence of some physical and chemical characteristics of this sort of effluent, which usually presents high levels of nitrogen – mainly ammonia nitrogen. High concentrations of ammonia nitrogen restrain biodegradation, requiring the nitrogen removal along with landfill leachate treatment in these cases. This work evaluated the nitrite formation in a pilot-scale biological treatment system applied to landfill leachate, aimi...

  16. Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Microthrix parvicella" Bio17-1, a Long-Chain-Fatty-Acid-Accumulating Filamentous Actinobacterium from a Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Emilie; Pinel, Nicolás; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James M.; Lance B Price; Engelthaler, David M.; Levantesi, Caterina; Tandoi, Valter; Luong, Kkai; Baliga, Nitin S.; Korlach, Jonas; Keim, Paul S.; Wilmes, Paul

    2012-01-01

    “Candidatus Microthrix” bacteria are deeply branching filamentous actinobacteria which occur at the water-air interface of biological wastewater treatment plants, where they are often responsible for foaming and bulking. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of a strain from this genus: “Candidatus Microthrix parvicella” strain Bio17-1.

  17. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  18. A synthetic gene increases TGFβ3 accumulation by 75-fold in tobacco chloroplasts enabling rapid purification and folding into a biologically active molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisby, Martin F; Mellors, Philip; Madesis, Panagiotis; Ellin, Marianne; Laverty, Hugh; O'Kane, Sharon; Ferguson, Mark W J; Day, Anil

    2011-06-01

    Human transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3) is a new therapeutic protein used to reduce scarring during wound healing. The active molecule is a nonglycosylated, homodimer comprised of 13-kDa polypeptide chains linked by disulphide bonds. Expression of recombinant human TGFβ3 in chloroplasts and its subsequent purification would provide a sustainable source of TGFβ3 free of animal pathogens. A synthetic sequence (33% GC) containing frequent chloroplast codons raised accumulation of the 13-kDa TGFβ3 polypeptide by 75-fold compared to the native coding region (56% GC) when expressed in tobacco chloroplasts. The 13-kDa TGFβ3 monomer band was more intense than the RuBisCO 15-kDa small subunit on Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels. TGFβ3 accumulated in insoluble aggregates and was stable in leaves of different ages but was not detected in seeds. TGFβ3 represented 12% of leaf protein and appeared as monomer, dimer and trimer bands on Western blots of SDS-PAGE gels. High yield and insolubility facilitated initial purification and refolding of the 13-kDa polypeptide into the TGFβ3 homodimer recognized by a conformation-dependent monoclonal antibody. The TGFβ3 homodimer and trace amounts of monomer were the only bands visible on silver-stained gels following purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. N-terminal sequencing and electronspray ionization mass spectrometry showed the removal of the initiator methionine and physical equivalence of the chloroplast-produced homodimer to standard TGFβ3. Functional equivalence was demonstrated by near-identical dose-response curves showing the inhibition of mink lung epithelial cell proliferation. We conclude that chloroplasts are an attractive production platform for synthesizing recombinant human TGFβ3. PMID:21535357

  19. Evaluation of nitrite accumulation in biological treatment systems, aiming at shortcut denitrification - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.10798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Hossaka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological treatment of landfill leachate faces some difficulties by influence of some physical and chemical characteristics of this sort of effluent, which usually presents high levels of nitrogen – mainly ammonia nitrogen. High concentrations of ammonia nitrogen restrain biodegradation, requiring the nitrogen removal along with landfill leachate treatment in these cases. This work evaluated the nitrite formation in a pilot-scale biological treatment system applied to landfill leachate, aiming at posterior nitrogen removal by shortcut denitrification. Two pilot-scale units (250 L aeration tanks were monitored simultaneously for 100 days. HRT in both cases was 5 days. Leachate applied on this experimental device was collected in a solid waste landfill in the city of Londrina, Paraná State. That landfill is active since 1972. In the operational conditions observed during this experiment, most of nitrogen removal occurred by ammonia volatilization. Anyway, nitrite formation was obtained in the pilot-scale units and nitrate remained at low levels. 

  20. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  1. 生物除磷系统中聚磷菌检测常用技术%Commonly Used Technologies for Detecting Phosphate Accumulating Organisms in Biological Phosphorus Removal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丹华; 李勇; 张娜

    2013-01-01

    As the main functional bacteria in biological phosphorus removal system, it was an inevitable trend to have a qualitative and quantitative analysis for phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in order to deeply understand the biological phosphorus removal system and improve phosphorus removal efficiency. Mainly used methods for detecting PAOs include chemical and molecular biological technologies. Characteristics and applications of technologies such as fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), degeneration gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and combined technologies used in detecting PAOs were reviewed. Some improvement measures and future direction for PAOs detecting technologies were also offered.%作为生物除磷系统中的主要功能菌,对聚磷菌菌群进行定性、定量分析是深入理解生物除磷系统、提高除磷效率的必然趋势.目前常用于检测聚磷菌的方法主要有生物化学法和分子生物学法,文章主要阐述了荧光原位杂交技术、聚合酶链反应技术、变性梯度凝胶电泳技术以及多技术结合使用的特点及应用情况,并在此基础上提出了改进措施以及聚磷菌检测技术的发展方向.

  2. Accumulation of radioactivity in mushrooms and its relation with the mycophagous rodents biology in an Abies religiosa forest; Acumulacion de radiactividad en hongos y su relacion con la biologia de roedores micofagos en un bosque de Abies religiosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela G, V.H

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays the society expresses its concern by the action of the nuclear energy with respect to installations safety, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive waste management, nuclear accidents and nuclear tests. The concern is based to the fear of radioactive explosion which contaminates the environment and the damages to the public health. The mathematical models which establish and define the behavior and the exposure conditions of radioactive substances in the human beings as well as the systematic deposit in the terrestrial surface of the particles suspended in the air which contain radioactive material are called fallout, that is a contamination indicator. The objective of this work is to identify the little rodents species with greater accumulation of radionuclides of artificial origin. Due to the mushrooms are good bio indicators of radioactive contamination and the rodents consume them often, both are of greater assistance as indicators of this type of contamination and contribute to the knowledge of the {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40} K dynamics at the forest system. This work forms part of the environmental radiological surveillance of the Mexican Nuclear Center (CNM) in which are analysed several samples which will be used as biological indicators of radioactive contamination which serve for the transfer coefficient calculations of the different routes by which the radiation can to arrive to the human being, being able to be evaluated the dose to the people who live at the CNM surrounding area. Due to not always it is possible to detect so lowest levels of radioactivity in some environmental samples (air, water and, foods) it is necessary to quantify them in other animals or plants which accumulate them. (Author)

  3. 青海省野薄荷生物学特性及资源储量的研究%Studies on Resource Accumulation and Biological Characteristics of Mentha haplocalyx in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉萍; 苏旭

    2011-01-01

    Mentha haplocalyx Briq.is a kind of rare wild medical plant in Qing-Tibet Plateau.The whole plant is the medicine.Thereinto, the volatile oil contained in the overground part has the very important economic and medical value.Meanwhile, it has the long florescence, abundant honey,strongly attrahent bees, green plants, spicy smell and so on, so it is a kind of better honey and flowering plants.But the resource of wild plant decreases markedly because of excessively exploration.That is detrimental to ecological environmental protection of Qing-Tibet Plateau and sustainable utilization and exploitation of medical plant.This article, applying the method of the pointing field, the least sample and statistics, studied biological characteristics, respectively populated botanical characteristics, community and quantity characteristics and resource accumulation of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.in Qinghai Province, and calculated resource accumulation of it.It provided scientific basis for utilization and exploitation of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.in Qinghai province.%野薄荷是青藏高原特有的野生药用植物,全草可以入药,其中地上部分所含的挥发油具有十分重要的经济价值和药用价值.同时,野薄荷由于花期长、泌蜜丰富、诱蜂力强、以及气香株色绿和宿根草本等原因,故也是一种较好的蜜源和花卉植物.但由于过渡开采,使得该野生植物资源量呈显著下降趋势,这对于青藏高原的生态环境保护及药用植物的开发利用都是不利的.采用野外定点法、最小样方法和统计学方法分别对青海省野薄荷的植物学特性、群落数量特征和资源量进行研究,并计算野薄荷的资源储量,旨在为青海省野薄荷资源的保护和合理开发利用提供科学依据.

  4. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  5. The Competition between Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms and Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms: Temperature Effects and Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to suffer of upsets and deterioration. Since glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) compete with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), which are the microorganisms that perform the biological phosp...

  6. Using the activated sludge model 2d (ASM2d) to understand and predict the phosphorus accumulating organisms mechanism in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in relation to disintegrated sludge as a carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Boontian, Nittaya

    2012-01-01

    Carbon sources are considered as one of the most important factors in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Disintegrated sludge (DS) can act as carbon source to increase the efficiency of EBPR. This research explores the influence of DS upon phosphorus removal efficiency using mathematical simulation modeling. Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) is one of the most useful of activated sludge (AS) models. This is because ASM2d can express the integrated mechanisms...

  7. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  8. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  9. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  10. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  11. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (108 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  12. Information Accumulation in Development

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We propose a model in which economic relations and institutions in advanced and less developed countires differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developped economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of managers, and leads to high "agency costs". Differencies in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate inf...

  13. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmar S Kühl; Kalan, Ammie K.; Mimi Arandjelovic; Floris Aubert; Lucy D’Auvergne; Annemarie Goedmakers; Sorrel Jones; Laura Kehoe; Sebastien Regnaut; Alexander Tickle; Els Ton; Joost van Schijndel; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Samuel Angedakin; Anthony Agbor

    2016-01-01

    The authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme. The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behav...

  14. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  15. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  16. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  17. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  18. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  19. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  20. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  1. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  2. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  3. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  4. Influence of mercury accumulation on fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokholyan, V.K.; Akhmedov, A.M.; Akhmedova, T.P.; Shleyfer, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Questions of the accumulation and distribution of mercury in the organs and tissues of different species of fish were examined in relation to the influence of mercury on survival, physiological and biochemical indices of the blood and brain. In the sturgeon and the roach, mercury accumulated primarily in the kidneys, liver, spleen and gills. The uneven distribution is evidently due to differentiation and differences in the degree of intensity of the metabolic processes of the cells in the organs and tissues, and the physico-chemical mechanism of the interaction of mercury with the biological structure is also important. There are substantial changes in the composition of the blood as a result of intoxication. In the sturgeon and roach a drop is noted in erythrocytes, hemoglobin and leukocytes and qualitative changes in the red blood cells also occur. Deviations were also noted in the correlation of individual forms of leukocytes. These changes are evidently provoked both by the direct presence of mercury in the blood stream and by its disruption of the functions of the hematopoetic organs. Mercury poisoning leads to disruption of the nitrogen metabolism of the brain of the fish. With the accumulation of mercury in fish to a certain critical level, the metabolic processes are inhibited or altered and the defense functions of the blood are weakened. 17 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  6. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  7. Oligopoly banking and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto

    2000-01-01

    We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...

  8. Cystathionine accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, B; Suruga, T; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Murata, K; Kimura, A; Shinoda, S; Ohmori, S.

    1984-01-01

    A cysteine-dependent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its prototrophic revertants accumulated cystathionine in cells. The cystathionine accumulation was caused by a single mutation having a high incidence of gene conversion. The mutation was designated cys3 and was shown to cause loss of gamma-cystathionase activity. Cysteine dependence of the initial strain was determined by two linked and interacting mutations, cys3 and cys1 . Since cys1 mutations cause a loss of serine acetyltransfer...

  9. Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vardanyan, L.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    Aquatic macrophytes are unchangeable biological filters and they carry out purification of the water bodies by accumulating dissolved metals and toxins in their tissue. In view of their potential to entrap several toxic heavy metsls, 45 macrophytes...

  10. Accumulation of mercury in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In model experiments the direct uptake (excluding the food chain) of different dissolved mercury compounds by female species of Poecilia reticulata was investigated using the radiochemical tracer method. Hg-203 labelled Hg(NO3)2 and CH3HgCl were dissolved in deionized water resulting in concentrations of 0.1/1/5/10 and 20 ng Hg/ml H2O. The fish were measured in vivo using a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) well-type-detector. The experiments showed, that the accumulation rate (ng Hg/g/sub fi/. d) depends very much on the chemical form and the concentration of the dissolved Hg-compound. The accumulation in a CH3HgCl-solution is about four times as fast as in a Hg(NO3)2- solution. In the presence of complexing agents the accumulation rates decrease whereas the accumulation rates increase with increasing Hg-concentration in the water. The release of incorporated methylmercury has a half life of about 69 days. For inorganic mercury a two step mechanism has been found with half lives of 4 days and 68 days, respectively. The relative amount of mercury released in the second step increases with increasing time of incorporation. This indicates the methylation of inorganic mercury in the fish

  11. Pension funds and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Belan, Pascal; Michel, Philippe; Wigniolle, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    This note presents a model in which pension funds, by holding a signifiant share of capital assets, can exert a non competitive behavior on labor market. This leads to lower wages and higher capital returns, and can reduce capital accumulation and Long-run welfare.

  12. The new biology: beyond the Modern Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley Todd H; Rose Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The last third of the 20th Century featured an accumulation of research findings that severely challenged the assumptions of the "Modern Synthesis" which provided the foundations for most biological research during that century. The foundations of that "Modernist" biology had thus largely crumbled by the start of the 21st Century. This in turn raises the question of foundations for biology in the 21st Century. Conclusion Like the physical sciences in the first half of the ...

  13. Mutation accumulation and the catastrophic senescence of Pacific salmon

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, T J P; Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1995-01-01

    The bit-string model of biological aging is used to simulate the catastrophic senescence of Pacific Salmon. We have shown that reproduction occuring only once and at a fixed age is the only ingredient needed to explain the catastrophic senescence according the mutation accumulation theory. Several results are presented, some of them with up to 10^8 fishes, showing how the survival rates in catastrophic senescence are affected by changes in the parameters of the model.

  14. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  15. Study on accumulation mechanism for heavy metal in hyper-accumulating plants by synchrotron radiation x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some plants accumulate heavy metal elements such as As, Cd, and Pb, etc., and these plants have been focused on from the perspective of their application to phytoremediation. In order to understand the accumulation mechanism, the distribution and the chemical form of heavy metal should be revealed at cellular level. Here, we have introduced the recent works regarding arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) and cadmium hyperaccumulating plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera). A combination of μ-XRF and μ-XANES techniques excited by high-energy X-ray microbeam with 1 μm resolution has proved to be an indispensable tool for the study of Cd accumulation in biological samples on a cellular scale. The sample-preparation techniques were also summarized. (author)

  16. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  17. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  18. Exercise bicycle for accumulator charging

    OpenAIRE

    Nekvapil, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is about possible solution construction of exercise bicycle with electric part working as a electric source. The first part of document introduces readers to issues about lead acid accumulators and charging, electronically commutated motors and electric converters. The second part shows potential solving constitution of exercise bicycle and we choose components and devices. EC motor will be connected with exercise bicycle by chain transmission. Transfer energy is realized thro...

  19. Crises and human capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Heylen; Lorenzo Pozzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of crises on human capital formation. Theoretically, a crisis undermines total factor productivity, which reduces the return to working and to accumulating physical capital. If the crisis is temporary, young agents will study now and work later. Human capital rises. To test our model we rely on inflation crises as our main empirical proxy. Using GMM panel procedures, our analysis for 86 countries in 1970-2000 confirms the positive effects of crises on human capi...

  20. Debt Redemption and Reserve Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2013-01-01

    Foreign participation in local-currency bond markets in emerging countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. In light of this trend, we revisit sovereign debt sustainability and incentives to default when the sovereign is temporarily excluded from capital markets. Differently from previous analyses, we assume that in addition to accumulating international reserves, countries can borrow internationally using their own currency. As opposed to traditional sovereign debt models (al...

  1. Biology task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accomplishments of the task group studies over the past year are reviewed. The purposes of biological investigations, in the context of subseabed disposal, are: an evaluation of the dose to man; an estimation of effects on the ecosystem; and an estimation of the influence of organisms on and as barriers to radionuclide migration. To accomplish these ends, the task group adopted the following research goals: (1) acquire more data on biological accumulation of specific radionuclides, such as those of Tc, Np, Ra, and Sr; (2) acquire more data on transfer coefficients from sediment to organism; (3) Calculate mass transfer rates, construct simple models using them, and estimate collective dose commitment; (4) Identify specific pathways or transfer routes, determine the rates of transfer, and make dose limit calculations with simple models; (5) Calculate dose rates to and estimate irradiation effects on the biota as a result of waste emplacement, by reference to background irradiation calculations. (6) Examine the effect of the biota on altering sediment/water radionuclide exchange; (7) Consider the biological data required to address different accident scenarios; (8) Continue to provide the basic biological information for all of the above, and ensure that the system analysis model is based on the most realistic and up-to-date concepts of marine biologists; and (9) Ensure by way of free exchange of information that the data used in any model are the best currently available

  2. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  3. Aluminum accumulation in human brain tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Ohta, T. [Dept. of Psychiatry, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Ektessabi, A.M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hanaichi, T.; Ishihara, Y. [Hanaichi Ultrastructure Research Institute Co. Okazaki, Okazaki, Aichi (Japan); Fujita, Y. [Equipment Center for Research and Education, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Normal cell functions of the brain are often impaired by an excess accumulation of metal ions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify excessive accumulations of biological constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca), as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al) in the brain tissues. Since Al might be associated with cases of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and amiotrophic lateral screlosis (ALS), it is very important to measure and quantify Al levels using precise analytical techniques. The aim of this investigation is to measure the Al contents present in the temporal cortices for three cases. The specimens concerned were taken from unfixed autopsy brains, which have been preserved in a deep freezer at -80degC. A tandem type accelerator of 2 MeV energy was used to measure the concentrations of Al in these specimen tissues. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorber was removed. The results show that peak intensity depends on the site measured. In certain cases, however, an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those of the other major elements present in the brain. Samples from the same subjects were also analyzed using EPMA-EDX. X-ray maps produced by EPMA-EDX showed the presence of extremely high concentrations of Al. The results yielded by PIXE analysis was in good qualitative agreement with those from EPMA-EDX. (author)

  4. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  5. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 200C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  6. Influence of variety variations of eastern galega on radionuclides accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general characteristic of development of agricultural branch in conditions of radioactive pollution of territory of Belarus is analyzed. The urgency of problem of reception of corresponding to norm pure from radionuclides production of plant growing and animal industries is marked. The scientific substantiation of the factors influencing on behaviour of radionuclides in soil, their transition from soil into plants and an organism of the person through foodder and food biological circuits is given. Biological features of eastern galega, its value in feed production, plant growing, efficiency of cultivation in the polluted territories. Factors of transition of 137-caesium and 90-strontium are presented to plants at variety samples of eastern galega of the first and second years of life, in a crop of green weight from the first and second hay crops are presented. Distinctions in accumulation by green weight of eastern galega and trifolium pratense are shown. In comparison with trifolium pratense eastern galega in 2 times accumulates 90-strontium less than 2 times. Varieties distinctions influenced on accumulation of radionuclides from soil in plants by eastern galega. Authentically less than others variety sample BSAA-1 accumulates radionuclides in plants at which the factor of transition had the lowest parameter and has made on 137-caesium 0,109, on 90-strontium 2,29, or accordingly on 0,027 and 0,25 below, than at standard variety Nesterka. Studying of variety samples of eastern galega on a degree of accumulation of radionuclides at cultivation on a provocative background with radioactive soil pollution is the important factor of increase in efficiency of selection radiophobia varieties

  7. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  8. Evaluating the Role of Microbial Internal Storage Turnover on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation During Denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Xueming; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment processes under a dynamic regime with respect to carbon substrate can result in microbial storage of internal polymers (e.g., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and their subsequent utilizations. These storage turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the key role of PHB storage turnovers on N2O accumulation during denitrification for the first time, aiming to establish the key relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB storage production. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using N2O data from two independent experimental systems with PHB storage turnovers. The model satisfactorily describes nitrogen reductions, PHB storage/utilization, and N2O accumulation from both systems. The results reveal a linear relationship between N2O accumulation and PHB production, suggesting a substantial effect of PHB storage on N2O accumulation during denitrification. Application of the model to simulate long-term operations of a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor and a denitrifying continuous system indicates the feeding pattern and sludge retention time would alter PHB turnovers and thus affect N2O accumulation. Increasing PHB utilization could substantially raise N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate when using PHB as carbon source. PMID:26463891

  9. Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Shuhei; Yoshihara, Mai; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Aiko; Konomi, Mami; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life on earth and is also important for modern agriculture, which is dependent on inorganic fertilizers from phosphate rock. Polyphosphate is a biological polymer of phosphate residues, which is accumulated in organisms during the biological wastewater treatment process to enhance biological phosphorus removal. Here, we investigated the relationship between polyphosphate accumulation and electron-dense bodies in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Under sulfur-depleted conditions, in which some symporter genes were upregulated, while others were downregulated, total phosphate accumulation increased in the early stage of culture compared to that under sulfur-replete conditions. The P signal was detected only in dense bodies by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed marked ultrastructural variations in dense bodies with and without polyphosphate. Our findings suggest that the dense body is a site of polyphosphate accumulation, and P. kessleri has potential as a phosphate-accumulating organism. PMID:27180903

  10. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation...

