WorldWideScience

Sample records for biologic product shortages

  1. Parenteral nutrition product shortages: impact on safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Beverly

    2012-03-01

    The drug shortage crisis continues in the United States and threatens the integrity of the pharmaceutical supply chain and compromises patient care, especially patients requiring parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy. The number of new drug shortages has increased rapidly over the past 5 years, with the most significant increase in sterile injectable products. The most common reason for a shortage of a sterile injectable medication is a product quality issue. Two surveys of healthcare professionals have assessed the impact of drug shortages on patient safety. Participants in one survey reported over 1000 medication errors or patient adverse events as the result of shortages. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition also conducted a survey of healthcare professionals regarding PN product shortages and the associated patient care implications. Safety risks were reported throughout the entire PN process, from procurement of PN products to patient outcomes. Providing PN therapy during product shortages requires vigilance and continuous assessment of the entire PN process to optimize patient care quality and avoid patient harm.

  2. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  3. Mitigation of maximum world oil production: Shortage scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Robert L. [Management Information Services, Inc., 723 Fords Landing Way, Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    A framework is developed for planning the mitigation of the oil shortages that will be caused by world oil production reaching a maximum and going into decline. To estimate potential economic impacts, a reasonable relationship between percent decline in world oil supply and percent decline in world GDP was determined to be roughly 1:1. As a limiting case for decline rates, giant fields were examined. Actual oil production from Europe and North America indicated significant periods of relatively flat oil production (plateaus). However, before entering its plateau period, North American oil production went through a sharp peak and steep decline. Examination of a number of future world oil production forecasts showed multi-year rollover/roll-down periods, which represent pseudoplateaus. Consideration of resource nationalism posits an Oil Exporter Withholding Scenario, which could potentially overwhelm all other considerations. Three scenarios for mitigation planning resulted from this analysis: (1) A Best Case, where maximum world oil production is followed by a multi-year plateau before the onset of a monatomic decline rate of 2-5% per year; (2) A Middling Case, where world oil production reaches a maximum, after which it drops into a long-term, 2-5% monotonic annual decline; and finally (3) A Worst Case, where the sharp peak of the Middling Case is degraded by oil exporter withholding, leading to world oil shortages growing potentially more rapidly than 2-5% per year, creating the most dire world economic impacts. (author)

  4. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  5. Comparative decision models for anticipating shortage of food grain production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Manojit; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This paper attempts to predict food shortages in advance from the analysis of rainfall during the monsoon months along with other inputs used for crop production, such as land used for cereal production, percentage of area covered under irrigation and fertiliser use. We used six binary classification data mining models viz., logistic regression, Multilayer Perceptron, kernel lab-Support Vector Machines, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis and k-Nearest Neighbors Network, and found that linear discriminant analysis and kernel lab-Support Vector Machines are equally suitable for predicting per capita food shortage with 89.69 % accuracy in overall prediction and 92.06 % accuracy in predicting food shortage (true negative rate). Advance information of food shortage can help policy makers to take remedial measures in order to prevent devastating consequences arising out of food non-availability.

  6. A production-inventory model for a deteriorating item with shortage and time dependent demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanra S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a production-inventory model is developed over a finite planning horizon where the demand varies linearly with time. The machine production rate is assumed to be finite and constant. Shortages in inventory are allowed and are completely backlogged. The associated constrained minimization problem is numerically solved. Sensitivity analysis is also presented for the given model.

  7. Shanxi Huaze Aluminium & Power Co.,Ltd.Intends to Cut Production Because of Power Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Located in Shanxi Province,Huaze Aluminium & Power Co.,Ltd.is facing the challenge of power shortage in an era of rising cost in coal and power."We began to cut production as early as in late June,"an insider from the com- pany said on later July.

  8. Replenishment Decision Making with Permissible Shortage, Repairable Nonconforming Products and Random Equipment Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Hsin Chang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with replenishment decision making with repairable nonconforming products, backordering and random equipment failure during production uptime. In real world manufacturing systems, due to different factors generation of nonconforming items and unexpected machine breakdown are inevitable. Also, in certain business environments various situations between vendor and buyer, the backordering of shortage stocks sometimes is permissible with extra cost involved. This study incorporates backlogging, random breakdown and rework into a production system, with the objective of determination of the optimal replenishment lot size and optimal level of backordering that minimizes the long-run average system costs. Mathematical modeling along with the renewal reward theorem is employed for deriving system cost function. Hessian matrix equations are used to prove its convexity. Research result can be directly adopted by practitioners in the production planning and control field to assist them in making their own robust production replenishment decision.

  9. Developing an EPQ Model with Considering Preventive Maintenance, Imperfect Product, Shortage and Work in Process Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Determination of optimal production lot size has been always noticed by researchers and various models have been proposed in this area. Among the subjects, which has been less considered in these models is machine failure. Obviously, a machine may encounter random failures during its working period and this makes clear the need for applying an appropriate maintenance policy for the machinery. In this paper based on assumptions such as authorized shortage, work in process inventory and possibility of producing defective products with and without the ability to re-work, EPQ model has been investigated and developed to select Preventive Maintenance (PM policy for the machinery. In addition, by minimizing system’s total cost over a period of time, a formula has been presented for determining optimal production lot size and its application has been examined using various numerical examples.

  10. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... field. back to top What biological products does FDA regulate? The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research ( ...

  11. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  12. Addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, J. [Alberta Economic Development, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Labour shortages are an increasing concern for companies in Alberta, where the economy is booming. This presentation provided statistics on labour shortages and Alberta's labour force. Between 1995 and 2004, employment in Alberta increased by more than 433,000 jobs, and is predicted to grow, but the natural population increase in the province is only 19,600 per year. It is expected that by 2010, immigrants will account for all growth in Canada's labour force. By 2020, an additional $100 billion of capital will be invested in Alberta, which is competing for labour with every other industrialized economy in the world. This presentation included a series of graphs and charts depicting Canada's national unemployment rate by province; Alberta's unemployment rate; oil sands capital expenditure; regional workforce requirements; and new jobs in the oil sands industry from 1998 to 2010. Employment requirements by trade were also highlighted along with projected labour shortages in 16 different trades. The author recommended that better long-term labour supply and demand models are needed along with rationalization and streamlining of credentials systems. Other solutions to labour shortages may include the removal of barriers to interprovincial and foreign workers; education and training; enhanced productivity; industry collaboration; and maximization of the labour pool to include women and Aboriginal workers. tabs., figs.

  13. Development of biosimilars in an era of oncologic drug shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li E

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Edward Li,1 Janakiraman Subramanian,2 Scott Anderson,3 Dolca Thomas,4 Jason McKinley,5 Ira A Jacobs4 1University of New England College of Pharmacy, Portland, ME, USA; 2Hanna Cancer Associates, Knoxville, TN, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, La Jolla, CA, USA; 4Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 5Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA Abstract: Acute and chronic shortages of various pharmaceuticals and particularly of sterile injectable products are being reported on a global scale, prompting evaluation of more effective strategies to manage current shortages and development of new, high-quality pharmaceutical products to mitigate the risk of potential future shortages. Oncology drugs such as liposomal doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil represent examples of first-choice drugs critically affected by shortages. Survey results indicate that the majority of hospitals and practicing oncologists have experienced drug shortages, which may have compromised patient safety and clinical outcomes, and increased health care costs, due to delays or changes in treatment regimens. Clinical trials evaluating novel agents in combination with standard-of-care drugs are also being affected by drug shortages. Clinical and ethical considerations on treatment objectives, drug indication, and availability of alternative options may help in prioritizing cancer patients involved in active drug shortages. The United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have identified manufacturing problems, delays in supply, and lack of available active ingredients as the most frequent causes of recent or ongoing drug shortages, and have released specific guidance to monitor, manage, and reduce the risk of shortages. The upcoming loss of exclusivity for a number of anticancer biologics, together with the introduction of an abbreviated approval pathway for biosimilars, raises the question of whether these products will be vulnerable to shortages. Future supply by reliable

  14. Natural gas shortage. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorstin, D.

    1975-11-07

    Curtailments of gas supplies in the winter of 1975-76 were estimated to be 2.9 trillion cubic feet or 15 percent of demand, which represented a 45 percent increase over curtailments in 1974-75. The scarcities are discussed under the following topics: probable dimensions of natural gas curtailment; effects of winter shortages, possibility of relief; debate over attempt to remove price ceilings; and charges of gas withholding and underreporting. The history of gas use and regulation is reviewed under the following: from unwanted oil by-product to useful fuel; development of regulation and extent of control; and policy change at the Federal Power Commission. The outlook for overcoming the shortage is discussed under the following: revised estimates of undiscovered resources; rival proposals to make Alaskan gas available; and continuing search for substitute energy sources. 37 references. (MCW)