  11. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  12. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  13. Markov models for accumulating mutations

    CERN Document Server

    Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a waiting time model for the accumulation of genetic changes. The continuous time conjunctive Bayesian network is defined by a partially ordered set of mutations and by the rate of fixation of each mutation. The partial order encodes constraints on the order in which mutations can fixate in the population, shedding light on the mutational pathways underlying the evolutionary process. We study a censored version of the model and derive equations for an EM algorithm to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters. We also show how to select the maximum likelihood poset. The model is applied to genetic data from different cancers and from drug resistant HIV samples, indicating implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  15. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H. [Laboratory for Process Technology, IMTEK-Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P. [Micronas GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function. (author)

  16. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  17. Accumulation of 65Zn by octopus Octopus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to aim the prevention of the radiation hazard to human beings through sea food, the accumulation and excretion of 65Zn by octopus Octopus vulgaris was examined by the radioisotope tracer experiment. The concentration factor of 65Zn for whole body of the octopus that take up the nuclide from sea water and food was estimated as 9,900, by assuming that the octopus feeds on clams alone. In that case the contribution of food was about twenty times greater than that of sea water on the accumulation of the nuclide. The biological half-life of 65Zn accumulated through sea water was 74 days. High accumulation of 65Zn in the branchial heart of the octopus, as in the case of Co, was not observed. In the liver, 65Zn combined with three constituents which have a molecular weight of more than 80,000, 7,000 - 8,000 and less than 5,000. In the kidney, 65Zn combined with three constituents of a molecular weight of more than 80,000, 10,000 - 20,000 and less than 5,000. (author)

  18. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  19. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  20. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  1. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  2. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  3. Accumulation and excretion of 60Co by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological half-life of 60Co accumulated from seawater by marine fish was 20-50 days. It was slightly longer in the liver and muscles than in the whole body. Feed including natural feed organisms contributed more to the total body burden of 60Co than environmental waters. The total body burden of 60Co via feed varied according to the organism species, kinds of feed and the root of incorporation. Transfer ratio of 60Co from the water into the organisms was higher than that from the marine sediments having high affinity of Co into the organisms. The elevated water temperature promoted the biological activity, resulting in the increased bioaccumulation of radioactive Co. Concentration coefficients of 60Co by mollusca and seaweeds were generally high. In particular, organic 60Co was more likely to be accumulated than inorganic 60Co. The biological half-life of organic 60Co was longer than inorganic 60Co in mollusca, while it was the same as or shorter than inorganic 60Co in the other organisms. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Surface accumulation of spermatozoa: a fluid dynamic phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Recent mathematical fluid dynamics models have shed light into an outstanding problem in reproductive biology: why do spermatozoa cells show a 'preference' for swimming near to surfaces? In this paper we review quantitative approaches to the problem, originating with the classic paper of Lord Rothschild in 1963. A recent 'boundary integral/slender body theory' mathematical model for the fluid dynamics is described, and we discuss how it gives insight into the mechanisms that may be responsible for the surface accumulation behaviour. We use the simulation model to explore these mechanisms in more detail, and discuss whether simplified models can capture the behaviour of sperm cells. The far-field decay of the fluid flow around the cell is calculated, and compared with a stresslet model. Finally we present some new findings showing how, despite having a relatively small hydrodynamic drag, the sperm cell 'head' has very significant effects on surface accumulation and trajectory.

  5. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  6. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  7. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  8. Iron accumulation with age, oxidative stress and functional decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    Full Text Available Identification of biological mediators in sarcopenia is pertinent to the development of targeted interventions to alleviate this condition. Iron is recognized as a potent pro-oxidant and a catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species in biological systems. It is well accepted that iron accumulates with senescence in several organs, but little is known about iron accumulation in muscle and how it may affect muscle function. In addition, it is unclear if interventions which reduced age-related loss of muscle quality, such as calorie restriction, impact iron accumulation. We investigated non-heme iron concentration, oxidative stress to nucleic acids in gastrocnemius muscle and key indices of sarcopenia (muscle mass and grip strength in male Fischer 344 X Brown Norway rats fed ad libitum (AL or a calorie restricted diet (60% of ad libitum food intake starting at 4 months of age at 8, 18, 29 and 37 months of age. Total non-heme iron levels in the gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats increased progressively with age. Between 29 and 37 months of age, the non-heme iron concentration increased by approximately 200% in AL-fed rats. Most importantly, the levels of oxidized RNA in gastrocnemius muscle of AL rats were significantly increased as well. The striking age-associated increase in non-heme iron and oxidized RNA levels and decrease in sarcopenia indices were all attenuated in the calorie restriction (CR rats. These findings strongly suggest that the age-related iron accumulation in muscle contributes to increased oxidative damage and sarcopenia, and that CR effectively attenuates these negative effects.

  9. Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surfa...

  10. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  11. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  12. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  13. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  14. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  15. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  16. Natural Resource Abundance and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Philippe C. Stijns

    2001-01-01

    This study examines indicators of human capital accumulation together with data for natural resource abundance and rents in a panel of 102 countries running from 1970 to 1999. Mineral wealth makes a positive and marked difference on human capital accumulation. Matching on observables reveals that cross-country results are not driven by a third factor such as overall economic development. Political stability does seem to affect both human capital accumulation and subsoil wealth, but not enough...

  17. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  18. Biological denitrification of high nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological denitrification of solutions of nitrate salts and weak solutions of nitric acid used in the purification of uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is briefly discussed. Advantages of this system over others are mentioned. Techniques and accumulated experience are covered

  19. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  20. On accumulation time of the Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested that accumulation time of Mars is strongly influenced by the presence of proto-Jupiter. It is shown that accumulation time of the Mars constrains the growth time scale for Jupiter. This constraint has been roughly estimated to be ∼ 1.7x107 y nearly in agreement with the lifetime of T Tauri phase of the Sun

  1. Endothelial biocompatibility and accumulation of SPION under flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszak, Jasmin; Zaloga, Jan; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Lyer, Stefan [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan [Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Cicha, Iwona, E-mail: Iwona_Cicha@yahoo.com [Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (SEON), Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftungsprofessur for Nanomedicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic targeting is considered a promising method to accumulate the nanoparticles at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions, but little is known about the biological effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the vascular wall. Here, we investigated endothelial cell growth and vitality upon treatment with SPION (0–60 µg/mL) using two complementing methods: real-time cell analysis and live-cell microscopy. Moreover, the uptake of circulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was assessed in an in vitro model of arterial bifurcations. At the tested concentrations, SPIONs were well tolerated and had no major influence on endothelial cell growth. Our results further showed a uniform distribution of endothelial SPION uptake independent of channel geometry or hemodynamic conditions: In the absence of magnetic force, no increase in accumulation of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region at the outer walls of bifurcation was observed. Application of external magnet allowed enhanced accumulation of SPIONs at the regions of non-uniform shear stress. Increased uptake of SPIONs at non-uniform shear stress region was well tolerated by endothelial cells (ECs) and did not affect endothelial cell viability or attachment. These findings indicate that magnetic targeting can constitute a promising and safe technique for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles to atherosclerotic lesions.

  2. Naturally Ocurring Polyphosphate-accumulating Bacteria in Benthic Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, N. A.; Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Regan, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), known to store excess phosphorus (P) as polyphosphate (poly-P), influence P transport in the environment. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater has long served as a basis to study bacterial PAOs, yet little research has genetically identified similar organisms in natural settings. Aerobic/anaerobic cycles, used to select for PAOs in EBPR, can result from changing environmental conditions such as night/day cycles for benthic biofilms. Benthic biofilms from eight Pennsylvanian streams were studied for naturally-occurring bacterial PAOs similar to those typically found in EBPR systems. PAOs were confirmed in the benthic biofilms by a characteristic yellow fluorescent emission from DAPI staining. Cells containing yellow fluorescence were separated from the rest of the sample using a flow cytometer, resulting in a physically enriched culture of PAOs from the benthic biofilms. Amplicon-based metagenomic sequencing will reveal the phylogeny of bacteria responsible for poly-P accumulation in these benthic biofilms. Sequencing data will be used to develop fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes, and hybridizations will be performed on DAPI-stained cells to confirm poly-P accumulation by targeted phylotypes. Identifying PAOs in natural settings is a critical step towards studying environments that support high concentrations of PAOs, serving as significant factors in the P cycle. PAOs can then be connected to P transport models to help understand and mitigate P pollution in agricultural watersheds.

  3. Accumulation of zirconium by microalgae and cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of zirconium (Zr) as [Zr4-(OH)8(H2O)16]8+ by cyanobacteria and microalgae has been characterized. In all the cyanobacterial and microalgal species examined, accumulation consisted of a single rapid energy-independent phase (''biosorp-tion'') and no energy-dependent accumulation was observed. Biosorption of Zr was concentration-dependent, followed a Freundlich adsorption isotherm, and was dependent on pH, showing decreased accumulation with decreased pH. Prior treatment with Na+, K+, Cs+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ (added as chlorides) also decreased Zr accumulation by cyanobacteria and microalgae, probably a result of competition between Zr ions and othecations, including H+, for available binding sites on the cell walls. Zr desorption from micoalgae and cyanobacteria was increased by increasing external cation concentrations or by decreasing the pH of the desorption agent. (orig.)

  4. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH)

  5. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  6. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  7. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  8. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  9. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  10. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  11. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  12. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  13. Accumulation of radionuclides by common mussel mytilus edulis and purplish bifurcate mussel septifer virgatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of 60Co, 59Fe, 54Mn and 65Zn by common mussed Mytilus edulis and purplish bifurcate mussel Septifer virgatus from seawater was investigated. High accumulation of 59Fe in Mytilus and 54Mn in Septifer was observed in the uptake experiments. Differences in biological half-lives between the two species was observed for 54Mn and 59Fe. The organ-specific concentration of radionuclides observed in the mussels was high accumulation of 60Co in kidney and viscera, 59Fe in kidney and viscera, 65Zn in kidney but was not observed for 54Mn although the accumulation of 54Mn in mantle was different between the species. Autoradiography was applied to examine the details of the distribution of 59Fe in the soft parts of the mussels. (author)

  14. Systems Biology of the Fluxome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Aon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of high throughput -omics has made the accumulation of comprehensive data sets possible, consisting of changes in genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Systems biology-inspired computational methods for translating metabolomics data into fluxomics provide a direct functional, dynamic readout of metabolic networks. When combined with appropriate experimental design, these methods deliver insightful knowledge about cellular function under diverse conditions. The use of computational models accounting for detailed kinetics and regulatory mechanisms allow us to unravel the control and regulatory properties of the fluxome under steady and time-dependent behaviors. This approach extends the analysis of complex systems from description to prediction, including control of complex dynamic behavior ranging from biological rhythms to catastrophic lethal arrhythmias. The powerful quantitative metabolomics-fluxomics approach will help our ability to engineer unicellular and multicellular organisms evolve from trial-and-error to a more predictable process, and from cells to organ and organisms.

  15. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  16. Systems Biology in Aging: Linking the Old and the Young

    OpenAIRE

    HOU, LEI; Huang, Jialiang; Green, Christopher D.; Boyd-Kirkup, Jerome; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xiaoming; Gong, Wenxuan; Zhou, Bing; Jing-Dong J Han

    2012-01-01

    Aging can be defined as a process of progressive decline in the physiological capacity of an organism, manifested by accumulated alteration and destabilization at the whole system level. Systems biology approaches offer a promising new perspective to examine the old problem of aging. We begin this review by introducing the concepts of systems biology, and then illustrate the application of systems biology approaches to aging research, from gene expression profiling to network analysis. We the...

  17. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison to physical and chemical phosphorus removal processes, the biological process has several advantages such as high removal efficiency, low cost, and no chemical sludge production, but disturbances an...

  18. Impact of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welles, L; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Hooijmans, C M; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-09-01

    The use of saline water as secondary quality water in urban environments for sanitation is a promising alternative towards mitigating fresh water scarcity. However, this alternative will increase the salinity in the wastewater generated that may affect the biological wastewater treatment processes, such as biological phosphorus removal. In addition to the production of saline wastewater by the direct use of saline water in urban environments, saline wastewater is also generated by some industries. Intrusion of saline water into the sewers is another source of salinity entering the wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the short-term effects of salinity on the anaerobic metabolism of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO) were investigated to assess the impact of salinity on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Hereto, PAO and GAO cultures enriched at a relatively low salinity level (0.02 % W/V) were exposed to salinity concentrations of up to 6 % (as NaCl) in anaerobic batch tests. It was demonstrated that both PAO and GAO are affected by higher salinity levels, with PAO being the more sensitive organisms to the increasing salinity. The maximum acetate uptake rate of PAO decreased by 71 % when the salinity increased from 0 to 1 %, while that of GAO decreased by 41 % for the same salinity increase. Regarding the stoichiometry of PAO, a decrease in the P-release/HAc uptake ratio accompanied with an increase in the glycogen consumption/HAc uptake ratio was observed for PAO when the salinity increased from 0 to 2 % salinity, indicating a metabolic shift from a poly-P-dependent to a glycogen-dependent metabolism. The anaerobic maintenance requirements of PAO and GAO increased as the salinity concentrations risen up to 4 % salinity. PMID:24831025

  19. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sensitivity to salinity is often attributed to excessive accumulation of Na+ ions in leaf cells. This implies that screening for low Na+ accumulation should result in enhanced tolerance to salt. While this is generally true, there are a number of examples where Na+ accumulation is not the only factor. In rice (Oryza sativa) there is good evidence linking genetically-determined Na+ accumulation with tolerance to salinity, but there are other factors that should be considered, including Cl- accumulation and the inter- and intra-cellular distribution of solutes. In quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) There are large varietal differences in Na+ accumulation, but smaller differences in salt tolerance. We have studied the genetics of salinity responses in two cultivars of rice, Co39 and Moroberekan. The latter accumulates more Na+ than Co39 and many other rice varieties. Experiments at a range of salt concentrations and with varying Na: Ca ratios showed that Na+ accumulation was initially quite low, but increased with time of exposure to salt. Part of the increase in Na+, and all of the observed increase in K+ concentrations, could be attributed to dehydration of the leaves. Measurements of leaf solute and water potentials indicated that solutes accumulated in the leaf apoplast. This resulted in reduced turgor and increased leaf rolling. Concentrations of Cl- in the leaves were several times higher than those of Na+. QTL analysis of a hybrid population derived from these varieties revealed a major QTL for leaf Na+ accumulation on chromosome 1 at a position where QTL for salt tolerance and Na+ uptake have been identified by other groups. No QTL were identified for Cl- accumulation. Is rice relatively salt sensitive because it accumulates low concentrations of Na+ under genetic control, or is Cl- (present at much higher concentrations) responsible for salt damage. We are looking for rice accessions that differ in Cl- accumulation to find Cl- QTL. Perhaps it does not

  20. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  1. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  2. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  3. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent...... vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The findings of this study emphasise the role of early and comprehensive in vivo studies in pharmaceutical research. Nanocarrier accumulation in the ovaries may also comprise an important toxicity issue in humans...

  4. Development of the flow controlled accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsubishi is developing the new type accumulator incorporating the technology of Fluidics as one of seeds for the improved safety of the new generation PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device named a vortex damper as a Fluidic device for the simplification of the safety systems. We have done a basic experimental study to develop the vortex damper and gotten satisfactory results. This paper describes the results of the basic experiments of the vortex dampers. (author)

  5. Plastic accumulation in the mediterranean sea

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Cózar; Marina Sanz-Martín; Elisa Martí; Ignacio González-Gordillo, J; Bárbara Ubeda; José Á Gálvez; Xabier Irigoien; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  6. Financial Literacy, Schooling, and Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Cindy Soo; David Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy and schooling attainment have been linked to household wealth accumulation. Yet prior findings may be biased due to noisy measures of financial literacy and schooling, as well as unobserved factors such as ability, intelligence, and motivation that could enhance financial literacy and schooling but also directly affect wealth accumulation. We use a new household dataset and an instrumental variables approach to isolate the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling ...

  7. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but...

  8. Environmental distribution and population biology of Candidatus Accumulibacter, a primary agent of Biological Phosphorus Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, S. Brook; Warnecke, Falk; Madejska, Julita; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Members of the uncultured bacterial genus Candidatus Accumulibacter are capable of intracellular accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but were also recently shown to inhabit freshwater and estuarine sediments. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing of two bioreactor cultures enriched in Candidatus Accumulibacter, but housed on separate continents, revealed the potential for glob...

  9. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium (137Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of 137Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, 137Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find 137Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for 137Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. 137Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO3. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained 137Cs at high concentration due to the deposited 137Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated 137Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate 137Cs. The 137Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of other woody plant species taken at the same sites. Therefore, it is

  10. Possible negative consequences of the secondary air contamination on the quality of accumulated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time when requirements on quality of drinking water are increased, it is necessary not only to put stress on technological processes used in its preparation, but also there is a need to secure that water is distributed even to the consumer in that quality as it leaves a water station. Through a systematic surveillance of water-supply companies within the framework of biological audits it has been found out that the important points in a distribution network where the quality of water is deteriorated are the water reservoirs. Deterioration in quality of accumulated water is jointly caused by elements of technological, constructional and biological nature. The secondary air contamination has a substantial influence on the creation of bio-films on walls and the presence of microorganisms in accumulated drinking water. To this end, a water twin-compartment reservoir has been systematically evaluated during operation, cleaning meantime and before cleaning. The results of hydro-biological and microbiological analysis have confirmed the input of particles and microorganisms through air, their presence in surface level of accumulated water as well as scrapings from accumulation walls. The surveillance considered also the situation without a fixed filter unit, without door lining etc. On fixing a tested filter system into ventilation duct the risk of air contamination was lowered to minimum. (authors)

  11. Effect of gas accumulation and biofilm growth on the dispersivity of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Sleep, B. E.; Chien, C.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of biofilm growth and methane gas accumulation on the transport in porous media were investigated in an anaerobic two-dimensional sand-filled cell. Inoculation of the lower portion of the cell with a methanogenic culture and addition of methanol to the bottom of the cell led to biomass growth and formation of a gas phase. Gas generated at the bottom of the cell in the biologically active zone moved upwards in discrete fingers, so that gas saturations in the biologically active zone at the bottom of the cell did not exceed 40-50%, while gas accumulation at the top of the cell produced gas saturations as high as 80%. In the most biologically active zone at the bottom of the cell, porosity reductions due to biofilm growth were estimated to be 80-95%. The effects of biofilm and gas generation on the dispersivity were separated by performing one tracer test in the presence of both biofilm and a gas phase and a second tracer test after removal of the gas phase through water flushing. The dispersivity increased by 20 times in the presence of both biofilm and a gas phase, and increased by 4.8 times in the presence of only biofilm. The results of tracer tests demonstrated that transport in the two-dimensional cell were significantly affected by gas accumulation and biofilm growth, and especially by gas accumulation.

  12. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  13. Transformation of ammonia i biological airfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Sørensen, Karen; Andersen, Mathias;

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia is a major compound in ventilation air from animal houses. In biological filters it is with varying efficiency transformed by physical, biological, and chemical processes and ends up as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite dissolved in water and as dinitrogen, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emi...... removal without too much energy consumption, waste water production, green house gas emission, or suppression of the filters odor removal efficiency.......Ammonia is a major compound in ventilation air from animal houses. In biological filters it is with varying efficiency transformed by physical, biological, and chemical processes and ends up as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite dissolved in water and as dinitrogen, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide...... nitrite oxidation only appeared in locations with minimal ammonia and nitrite levels. Nitrous oxide emission depended on anoxic microsites, and nitric oxide production was associated with nitrite accumulation. Water and biomass management appear to be the important tools for optimization of ammonia...

  14. Modelling the metabolic shift of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, B; Borrás, L; Oehmen, A; Barat, R

    2014-11-15

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is one of the most important methods of phosphorus removal in municipal wastewater treatment plants, having been described by different modelling approaches. In this process, the PAOs (polyphosphate accumulating organisms) and GAOs (glycogen accumulating organisms) compete for volatile fatty acids uptake under anaerobic conditions. Recent studies have revealed that the metabolic pathways used by PAOs in order to obtain the energy and the reducing power needed for polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesis could change depending on the amount of polyphosphate stored in the cells. The model presented in this paper extends beyond previously developed metabolic models by including the ability of PAO to change their metabolic pathways according to the content of poly-P available. The processes of the PAO metabolic model were adapted to new formulations enabling the change from P-driven VFA uptake to glycogen-driven VFA uptake using the same process equations. The stoichiometric parameters were changed from a typical PAO coefficient to a typical GAO coefficient depending on the internal poly-P with Monod-type expressions. The model was calibrated and validated with seven experiments under different internal poly-P concentrations, showing the ability to correctly represent the PAO metabolic shift at low poly-P concentrations. The sensitivity and error analysis showed that the model is robust and has the ability to describe satisfactorily the change from one metabolic pathway to the other one, thereby encompassing a wider range of process conditions found in EBPR plants. PMID:25123437

  15. Chlorine-heavy metals interaction on toxicity and metal accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objectives of this study with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were: to determine whether acute toxic interaction of chlorine, nickel, and temperature is additive, synergistic, antagonistic, or if no interaction occurs; to provide a biological explanation of the mechanisms of the toxic interactions; and to develop a mortality model of the toxic interaction. Twenty chlorine-nickel toxicity tests and a bioaccumulation study, both with and without chlorine, were conducted to accomplish these objectives. Studies using 63Ni were conducted to monitor the effects of chlorine on nickel accumulation in the tissues of trout under conditions similar to those of multiple toxicant studies. The presence of 0.018 ppM TRC (total residual chlorine) increased nickel accumulation in tissues from fish exposed to chlorine and 63Ni. This may be due to an increase in the permeability of the gill to nickel during chlorine exposure. Chlorine and nickel had a synergistic toxic interaction. Mortality in these groups was significantly higher. Temperature did not influence toxicity as strongly

  16. Simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linjiang; HAN Wei; WANG Lei; YANG Yongzhe; WANG Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the biological treatment process,denitrifying phosphorus accumulation(DNPA)and its affecting factors were studied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)with synthetic wastewater.The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent.the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.Denitrifying phosphorus accumulation was observed soon when fed with nitrate instead of aeration following the anaerobic stage,which is a vital premise to DNPA.If DNPA sludge is fed with nitrate prior to the anaerobic stage,the DNPA would weaken or even disappear.At the high concen tration of nitrate fed in the anoxic stage,the longer anoxic time needed,the better the DNPA was.Induced DNPA did not disappear even though an aerobic stage followed the anoxic stage,but the shorter the aerobic stage lasted,the higher the proportions of phosphorus removal via DNPA to total removal.

  17. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ......, while making use of the available uncertainty model. The accumulated representations have been used in three different contexts: pose estimation, robotic grasping, and driver assistance scenario.......In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel in...

  18. Uranium accumulation by Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas sp. EPS-5028 was examined for the ability to accumulate uranium from solutions. The uptake of uranium by this microorganism is very rapid and is affected by pH but not by temperature, metabolic inhibitors, culture time and the presence of various cations and anions. The amount of uranium absorbed by the cells increased as the uranium concentration of the solution increased up to 55 mg uranium/g cell dry weight. Electron microscopy indicated that uranium accumulated intracellularly as needle-like fibrils. Uranium could be removed chemically from the cells, which could then be reused a a biosorbent. (orig.)

  19. On engineering reliability concepts and biological aging

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim S. Finkelstein

    2006-01-01

    Some stochastic approaches to biological aging modeling are studied. We assume that an organism acquires a random resource at birth. Death occurs when the accumulated dam-age (wear) exceeds this initial value, modeled by the discrete or continuous random vari-ables. Another source of death of an organism is also taken into account, when it occurs as a consequence of a shock or of a demand for energy, which is a generalization of the Strehler-Mildwan’s model (1960). Biological age based on the...

  20. Isolation and characterization of a mutant defective in triacylglycerol accumulation in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chun-Hsien; Kanehara, Kazue; Nakamura, Yuki

    2016-09-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG), a major source of biodiesel production, accumulates in nitrogen-starved Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, the metabolic pathway of starch-to-TAG conversion remains elusive because an enzyme that affects the starch degradation is unknown. Here, we isolated a new class of mutant bgal1, which expressed an overaccumulation of starch granules and defective photosynthetic growth. The bgal1 was a null mutant of a previously uncharacterized β-galactosidase-like gene (Cre02.g119700), which decreased total β-galactosidase activity 40% of the wild type. Upon nitrogen starvation, the bgal1 mutant showed decreased TAG accumulation mainly due to the reduced flux of de novo TAG biosynthesis evidenced by increased unsaturation of fatty acid composition in TAG and reduced TAG accumulation by additional supplementation of acetate to the culture media. Metabolomic analysis of the bgal1 mutant showed significantly reduced levels of metabolites following the hydrolysis of starch and substrates for TAG accumulation, whereas metabolites in TCA cycle were unaffected. Upon nitrogen starvation, while levels of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and acetyl-CoA remained lower, most of the other metabolites in glycolysis were increased but those in the TCA cycle were decreased, supporting TAG accumulation. We suggest that BGAL1 may be involved in the degradation of starch, which affects TAG accumulation in nitrogen-starved C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27060488

  1. Selective accumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous systems using microbial biomass has been described previously (Nakajima et al. 1982). To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, we extended our investigation of uranium uptake to 83 species of microorganisms, 32 bacteria, 15 yeasts, 16 fungi and 20 actinomycetes. Of these 83 species of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium-absorbing ability was found in Pseudomonas stutzeri, Neurospora sitophila, Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The selective accumulation of heavy metal ions by various microorganisms has also been examined. Uranyl, mercury and lead ions were readily accumulated by almost all the species of microorganisms tested. Actinomycetes and fungi differ from many bacteria and most yeasts in their selective accumulation of uranium and mercury. In addition to this fundamental research, uranium recovery was investigated in immobilized Streptomyces albus, a microorganism with high uranium-uptake ability. These immobilized cells adsorbed uranium readily and selectively. The immobilized cells recovered uranium almost quantitatively and almost all uranium absorbed was desorbed with 0.1 M Na2CO3. The dry weight of the free cells decreased by 50% during 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. However, the dry weight of the immobilized cells decreased by only 2% during 5 cycles. These results showed that microbial cells are more stable after immobilization and can be used repeatedly for the process of uranium adsorption-desorption. (orig.)

  2. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to h

  3. 19 CFR 10.458 - Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.458 Accumulation. (a) Originating goods or materials of Chile or the United States... of Chile, the United States, or both, by one or more producers, will be considered as an...

  4. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T;

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test...

  5. Effect of edaphic factors on radionuclides accumulation by woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the research to determine the effect of soil fertility and humidity on Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation by wood and bark of basic forest-forming woody plants. The research was conducted within the 'distant' track of radioactive fallout ranging 400...1 400 kBq/m2 for Cs 137 and 10...18 kBq/m2 for Sr 90. Maximum Cs 137 specific activity up to 10 000 Bq/kg in bark and 3 000 Bq/kg in wood were observed for barren or relatively barren and wet edaphotops (A5-B). Maximum Sr 90 specific activity up to 300 Bq/kg in wood and 2 000 Bq/kg in bark were observed in barren and fresh edaphotops (A2). The lowest specific activities for both radio-nuclides were observed for fresh and barren edaphotops. The highest Cs 137 transfer factors were observed for pine tree and birch tree in edaphotops A4 and A5 (4·10-3 m2/kg for wood and > 12·10-3 m2/kg for bark). The highest Sr 90 transfer factors were observed in birch tree wood for edaphotops A2-A3 (up to 18·10-3 m2/kg) and in oak tree bark (up to 90·10-3 m2/kg). The increase in Cs 137 transfer factors and decrease for those for Sr 90 in wood and bark of basic forest-forming woody plants following the subsequent increase in soil humidity for a single trophic grade were observed. The increase in soil humidity for a single trophic grade results in decrease of Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation in wood and bark by a factor of from 2 to 3. The examined elements of phytomass from basic forest-forming plants may contain up to 5% of Cs 137 and up to 25% of Sr 90 from total activity in ecosystem which shows the significant role of forest plantations in biological accumulation of radionuclides. A scientific substantiations of optimal logging use on the contaminated territory were proposed. The possibility of logging usage which is in the permissible levels for Cs 137 content over 1 480 kBq/m2 has been shown. The urgency to reduce logging in wet and damp hygrotopes due to high radionuclides accumulation in timber has been marked

  6. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  7. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  8. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  9. A unified biological modeling and simulation system for analyzing biological reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seok Jong; Tung, Thai Quang; Park, Junho; Lim, Jongtae; Yoo, Jaesoo

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the biological response in a cell, a researcher has to create a biological network and design an experiment to prove it. Although biological knowledge has been accumulated, we still don't have enough biological models to explain complex biological phenomena. If a new biological network is to be created, integrated modeling software supporting various biological models is required. In this research, we design and implement a unified biological modeling and simulation system, called ezBioNet, for analyzing biological reaction networks. ezBioNet designs kinetic and Boolean network models and simulates the biological networks using a server-side simulation system with Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library framework. The main advantage of ezBioNet is that a user can create a biological network by using unified modeling canvas of kinetic and Boolean models and perform massive simulations, including Ordinary Differential Equation analyses, sensitivity analyses, parameter estimates and Boolean network analysis. ezBioNet integrates useful biological databases, including the BioModels database, by connecting European Bioinformatics Institute servers through Web services Application Programming Interfaces. In addition, we employ Eclipse Rich Client Platform, which is a powerful modularity framework to allow various functional expansions. ezBioNet is intended to be an easy-to-use modeling tool and a simulation system for understanding the control mechanism by monitoring the change of each component in a biological network. The simulation result can be managed and visualized on ezBioNet, which is available free of charge at http://ezbionet.sourceforge.net or http://ezbionet.cbnu.ac.kr.

  10. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  11. Seasonal Arsenic Accumulation in Stream Sediments at a Groundwater Discharge Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKay, Allison A.; Gan, Ping; Yu, Ran;

    2014-01-01

    losses of arsenic and iron from bead column coatings at. depths below 2-6 cm. Batch incubations indicated iron releases from solids to be induced by biological reduction of iron (oxy)hydroxide solids. Congruent arsenic releases during incubation were limited by the high arsenic sorption capacity (0.......536 mg(As)/mg(Fe)) of unreacted iron oxide solids. The flooded spring (March-June) with high surface water flows showed the lowest arsenic and iron accumulation rates in the sediments. Comparisons of accumulation rates across a shoreline transect were consistent with greater rates at regions exposed...... above surface water levels for longer times and greater losses at locations submerged below surface water. Iron (oxy)hydroxide solids in the shallowest sediments likely serve as a passive barrier to sorb arsenic released to pore water at depth by biological iron reduction....

  12. Methods for detection and visualization of intracellular polymers stored by polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Luísa S; Lemos, Paulo C; Levantesi, Caterina; Tandoi, Valter; Santos, Helena; Reis, Maria A M

    2002-09-01

    Polyphosphate-accumulating microorganisms (PAOs) are important in enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal. Considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the biochemical nature of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and it has been shown that intracellular polymer storage plays an important role in PAO's metabolism. The storage capacity of PAOs gives them a competitive advantage over other microorganisms present that are not able to accumulate internal reserves. Intracellular polymers stored by PAOs include polyphosphate (poly-P), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen. Staining procedures for qualitative visualization of polymers by optical microscopy and combinations of these procedures with molecular tools for in situ identification are described here. The strengths and weaknesses of widely used polymer quantification methods that require destruction of samples, are also discussed. Finally, the potential of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for on-line measurement of intracellular reserves is reported. PMID:12069885

  13. Field study comparing the effect of hydraulic mixing on septic tank performance and sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydraulic mixing on anaerobic digestion and sludge accumulation in a septic tank. The performance of a septic tank equipped with a hydraulic mixer was compared with that of a similar standard septic tank over a period of 10 months. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase-I - from May to November 2013 (6 months); Phase-II - from January to May 2014 (4 months). Hydraulic mixing effectively reduced the effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids, and reduced the sludge accumulation rate in the septic tank. The BOD removal efficiencies during Phase-II were 65% and 75% in the standard septic tank and a septic tank equipped with hydraulic mixer (Smart Digester™), respectively. The effect of hydraulic mixing reduced the rate of sludge accumulation from 0.64 cm/day to 0.27 cm/day, and increased the pump-out interval by a factor of 3. PMID:26208182

  14. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  15. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  16. 26 CFR 1.535-3 - Accumulated earnings credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated earnings credit. 1.535-3 Section 1... Accumulated earnings credit. (a) In general. As provided in section 535(a) and § 1.535-1, the accumulated earnings credit, provided by section 535(c), reduces taxable income in computing accumulated taxable...

  17. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  18. A positron accumulator for antihydrogen synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, L V; Fine, K S; Watson, T L; Van der Werf, D P; Charlton, M

    2001-01-01

    A positron accumulator based on the modified Penning-Malmberg design of Surko and co-workers at UCSD has been constructed and undergone testing in preparation for the ATHENA experiment now under way at CERN. This experiment aims to produce and characterize atomic anti- hydrogen. The positron accumulator utilises nitrogen buffer gas to cool and trap a continuous beam of positrons emanating from a /sup 22 /Na radioactive source. A solid neon moderator slows the positrons from the source down to epithermal energies of a few eV before being injected into the trap. It is estimated that around 10/sup 7/ positrons can be trapped and cooled to ambient temperature within a couple of minutes in this scheme using a 6 mCi source. Preliminary tests have so far demonstrated trapping of approximately 3*10/sup 6/ positrons and an efficiency of the Ne moderator of nearly 1%. (8 refs).

  19. Characteristics of the flow-controlled accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsubishi is developing a new type of accumulator incorporating the technology of fluidics as one of the seeds for the improved safety of the newly constructed pressurized water reactor plants. This accumulator employs a vortex flow control device, called a vortex damper, as a fluidic device to simplify the safety systems. A fundamental experimental study with a one-fifth scale model and confirmation tests with a one-third scale model to develop the vortex damper have been carried out, and satisfactory results have been achieved. The results of the confirmation tests under the prototype pressure conditions agree well with the basic tests. The flow rate ratio can be 5 to 6. The pressure loss coefficient in the large flow rate period is 8. A cavitation factor is the main parameter of the flow rate coefficient

  20. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  1. Spin accumulation in triplet Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ a Hamiltonian method to study the equal-spin pairing triplet Josephson junction with different orbital symmetries of pair potentials. Both the spin/charge supercurrent and possible spin accumulation at the interface of the junction are analyzed by means of the Keldysh Green's function. It is found that a spontaneous angle-resolved spin accumulation can form at the junction's interface when the orbital symmetries of Cooper pairs in two triplet superconductors are different, the physical origin is the combined effect of the different orbital symmetries and different spin states of Cooper pairs due to the misalignment of two d vectors in triplet leads. An abrupt current reversal effect induced by misalignment of d vectors is observed and can survive in a strong interface barrier scattering because the zero-energy state appears at the interface of the junction. These properties of the p-wave Josephson junction may be helpful for identifying the order parameter symmetry.

  2. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived. PMID:24921828

  3. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  4. Systems of Accumulation and the Evolving MEC

    OpenAIRE

    Ashman, Sam; Fine, Ben; Newman, Susan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe limitations of the Developmental State Paradigm were discussed in the introductory chapter to this volume. This chapter offers an alternative approach to the DSP through use of the notion of systems of (capital) accumulation and its specific application to South Africa’s evolving political economy, which we characterise as the ‘Minerals-Energy Complex’ (MEC) following Fine and Rustomjee (1996).

  5. The Antiproton Accumulator becomes Antiproton Decelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The photos show the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) transformed into Antiproton Decelerator. The AA was used at CERN between 1981 and 1999 before being replaced by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The AA was used to collect and stochastically cool antiprotons used in proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS collider. This lead to the discovery of the W and Z bosons in 1983 and the Nobel Prize for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

  6. Innovation, Capital Accumulation and Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Kohler, Wilhelm

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores some links between trade, human capital investment and innovation-based growth in the context of Eastern European economies in transition. Specifically, we calibrate a two region model with trade in differentiated high-tech products and a homogeneous traditional commodity. Human capital, or the quality of the skilled labour force, as well as physical capital are accumulated. Human capital remains finite in the long-run but depends endegenously on education and is...

  7. Corruption, Public Expenditure, and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Boikos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of corruption on human capital accumulation through two channels. The first channel is through the effect of corruption on the public expenditure on education and the second channel is through the effect of corruption on the physical capital investment. Public expenditure on education affects positively human capital, while physical capital can obsolete human capital. Initially, we construct an endogenous two-sector growth model with human capital accum...

  8. Accumulation of non-coherent signal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Roman, R.; Sochůrková, D.; Kasal, Miroslav

    Bratislava: FEI SUT, 2002, s. -. ISBN 80-227-1700-2. [RADIOELEKTRONIKA 2002. Bratislava (SK), 14.05.2002-16.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1262; GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : accumulation * non-coherent signals * neurology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Arsenic accumulation in some higher fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Vellinga, Else C.; Herrmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    The high arsenic concentrations reported in literature for Laccaria amethystina were amply confirmed. In addition, it was demonstrated that Laccaria fraterna also accumulates the element, whereas in other species of Laccaria the phenomenon was far less outspoken. Few other basidiomycetes proved to have an affinity for the toxic element. The arsenic concentrations in the principal edible mushrooms of commerce were found to be very low, i.e. on the average 0.5 mg/kg on dry matter. Among the asc...

  10. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  11. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Es...

  12. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiping Lu; Ming Li; Wei Zhao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases,...

  13. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  14. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

  15. Zinc accumulation and utilization by wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Raffaele De Nicola1,3, Nichola Hall2,3, Tatiana Bollag3, Georgios Thermogiannis3, Graeme M Walker31DSM Nutritional Products, Dept. NRD/CX, Basel, Switzerland; 2Vinquiry, Inc. Windsor, CA, USA; 3School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee, UK Abstract: The present study has focused on the accumulation of zinc by wine yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of both grape juice and chemically defined medium with different carbohydrates and...

  16. Accumulation radionuclides bodes of living cover plants woods cenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of accumulation radionuclides by bodies of living cover plants woods cenosis are investigated. Researches have shown, that in elevated bodies kinds now in the greater measure strontium 90, than caesium 137 is accumulated. In root systems accumulation radionuclides is lower, than in elevated bodies. There is a specific specificity of accumulation radionuclides various bodies of plants. Accumulation radionuclides depends on weather conditions of year of supervision

  17. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  18. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  19. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  20. Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Accumulated Waste Sampling and Analysis Management Plan (AWSAMP) has been prepared in response to the AWP and the Accumulated Waste Characterization Work Plan (SAIC 1992). The scope of the AWSAMP includes: A review and compilation of existing waste characterization information for each container or grouping of containers as appropriate, The development of sampling and analysis plans, The development of sampling and analysis procedures, The assessment of analytical requirements, and Cost estimates for the accumulated waste characterization program. The AWSAMP addresses eight basic waste categories that have been identified in the waste inventory: industrial/sanitary, RAD, RCRA, TSCA, TSCA/RAD, RCRA/RAD, RCRA/TSCA, and RCRA/TSCA/RAD wastes. Requirements of RCRA, TSCA, and DOE Orders are the primary source of characterization criteria. Other standards and guidelines [e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations, DOE disposal facilities waste acceptance criteria, and national technical associations standards] are reviewed for completeness. This AWSAMP provides a detailed waste sampling and analysis plan. This includes general history (Sect. 2), regulatory setting (Sect. 3), compilation of existing data (Sect. 4), technical approach (Sect. 5), field sampling methodology and procedures (Sect. 6), health and safety plan (Sect. 7), and quality assurance requirements (Sect. 8)

  1. Erosion, sediment transportation and accumulation in rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.I.ALEKSEEVSKIY; K.M.BERKOVICH; R.S.CHALOV

    2008-01-01

    The present paper analyses the interrelation between erosion,sediment transportation and accumulation proposed by N.I.Makkaveyev (1908-1983) and its further development in modem studies of river channel processes in Russia.Spatio-temporal linkages between erosion and accumulation are defined considering channel processes at different scales - river longitudinal profile,channel morphological patterns,alluvial bedforms (bars,dunes) and individual sediment particles.Relations between river geomorphic activity,flow transportation capacity and sediment budgets are established (sediment input and output;channel bed erosion and sediment entrainment into flow -termination of sediment transport and its deposition).Channel planforms,floodplain segments separated by the latter and alluvial channel bedforms are shown to be geomorphic expressions of sediment transport process at different spatial and temporal scales.This paper is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of N.I.Makkaveyev,Professor of the Moscow State University,author of the book "River channel and erosion in its basin" (1955).That book is regarded in Russia as the pioneering work which initiated the complex hydrological and geographical studies of channel processes and laid a basis for the theory of unified fluvial erosion-accumulation process.

  2. State Estimation for a Biological Phosphorus Removal Process using an Asymptotic Observer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Claude Alain; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the use of an asymptotic observer for state estimation in a continuous biological phosphorus removal process. The estimated states are the concentration of heterotrophic, autotrophic, and phosphorus accumulating organisms, polyphosphate, glycogen and PHA. The reaction scheme...

  3. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  4. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Tonekaboni SH, Mollamohammadi M. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 1-8.AbstractObjectiveNeurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is a group of neurodegenerative disorder with deposition of iron in the brain (mainly Basal Ganglia leading to a progressive Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy often accompanied by psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline. 8 of the 10 genetically defined NBIA types are inherited as autosomal recessive and the remaining two by autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant manner. Brain MRI findings are almost specific and show abnormal brain iron deposition in basal ganglia some other related anatomicallocations. In some types of NBIA cerebellar atrophy is the major finding in MRI.ReferencesShevel M. Racial hygiene, activeeuthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden. Neurology 1992;42:2214-2219.HayflickSJ. Neurodegeneration with brain Iron accumulation: from genes to pathogenesis.Semin Pediatr Neurol 2006;13:182-185.Zhou B, Westawy SK, Levinson B, et al. A novel pantothenate kinase gene(PANK2 is defective in Hallervorden-Spatzsyndrome. Nat Genet 2001;28:345- 349.www.ncbi.nlm.nihgov/NBK111Y/university of Washington, seattle. Allison Gregory and Susan Hayflick.Paisan-Ruiz C, Li A, Schneider SA, et al. Widesread Levy body and tau accumulation in childhood and adult onset dystonia-parkinsonism cases with PLA2G6 mutations. Neurobiol Aging 2012;33:814-823.Dick KJ, Eckhardt M, Paison-Ruiz C, et al. Mutation of FA2H underlies a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia(SPG 35. Hum Mutat 31: E1251-E1260.Edvardson S, Hama H, Shaag A, et al. Mutation in the fatty acid 2-Hydroxylase gene are associated with leukodystrophy with spastic paraparesis and dystonia. Am I Hum Genet 2008;83:647-648.Schneider SA, Aggarwal A, Bhatt m, et al. Severe tongue protrusion dystonia: clinical syndromes

  5. THE ACCUMULATION AND DEPURATION OF NO. 2 FUEL OIL BY THE SOFT SHELL CLAM, 'MYA ARENARIA L.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young soft shell clams, Mya arenaria, were exposed to subacute concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil-in-water emulsions under simulated winter (4 C) spill conditions. A pattern of accumulation and discharge of petroleum constituents, an experimental depuration time (biological half li...