  15. Drug shortages: a complex health care crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Erin R; Sweet, Burgunda V; Jensen, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    National tracking of drug shortages began in 2001. However, a significant increase in the number of shortages began in late 2009, with numbers reaching what many have termed crisis level. The typical drug in short supply is a generic product administered by injection. Common classes of drugs affected by shortages include anesthesia medications, antibiotics, pain medications, nutrition and electrolyte products, and chemotherapy agents. The economic and clinical effects of drug shortages are significant. The financial effect of drug shortages is estimated to be hundreds of millions of dollars annually for health systems across the United States. Clinically, patients have been harmed by the lack of drugs or inferior alternatives, resulting in more than 15 documented deaths. Drug shortages occur for a variety of reasons. Generic injectable drugs are particularly susceptible to drug shortages because there are few manufacturers of these products and all manufacturers are running at full capacity. In addition, some manufacturers have had production problems, resulting in poor quality product. Although many suppliers are working to upgrade facilities and add additional manufacturing lines, these activities take time. A number of stakeholder organizations have been involved in meetings to further determine the causes and effects of drug shortages. A new law was enacted in July 2012 that granted the Food and Drug Administration additional tools to address the drug shortage crisis. The future of drug shortages is unknown, but there are hopeful indications that quality improvements and additional capacity may decrease the number of drug shortages in the years to come.

  16. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  17. Biological hydrogen production from phytomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Renewable sources of energy have received wide attention lately. One candidate is hydrogen which has the added advantage of involving no greenhouse gases. Biological hydrogen production from wastewater or biowastes is a very attractive production technique. So far, most studies have concentrated on the use of photosynthetic bacteria. However, dark fermentation has recently become a popular topic of research as it has the advantage of not requiring light energy input, something that limits the performance of the photosynthetic method. While pure cultures have been used in most of the investigations to date, in industrial situations mixed cultures will probably be the norm because of unavoidable contamination. In this investigation the phytomass of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L) was used to produce hydrogen. Specific organic loading, organic loading, and pH were varied to study the effect on hydrogen production. 18 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  18. Perspectives on parenteral micronutrient shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtallo, Jay M

    2015-02-01

    Micronutrients are essential components of parenteral nutrition (PN). Problems related to deficiency and toxicity occur during routine practice, which could be related to the content of commercial sources, inadequate prescribed doses, and the high frequency of at-risk patients receiving PN. Shortages of commercial products result in increased risk of deficiency. Even though there are recommendations to conserve supplies for those at highest risk, practices that provide no micronutrients or doses less than desired are not safe. This article reviews the evidence describing patients at risk for micronutrient deficiency, the rationale for micronutrient product reformulation, and characteristics of deficiency observed during shortages of micronutrient products.

  19. The STEM shortage paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    The UK is believed to suffer from a shortage of scientists and engineers, yet unemployment rates for new graduates in these fields are high. Does that mean the skills shortage doesn't exist, asks Margaret Harris.

  20. Fuzzy random imperfect production system with shortages%考虑缺货的模糊随机缺陷生产系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡劲松; 季雅萍; 郭彩云; 徐如乾

    2011-01-01

    To settle the imperfect production process, an imperfect production system with fuzzy random deteriorating process under allowable shortage is investigated. The economic production quantity(EPQ) model including shortage cost and fuzzy random rework cost is established. Based on the credibility theory, the expected average cost per unit time is derived, and then the properties of the cost function are revealed. The optimal production length which can minimize the expected average cost is proved to exist and be unique, and the upper and lower bounds of the optimal production time are determined. Bisection method for the optimal production length is designed. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and illustrate the effects of the shortage cost, rework cost and the defective item ratio on the optimal production policy.%针对不可靠的生产过程,研究了生产故障时间为模糊随机变量且允许缺货的缺陷生产系统.建立含缺货费和模糊随机重修费的经济生产批量模型.基于可信性理论,建立其期望费用模型,揭示了费用函数的性质,并证明了使费用最小的最优生产时间的存在性和唯一性,从而确定了最优生产时间的上下界.基于此,设计了最优生产时间的二分法求解过程.最后通过算例验证了所提出模型的有效性,并分析了缺货费用、重修费用和缺陷产品比例对最优生产策略的影响.