  6. Elevated HbA1c levels and the accumulation of differentiated T cells in CMV+ individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Rector; G.N. Thomas; V.E. Burns; J.B. Dowd; R.M. Herr; P.A. Moss; M.N. Jarczok; K. Hoffman; J.E. Fischer; J.A. Bosch

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Biological ageing of the immune system, or immunosenescence, predicts poor health and increased mortality. A hallmark of immunosenescence is the accumulation of differentiated cytotoxic T cells (CD27−CD45RA+/−; or dCTLs), partially driven by infection with the cytomegalovirus (CMV).

  7. Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhold, Jens; Filipe, Carlos D.M.; Daigger, Glen T.; Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1999-01-01

    examines the influence of the size of the internal PHA pool on the anoxic phosphorus uptake rate. Simulations implementing existing models for the growth of non-DNPAO and DNPAO are used to confirm the experimental results and to gain a better understanding of some of the observations. (C) 1999 IAWQ...

  8. Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhold, Jens; Filipe, Carlos D.M.; Daigger, Glen T.;

    1999-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations are presented that strongly support the hypothesis that PAO from activated sludge systems consist of two groups: a) denitrifying PAO (DNPAO) capable of using oxygen and nitrate and b) non-denitrifying PAO (non-DNPAO) only able to use oxygen. Batch experiment...

  9. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  10. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  11. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  12. Engineering scalable biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial, and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic, and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast, and mammal...

  13. Systems interface biology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis J Doyle; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Henc...

  14. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  15. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  16. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenten, K.J.; Greenstock, C.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  17. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  18. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility

  19. Multidimensional Skills, Sorting, and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Postel-Vinay; Jeremy Lise

    2015-01-01

    We construct a structural model of on-the-job search in which workers differ in skills along several dimensions (cognitive, manual, interpersonal) and sort themselves into jobs with heterogeneous skill requirements along those same dimensions. We further allow for skills to be accumulated when used, and eroded away when not used. We estimate the model using occupation-level measures of skill requirements based on O*NET data, combined with a worker-level panel from the NLSY79. We use the estim...

  20. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  1. Phospholipids accumulation in mucolipidosis IV cultured fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargal, R; Bach, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from mucolipidosis IV patients accumulated phospholipids when compared to normal controls or cells from other genotypes. The major stored compounds were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and to a larger extent lysophosphatidylcholine and lysobisphosphatidic acid. Pulse chase experiments of 32P-labelled phospholipids showed increased retention of these compounds in the mucolipidosis IV lines throughout the pulse and chase periods. Phospholipase A1, A2, C, D and lysophospholipase showed normal activity in the mucolipidosis IV lines and thus the metabolic cause for this storage remains to be identified. PMID:3139925

  2. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The...... index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation for...

  3. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta;

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised...... mitochondrial function of neurons within specific brain regions. This is accompanied by an elevated production of reactive oxygen species contributing to increased rates of neuronal loss in the AD-affected brain regions. In this review, we will discuss the role of mitochondrial function and dysfunction in AD...

  4. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  5. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  6. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  7. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology. PMID:24156739

  8. Relationship between Protein Accumulation and Nitrogen Accumulation and Translocation in Different Genotype Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Physiological studies of soybean [Glycine max(L.)Merr.]genotypes with wide differences in seed protein concentration may permit detection of important yield-related processes.In order to research the law of protein accumulation and the characteristics of N accumulation and translocation,we did an experiment with three soybean cultivars which have different protein content and the similar phase in pot culture.The results showed that the laws of protein accumulation of three soybean cultivars are similar in the course of seeding;protein content descended in the early stage,and increased steadily in the middle period,then increased quickly in the later period.But the speed of protein accumulation in soybean seeds was difference in different period.In addition,high-protein cultivar (Dongnong 42) and intermediate protein cultivar (Dongnong 7819) were more than those of low-protein cultivar (Dongnong 434),including nitrogen contents in leaf and petiole,stem and pod,peak value of nitrogen accumulation of the whole plant,value of nitrogen translocation,its efficiency.

  9. Biological Water or Rather Water in Biology?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 13 (2015), s. 2449-2451. ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological water * protein * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.458, year: 2014

  10. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...

  11. SECONDARY METABOLITES OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Deeptanjali Sahoo; Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum synthesizes and accumulates a variety of secondary metabolites. Some of the biologically active secondary metabolites such as eugenol, thymol, methyl cinnamate and geraniol are responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the well-known plant of this species and substantiate the claim in traditional system of medicine. The present review summarizes the information available on the secondary metabolites isolated from Ocimum gratissimum.

  12. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  14. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hausmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  15. Accumulation and metabolism of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the injection of RI into the mantle cavity of Iidako (Octopus ocellatus), changes of whole body radioactivity were examined. Both the inorganic and organic forms of cobalt were most heavily distributed in the branchial heart. Cyanocobalamin was distributed in an extremely small amount in the liver, but was more distributed in the arms, or gonad. Mn and Zn were almost equally distributed in most portions, but were scarcely accumulated in the branchial heart. Like Co, Fe was ubiquitous in the branchial heart. In relation to the gel filtration pattern of the branchial heart extract, Co-chloride mostly flowed out into the small molecular zone, and cyano-cobalamin into the heavy molecular zone. Mn, Zn and Fe flowed out into similar portions, and the outflux of protein in absorption spectrum was also similar. Only Co and Fe were concentrated in the branchial heart, suggesting not only that their forms of accumulation were similar, but also that Mn and Zn were present in similar forms. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos FL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frederick L Ramos, Jason S Krahnke, Victor KimDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Airway mucus is part of the lung's native immune function that traps particulates and microorganisms, enabling their clearance from the lung by ciliary transport and cough. Mucus hypersecretion and chronic productive cough are the features of the chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Overproduction and hypersecretion by goblet cells and the decreased elimination of mucus are the primary mechanisms responsible for excessive mucus in chronic bronchitis. Mucus accumulation in COPD patients affects several important outcomes such as lung function, health-related quality of life, COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and mortality. Nonpharmacologic options for the treatment of mucus accumulation in COPD are smoking cessation and physical measures used to promote mucus clearance. Pharmacologic therapies include expectorants, mucolytics, methylxanthines, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, anticholinergics, glucocorticoids, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, antioxidants, and antibiotics.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, mucus, sputum

  17. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  18. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  19. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  20. Analyses of environmental and biological specimens by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of environmental and biological specimens were carried out by PIXE. The yield of potassium (Kα line) is used as a standard for other elements. Environmental and biological samples studied here are standard polished glass beads (30/60 mesh), soil dust generated by studded tires, materials accumulated in a water supplying pipe, perfumes of China and Japan, ash, asbestos-dark, briquettes, synovial fluids, sex skin of a chimpanzee and so on. Concentrations of K, Ca, Fe and Zn in these biological samples are noticeable. (author)

  1. New aspects of storage protein accumulation in pea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain legumes are important not only because they rank fifth in world-wide production behind wheat, maize, rice and barley, but also because they have higher protein contents (20-40%) than most other seed types. The goal of our work is to obtain a more complete understanding of the cell biology of legume seed protein accumulation. To this end, we have used immunogold labeling techniques to study the localization of storage proteins in developing seeds of Pisum sativum. This presentation focuses on two novel observations related to the intracellular transport and storage of these seed proteins. Since continuities between the electron-dense cisternae and vacuoles may be disrupted by directional changes in the streaming cytoplasm during fixation, I re-examined the relationship between these two organelles in seeds in which cytoplasmic streaming was inhibited by chilling on ice. In a separate study, the distribution of both globulin (legumin and vicilin) and albumin (PA1) storage proteins in axis tissue of developing seeds was investigated. Using double labeling with 10 and 20 nm colloidal gold, compartmentation of a sulfur-rich albumin (PA1) and a globulin (vicilin) was demonstrated within individual vacuolar protein deposits in cells at the base of the epicotyl

  2. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  3. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF.......Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  4. Satellite detection of multi-decadal time series of cyanobacteria accumulations in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kahru

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species Nodularia spumigena, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scum. We describe the compilation of a 35 year (1979–2013 long time series of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on increased remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria, followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA and the total accumulated area affected (TA were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. FCA was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July–August. TA was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. FCA and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55 and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the 2nd half of the time series (13.8%, 1997–2013 than for the first half (8.6%, 1979–1996. However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11–17%, but rare (FCA below 4% from 1985 to 1990; they increased again from 1991 and particularly from 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25% and TA (~ 210 000 km2 in 2005 and 2008. After 2008 FCA declined to more moderate levels (6–17%. The timing of the accumulations has become earlier in

  5. Radiocesium accumulation properties of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Through the assessments of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, it has been reported that some sprouts of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav.) at the site contained radiocesium (((134),)(137)Cs) at higher concentrations than the other plants. To assess the phytoremediation properties of C. sciadophylloides for (137)Cs decontamination, we aimed to quantify the (137)Cs accumulation in C. sciadophylloides. We measured the (137)Cs concentrations in various organs of C. sciadophylloides collected from the forest in the town of Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture, together with the concentrations of other elements [potassium (K), rubidium, (133)Cs, calcium, strontium, and manganese] present. In addition, we compared the foliar concentrations of these elements in C. sciadophylloides with those in four different deciduous tree species. The mean of foliar (137)Cs concentration in C. sciadophylloides was 28.1 kBq kg(-1) DW, one order of magnitude higher than that found in the other species. The (137)Cs concentrations were in the order of leaves > bark > wood. The wood of the treetop, leaf scars, and roots contained higher amounts of (137)Cs than that of the trunk. From the distribution of (137)Cs in C. sciadophylloides, we confirmed that (137)Cs tends to accumulate in the young growing parts. The difference in the distribution of (137)Cs and (133)Cs indicated that surface uptake of (137)Cs occurs. A significant correlation between K and (137)Cs concentrations in each organ was found, which suggested that (137)Cs in the plant body is transferred through the same pathway as K. On the other hand, there was no correlation between foliar K and (137)Cs concentrations, implying that the uptake ratio of K to (137)Cs was different for each individual. To determine the factors driving specific (137)Cs accumulation and/or the variability of the ratio between K and (137)Cs, the distribution of (137)Cs and the root in soil

  6. Biological Aspects of Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Marine Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of radioactive wastes in marine waters allows for an accumulation of radioactivity by marine life. Such an accumulation by seafood organisms might affect their utilization or availability. Laboratory studies of accumulation of important radionuclides present in different wastes by marine plankton, benthic invertebrates and various species of marine fish and of the biological effects of accumulated radioactivity on these forms are being conducted at Beaufort, North Carolina, as a co-operative activity of the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. These investigations help provide essential information for the formulation of waste disposal practices and the safe operation of nuclear-powered ships in coastal waters. They are useful also in the development of monitoring programmes designed to detect and evaluate hazards from accidental pollution of inshore waters. (author)

  7. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...... sludge from two different pilot plants incorporating phosphorus removal. The results showed that the phosphorus accumulating bacteria can be divided into two groups in respect of process; one group capable of utilising only oxygen as oxidant and another group capable of utilising both oxygen and nitrate...... taken up by the phosphorus accumulating bacteria during the anaerobic phase affects the total denitrification rate, as well as the rate at which the phosphorus accumulating bacteria take up phosphate under anoxic conditions. The tests were conducted as batch experiments in 21. reactors with activated...

  8. Measuring the evolutionary rewiring of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Chong; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Lam, Hugo Y K; Yan, Koon-Kiu; Kim, Philip M; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark B

    2011-01-01

    We have accumulated a large amount of biological network data and expect even more to come. Soon, we anticipate being able to compare many different biological networks as we commonly do for molecular sequences. It has long been believed that many of these networks change, or "rewire", at different rates. It is therefore important to develop a framework to quantify the differences between networks in a unified fashion. We developed such a formalism based on analogy to simple models of sequence evolution, and used it to conduct a systematic study of network rewiring on all the currently available biological networks. We found that, similar to sequences, biological networks show a decreased rate of change at large time divergences, because of saturation in potential substitutions. However, different types of biological networks consistently rewire at different rates. Using comparative genomics and proteomics data, we found a consistent ordering of the rewiring rates: transcription regulatory, phosphorylation regulatory, genetic interaction, miRNA regulatory, protein interaction, and metabolic pathway network, from fast to slow. This ordering was found in all comparisons we did of matched networks between organisms. To gain further intuition on network rewiring, we compared our observed rewirings with those obtained from simulation. We also investigated how readily our formalism could be mapped to other network contexts; in particular, we showed how it could be applied to analyze changes in a range of "commonplace" networks such as family trees, co-authorships and linux-kernel function dependencies. PMID:21253555

  9. Measuring the evolutionary rewiring of biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Shou

    Full Text Available We have accumulated a large amount of biological network data and expect even more to come. Soon, we anticipate being able to compare many different biological networks as we commonly do for molecular sequences. It has long been believed that many of these networks change, or "rewire", at different rates. It is therefore important to develop a framework to quantify the differences between networks in a unified fashion. We developed such a formalism based on analogy to simple models of sequence evolution, and used it to conduct a systematic study of network rewiring on all the currently available biological networks. We found that, similar to sequences, biological networks show a decreased rate of change at large time divergences, because of saturation in potential substitutions. However, different types of biological networks consistently rewire at different rates. Using comparative genomics and proteomics data, we found a consistent ordering of the rewiring rates: transcription regulatory, phosphorylation regulatory, genetic interaction, miRNA regulatory, protein interaction, and metabolic pathway network, from fast to slow. This ordering was found in all comparisons we did of matched networks between organisms. To gain further intuition on network rewiring, we compared our observed rewirings with those obtained from simulation. We also investigated how readily our formalism could be mapped to other network contexts; in particular, we showed how it could be applied to analyze changes in a range of "commonplace" networks such as family trees, co-authorships and linux-kernel function dependencies.

  10. 47 CFR 32.3300 - Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-nonoperating. 32.3300....3300 Accumulated depreciation—nonoperating. (a) This account shall include the accumulated amortization and depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account 2006, Nonoperating Plant....

  11. Possibility of accumulation of energy from renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hanuš, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses issues of renewable sources energy accumulation. The first part describes possibilities of gaining energy from renewable sources, especially in our climatic conditions. In the second part a summary of energy accumulation methods is presented. The last part in detail analyses energy accumulation process at a pumped-storage power plant in conditions of the Czech Republic.

  12. Iodide accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; McFiggans, Gordon B.; Palmer, Carl J.; Waite, Tim J.; Boneberg, Eva-Maria; Woitsch, Sonja; Weiller, Markus; Abela, Rafael; Grolimund, Daniel; Potin, Philippe; Butler, Alison; Luther, George W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Feiters, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Brown algae of the Laminariales (kelps) are the strongest accumulators of iodine among living organisms. They represent a major pump in the global biogeochemical cycle of iodine and, in particular, the major source of iodocarbons in the coastal atmosphere. Nevertheless, the chemical state and biological significance of accumulated iodine have remained unknown to this date. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that the accumulated form is iodide, which readily scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We propose here that its biological role is that of an inorganic antioxidant, the first to be described in a living system. Upon oxidative stress, iodide is effluxed. On the thallus surface and in the apoplast, iodide detoxifies both aqueous oxidants and ozone, the latter resulting in the release of high levels of molecular iodine and the consequent formation of hygroscopic iodine oxides leading to particles, which are precursors to cloud condensation nuclei. In a complementary set of experiments using a heterologous system, iodide was found to effectively scavenge ROS in human blood cells. PMID:18458346

  13. Field shape of the accumulator LDA dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large Aperture Dipoles (LDA) are used in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to provide one half of the bending required for that storage ring. The production measurement data for those magnets are analyzed and the integrated field shape on the median plane at the design operating current (1,180 A) is reported. When linear (quadrupole) and parabolic (sextupole) terms are subtracted, the remaining field errors are only ∼10-4 over a ±4 inch aperture. Polynomial fits to that data can be interpreted in terms of normal harmonics of the magnetic field. However the polynomial fits are not unique. When the polynomial coefficients are expressed as harmonics with a reference radius of 1 inch, the nonlinear portions of this field (harmonics higher than quadrupole) are typically 10-5 to 10-6. Both individual magnet results and statistical profiles are reported along with studies of the fitting limitations

  14. Field shape of the accumulator LDA dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.C.

    1996-05-01

    Large Aperture Dipoles (LDA) are used in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to provide one half of the bending required for that storage ring. The production measurement data for those magnets are analyzed and the integrated field shape on the median plane at the design operating current (1,180 A) is reported. When linear (quadrupole) and parabolic (sextupole) terms are subtracted, the remaining field errors are only {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} over a {+-}4 inch aperture. Polynomial fits to that data can be interpreted in terms of normal harmonics of the magnetic field. However the polynomial fits are not unique. When the polynomial coefficients are expressed as harmonics with a reference radius of 1 inch, the nonlinear portions of this field (harmonics higher than quadrupole) are typically 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}6}. Both individual magnet results and statistical profiles are reported along with studies of the fitting limitations.

  15. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. PMID:27107492

  16. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth;

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from a...... wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.e. for...... total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration in...

  17. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  18. Rupture by Damage Accumulation in Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Amitrano, David

    2006-01-01

    The deformation of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage and its spatial localization lead to the creation of a macroscale discontinuity, so-called "fault" in geological terms, and to the failure of the material, i.e. a dramatic decrease of the mechanical properties as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin sections and dynamically by recording acoustic waves emitted by crack propagation (acoustic emission). Here we first review such observations concerning geological objects over scales ranging from the laboratory sample scale (dm) to seismically active faults (km), including cliffs and rock masses (Dm, hm). These observations reveal complex patterns in both space (fractal properties of damage structures as roughness and gouge), time (clustering, particular trends when the failure approaches) and energy domains (power-law distributions of energy release bursts). We use a numerical...

  19. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  20. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B12) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 104. The constituent had the activity of vitamin B12, while inorganic 60Co(CoCl2) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 106, 7 x 103 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 103 which did not show the activities of vitamin B12. The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  1. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  2. Characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation in two Cd accumulator oilseed rape species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RU Shu-hua; WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2004-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation by two Cd accumulator oilseed rape varieties and one Indian mustard grown on a loamy soil that had been artificially contaminated by different amounts of CdSO4 (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/kg soil). The relationship between shoot Cd uptake of the two oilseed rape cultivars and the soil Cd concentrations could be simulated via quadratic equations. The curve showed that maximum shoot Cd uptake of Indian mustard was 314.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 87.8 mg/kg, while maximum uptake of the variety Xikou Huazi was 543.3μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 69.1 mg/kg and that of the variety Zhongyou Za-1hao was 576.7μg/pot at soil Cd concentration of 84.0 mg/kg, suggesting that shoot Cd uptake ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was significantly higher than that of the Indian mustard. Xikou Huazi had higher phytoremediation potential for Cd contaminated soil. Shoot Cd accumulation ability of the two Cd accumulator oilseed rapes was correspond and Cd was easier translocated to the shoot than hyperaccumulator Indian mustard as comparation plant. Shoot Cd distribution pattern showed consistent and significant reduction from older leaves to younger ones of two oilseed rapes and Indian mustard. Cd uptake by oilseed rapes in growth prophase was higher than that of growth anaphase.

  3. High Rates of Species Accumulation in Animals with Bioluminescent Courtship Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Emily A; Oakley, Todd H

    2016-07-25

    One of the great mysteries of evolutionary biology is why closely related lineages accumulate species at different rates. Theory predicts that populations undergoing strong sexual selection will more quickly differentiate because of increased potential for genetic isolation [1-6]. Whether or not these population genetic processes translate to more species at macroevolutionary scales remains contentious [7]. Here we show that lineages with bioluminescent courtship, almost certainly a sexually selected trait, have more species and faster rates of species accumulation than their non-luminous relatives. In each of ten distantly related animal lineages from insects, crustaceans, annelid worms, and fishes, we find more species in lineages with bioluminescent courtship compared to their sister groups. Furthermore, we find under a Yule model that lineages with bioluminescent courtship displays have significantly higher rates of species accumulation compared to a larger clade that includes them plus non-luminous relatives. In contrast, we do not find more species or higher rates in lineages that use bioluminescence for defense, a function presumably not under sexual selection. These results document an association between the origin of bioluminescent courtship and increased accumulation of species, supporting theory predicting sexual selection increases rates of speciation at macroevolutionary scales to influence global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:27345160

  4. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  5. Are accumulated sulfide-bound metals metabolically available in the benthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Maarten; Eyckmans, Marleen; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2011-04-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between metal-binding sediment characteristics like acid volatile sulfides (AVS), metal accumulation, and internal metal distribution in the benthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and relates this accumulation to the induction of metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs). In total, 15 Flemish lowland rivers were sampled. Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, As, Cr, Co, and Ag concentrations were measured in environmental fractions (water and sediment) and worm tissue (both total and subcellular fractions). Furthermore, total cytosolic MTLP concentrations were measured in the worm tissue. Our results showed that Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr were mainly stored as biological detoxified metal (BDM) while Cu, Zn, As, and Ag were mostly available in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF). A remarkable difference in the subcellular distribution of accumulated Cd, Ni, and Co between anoxic (SEMMe-AVS0; mostly stored in the MSF) sediments was noticed. Moreover, a rapid increase in MTLP induction was found when SEMTot-AVS>0. Our results indicate that the accumulated sulfide-bound metals were detoxified and little available to the metabolism of T. tubifex under anoxic conditions. PMID:21375326

  6. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  7. Systems biology in aging: linking the old and the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Huang, Jialiang; Green, Christopher D; Boyd-Kirkup, Jerome; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xiaoming; Gong, Wenxuan; Zhou, Bing; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2012-11-01

    Aging can be defined as a process of progressive decline in the physiological capacity of an organism, manifested by accumulated alteration and destabilization at the whole system level. Systems biology approaches offer a promising new perspective to examine the old problem of aging. We begin this review by introducing the concepts of systems biology, and then illustrate the application of systems biology approaches to aging research, from gene expression profiling to network analysis. We then introduce the network that can be constructed using known lifespan and aging regulators, and conclude with a look forward to the future of systems biology in aging research. In summary, systems biology is not only a young field that may help us understand aging at a higher level, but also an important platform that can link different levels of knowledge on aging, moving us closer to a more comprehensive control of systematic decline during aging. PMID:23633915

  8. Systems biology studies of Aspergilli - from sequence to science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2008-01-01

    The recent dawn of the new biological mindset called systems biology has put forth a new way of analyzing and understanding biology. Carried by the notion that no element of a cell is an island, systems biology takes a holistic approach, and attempts to understand life as systems that have co...... transcriptomic to mention a few. The recent publication of the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus species (Aspergilli), has, along with the accumulation of years of reductionist studies, been a catalyst for the application of systems biology to this interesting group of fungi. Among...... the genome sequenced Aspergilli are a known human pathogen (Aspergillus fumigatus), a model organism for cellular mechanisms (Aspergillus nidulans) and two industrial workhorses (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae). In the presented work, new analytical and computational tools have been designed...

  9. Biological functions of decorin in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Bi; Wancai Yang

    2013-01-01

    Decorin is a member of the extracellular matrix small leucine-rich proteoglycans family that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells.Accumulating evidence suggests that decorin affects the biology of various types of cancer by directly or indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth,survival,metastasis,and angiogenesis.More recent studies show that decorin plays important roles during tumor development and progression and is a potential cancer therapeutic agent.In this article,we summarize recent studies of decorin in cancer and discuss decorin's therapeutic and prognostic value.

  10. Spectroscopy of biological nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Ortac, Inanc; Severcan, Feride

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystals have gained much interest in recent years, due to their unusual properties allowing interesting applications in physical and biological science. In this literature review, biological nanocrystals are discussed from the spectroscopic point of view. Firstly, the theory behind the outstanding abilities of the nanocrystals is described. Secondly, the spectroscopic properties of biological nanocrystals are mentioned. Lastly, the use of nanocrystals with various spectroscopic applicati...

  11. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  12. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  13. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  14. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  15. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  16. Foundations of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorav, Jean-Louis; Braslau, Alan; Goldar, Arach

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that there are no laws in biology, where everything is contingent and could have been otherwise, being solely the result of historical accidents. Furthermore, the customary introduction of fundamental biological entities such as individual organisms, cells, genes, catalysts and motors remains largely descriptive; constructive approaches involving deductive reasoning appear, in comparison, almost absent. As a consequence, both the logical content and principles of biology ne...

  17. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  18. Influence of new forms of potassium fertilizers on the radionuclide accumulation of Sr90 and Cs137 in green mass of field pea-oats mixtures on sod-podsolic sandy loam soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of standard and slow acting potassium fertilizers with biological additives on radionuclide accumulation of Sr90 and Cs137 in green mass field pea-oats mixtures was studied in the field experiments. Application of new forms potassium fertilizers reduces the accumulation of Cs137 and Sr90 in green mass by 8-32% in comparison with standard potassium fertilizers

  19. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  20. Accumulation and transport of minerals by marine protozoa. Progress report, September 1, 1976--November 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tintinnida are abundant microzooplankton found in all of the world's oceans, and important components of the marine food web as predators, prey, and as regenerators of nutrients. The agglutinated forms take on added importance in coastal waters. Representatives of this group have the unique ability among ciliates to pick up particles from the environment and incorporate them into the lorica. The ecological significance of the phenomenon lies in: it is a pathway whereby radionuclides, metals and other toxic substance can be biologically concentrated and transferred from sediments and the water column to the biota; from the viewpoint of microzooplankton as indicators of environmental perturbations, pollution, or water mass movements, it is important to determine whether minerals accumulated on the lorica can serve as a guide to the site where they originate. Results are reported from studies in progress on the types of mineral matter accumulated by tintinnids

  1. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Tarayre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs, accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells.

  2. Innovative Approach to the Accumulation of Rubrosterone by Fermentation of Asparagus filicinus with Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Cai, Le; Dong, Jian-Wei; Xing, Yun; Duan, Wei-He; Zhou, Hao; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-07-29

    Rubrosterone, possessing various remarkable bioactivities, is an insect-molting C19-steroid. However, only very small amounts are available for biological tests due to its limited content from plant sources. Fungi of genus Fusarium have been reported to have the ability to convert C27-steroids into C19-steroids. In this study, Asparagus filicinus, containing a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was utilized to accumulate rubrosterone through solid fermentation by Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that F. oxysporum had the ability to facilitate the complete biotransformation of 20-hydroxyecdysone to rubrosterone by solid-state fermentation. The present method could be an innovative and efficient approach to accumulate rubrosterone with an outstanding conversion ratio. PMID:26145461

  3. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarayre, Cédric; Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Brognaux, Alison; Delepierre, Anissa; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells. PMID:27258275

  4. A method of heat accumulation and a direct-contact latent melting heat thermal accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method for the accumulation of heat, and to a direct-contact latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a coolant fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with a material C having a high latent melting-heat, said fluid F and material C being in heat exchange relationship at a temperature in the vicinity of the melting point of C, whereby, when hot fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the later will melt and store heat in the form of latent melting-heat while cooling fluid F, and when cold fluid F is caused to be in direct contact with material C, the latter will solidify by transferring heat to fluid F. This can be applied to the manufacturing of heat-exchangers for coupling an electric power-station to a distribution network

  5. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  6. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  7. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  8. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  9. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  10. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  11. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  12. Significant silicon accumulation by marine picocyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Stephen B.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Vogt, Stefan; Assael, Dylan; McDaniel, Hannah

    2012-12-01

    The marine silicon cycle is thought to be intimately tied to the carbon cycle through its effect on the growth of diatoms. These unicellular algae form substantial blooms in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Their dense, siliceous cell walls promote the sinking of particulate matter, and all the carbon and nutrients contained therein. As such, diatoms are thought to be the primary organisms responsible for the low levels of dissolved silicon observed in the surface ocean and the export of mineral silica to depth. Here, we use synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine the elemental composition of individual diatoms and cyanobacterial cells from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Sargasso Sea. We show that cells of Synechococcus, a small unicellular marine cyanobacterium that dominates in nutrient-depleted waters, can exhibit cellular ratios of silicon to sulphur, and silicon to phosphorus, approaching those detected in diatoms in the same location. Silicon accumulation was also observed in cultured Synechococcus strains. We estimate that the water column inventory of silicon in Synechococcus can exceed that of diatoms in some cases. We suggest that picocyanobacteria may exert a previously unrecognized influence on the oceanic silicon cycle, especially in nutrient-poor waters.

  13. Beam diagnostics of the TRISTAN accumulation ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam diagnostic system of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring consists of beam position monitors, visible radiation monitors, x-ray monitors, tune measurement setup, etc.. Eighty-six position monitors are installed around the ring. For the closed orbit measurement, a superheterodyne circuit is used to pick up the 479-th harmonic of the revolution frequency (795 kHz) out of beam pulse trains. Synchrotron light is observed in the visible region and in the x-ray region. Visible radiation is used in three ways: profile monitoring by TV cameras, beam current measurement and bunch shape observation by a streak camera. In the x-ray channel a multi-wire ionization chamber is used to get a digitized profile of the x-ray source. Stripline pickups are installed to detect transverse oscillations of e+ and e- bunches. The envelope signal of pulse trains will be sent to an FFT processor for tune number identification. At the same time the signals are amplified and fed back to wideband deflection electrodes for damping of the oscillaitons

  14. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  15. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  16. Bilirubin Binding to PPARα Inhibits Lipid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, David E; John, Kezia; Trabbic, Christopher J; Luniwal, Amarjit; Hankins, Michael W; Baum, Justin; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous clinical and population studies have demonstrated that increased serum bilirubin levels protect against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, and the beneficial actions of moderate increases in plasma bilirubin have been thought to be due to the antioxidant effects of this bile pigment. In the present study, we found that bilirubin has a new function as a ligand for PPARα. We show that bilirubin can bind directly to PPARα and increase transcriptional activity. When we compared biliverdin, the precursor to bilirubin, on PPARα transcriptional activation to known PPARα ligands, WY 14,643 and fenofibrate, it showed that fenofibrate and biliverdin have similar activation properties. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with biliverdin suppressed lipid accumulation and upregulated PPARα target genes. We treated wild-type and PPARα KO mice on a high fat diet with fenofibrate or bilirubin for seven days and found that both signal through PPARα dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of bilirubin on lowering glucose and reducing body fat percentage was blunted in PPARα KO mice. These data demonstrate a new function for bilirubin as an agonist of PPARα, which mediates the protection from adiposity afforded by moderate increases in bilirubin. PMID:27071062

  17. Study of the influence of ionizing radiation on the dynamics of accumulation of anthocyanins, flavonoids and carotenoids in individual organs of Alhagi Pseudalhagi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : It is known that the formation and accumulation of biologically active substances is a dynamic process. Their content varies in ontogeny plants and depending on environmental factors. In the present work it is studied the dynamics of accumulation of anthocyanins, flavonoids and carotenoids in certain organs of the plant in the budding phase. On the ability to accumulate flavonoids second place is occupied by the stem and flowers of the plant. In a certain amount of flavonoids are presented in plant seeds. In this case the roots of the plant show the least ability for accumulation of flavonoids. Regarding the role of radiation in the process, it should be noted that it plays a minor role in accumulation of flavonoids

  18. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  19. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  20. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  1. Motor protein accumulation on antiparallel microtubule overlaps

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would na\\"ively expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center ...

  2. Motor Protein Accumulation on Antiparallel Microtubule Overlaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D

    2016-05-10

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Overlap motor density profiles and motor trajectories resemble experimental measurements. The phase diagram of the model is similar to the single-filament case for low switching rate, while for high switching rate we find a new (to our knowledge) low density-high density-low density-high density phase. The overlap center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would naïvely expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center motor density depends on total overlap length, motor speed, and motor switching rate. The size of the crowded boundary layer near the overlap ends is also dependent on the overlap length and switching rate in addition to the motor speed and bulk concentration. The antiparallel microtubule overlap geometry may offer a previously unrecognized mechanism for biological regulation of protein concentration and consequent activity. PMID:27166811

  3. Motor Protein Accumulation on Antiparallel Microtubule Overlaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-05-01

    Biopolymers serve as one-dimensional tracks on which motor proteins move to perform their biological roles. Motor protein phenomena have inspired theoretical models of one-dimensional transport, crowding, and jamming. Experiments studying the motion of Xklp1 motors on reconstituted antiparallel microtubule overlaps demonstrated that motors recruited to the overlap walk toward the plus end of individual microtubules and frequently switch between filaments. We study a model of this system that couples the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) for motor motion with switches between antiparallel filaments and binding kinetics. We determine steady-state motor density profiles for fixed-length overlaps using exact and approximate solutions of the continuum differential equations and compare to kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Overlap motor density profiles and motor trajectories resemble experimental measurements. The phase diagram of the model is similar to the single-filament case for low switching rate, while for high switching rate we find a new low density-high density-low density-high density phase. The overlap center region, far from the overlap ends, has a constant motor density as one would naively expect. However, rather than following a simple binding equilibrium, the center motor density depends on total overlap length, motor speed, and motor switching rate. The size of the crowded boundary layer near the overlap ends is also dependent on the overlap length and switching rate in addition to the motor speed and bulk concentration. The antiparallel microtubule overlap geometry may offer a previously unrecognized mechanism for biological regulation of protein concentration and consequent activity.

  4. ncDNA and drift drive binding site accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruths Troy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS in an organism’s genome positively correlates with the complexity of the regulatory network of the organism. However, the manner by which TFBS arise and accumulate in genomes and the effects of regulatory network complexity on the organism’s fitness are far from being known. The availability of TFBS data from many organisms provides an opportunity to explore these issues, particularly from an evolutionary perspective. Results We analyzed TFBS data from five model organisms – E. coli K12, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, A. thaliana – and found a positive correlation between the amount of non-coding DNA (ncDNA in the organism’s genome and regulatory complexity. Based on this finding, we hypothesize that the amount of ncDNA, combined with the population size, can explain the patterns of regulatory complexity across organisms. To test this hypothesis, we devised a genome-based regulatory pathway model and subjected it to the forces of evolution through population genetic simulations. The results support our hypothesis, showing neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain TFBS patterns, and that selection on the regulatory network function does not alter this finding. Conclusions The cis-regulome is not a clean functional network crafted by adaptive forces alone, but instead a data source filled with the noise of non-adaptive forces. From a regulatory perspective, this evolutionary noise manifests as complexity on both the binding site and pathway level, which has significant implications on many directions in microbiology, genetics, and synthetic biology.

  5. Extra- and intra-cellular accumulation of platinum group elements by the marine microalga, Chlorella stigmatophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Leyla; Turner, Andrew; Millward, Geoffrey E; Brown, Murray T

    2014-03-01

    To better understand the marine biogeochemistry of the platinum group elements (PGE), Rh(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) were added in combination and at ppb concentrations to cultures of the marine microalga, Chlorella stigmatophora, maintained in sea water at 15 °C and under 60 μmol m(-2) s(-1) PAR. The accumulation of PGE was established in short-term (24-h) exposures, and under varying conditions of algal biomass and PGE concentration, and in a longer-term exposure (156-h) by ICP-MS analysis of sea water and nitric acid digests and EDTA washes of the alga. In short-term exposures, and under all conditions, the extent of accumulation by C. stigmatophora was in the order: Rh > Pd > Pt; and Pd was internalised (or resistant to EDTA extraction) to a considerably greater extent than Rh and Pt. Accumulation isotherms were quasi-linear up to added PGE concentrations of 30 μg L(-1) and all metals displayed a significant reduction in accumulation on a weight-normalised basis with increasing density (biomass) of C. stigmatophora, an effect attributed to the production of exudates able to stabilise metals in sea water through complexation. In the longer-term exposure, kinetic constraints on the reactivities of Rh and, in particular, Pt, resulted in final degrees of accumulation and internalisation by C. stigmatophora that were greatest for Rh and similar between Pd and Pt. Among the PGE, therefore, Rh is predicted to participate in biological removal and transport processes in the marine environment to the greatest extent while decoupling in the biogeochemistries of Pd and Pt is predicted in shorter-term or more transient processes. PMID:24268058

  6. Molecular Biology of Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuanXi; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger; PaulM.Schneider

    2004-01-01

    There have been many new developments in our understanding of esophageal carcinoma biology over the past several years. Information regarding both of the major forms of this disease, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, has accumulated in conjunction with data on precursor conditions such as Barrett's esophagus. Interesting and promising findings have included overexpression of proto-oncogenes,loss of heterozygosity at multiple chromosomal loci, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation, and mutations and deletions involving the tumor suppressor gene p53. Important cancer pathways, the cyclin kinase inhibitor cascade and the DNA mismatch repair process, implicated in the genesis of multiple tumor types have also been inculpated in esophageal carcinogenesis. Alterations in the p16 and p15 cyclin kinase inhibitors including point mutations and homozygous deletions have been reported in primary esophageal tumors. Further developments in the field of molecular carcinogenesis of esophageal malignancies promise to yield improvements in prevention, early detection, prognostic categorization, and perhaps gene-based therapy of this deadly disease.

  7. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research. PMID:27138002

  8. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qihong Zhang,1 Carol R Flach,1 Richard Mendelsohn,1 Guangru Mao,2 Apostolos Pappas,2 M Catherine Mack,2 Russel M Walters,2 Michael D Southall2 1Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, 2Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USAAbstract: Ceramides (CERs, structural components of the stratum corneum (SC, impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.Keywords: stratum corneum, infrared imaging, topical delivery, oleic acid

  9. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  10. Biological control of Fusarium moniliforme in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C W; Yates, I E; Hinton, D M; Meredith, F

    2001-05-01

    Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a biological species of the mating populations within the (italic)Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, i.e., population A [= G. moniliformis (Sheld.) Wineland], is an example of a facultative fungal endophyte. During the biotrophic endophytic association with maize, as well as during saprophytic growth, F. moniliforme produces the fumonisins. The fungus is transmitted vertically and horizontally to the next generation of plants via clonal infection of seeds and plant debris. Horizontal infection is the manner by which this fungus is spread contagiously and through which infection occurs from the outside that can be reduced by application of certain fungicides. The endophytic phase is vertically transmitted. This type infection is important because it is not controlled by seed applications of fungicides, and it remains the reservoir from which infection and toxin biosynthesis takes place in each generation of plants. Thus, vertical transmission of this fungus is just as important as horizontal transmission. A biological control system using an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, has been developed that shows great promise for reducing mycotoxin accumulation during the endophytic (vertical transmission) growth phase. Because this bacterium occupies the identical ecological niche within the plant, it is considered an ecological homologue to F. moniliforme, and the inhibitory mechanism, regardless of the mode of action, operates on the competitive exclusion principle. In addition to this bacterium, an isolate of a species of the fungus Trichoderma shows promise in the postharvest control of the growth and toxin accumulation from F. moniliforme on corn in storage. PMID:11359703

  11. Using lead-acid accumulators in hybrid electric vehicle regime

    OpenAIRE

    Hejdiš, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The master´s thesis discuss characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and lead-acid accumulators applied in car industry. It compares classic and alternative drive in cars, descibes classification of hybrid drives and its characteristics. Further work disscus lead-acid accumulators which focuses on VRLA accumulators applied in hybrid electric cars. Practical part contains a construction description of negative electrode and experiment, which studied influence of various amount addition of c...

  12. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented. In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-...

  13. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  14. Capital accumulation and the growth of aggregate agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    This report empirically examines the role which capital accumulation plays in the growth of agricultural production potential. The report assumes that the degree to which available technology can be implemented in a nation's agricultural sector depends on accumulated investments that have been made in the sector. Results from estimating aggregate agricultural production functions show the primary importance of rural labor in accounting for agricultural GDP and crop production. Capital accumul...

  15. Prophylaxis of early ventricular fibrillation by inhibition of acylcarnitine accumulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Corr, P B; Creer, M H; Yamada, K.A.; Saffitz, J E; Sobel, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    Hypoxia in isolated myocytes results in accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCA) in sarcolemma. Inhibition of carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I) with sodium 2-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-pentyl]-oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA) prevents both the accumulation of LCA in the sarcolemma and the initial electrophysiologic derangements associated with hypoxia. Another amphiphilic metabolite, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), accumulates in the ischemic heart in vivo, in part because of inhibition of its c...

  16. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  17. Drug accumulation in the presence of the multidrug resistance pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh, S; Litman, Thomas; Stein, W D

    1997-01-01

    We studied the interaction between the multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, and two compounds that interact with it: vinblastine, a classical substrate of the pump, and verapamil, a classical reverser. Steady-state levels of accumulation of these two drugs were determined in a multidrug resistant...... P388 leukemia cell line, P388/ADR. The time course of accumulation of these drugs, and the effect of energy starvation and the presence of chloroquine on the level of their steady-state accumulation were quite disparate. Vinblastine inhibited the accumulation of verapamil whereas it enhanced the...

  18. Meso and macroscopic considerations about damage accumulation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, Jacek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)], E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl; Thome, Lionel [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Romaniec, Magdalena [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland); Moll, Sandra [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France)

    2009-08-15

    Meso (effect of grain size) and macroscopic (effect of sample dimension) considerations about damage accumulation processes are discussed. Although both factors may significantly influence damage accumulation kinetics, they are not taken into account in most of currently used models. The role of meso and macroscopic factors may be explained in the framework of a recently developed model of damage accumulation (Multi-Step Damage Accumulation - MSDA), which assumes that the damage build-up can be regarded as a sequence of structural transformations triggered by the destabilization of the current structure of a crystal induced by radiation damage.

  19. Meso and macroscopic considerations about damage accumulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meso (effect of grain size) and macroscopic (effect of sample dimension) considerations about damage accumulation processes are discussed. Although both factors may significantly influence damage accumulation kinetics, they are not taken into account in most of currently used models. The role of meso and macroscopic factors may be explained in the framework of a recently developed model of damage accumulation (Multi-Step Damage Accumulation - MSDA), which assumes that the damage build-up can be regarded as a sequence of structural transformations triggered by the destabilization of the current structure of a crystal induced by radiation damage.