  1. Critical drug shortages: implications for emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Pourmand, Ali; Singer, Steven; Pines, Jesse M; van den Anker, John

    2014-06-01

    Prescription drug shortages have become increasingly common and more severe over the past decade. In addition, reported shortages are longer in duration and have had a greater effect on patient care. Some of the causes of current drug shortages are multifactorial, including the consolidation of drug manufacturers, quality problems at production plants that restrict the supply of drugs, and a lack of financial incentives for manufacturers to produce certain products, particularly generic medications. Generic injectable medications are most commonly affected by shortages because the production process is complex and costly for these drugs, and profit margins are often smaller than for branded medications. Many commonly used emergency department (ED) generic injectables have been affected by shortages, including multiple resuscitation and critical care drugs. Several reports have shown that shortages can potentially have major effects on the quality of medical care, including medication errors, treatment delays, adverse outcomes, and increased health care costs. Currently, no published data exist outside of case reports that directly link ED-based drug shortages to overall patient safety events; however, there are several examples in the ED where first-line therapies for life-saving medications have been in short supply, and alternatives have higher rates of adverse events, narrower therapeutic indexes, or both. Aside from increasing notification about shortages, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has little power to coerce manufacturers to produce medications during a shortage. Therefore, ED providers must learn to mitigate the effects of shortages locally, through active communication with pharmacy staff to identify safe and effective alternatives for commonly used medications when possible. Particularly given the effect on critical care medications, therapeutic alternatives should be clearly communicated to all staff so that providers have easy access to this

  2. 9 CFR 114.4 - Identification of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of biological products... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.4 Identification of biological products. Suitable tags or labels of... biological products, all component parts to be combined to form a biological product, all......

  3. Supply shortage; Nachschub gefaehrdet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pries, P.D.; Rentzing, S.

    2006-08-15

    Producers of solar wafers intend to produce several MW of solar wafers during the next few years. However, indium and tellurium are not in unlimited supply, and prices are rising. A new shortage of raw materials is impending. (orig.)

  4. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  5. Biological production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jianping; Paddock, Troy; Carrieri, Damian; Maness, Pin-Ching; Seibert, Michael

    2016-04-12

    Strains of cyanobacteria that produce high levels of alpha ketoglutarate (AKG) and pyruvate are disclosed herein. Methods of culturing these cyanobacteria to produce AKG or pyruvate and recover AKG or pyruvate from the culture are also described herein. Nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides that function as ethylene-forming enzymes and their use in the production of ethylene are further disclosed herein. These nucleic acids may be expressed in hosts such as cyanobacteria, which in turn may be cultured to produce ethylene.

  6. Natural production of biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kim, Young L.

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis and production in nature often provide ideas to design and fabricate advanced biomimetic photonic materials and structures, leading to excellent physical properties and enhanced performance. In addition, the recognition and utilization of natural or biological substances have been typical routes to develop biocompatible and biodegradable materials for medical applications. In this respect, biological lasers utilizing such biomaterials and biostructures have been received considerable attention, given a variety of implications and potentials for bioimaging, biosensing, implantation, and therapy. However, without relying on industrial facilities, eco-friendly massive production of such optical components or systems has not yet been investigated. We show examples of bioproduction of biological lasers using agriculture and fisheries. We anticipate that such approaches will open new possibilities for scalable eco-friendly `green' production of biological photonics components and systems.

  7. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant.

  8. 9 CFR 114.6 - Mixing biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixing biological products. 114.6 Section 114.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.6 Mixing biological products. Each biological product, when in liquid form,...

  9. Product development of probiotics as biological drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Ann

    2008-02-01

    Elements of product and manufacturing-process design are described for product development of live biotherapeutic biological drugs. Product design uses the history and the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the selected strain. The quality and integrity of the selected strain can be ensured by preservation in a qualified cell-bank system. Manufacturing-process design includes step-by-step description, including the necessary process-input parameters and the expected output results. The active ingredients in the biological drug are usually manufactured using aseptic processing. The manufacture of the final dosage form of live biotherapeutics requires bioburden control or aseptic manufacture, as appropriate. Specifications for live biotherapeutics must comply with regulations for licensed biological products. Evidence of stability for the duration of the shelf life, as well as stability under the recommended conditions of use, must be provided for licensure.

  10. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-08-27

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering.

  11. 9 CFR 112.6 - Packaging biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging biological products. 112.6... § 112.6 Packaging biological products. (a) Each multiple-dose final container of a biological product... equipment. (e) Final containers of biological product prepared at a licensed establishment, or imported,...