  20. Evaluation of 67Ga accumulation around the shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    67Ga scintigraphy was performed in 865 patients, and in 1078 examinations. 67Ga accumulation was evaluated retrospectively for asymmetric accumulation in the shoulders. Approximately 50% of patients showed no asymmetric distribution of 67Ga in the shoulders. About 40% of patients showed increased accumulation in the right side and about 10% of patients showed increased accumulation in the left side. A change of 67Ga distribution in the shoulder joints was recognized in about 30% of patients during the follow-up study. Reasons for asymmetric distribution of 67Ga in the shoulders were considered to be due to bone metastasis, changes of local blood flow, edema, irradiation, muscle atrophy after cerebral paralysis, and operation. 67Ga scintigraphy showed a broader range and more prominent accumulation in the soft tissues around the shoulder joint than 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy. The accumulation of 99mTc-MDP was recognized to be in the center of the region of 67Ga accumulation. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy showed more prominently increased accumulation than 67Ga scintigraphy in patients with osseous lesions. Similar factors appeared to have had an influence on the abnormal accumulation of 67Ga and 99mTc-MDP around the shoulder joint. (author)

  1. Aerobic granular sludge for simultaneous accumulation of mineral phosphorus and removal of nitrogen via nitrite in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmei; Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Sun, Jing

    2014-02-01

    Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the aerobic granular sludge process for simultaneous phosphorus (P) accumulation by chemical precipitation and biological nitrogen removal via nitrite. The P-rich granules were successfully incubated in a sequencing batch reactor, in which simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred via nitrite. The average diameter of the P-rich granules was 2.47 mm and the P content in granules was much higher than that in other granular systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Filamentous bacteria (genus Thiothrix) in the granules and the long sludge retention time (30 d) of the granular system played a crucial role in accumulation of precipitated phosphate. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray and the experimental design using response surface methodology confirmed that the main mineral patterns in P-rich granules were Ca-Mg phosphate and whitlockite. PMID:24388958

  2. Comprehensive Metabolomic, Lipidomic and Microscopic Profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during Lipid Accumulation Identifies Targets for Increased Lipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R Pomraning

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  3. The Competition between Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms and Glycogen-Accumulating Organisms: Temperature Effects and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to su

  4. The competition between polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and glycogen-accumulating organisms: temperature effects and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Vázquez, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to relatively high phosphorus removal efficiency and economy, the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a widely applied process to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. However, the EBPR process can be prone to su

  5. A Molecular Biology Database Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Kröger, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Computational Biology or Bioinformatics has been defined as the application of mathematical and Computer Science methods to solving problems in Molecular Biology that require large scale data, computation, and analysis [18]. As expected, Molecular Biology databases play an essential role in Computational Biology research and development. This paper introduces into current Molecular Biology databases, stressing data modeling, data acquisition, data retrieval, and the integration...

  6. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  7. Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms and Biogeochemical Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, J.; Walter, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Despite extensive research, many of the processes that control phosphorus (P) movement from agricultural fields to streams and lakes are not well understood. This limits our ability to develop management strategies that will mediate P contamination of freshwater ecosystems and subsequent eutrophication. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have prompted a paradigm shift in wastewater treatment that recognizes and exploits the ways specific microbial processes influence P solubility. Central to this enhanced biological phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment plants is a relatively recently discovered microorganism, Candidatus accumulibacter, which takes-up P and stores it internally as polyphosphate under alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Within the past few months we have discovered this organism in the natural environment and its role in P biogeochemistry is unclear. We speculate that it may function similarly in variable source areas, which experience cycles of saturation and desaturation, as it does in the anaerobic- aerobic cycles in a wastewater treatment plant. If so, there may be potential opportunities to realize similarly new perspectives and advancements in the watershed context as have been seen in wastewater technologies. Here we present some of our preliminary findings.

  8. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean

  9. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  10. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  11. Teaching evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidon Rosana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Biology integrates several disciplines of Biology in a complex and interactive manner, where a deep understanding of the subject demands knowledge in diverse areas. Since this knowledge is often inaccessible to the majority of specialized professionals, including the teachers, we present some reflections in order to stimulate discussions aimed at the improvement of the conditions of education in this area. We examine the profile of evolutionary teaching in Brazil, based on questionnaires distributed to teachers in Secondary Education in the Federal District, on data provided by the "National Institute for Educational Studies and Research", and on information collected from teachers working in various regions of this country. Issues related to biological misconceptions, curriculum and didactic material are discussed, and some proposals are presented with the objective of aiding discussions aimed at the improvement of the teaching of evolutionary biology.

  12. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  13. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  14. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted or...... residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled, and...

  15. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean....

  16. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  17. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  18. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted or...... residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled, and...

  19. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  20. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  1. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  2. Ontologies for molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Kremer, S

    1998-01-01

    Molecular biology has a communication problem. There are many databases using their own labels and categories for storing data objects and some using identical labels and categories but with a different meaning. A prominent example is the concept "gene" which is used with different semantics by major international genomic databases. Ontologies are one means to provide a semantic repository to systematically order relevant concepts in molecular biology and to bridge the different notions in various databases by explicitly specifying the meaning of and relation between the fundamental concepts in an application domain. Here, the upper level and a database branch of a prospective ontology for molecular biology (OMB) is presented and compared to other ontologies with respect to suitability for molecular biology (http:/(/)igd.rz-berlin.mpg.de/approximately www/oe/mbo.html). PMID:9697223

  3. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  4. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  5. The Biology of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  6. Synthetic biology: A foundation for multi-scale molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K; Stephen S. Fong

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Bu...

  7. Studies on the chemical behaviour of radioactive nuclides in fresh water and their accumulation by fresh water organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of importance to do the basic investigation on the cycling of radioactive nuclides in terrestrial environments. Up to this time, accumulation, excretion and distribution of radioactive nuclides such as 131I, sup(115m)Cd, 85Sr, 203Hg, 131Ba, 22Na and 58Co in fresh water fish have been investigated. This paper concentrates in accumulation and excretion of 131I, and distribution and excretion of 203Hg-labelled methyl mercury chloride in fresh water fish. It was observed that, under co-existence of IO3-, the concentration factor of 131I concerning fresh water fish came near to that of marine fish as if the accumulation of 131I were stimulated by IO3- ions. Clear difference was recognized on the excretion patterns of 131I between fresh water fish and marine fish. In case of fresh water fish, 131I was excreted much more through kidney than through gills. Biological half-life of 131I from whole body of fresh water fish was about 15 days. Transfer of 203Hg labelled methyl mercury chloride to the brain of carp was investigated by means of abdominal administration of the nuclide. Not so much accumulation was obtained in the brain. Biological half-life of the nuclide from the brain was calculated as 198 days. (author)

  8. Computational Thinking in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Priami, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach based on process calculi to systems modeling suitable for biological systems. The main characteristic of process calculi is a linguistic description level to dene incrementally and compositionally executable models. The formalism is suitable to be exploited on the same systems at dierent levels of abstractions connected through well dened formal rules. The abstraction principle that represents biological entities as interacting computational units is the basi...

  9. Biological Sciences Building

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Biological Sciences Building. The HKU Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building is an 11-storey reinforced concrete framed building with a structural steel arch roof. The building dimensions are approximately 60 metres x 30 metres. The estimated project cost for the superstructure construction (excluding the bored pile foundations) was about HK$ 400 million....

  10. Biological treatment for sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Xintai, Wang; Luc Sanya, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The sewage treatment is by no means insignificant in our world, and for many sewage treatment plants, the biological treatment is the best choice to eliminate the nutrients and organic compounds in the waste water. Today, in most waste water treatment plants, there are two main kinds of biological waste water treatment – the active sludge method and the biofilm method. Each of these two methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. For different towns or cities, the waste water treatme...

  11. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  12. Biological sequence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Speed, T. P.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will review a little over a decade's research on applying certain stochastic models to biological sequence analysis. The models themselves have a longer history, going back over 30 years, although many novel variants have arisen since that time. The function of the models in biological sequence analysis is to summarize the information concerning what is known as a motif or a domain in bioinformatics, and to provide a tool for discovering instances of that motif or domain in a separa...

  13. Noise in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimring, Lev S

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evol...

  14. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  15. Pb uptake, accumulation, subcellular distribution in a Pb-accumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii (Hance)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 杨肖娥; 倪吾钟; 魏幼璋; 叶海波

    2003-01-01

    Lead concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii (Hance) were studied through a hydroponic experiment with different Pb concentrations sup-plied as Pb( NO3 )2 .Lead concentrations in leaves and stems of the accumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 3-5 times those of the non-accumulating ecotype, and Pb-accumulated amounts in stems and leaves of theaccumulating ecotype were 4-9 times and 8-1l times higher than those of the non-accumulating ecotype,respectively. The results indicated that the accumulating ecotype had better ability to transport Pb from roots toshoots. The subeellular distributions of Pb in the root, stem and leaf tissues were studied using sucrose differ-ential centrifugation. Approximately 50% of Pb contents was found to be associated with the cell wall fractionin stems of the accumulating ecotype and the percentage increased to 80% both in roots and leaves, no matter when plants were grown with different levels of Pb. The results indicated that the distribution of Pb on cell walls of the accumulating ecotype could mainly account for the high tolerance to Pb.

  16. The study of accumulation of Sr 90 by plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the absorption and desorption of ions Sr 90 by plant cells and influence of different physical and chemical factors of environment on that processes were investigated. The kinetics of strontium accumulation have been obtained and the factors of accumulation of Sr 90 have been determined for a plant cell itself and its separate compartments

  17. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...

  18. Patterns of sediment and phosphorus accumulation in a riparian buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers prevent sediment and phosphorus (P) from reaching streams, but their accumulation in buffers is seldom measured. This study's objectives were to determine accumulations of sediment and P in a multi-species riparian buffer, and characterize spatial-temporal patterns of P in soil wate...

  19. 47 CFR 36.503 - Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-Account 3100. 36.503 Section 36.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Accumulated depreciation—Account 3100. (a) Amounts recorded in this account shall be separated on the basis...

  20. The Effects of the Capital Accumulation Ratio on Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Nathaniel J.; Finke, Michael S.; Chatterjee, Swarn

    2009-01-01

    The capital accumulation ratio (CAR) is commonly used in academic research as a measure of household portfolio quality. This study tested whether a higher initial CAR impacts change in wealth over a decade among households in the accumulation life cycle stage. Meeting the 25% CAR guideline resulted in a 28.1% increase in net worth between 1994 and…

  1. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  2. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  3. Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.

    The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.

  4. Metabolic characteristics of a glycogen-accumulating organism in Defluviicoccus cluster II revealed by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Guo, Feng; Mao, Yanping; Xia, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) may compete with phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) for short-chain fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, but no consequently aerobic polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, thus deteriorating the EBPR process. They are detected frequently in the deteriorated EBPR process, but their metabolisms are still far from our comprehensions for there is seldom pure culture. In this study, a nearly complete draft genome of a GAOs in Defluviicoccus cluster II, GAO-HK, is recruited from the metagenome of activated sludge in a full-scale industrial anoxic/aerobic wastewater plant. Comparative genomics reveal similar metabolisms of PHA and glycogen in GAOs of GAO-HK, Defluviicoccus tetraformis TFO71 (TFO71) and Competibacter phosphatis clade IIA (CPIIA), and PAOs of Accumulibacter clade IIA UW-1 (UW-1) and Tetrasphaera elongata Lp2 (Lp2). Although there are similar gene cassettes related with polyphosphate metabolism in these GAOs and PAOs, especially for Defluviicoccus-relative bacteria and UW-1, ppk1 in GAOs are diverse from those in the identified PAOs, implying the difference of polyphosphate metabolism in GAOs and PAOs. Additionally, genes related to the dissimilatory denitrification are absent in TFO71 and GAO-HK, implying that additional nitrate or nitrite may favor PAOs over Defluviicoccus-relative GAOs. Therefore, PAOs suffering from competition of Defluviicoccus-relative GAOs might be rescued with the additional nitrate/nitrite, which is important to improve the stability of EBPR processes. PMID:24889288

  5. Age- and temperature-dependent somatic mutation accumulation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a transgenic mouse model harboring a mutation reporter gene that can be efficiently recovered from genomic DNA, we previously demonstrated that mutations accumulate in aging mice in a tissue-specific manner. Applying a recently developed, similar reporter-based assay in Drosophila melanogaster, we now show that the mutation frequency at the lacZ locus in somatic tissue of flies is about three times as high as in mouse tissues, with a much higher fraction of large genome rearrangements. Similar to mice, somatic mutations in the fly also accumulate as a function of age, but they do so much more quickly at higher temperature, a condition which in invertebrates is associated with decreased life span. Most mutations were found to accumulate in the thorax and less in abdomen, suggesting the highly oxidative flight muscles as a possible source of genotoxic stress. These results show that somatic mutation loads in short-lived flies are much more severe than in the much longer-lived mice, with the mutation rate in flies proportional to biological rather than chronological aging.

  6. A comparison of metal accumulation by the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris directly from water or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The cnidarian Hydra has been widely used to assess the acute toxicity of freshwater pollutants, but very little is known about pollutant accumulation by this animal. The purpose of this study was to measurethe accumulation of the three metals, i.e., copper, cadmium and zinc directly from water and also via its prey and to relate the recorded tissue concentrations to any change in biological activities. It was found thatcopper, cadmium and zinc all were accumulated in the tissues of Hydra exposed directly to the metals in water and also those exposed indirectly through feeding on contaminated prey. The bioconcentration factor(BCF recorded at 48 hours following direct uptake from water was greatest for copper (773, followed by cadmium (409 and zinc (125, although the greatest increase in body burden occurred with cadmium, Metal body burdens of Hydra fed on contaminated prey (Artemia increased in the same metal sequence as fordirect uptake from water and the increase was highest (250 times that of control Hydra for cadmium; however, biomagnification factors (BMFs were all < 1.0 indicating that there was little potential for increasingaccumulation via the food chain. There was significant inhibition of regeneration and bud production in polyps which had fed on cadmium-containing Artemia but not on copper or zinc- containing Artemia.

  7. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  8. Enrichment of denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms in anaerobic/anoxic activated sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Raymond J; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg

    2003-02-20

    Denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms (DGAO) were successfully enriched in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) running with anaerobic/anoxic cycles and acetate feeding during the anaerobic period. Acetate was completely taken up anaerobically, which was accompanied by the consumption of glycogen and the production of poly-beta-hydroxy-alkanoates (PHA). In the subsequent anoxic stage, nitrate or nitrite was utilized as electron acceptor for the oxidation of PHA, resulting in glycogen replenishment and cell growth. The above phenotype showed by the enrichment culture demonstrates the existence of DGAO. Further, it was found that the anaerobic behavior of DGAO could be predicted well by the anaerobic GAO model of Filipe et al. (2001) and Zeng et al. (2002a). The final product of denitrification during anoxic stage was mainly nitrous oxide (N(2)O) rather than N(2). The data strongly suggests that N(2)O production may be caused by the inhibition of nitrous oxide reductase by an elevated level of nitrite accumulated during denitrification. The existence of these organisms is a concern in biological nutrient removal systems that typically have an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic reactor sequence since they are potential competitors to the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms. PMID:12491525

  9. Shikonin inhibits fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeyong; Kang, Ryunhwa; Yoon, Yoosik

    2010-03-01

    Shikonin, 5,6-dihydroxyflavone-7-glucuronic acid, is the main ingredient of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc, and was reported to have various biological activities including antiinflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial and others. This study aimed to elucidate, for the first time, the antiobesity activity of shikonin and its mechanism of action. Shikonin was found to inhibit fat droplet formation and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The half inhibitory concentration, IC(50), for the inhibition of triglyceride accumulation was found to be 1.1 microM. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as FABP4 and LPL, were significantly inhibited following shikonin treatment. Shikonin also inhibited the ability of PPAR gamma and C/EBP alpha, the major transcription factors of adipogenesis, to bind to their target DNA sequences. The expressions of mRNA and protein of PPAR gamma and C/EBPa were significantly down-regulated following shikonin treatment. Among the upstream regulators of adipogenesis, only SREBP1C was found to be down-regulated by shikonin. The results of this study suggest that shikonin down-regulates the expression of SREBP1C and subsequently the expression of PPAR gamma and C/EBP alpha. Together, these changes result in the down-regulation of lipid metabolizing enzymes and reduced fat accumulation. PMID:19610030

  10. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  11. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  12. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA

  13. Hyper accumulators of heavy metals of industrial areas of Islamabad and Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major threats to water and soil as well as human health. Phytoremediation has been used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential of 23 plant species growing on contaminated sites in Industrial areas of the Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Plant root, shoot and the soil samples were collected and analyzed for selected metal concentration values. To evaluate the potential of plant species for phyto remediation: Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) and Biological Transfer Coefficient (BCF) were calculated. The concentration of Pb in soils varied from 2-29 mg/kg, Zn from 28.82-172.56 mg/ kg, Cu from 8.88-306 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Pb in plant shoots varied from 1.0 to 39 mg/kg, Zn from 17.25 to 194.03 mg/kg, Cu from 0.65 to 171.83 mg/kg. The concentration of Pb in roots of plant varied 1-43 mg/kg, Zn from 3.34-116.16 mg/kg, Cu from 3.35- 416.89 mg/kg. Brachiaria raptans and Malvastrum coromandelianum were found most suitable for phyto stabilization of sites contaminated with Pb and Cu (BCF= 18 and 9.12). Considering the BAC values, 15 species for Pb, two species for Cu, five species for Zn possessed the characteristics of hyper accumulator, none of the plant species was found as hyper accumulator; however plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil) and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plants shoots to roots) have the potential for phyto stabilization and phyto extraction. The results of this study can be used for management and decontamination of soils with heavy metals using plant species having phyto remediation potential/characteristics. (author)

  14. Image analysis of bioparticles accumulation and diamagnetic alignment in high-gradient magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norina, Svetlana B; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jungdae; Cho, Sungil; Shalygin, A N; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic properties of biological particles are measured in high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) analysis, revealing the concentrating process of nucleoprotein particles, ferritin, red blood cells, and eggs. A magnetic force acting on micrometer and submicrometer biological particles having diamagnetic or paramagnetic susceptibility with respect to the solution causes their movement and accumulation in gradient magnetic fields dependent on the values of the magnetic moments. The methods developed enable us to obtain the magnetic moments values of single particles and their assembly directly from magnetic separation and image analyses without assuming the detection of sizes. Our precision methods for the measurement of the capture traveling (magnetic diffusion) time and the accumulation (magnetic sedimentation) radius in HGMS show that it is really possible to determine the weak dia- or paramagnetic shifts of magnetic susceptibility up to 0.7x10(-10) (SI units). HGMS analysis of the concentrating process of nucleoprotein granules (microcells, DNA granules, or nucleosome core particles) with polarization microscopy reveals phase transitions for DNA in granules, and separation accumulation of particles enables the determination of the diamagnetic susceptibility and anisotropy properties. Magnetic concentration effects always occur in living systems because micrometer-located gradient magnetic fields inside an organism are strong enough to cause drifts of cellular complexes and organelles of micrometer and submicrometer sizes. We report the appearance of superparamagnetic contamination inside developing shrimp eggs. In the developing shrimps eggs, ferritin aggregates are observed under weak gradient magnetic fields and diaparaferromagnetic changes are detected. A significant interruption of egg development is revealed in such fields. PMID:16292954

  15. Prelamin A accumulation and stress conditions induce impaired Oct-1 activity and autophagy in prematurely aged human mesenchymal stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Arantza; Gago, Andrea; de Eguino, Garbiñe Ruiz; Calvo-Fernández, Teresa; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Llop, Jordi; Schlangen, Karin; Fullaondo, Ane; Aransay, Ana M; Martín, Abraham; Rodríguez, Clara I

    2014-04-01

    Aging, a time-dependent functional decline of biological processes, is the primary risk factor in developing diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or degenerative diseases. There is a real need to understand the human aging process in order to increase the length of disease-free life, also known as "health span". Accumulation of progerin and prelamin A are the hallmark of a group of premature aging diseases but have also been found during normal cellular aging strongly suggesting similar mechanisms between healthy aging and LMNA-linked progeroid syndromes. How this toxic accumulation contributes to aging (physiological or pathological) remains unclear. Since affected tissues in age-associated disorders and in pathological aging are mainly of mesenchymal origin we propose a model of human aging based on mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) which accumulate prelamin A. We demonstrate that prelamin A-accumulating hMSCs have a premature aging phenotype which affects their functional competence in vivo. The combination of prelamin A accumulation and stress conditions enhance the aging phenotype by dysregulating the activity of the octamer binding protein Oct-1This experimental model has been fundamental to identify a new role for Oct-1 in hMSCs aging. PMID:24753226

  16. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells play a critical role during embryonic development and in the maintenance of homeostasis in adult individuals. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB controls the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells, and accumulating evidence points to a central role for RB activity in the biology of stem and progenitor cells. In this review by Sage, recent studies investigating the role of RB in embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and progenitor cells in plants and mammals is ...

  17. Hazardous wastes in aquatic environments: Biological uptake and metabolism studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, J.; Apblett, A.; Ensley, H. [and others

    1996-05-02

    The projects discussed in this article include the following: the uptake, accumulation, metabolism, toxicity and physiological effects of various environmentally-important contaminants, inorganic and organic, in several wetland species that are interrelated through food webs; and investigation of the potential for developing and linking chemical and biological methods of remediation so as to encapsulate bioaccummulated ions in stable wasteforms such as ceramics and/or zeolites. 24 refs.