  12. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  13. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  14. 9 CFR 115.2 - Inspections of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspections of biological products... § 115.2 Inspections of biological products. (a) Any biological product, the container of which bears a...) When notified to stop distribution and sale of a serial or subserial of a veterinary biological...

  15. Teacher Shortages: What We Know. Teacher Shortage Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This brief is the first in a series of reports examining the teacher shortage dilemma. It considers what the research says about teacher shortages and highlights recent state task force findings. Designed to guide state leaders in policy decisions, the briefs that follow examine five strategies states are using to address shortages: (1)…

  16. Artificial Shortages and Strategic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We consider a monopolist who manipulates the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods. The approach is to develop an intertemporal model of pricing strategy for a monopolist. Approach: The postulated pricing strategy creates an incentive for producers to reduce current supply and raise current prices and sacrifice current profits in order to increase future profits. The main problem is to explain the precise mathematical conditions under which the pricing strategy will be chosen by a monopolist. Results: We derive the optimal pricing strategy to argue that the monopolist has an incentive to adopt simple market manipulation that calls forth a close examination of issues concerning deregulation. Conclusion: The paper examines two possible strategies for a typical monopolist-strategic pricing vis-a-vis a myopic pricing. The intuition is that the monopolist can manipulate the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods.

  17. 9 CFR 114.17 - Rebottling of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rebottling of biological products. 114.17 Section 114.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.17 Rebottling of biological products. The Administrator...

  18. 9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reprocessing of biological products. 114.18 Section 114.18 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.18 Reprocessing of biological products. The Administrator...

  19. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  20. 9 CFR 103.1 - Preparation of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.1 Preparation of experimental biological products. Except as otherwise provided in this section, experimental...

  1. 9 CFR 113.50 - Ingredients of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ingredients of biological products... REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.50 Ingredients of biological products. All ingredients used in a licensed biological product shall meet accepted standards of purity and quality; shall be...

  2. Food Shortage Causes Differential Effects on Body Composition and Tissue-Specific Gene Expression in Salmon Modified for Increased Growth Hormone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Jason; Panserat, Stéphane; Welker, Thomas; Plagne-Juan, Elisabeth; Sakhrani, Dionne; Higgs, David A; Audouin, Florence; Devlin, Robert H; Overturf, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon possesses markedly increased metabolic rate, appetite, and feed conversion efficiency, as well as an increased ability to compete for food resources. Thus, the ability of GH-transgenic fish to withstand periods of food deprivation as occurs in nature is potentially different than that of nontransgenic fish. However, the physiological and genetic effects of transgenic GH production over long periods of food deprivation remain largely unknown. Here, GH-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and nontransgenic, wild-type coho salmon were subjected to a 3-month food deprivation trial, during which time performance characteristics related to growth were measured along with proximate compositions. To examine potential genetic effects of GH-transgenesis on long-term food deprivation, a group of genes related to muscle development and liver metabolism was selected for quantitative PCR analysis. Results showed that GH-transgenic fish lose weight at an increased rate compared to wild-type even though proximate compositions remained relatively similar between the groups. A total of nine genes related to muscle physiology (cathepsin, cee, insulin-like growth factor, myostatin, murf-1, myosin, myogenin, proteasome delta, tumor necrosis factor) and five genes related to liver metabolism (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase) were shown to be differentially regulated between GH-transgenic and wild-type coho salmon over time. These genetic and physiological responses assist in identifying differences between GH-transgenic and wild-type salmon in relation to fitness effects arising from elevated growth hormone during periods of long-term food shortage.

  3. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics character......There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...... characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity...... compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains...

  4. Labor Shortage Looming Ahead?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The large quantity of cheap labor resources has long been regarded as one of the important factors that make it possible for China’s economy to maintain rapid growth. However, Cai Fang, Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, warned at a lecture in early May that China’s surplus rural labor force is not as large as thought and that China will soon experience the transition from labor surplus to labor shortage. He predicted that the turning point would occur probably in 2009. In response, Hou Dongmin, Director of the Institute of Population, Resources and Environment of Renmin University of China, and Deng Yuwen, researcher at the China Society of Economic Reform, analyze the expected impacts of transition on China’s future growth mode (in sequence).

  5. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  6. Systems biology of microbial exopolysaccharides production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem eAtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore a systems-based approach constitutes an important step towards understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan and dextran.

  7. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  8. Global Shortage of Fresh Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>阅读下表。以Global Shortage of Fresh Water为题写一篇短文。词数:100—120学生习作:Global Shortage of Fresh Water Fresh water seems ineverywhere,in rivers,lakes,wells as well as rain,which make some people think that we can’t use up water.