  18. Biological approach, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of anticancer drugs on the cell cycle of in-vitro brain tumor cells is assessed. YM26 showed the greatest accumulation and synchronizing effect in the G2-M phase. In the in-vivo cell cycle of animal brain tumors, vincristine and ACNU accumulate and synchronize tumor cells in the G2-M phase, as in the in-vitro results. Clinically, tumor cells are accumulated with anticancer drugs in the highly radiosensitive G2-M phase. Radiotherapy in combination with these chemical compounds was given in 62 cases of malignant glioma and 19 of metastatic brain tumor. As a result, disappearance or marked regression of tumors on CT, accompanied by improvement of nervous symptoms, was observed in approx. 40%. Tumor regression on CT, or improvement of nervous symptoms was observed in 40%, but no effect was noted in 20%. The one-year survival rate was 78% and the two-year survival rate 38%. This method was much better than radiotherapy alone. (Chiba, N.)

  19. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  20. Biological races in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  1. The difference between the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation and 59Fe accumulation into cultured tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells is mediated with transferrin receptor as well as iron. The present study was designed to explore the difference between the mechanism of gallium accumulation and that of iron by using mouse leukemic cell line L5178Y. When monensin which inhibit the recycle of transferrin receptor was added to the incubated system, accumulation of 59Fe and 67Ga was clearly diminished compared with that of control. However, inhibition of 59Fe accumulation was more remarkable than that of 67Ga. Furthermore, monensin has a action of Na+ ionophore which decrease Na+ gradient between the inside and the outside of the plasma membrane. Following administration of monensin, 67Ga accumulation was diminished according to the loss of the Na+ gradient. On the other hand, following administration of valinomycin, 67Ga accumulation was not affected by the loss of the K+ gradient. From these results, it was suggested that the mechanism of 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells differed from that of 59Fe and transferrin receptor and Na+ gradient of tumor cells played an important role on 67Ga accumulation into tumor cells. (author)

  2. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyu Law; Rasmus Hansen Kirkegaard; Angel Anisa Cokro; Xianghui Liu; Krithika Arumugam; Chao Xie; Mikkel Stokholm-Bjerregaard; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Per Halkjær Nielsen; Stefan Wuertz; Rohan B. H. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded b...

  3. The effect of key process operational conditions on enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalheira, Mónica Isabel Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is the most economic and sustainable option used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for phosphorus removal. In this process it is important to control the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs), since EBPR deterioration or failure can be related with the proliferation of GAOs over PAOs. This thesis is focused on the effect of operational conditions (volatile fatty acid (VFA) c...

  4. Informing Biological Design by Integration of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolke, Christina D.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  5. Comparative Accumulation of Injury from X-, Gamma and Neutron Irradiation - The Position of Theory and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical formulation of the process of accumulation of radiation injury postulates that the injury is divided into two types, one of which recovers with time after irradiation, and the other of which is permanent. Experimentally it has been shown that both types of injury do exist independently and have magnitudes reasonably in conformity with theory. For a number of types of permanent injury the neutron/gamma RBE is the same as that for acute radiation death. Until recently, the theory has been unable to predict correctly the accumulation of injury in animals exposed to chronic irradiation. Recent studies, however, based on short-term (∼60 d) chronic LD50 studies with X-rays, have shown that the kinetics of recovery from the chronic injury are not necessarily those indicated by split-dose measurements; When the correct kinetics of recovery are used, the build-up of radiation injury is correctly predicted. For such limited-time exposures, the neutron/gamma RBE is the same as that for acute radiation death; hence, it is probable that the kinetics of recovery from neutron irradiation injury are qualitatively similar to those for X-ray injury. For long-term chronic exposures (> 5 months) the neutron/gamma RBE for accumulation of injury increases sharply over that for acute radiation death, and no satisfactory theory is available to predict the accumulation of injury from any kind of irradiation. For the short-term exposures however, the knowledge of the kinetics of recovery has advanced to the point where the biological basis of recovery and failure to recover can be investigated effectively. (author)

  6. Noise in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evolution, providing selective advantage in dynamic environments, enhancing intracellular transport of biomolecules and increasing information capacity of signaling pathways. This short review covers the recent progress in understanding mechanisms and effects of fluctuations in biological systems of different scales and the basic approaches to their mathematical modeling. (review article)

  7. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Traceability is important in the postmarketing surveillance of biologicals, since changes in the manufacturing process may give rise to product- or batch-specific risks. With the expected expansion of the biosimilar market, there have been concerns about the ability to trace...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...... for the recording of exposure information in clinical practice, as well as the critical steps involved in the transfer of exposure data to various pharmacovigilance databases. EXPERT OPINION: The existing systems ensure the traceability of biologicals down to the manufacturer within pharmacy records, but do...

  8. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider. PMID:22639577

  9. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  10. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  11. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  12. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the 'Universidade Federal Fluminense' has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees

  13. Accumulation and long term behavior of radiocesium in tropical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Macario, K.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Saavedra, R.; Iguatemy, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. Japanese forest sites and native plant species of the Marshall Islands have also been extensively investigated. These studies have been used for various purposes, including the development of models for predicting plant concentrations from soil concentration measurements or the long term of dietary contamination by radiocesium following a fallout nuclear. Cesium is an alkali metal just like potassium and its behavior in nature, as well as in the human body, is similar to that of potassium. Uptake of 137 Cs from contaminated soil represents a significant pathway of human radiation exposure, either due to the direct consumption of cereals, fruits and vegetables or, indirectly, following consumption of milk and meat from animals fed on contaminated vegetable matter. The decline of 137 Cs levels as function of time of fruit trees is of interest given its long life in the field. Therefore, the cesium behavior is important in the design of management strategies to mitigate any negative health effects of radioactivity on the environment. It is also important to apply the current knowledge of the transport and distribution of salts derived from forest ecosystems in agricultural ecosystems, especially for tropical fruit trees. So far, in the South hemisphere there have been only a few studies on this subject, without conclusive results. With this aim, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense has been performing analyzes of 137 Cs and 40 K concentrations in several tropical plants (guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate, papaya, manioc and chili pepper trees) in order to determine the accumulation of these radionuclides throughout these trees and

  14. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  15. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  16. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  17. The Biological Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2000-03-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  18. Networks in Cell Biology = Modelling cell biology with networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The science of complex biological networks is transforming research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to medicine. This is the first book on the subject, providing a comprehensive introduction to complex network science and its biological applications. With contributions from key leaders in both network theory and modern cell biology, this book discusses the network science that is increasingly foundational for systems biology and the quantitative understanding of living systems. It ...

  19. Desiccation tolerance in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Severe dehydration is lethal for most biological species. However, there are a number of organisms or organelles which have evolved mechanisms to avoid damage during dehydration. One of these mechanisms is the accumulation of small solutes (such as sugars), which has been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. The aim of this project is to use small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the effects of small solutes on the phase behaviour and packing parameters of multilamellar membranes as a function of hydration. In the experiment a synthetic phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) will be used as a model system, as it is the most well characterized phospholipid. Hence the repeat spacings (distance between consecutive bilayers ∼50 Angstroms) and the intra-lipid spacing (distance between a lipid and its neighbor ∼5 Angstroms) are well documented. An appropriate solute, and solute concentration range will be chosen, and its effect on the freezing temperature of DPPC will be observed. To determine the effectiveness of the added solute the repeat spacings need to be measured. Experiments will be conducted at a number of hydrations to accurately model the phase behavior for DPPC over the entire range of hydrations and solute concentrations. Experiments using an alternate configuration of the SAXS may be attempted if time permits to measure the interlipid spacing to obtain more information regarding the phase transition. Although SAXS has been performed extensively on DPPC, experiments with solutes over a range of hydrations, particularly very low hydrations, have not been attempted

  20. EMG Pattern Recognition based on Evidence Accumulation for Prosthesis Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.P. [Daewoo Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    We present a method of electromyography(EMG) pattern recognition to identify motion commands for the control of a prosthetic arm by evidence accumulation with multiple parameters. Integral absolute value, variance, autoregressive(AR) model coefficients, linear cepstrum coefficients, and adaptive cepstrum vector are extracted as feature parameters from several time segments of the EMG signals. Pattern recognition is carried out through the evidence accumulation procedure using the distances measured with reference parameters. A fuzzy mapping function is designed to transform the distances for the application of the evidence accumulation method. Results are presented to support the feasibility of the suggested approach for EMG pattern recognition. (author). 29 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Nondestructive detection of fatigue damage accumulation of RPV steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive methods for measurement and evaluation of fatigue damage in A508 RPV steels have been investigated for inservice inspection of fatigue damage accumulation during the service operation of reactor vessels. One is a newly developed electrochemical method which can detect and evaluate the fatigue damage accumulated in a material before initiation of cracks and the other is the one based upon a quantitative relationship between microcrack density at surface and fatigue damage accumulation represented by parameters such as usage factor or Coffin-Manson type damage parameter. Detection mechanisms of fatigue damage by these methods were described in details

  2. [Review on the main microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Zhu, Wei-Jing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is applied widely for removing phosphorus from wastewater. Studies on functional microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms are fundamental to effective regulation for stable operation and performance improvement of EBPR process. Two main types of microorganisms in EBPR systems, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were selected to summarize their metabolic mechanisms such as substrate uptake mechanisms, glycogen degradation pathways, extent of TCA cycle involvement and metabolic similarity between PAOs and GAOs. Application of molecular biology techniques in microbiology and metabolic mechanisms involved in the EBPR system was evaluated. Potential future research areas for the EBPR system and process optimization were also proposed. PMID:24984512

  3. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.;

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...... decreases in formation of appressoria as well as accumulation of H2O2, HRGPs and phytoalexins. Concomitant with these inducible responses, fungal growth was stopped during or just after penetration in genotypes SC146 and SC326. High levels of H2O2 accumulating at late infection stages (5 days after...

  4. Models in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the most popular models currently being chosen for biological research and the reasons behind those choices. Among the current favorites are zebra fish, fruit flies, mice, monkeys, and yeast. Concludes with a brief examination of the ethical issues involved, and why some animals may need to be replaced in research with model systems.…

  5. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  6. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  8. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  9. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  10. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    2016-01-01

    cortical bone, and the nanoscale response of bone in compression. Lastly, a framework for the investigation of biological design principles has been developed. The framework combines parametric modeling, multi-material 3D-printing, and direct mechanical testing to efficiently screen large parameter spaces...

  11. Spin glasses and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, David

    1992-01-01

    This volume is an introduction to the application of techniques developed for the study of disordered systems to problems which arise in biology. Topics presented include neural networks, adaptation and evolution, maturation of the immune response, and protein dynamics and folding. This book will appeal to students and researchers interested in statistical and condensed matter physics, glasses and spin glasses, and biophysics.

  12. Biological Congress in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the International Congress on the Improvement of Biology Education which was attended by delegates from fifty-eight different countries. The objectives of the Congress were to identify and analyze trends, to prepare a four-year plan for further improvement, and to prepare materials for publication by UNESCO. (GS)

  13. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  14. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  15. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  16. Biological activity determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Madronová, L.; Novák, J.; Kubíček, J.; Antošová, B.; Kozler, J.; Novák, František

    New York: Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 85-103. (Chemistry Research and Applications). ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : biological activity * determination * potassium humate samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  17. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  18. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  19. The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection

  20. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  1. Biological trade and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  2. Carbohydrate accumulation in the needles of Siberian stone pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented is to study effects extracted from biologically active peat substances on carbohydrate accumulationprocesses. The study was carried out on 5-year-old Siberian stone pine seedlings grown in the nursery forest in the southern part of the Tomsk region. These seedlings were treated with a peat preparation, which was created in Tomsk. Four groups of experimental plants were organized on the analog principle. Each group consisted of 30 seedlings of average size and half of these seedlings were control. At the beginning of the vegetative season, a single treatment was applied to experimental plants with water solution peat preparation. The first group of plants was treated with a 0.1% solution; the dose was calculated by dry substance. For the second group, the dose was increased by 25%. For the third and fourth groups, the dose was decreased by 25% relative to the first group. Control plants were sprayed with water. Accumulation of carbohydrates and pigments as well as growth values in the 2-year- old needles were studied by standard methods. Glucose levels in the experimental plants existed within the limits 117-120%. On the whole, simple sugar quantity did not differs between experimental variants.Glucose synthesis was accompanied by changes in quantitative values of fructose. This, connected with glucose being a more stable compound, and compulsory conversion from glucose to labile form fructose was necessary. The amount of fructose in the experimental seedlings had a very wide range. This process was accompanied by shoot elongationin Siberian stone pine in the first year after treatment, with the fructose amount of 14% exceeding control values in the first and fourth group. Shoot growth was accompanied by increased fructose amount to 20% relative to control. A similar situation was observed afterwinter with respect to buds. Experimental plants dominated by number of buds

  3. Accumulated Growing Degree Days, Contiguous United States, 1981 - Current Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USA National Phenology Network has available a series of gridded products enabling researchers to analyze current year Accumulated Growing Degree Days (AGDD)...

  4. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  5. Inertia-induced accumulation of flotsam in the subtropical gyres

    CERN Document Server

    Beron-Vera, Francisco J; Lumpkin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Recent surveys of marine plastic debris density have revealed high levels in the center of the subtropical gyres. Earlier studies have argued that the formation of great garbage patches is due to Ekman convergence in such regions. In this work we report, for the first time, a tendency of satellite-tracked surface drifting buoys which have lost their sea anchors (drogues) to accumulate in the same regions of the world oceans that plastic debris accumulate. We show that the observed accumulation is too fast for Ekman convergence to explain it. We demonstrate that the accumulation is controlled by finite-size and buoyancy (i.e., inertial) effects on undrogued drifter motion subjected to ocean current and wind drags. We infer that the motion of flotsam in general is constrained by similar effects.

  6. Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which ∼ 400 x 1010 antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every ∼15 hours

  7. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  8. Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.; Venugopal, P.

    the region among the impacted estuaries in the world. Accumulation of metals in this estuarine system is aggravated by the weak flushing. These pressures are deemed inevitable with growth initiated in the harbour and associated with mega city development...

  9. A model for the accumulation of cases of pulmonary malignancy in time when dose is accumulated in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes are directed primarily at the formulation of the accumulation of resulting cases of pulmonary malignancy with time when a dose of ionizing radiation (e.g., from airborne short-lived daughters of Rn-222) is protracted in time and when the accumulation of tumours from receipt of the dose occurs after an induction-latent period. The model developed is quite general in that it will allow for the incorporation of the receipt of dose as functions of time, dose-response functions, and functions of time for the accumulation of tumours following and resulting from the receipt of a dose of ionizing radiation

  10. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that...

  11. Accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Kamiya, Takehiro; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Both species of arsenic (As), arsenate and arsenite are highly toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination is a major problem in Southeast Asia particularly in Bangladesh and West Bengal. In these countries, As-contaminated groundwater is widely used for irrigating rice in dry season that results in elevated As accumulation in soils and in rice grain and straw. So it is important for understanding the accumulation and transport mechanisms of arsenic in rice. We monitored increased arsenic content ...

  12. The Sorghum Plants Utilization For Accumulation of Heavy Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Nejedlý, J.; Pariči, L.; Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2013-01-01

    For phytoremediation purpose it is essential to select an appropriate plant species which should be metal tolerant with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The aim of this work was to expand knowledge about protection mechanisms of sorghum plants under Cd and Zn stress. The metals accumulations in roots and shoots of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants were studied. Our results showed that cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. Ho...

  13. Accumulation of Ciprofloxacin and Minocycline by Cultured Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qing; Nakkula, Robin J.; Walters, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Through a mechanism that is unclear, systemic fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines can attain higher levels in gingival fluid than in blood. We hypothesized that gingival fibroblasts take up and accumulate these agents, thereby enhancing their redistribution to the gingiva. Using fluorescence to monitor transport activity, accumulation of fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines was characterized in cultured human gingival fibroblast monolayers. Both were transported in a concentrative, temperature-d...

  14. Dust in ventilation ducts : accumulation, measurement and removal

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Rauno

    2004-01-01

    This thesis focuses on dust accumulation in, and removal from, recently installed supply air ducts and on the bristle behaviour of rotating duct cleaning brushes. The results of dust accumulation, measured using three different methods, were compared and the amount of dust in newly installed air ducts was evaluated. The vacuum test was found to be an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface. The vacuum test and the gravimetric tape method gave approximately the same res...

  15. Accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga Chara tomentosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found in the course of the study of accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga chara tomentosa that 55Fe, 60Co, 91Y are accumulated by living and dead components of alga chara tomentosa to a far greater extent and are stronger retained than 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce. The main part of the absorbed quantities of all investigated nuclides (80-92%) is fixed on the surface of the plant in the ''cortex'' layer

  16. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIROĞULLARI, Gül

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered in the late of the 19th century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The PCBs have been used commercially, since 1930, as dielectric and heat-exchange fluids and in a variety of other applications. They have become widely distributed in the environment throughout the world, and are persistent and accumulate in food webs. PCBs accumulate in the fatty tissues of humans and other animals an...

  17. Photochemical Processes and Accumulation of Solar Energy in Oil Luminophors

    OpenAIRE

    MAMEDOV, A.P.; RUSTAMOV, M.I.; DZHAFAROVA, R.A.; SALMANOVA, Ch.K.

    2000-01-01

    Using the methods of absorption spectroscopy, luminescence and EPR there has been studied the mechanism of solar energy accumulation by high boiling products of oil refining and by luminophors prepared on their basis within wide temperature range (77-550 K). The photochemical processes with participation of all main components of oil products and luminophors have been considered. The mechanisms of accumulation of solar energy of the studied products and luminophors have been conside...

  18. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  19. Hypoxia in macrophytodetritus accumulation: species specific harpacticoid copepod adaptation?

    OpenAIRE

    Mascart, Thibaud; De Troch, Marleen; Gobert, Sylvie; Biondo, Renzo; Remy, François; Lepoint, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows generate high primary production and support large biodiversity of associated fauna and flora. The majority of the foliar material falls on the unvegetated sea floor during the autumnal leaf senescence, fuelling the detrital food web. Whilst laying on the sea floor the freshly formed macrophytodetritus pile up into accumulations according to the local hydrodynamics and seafloor geomorphology. In these litter accumulations, harpacticoid cop...

  20. Species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences in genus Saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shigeki

    2004-12-01

    The genus Saccharum consists of two wild and four cultivated species. Novel interspersed sequences were isolated from cultivated sugar cane S. officinarum. These sequences were accumulated in all four cultivated species and their wild ancestral species S. robustum, but were not detected in the other wild species S. spontaneum and the relative Erianthus arundinaceus. The species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences would correlate to the domestication of sugar canes. PMID:15729004

  1. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Various Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal of rare earth elements (REEs) from solution in various microorganisms was examined. Seventy-six strains from 69 species (22 bacteria, 20 actinomycetes, 18 fungi, and 16 yeasts) were tested. Initially, Sm was used to test the removal capabilities of the various organisms. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, Brevibacterium helovolum, and Rhodococcus elythropolis, exhibited a particularly high capacity for accumulating Sm. In particular, the B. lichemiformis cells accumulated approximately 316 μmol Sm per gram dry wt. of microbial cells. A full suite of screenings was then conducted to compare the abilities of the organisms to remove Sc, Y, La, Er, and, Lu from solution. Tests were done with solutions containing one REE at a time. Accumulation was nearly identical for the various metals and organisms. However, when solutions with equimolar amounts of two REEs were used, preferential removal from solution was observed. When an Eu/Gd solution was used, gram-positive bacteria removed more Eu and Gd as compared to actinomycetes. When Eu/Sm combination was used, gram-positive bacteria removed equal mounts of both metals and some actinomycetes removed more Eu. The selective removal was quantified by calculating separation factors (S. F.), which indicated that Streptomyces levoris cells accumulated the greatest proportion of Eu. The removal of REEs from a solution containing five metals (Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu) was then examined. Mucor javanicus preferentially accumulated Sm and S. flavoviridis preferentially accumulated Lu. The effects of pH and Sm concentration on the accumulation of Sm by B. licheniformis were also examined. Accumulation increased at higher pH and at greater solution concentrations.

  2. Systemic ceramide accumulation leads to severe and varied pathological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Alayoubi, Abdulfatah M; Wang, James C M; Au, Bryan C.Y.; Carpentier, Stéphane; Garcia, Virginie; Dworski, Shaalee; El-Ghamrasni, Samah; Kirouac, Kevin N.; Exertier, Mathilde J; Xiong, Zi Jian; Privé, Gilbert G.; Calogera M Simonaro; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Farber disease (FD) is a severe inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by deficient lysosomal acid ceramidase (ACDase) activity, resulting in ceramide accumulation. Ceramide and metabolites have roles in cell apoptosis and proliferation. We introduced a single-nucleotide mutation identified in human FD patients into the murine Asah1 gene to generate the first model of systemic ACDase deficiency. Homozygous Asah1 P361R/P361R animals showed ACDase defects, accumulated ceramide, de...

  3. ACCUMULATION OF AMYLOLYTIC ENZYMES IN WHEAT GRAIN DURING MALTING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Марина Феликсовна Ростовская; Анастасия Николаевна Извекова; Алексей Григорьевич Клыков

    2014-01-01

    The content of protein, starch, amylolytic enzymes in the grain of the two varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the Primorye Territory was determined. The accumulation of amylolytic enzymes in the germination process of wheat with different levels of proteins in the grain was investigated. The effect of mode of germination to accumulation amylolytic enzymes in order to optimize the malting process of  grain in obtaining wheat malt also was studied.

  4. ACCUMULATION OF AMYLOLYTIC ENZYMES IN WHEAT GRAIN DURING MALTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Феликсовна Ростовская

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of protein, starch, amylolytic enzymes in the grain of the two varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in the Primorye Territory was determined. The accumulation of amylolytic enzymes in the germination process of wheat with different levels of proteins in the grain was investigated. The effect of mode of germination to accumulation amylolytic enzymes in order to optimize the malting process of  grain in obtaining wheat malt also was studied.

  5. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Karami Nogourani M.; Banihashemi M

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval) was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index) in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in th...

  6. PLANT ISOFLAVONES: BIOSYNHTESIS, DETECTION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Naumenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological properties, chemical structures and biosynthesis pathways of plant isoflavones, especially soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein are reviewed. The structures of isoflavones, and their aglicone and glucosides (glycosides forms as well as isoflavone biosynthesis pathways are described. General information about the advanced methods for the detection of isoflavones and their conjugates are considered. The importance of the profiling of isoflavones, flavonoids and their conjugates by means of analytical tools and methods to dissolve some questions in biology and medicine is discussed. The review provides data on the major isoflavone content in some vegetable crops and in the tissues of different soybean varieties. Health benefits and treatment or preventive properties of isoflavones for cancer, cardiovascular, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders are highlighted. The mechanisms that may explain their positive biological effects are considered. The information on the application of advanced technologies to create new plant forms producing isoflavonoids with a predicted level of isoflavones, which is the most favorable for the treatment is given. The possibilities to use the metabolic engineering for the increasing of accumulation and synthesis of isoflavones at the non-legume crops such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and maize are considered. The examples how the plant tissues, which are not naturally produced of the isoflavones, can obtain potential for the synthesis of biologically active compounds via inducing of the activity of the introduced enzyme isoflavon synthase, are given. Specific biochemical pathways for increasing the synthesis of isoflavone genistein in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues are discussed. It is concluded that plant genetic engineering which is focused on modification of the secondary metabolites contain in plant tissues, enables to create the new crop varieties with improved agronomic properties and

  7. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  8. R-acetoin accumulation and dissimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexin; Zhou, Jidong; Chen, Chuan; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Pengfu; Hao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a 2,3-butanediol producer, and R-acetoin is an intermediate of 2,3-butanediol production. R-acetoin accumulation and dissimilation in K. pneumoniae was studied here. A budC mutant, which has lost 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase activity, accumulated high levels of R-acetoin in culture broth. However, after glucose was exhausted, the accumulated R-acetoin could be reused by the cells as a carbon source. Acetoin dehydrogenase enzyme system, encoded by acoABCD, was responsible for R-acetoin dissimilation. acoABCD mutants lost the ability to grow on acetoin as the sole carbon source, and the acetoin accumulated could not be dissimilated. However, in the presence of another carbon source, the acetoin accumulated in broth of acoABCD mutants was converted to 2,3-butanediol. Parameters of R-acetoin production by budC mutants were optimized in batch culture. Aerobic culture and mildly acidic conditions (pH 6-6.5) favored R-acetoin accumulation. At the optimized conditions, in fed-batch fermentation, 62.3 g/L R-acetoin was produced by budC and acoABCD double mutant in 57 h culture, with an optical purity of 98.0 %, and a substrate conversion ratio of 28.7 %. PMID:26059458

  9. Epochs of shale accumulation in the history of the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelymskiy, G.A.; Bal' shin, I.G.; Okinshevich, A.Ye.

    1980-01-01

    The epochs of accumulation of fuel shales (FS) are characterized in the history of the earth. Accumulation of organic matter which served as the material for the formation of FS occurred in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. FS fields of the Proterozoic age practically were not preserved because of metamorphic transformations of organic matter into graphite or schungite. In the Phanerozoic, 6 epochs of shale accumulation are isolated (early-middle Cambrian, early-middle Ordovician, late Devonian--early Carboniferous, late Permian, late Jurassic and Paleogene) in which the most important basins and fields of FS in the world were formed. Brief characteristics of the basins and their dispersal on the earth are given according to the epochs of shale accumulation. Certain laws governing the FS accumulation are established. Analysis of the arrangement of the FS reserves on the earth and conditions for their formation indicates that their accumulation is mainly associated with transgressions accompanied or following the epochs of folding and mountain formation in the geosynclinal zones associated with platforms. In the majority of cases, the shale basins are located in the extreme parts of the platforms near the elevated folded structures or sheets.

  10. Metabolic adaptation in transplastomic plants massively accumulating recombinant proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bally

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant chloroplasts are endowed with an astonishing capacity to accumulate foreign proteins. However, knowledge about the impact on resident proteins of such high levels of recombinant protein accumulation is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used proteomics to characterize tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plastid transformants massively accumulating a p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD or a green fluorescent protein (GFP. While under the conditions used no obvious modifications in plant phenotype could be observed, these proteins accumulated to even higher levels than ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, the most abundant protein on the planet. This accumulation occurred at the expense of a limited number of leaf proteins including Rubisco. In particular, enzymes involved in CO(2 metabolism such as nuclear-encoded plastidial Calvin cycle enzymes and mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase were found to adjust their accumulation level to these novel physiological conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results document how protein synthetic capacity is limited in plant cells. They may provide new avenues to evaluate possible bottlenecks in recombinant protein technology and to maintain plant fitness in future studies aiming at producing recombinant proteins of interest through chloroplast transformation.

  11. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON ICE ACCUMULATION IN RIVER BENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jue-yi

    2011-01-01

    River ice is an important hydraulic element in temperate and polar environments and would affect hydrodynamic conditions of rivers through changes both in the boundary conditions and the thermal regime.The river bend has been reported as the common location for the initiation of ice jams because the water flow along a river bend is markedly affected by the channel curvature.In this article,the experimental studies about the ice accumulation in a river bend are reviewed.Based on experiments conducted so far,the criteria for the formation of ice jams in the river bend,the mechanisms of the ice accumulation in the river bend and the thickness profile of the ice accumulation in the river bend are discussed.The k- ε two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the ice accumulation under an ice cover along a river bend.A formula is proposed for describing the deformation of the ice jam bottom.Our results indicate that all simulated thickness of the ice accumulation agrees reasonably well with the measured thickness of the ice accumulation in the laboratory.

  12. High-stage analog accumulator for TDI CMOS image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxin, Li; Fujun, Huang; Yong, Zong; Jing, Gao

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the parasitic phenomenon on the performance of the analog accumulator in TDI CMOS image sensor is analyzed and resolved. A 128-stage optimized accumulator based on 0.18-μm one-poly four-metal 3.3 V CMOS technology is designed and simulated. A charge injection effect from the top plate sampling is employed to compensate the un-eliminated parasitics based on the accumulator with a decoupling switch, and then a calibration circuit is designed to restrain the mismatch and Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) variations. The post layout simulation indicates that the improved SNR of the accumulator upgrades from 17.835 to 21.067 dB, while an ideal value is 21.072 dB. In addition, the linearity of the accumulator is 99.62%. The simulation results of two extreme cases and Monte Carlo show that the mismatch and PVT variations are restrained by the calibration circuit. Furthermore, it is promising to design a higher stage accumulator based on the proposed structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404090, 61434004).

  13. Impurity accumulation in plasma regimes with high energy confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L. B.; Roberts, D. E.; Yang, H. R.; Dodel, G.; Gentle, K.; Von Goeler, S.; Holzhauer, E.; Hübner, K.; Keilhacker, M.; Korotkov, A.; Luce, T. C.; Miura, Y.; Tsois, N.; Würz, H.; Fussmann, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Krieger, K.; Müller, E. R.; Nolte, R.; Röhr, H.; Steuer, K. H.; Becker, G.; Bomba, B.; Bruhns, H.; Büchl, K.; Carlson, A.; Eberhagen, A.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Giannone, L.; Von Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Herrmann, H.; Kaesdorf, S.; Karger, F.; Kaufmann, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lang, R.; Lee, P.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; Neuhauser, J.; Niedermeyer, H.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Poschenrieder, W.; Preis, R.; Rapp, H.; Rudyj, A.; Sandmann, W.; Schneider, F.; Schnider, U.; Siller, G.; Simmet, E.; Speth, E.; Söldner, F.; Stäbler, A.; Steinmetz, K.; Stroth, U.; Vollmer, O.; Zasche, D.

    1989-04-01

    Investigations of impurity accumulation phenomena in ASDEX are reviewed. There are four different operating regimes where pronounced accumulation is observed and these regimes are also characterized by improved energy confinement. In particular, medium-Z metallic ions are involved in accumulation processes whereas low-Z ions appear almost unaffected. The rapid accumulation observed in the case of metallic ions may be explained by neoclassical inward drifts if we assume that the anomalous diffusion is sufficiently suppressed, some indication of this being found from laser blow-off studies. The present results, however, can only be partly explained by neoclassical theory, according to which accumulation of low-Z impurities should also occur. The temporal behaviour of accumulation and the retarding effect of proton dilution for collision dominated transport are also discussed. Finally, we conclude that the full benefits of improved energy confinement can be achieved only if the impurity influxes are kept to a sufficiently low level. Expressed in terms of concentrations under low confinement conditions we have to postulate, for ASDEX, concentrations ≲ 10 -4 for metals and ≲ 2% for all light impurities.

  14. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  15. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  16. Scale-free Flow of Life: On the Biology, Economics, and Physics of the Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kurakin Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualizatio...

  17. Detoxification and Accumulation of Cadmium and Arsenic in Plants : : Implications for Phytoremediation and Limiting Accumulation in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jobe, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the metals and metalloids commonly used by our modern society are extremely toxic and can pose a significant health risk if consumed. However, unlike animals, some plants are often extremely tolerant to the toxic effects of these metals and can accumulate large amounts in various tissues. Because some plants can bioaccumulate toxic metals, a number of bioremediation strategies using plants have been proposed. However, accumulation of toxic metals in agronomic crops is not desirable. I...

  18. The Biological Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1999-12-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. The Biological Universe provides a rich and colorful history of the attempts during the twentieth century to answer questions such as whether "biological law" reigns throughout the universe and whether there are other histories, religions, and philosophies outside those on Earth. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a "biophysical cosmology" that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe. This book will fascinate astronomers, historians of science, biochemists, and science fiction readers.

  19. Quantum physics meets biology

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...

  20. Power and Biological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, T. M.; Som, S. M.; Kempes, C.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Habitability, biomass abundance, growth rates, and rates of evolution are constrained by the availability of biologically accessible energy through time -- power. It is well understood that life requires energy not only to grow, but also to support standing biomass without new growth. Quantifying this "maintenance energy" requirement is critical for understanding the biological potential of low energy systems, including many systems of astrobiological interest, but field- and culture-based estimates differ by as much as three orders of magnitude. Here, we evaluate and compare these estimates to environmental energy supply in two examples: methanogenic metabolism in serpentinizing systems and a hypothetical "thermotrophic" metabolism. In both cases, evaluation of the power budget introduces constraint and resolution beyond that provided by evaluation of Gibbs energy change for metabolic reactions.

  1. Indoor biological pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inside buildings - besides the umpteen toxic substances emanating from materials and appliances used daily for the most assorted activities - there are may be a number of different pathogenic micro-organisms able to cause diseases and respiratory system infections. Indoor pollution caused by biological agents may be due not only to living microorganisms, but also to dead ones or to the produce of their metabolism as well as to allergens. The most efficient precautionary measure against biological agents is to ventilate the rooms one lives in. In case of air-conditioning, it's good rule to keep air pipes dry and clean, renewing filters at regular intervals in order to avoid fungi and bacteria from settling in

  2. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  3. Radiation biology for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution problems such as the green-house effect by increase of CO2, acid rain caused by flue gases, and contamination of chemicals and pesticides in foods and water, have become serious in the world with the rapid development of industry and agriculture. To solve some of these problems, radiation treatment has being applied for the removal of the contaminants from flue gases and waste water from industrial plants. On the other hand, the contribution of radiation biology for these environmental pollution problems is not direct but it has contributed indirectly in many fields. This paper describes the contributions of radiation biology for environment in the following two topics: 1) control of insects and microorganisms, and 2) application of radiation for agricultural wastes

  4. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  5. Lagrangians for biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Nucci, M C

    2011-01-01

    We show that a method presented in [S.L. Trubatch and A. Franco, Canonical Procedures for Population Dynamics, J. Theor. Biol. 48 (1974), 299-324] and later in [G.H. Paine, The development of Lagrangians for biological models, Bull. Math. Biol. 44 (1982) 749-760] for finding Lagrangians of classic models in biology, is actually based on finding the Jacobi Last Multiplier of such models. Using known properties of Jacobi Last Multiplier we show how to obtain linear Lagrangians of those first-order systems and nonlinear Lagrangian of the corresponding single second-order equations that can be derived from them, even in the case where those authors failed such as the host-parasite model.

  6. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  7. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  8. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  9. Integrative radiation systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group "Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer" of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology. PMID:24411063

  10. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  11. [Biological etiologies of transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butty, Anne-Virginie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2016-03-16

    Transsexualism or gender dysphoria is a disorder of sexual identity of unknown etiology. At the biological level, one assumes atypical brain development during certain periods of its formation (genesis) notably during embryogenesis, as a result of altered hormonal influence and a particular genetic polymorphism. This article summarizes the research conducted to date in these three areas only, excluding psycho-social and environmental factors. PMID:27149713

  12. Quantum Effects in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  13. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  14. Biology of infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H J; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5-10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic endothelium with a neural crest phenotype that possesses the capacity for endothelial, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neuronal differentiation. Current evidence suggests a putative placental chorionic mesenchymal core cell embolic origin of IH during the first trimester. This review outlines the emerging role of stem cells and their interplay with the cytokine niche that promotes a post-natal environment conducive for vasculogenesis involving VEGFR-2 and its ligand VEGF-A and the IGF-2 ligand in promoting cellular proliferation, and the TRAIL-OPG anti-apoptotic pathway in preventing cellular apoptosis in IH. The discovery of the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the biology of IH provides a plausible explanation for the programed biologic behavior and the β-blocker-induced accelerated involution of this enigmatic condition. This crucially involves the vasoactive peptide, angiotensin II, that promotes cellular proliferation in IH predominantly via its action on the ATIIR2 isoform. The role of the RAS in the biology of IH is further supported by the effect of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, in inducing accelerated involution of IH. The discovery of the critical role of RAS in IH represents a novel and fascinating paradigm shift in the understanding of human development, IH, and other tumors in general. PMID:25593962

  15. Biology of Infantile Hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H. J.; Davis, Paul F.; Tan, Swee T.

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5–10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic ...

  16. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  17. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  18. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  19. Biological Rhythms and Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Ditisheim, Agnès J.; Dibner, Charna; Philippe, Jacques; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing h...

  20. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    E. Timucin Oral; Kursat Altınbas; Sinan Guloksuz; Serap Ozcetinkaya

    2010-01-01

    Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists...

  1. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    OpenAIRE

    Altınbaş, Kürşat; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Özçetinkaya, Serap; Oral, E.Timuçin

    2010-01-01

    Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another's shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychot...

  2. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  3. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A; Muller, W.E.G.

    that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding...

  4. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  5. Neutrons in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  6. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  7. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  8. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection impacts stress granule accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnen, Renée L; Pangka, Kyle R; Banfield, Bruce W

    2012-08-01

    Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2α. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2α phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle. PMID:22623775

  9. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  10. Synthetic biology: Understanding biological design from synthetic circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherji, Shankar; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of synthetic biology is to uncover the design principles of natural biological systems through the rational design of gene and protein circuits. Here, we highlight how the process of engineering biological systems — from synthetic promoters to the control of cell–cell interactions — has contributed to our understanding of how endogenous systems are put together and function. Synthetic biological devices allow us to grasp intuitively the ranges of behaviour generated by simple...

  11. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other P...

  12. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, syst...

  13. The accumulation of sup(95m)Tc from sea water by juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and retention of technetium from sea water by juvenile lobsters, and the effects of moulting on these processes, has been studied using sup(95m)Tc as a tracer. Accumulation was rapid with whole body concentration factors of over 2000 being measured in some lobsters. Uptake was highest immediately before a moult; post-moult there was a fall in accumulation. No simple mathematical equation for technetium accumulation with time was found. The technetium concentration in the moulted exoskeleton increased with time of exposure of the lobsters but never exceeded 2% of the whole body value. The highest percentage of the whole body activity was found in the digestive gland; the green gland had the highest concentration factor. Technetium excretion, following 64 d of accumulation, could be expressed as an exponential rate of loss. The biological half-time was calculated as 53 d. Moulted exoskeletons from these lobsters contained approximately 0.6% of the day zero whole body activity. (author)

  14. Prospects for the study of biological systems with high power sources of terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of intense sources of terahertz radiation based on lasers and electron accelerators has considerable potential for research on biological systems. This perspective gives a brief survey of theoretical work and the results of experiments on biological molecules and more complex biological systems. Evidence is accumulating that terahertz radiation influences biological systems and this needs to be clarified in order to establish safe levels of human exposure to this radiation. The use of strong sources of terahertz radiation may contribute to the resolution of controversies over the mechanism of biological organization. However the potential of these sources will only be realized if they are accompanied by the development of sophisticated pump–probe and multidimensional experimental techniques and by the study of biological systems in the controlled environments necessary for their maintenance and viability. (perspective)

  15. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1985-01-01

    polluted area, and about 6% of the total mercury was methyl-+phenyl-mercury. This is more than three times lower than found in M. edulis from the same collecting site. A pronounced difference in the mercury speciation (i.e., total mercury, total organic mercury, methyl-mercury and phenyl-mercury) in M......Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... increased throughout the entire period, though there was a tendency for decreased efficiency of the removal of mercury per liter of water filtered by the mussels. Mussels were also translocated from polluted to clean (laboratory) water to depurate mercury. The biological half-lives of mercury was 293 d for...

  16. Accumulation and discharge behavior of Cs-137 by zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in different aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and release kinetics of 137Cs from water by the tropical fish Brachydanio rerio was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The accumulation of this radionuclide from food was avoided by feeding the fish separately in an inactive environment. A steep inverse dependence of bioconcentration factor (BCF) with potassium concentration was observed. This can formally be described by the Equation BCF=5.2 · [K+]-0.44. The elimination rate constant K in fresh water conditions was found to have a magnitude of 0.014±0.003 d-1 which corresponded to a biological half-life of 51±10 days. The uptake and release kinetics of Brachydanio rerio were compared with earlier studies of fresh water fishes. (author) 26 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Accumulation and Elimination of 137Cs Radionuclide by gold fish (Cyprinus Carpio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to estimate accumulation and elimination of 137Cs radionuclide by gold fish (Cyprinus Carpio) has been carried out. The experiment used aquarium as a cultivating media. Gold fish was placed into aquarium filled with 70 liter of water and 137Cs concentration of 10 Bq/ml. From the observing time of 40 days it was found that activity concentration in fish became saturated in 30th day. Saturation after the 30th day was confined by additional observation using 137Cs concentration of 5 and 15 Bq/ml. Saturated concentration fish was then transfered to inactive aquarium to determine is elimination rate. Transfer factor, i.e. the ratio of 137Cs concentration in fish to that in water, was found to be (12.99+0.28) ml/g, whereas the elimination rate of 137Cs was found to be 0.046 day, which correspond to a biological half life of 15 days

  18. Copper accumulation in vineyard soils: Rhizosphere processes and agronomic practices to limit its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Gustavo; Bastos de Melo, George Wellington; Terzano, Roberto; Del Buono, Daniele; Astolfi, Stefania; Tomasi, Nicola; Pii, Youry; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture represents an important agricultural practice in many countries worldwide. Yet, the continuous use of fungicides has caused copper (Cu) accumulation in soils, which represent a major environmental and toxicological concern. Despite being an important micronutrient, Cu can be a potential toxicant at high concentrations since it may cause morphological, anatomical and physiological changes in plants, decreasing both food productivity and quality. Rhizosphere processes can, however, actively control the uptake and translocation of Cu in plants. In particular, root exudates affecting the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the rhizosphere, might reduce the availability of Cu in the soil and hence its absorption. In addition, this review will aim at discussing the advantages and disadvantages of agronomic practices, such as liming, the use of pesticides, the application of organic matter, biochar and coal fly ashes, the inoculation with bacteria and/or mycorrhizal fungi and the intercropping, in alleviating Cu toxicity symptoms. PMID:27513550

  19. Peculiarities of radionuclides' accumulation in benthic organisms and fish in the Barents and Kara Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work contributes to the joint research programme between the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in the Arctic. Attention has been focussed to measuring amounts and locating possible sources of artificial radionuclides in the Russian Arctic Sea area. Sediments, algae, bottom fauna and fish samples were collected during several scientific expeditions in 1993 and 1994. The results on radionuclide accumulation in benthic organisms and fish are presented in this paper. It is concluded that the concentration of 137Cs in benthic fauna and commercial fish and algae of the Barents and Kara Seas is generally low and originates from the global fallout. The highest levels of 137Cs are determined in the animals inhabiting the silty bottom 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. Is Our Biology to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)