  9. Monascus secondary metabolites: production and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patakova, Petra

    2013-02-01

    The genus Monascus, comprising nine species, can reproduce either vegetatively with filaments and conidia or sexually by the formation of ascospores. The most well-known species of genus Monascus, namely, M. purpureus, M. ruber and M. pilosus, are often used for rice fermentation to produce red yeast rice, a special product used either for food coloring or as a food supplement with positive effects on human health. The colored appearance (red, orange or yellow) of Monascus-fermented substrates is produced by a mixture of oligoketide pigments that are synthesized by a combination of polyketide and fatty acid synthases. The major pigments consist of pairs of yellow (ankaflavin and monascin), orange (rubropunctatin and monascorubrin) and red (rubropunctamine and monascorubramine) compounds; however, more than 20 other colored products have recently been isolated from fermented rice or culture media. In addition to pigments, a group of monacolin substances and the mycotoxin citrinin can be produced by Monascus. Various non-specific biological activities (antimicrobial, antitumor, immunomodulative and others) of these pigmented compounds are, at least partly, ascribed to their reaction with amino group-containing compounds, i.e. amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Monacolins, in the form of β-hydroxy acids, inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis in animals and humans.

  10. A note on models for a family of products with shelf life, and production and shortage costs in emerging markets (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Eduardo Cárdenas-Barrón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP with common cycle time and shelf life restrictions has attracted the attention of several researchers. In this paper, a comparative study of solutions given by Xu and Sarker (2003 [Computers & Operations Research 30 (6, 925-938] with the results given by Viswanathan and Goyal (2000 [International Journal of Production Research, 38 (4, 829-836] are presented. Additionally, the paper makes some observations about two mathematical expressions, which contain a technical shortcoming.

  11. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  12. 9 CFR 106.1 - Biological products; exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 106.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXEMPTION FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS USED IN DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS OR UNDER DEPARTMENT CONTROL OR SUPERVISION § 106.1 Biological...

  13. Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...

  14. Biological hydrogen production using a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Eun; Iyer, Prabha; Bruns, Mary Ann; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-07-01

    A cross-flow membrane was coupled to a chemostat to create an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for biological hydrogen production. The reactor was fed glucose (10,000 mg/L) and inoculated with a soil inoculum heat-treated to kill non-spore-forming methanogens. Hydrogen gas was consistently produced at a concentration of 57-60% in the headspace under all conditions. When operated in chemostat mode (no flow through the membrane) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.3 h, 90% of the glucose was removed, producing 2200 mg/L of cells and 500 mL/h of biogas. When operated in MBR mode, the solids retention time (SRT) was increased to SRT = 12 h producing a solids concentration in the reactor of 5800 mg/L. This SRT increased the overall glucose utilization (98%), the biogas production rate (640 mL/h), and the conversion efficiency of glucose-to-hydrogen from 22% (no MBR) to 25% (based on a maximum of 4 mol-H(2)/mol-glucose). When the SRT was increased from 5 h to 48 h, glucose utilization (99%) and biomass concentrations (8,800 +/- 600 mg/L) both increased. However, the biogas production decreased (310 +/- 40 mL/h) and the glucose-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency decreased from 37 +/- 4% to 18 +/- 3%. Sustained permeate flows through the membrane were in the range of 57 to 60 L/m(2) h for three different membrane pore sizes (0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 microm). Most (93.7% to 99.3%) of the membrane resistance was due to internal fouling and the reversible cake resistance, and not the membrane itself. Regular backpulsing was essential for maintaining permeate flux through the membrane. Analysis of DNA sequences using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis indicated bacteria were most closely related to members of Clostridiaceae and Flexibacteraceae, including Clostridium acidisoli CAC237756 (97%), Linmingia china AF481148 (97%), and Cytophaga sp. MDA2507 AF238333 (99%). No PCR amplification of 16s rRNA genes was obtained when archaea-specific primers were used.

  15. Biological control and sustainable food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, J.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Bigler, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentati

  16. Uranium: abundance or shortage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, J. [Energy Resources International, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    With large uranium stockpiles, particularly in the form of HEU, continuing to be the dominant factor in the world uranium market, buyers should be able to enter into attractive long-term commitments for the future. Nevertheless, producers are now able to see forward with some degree of certainty and are expected to meet their planned levels of production and demand. (author).

  17. Correcting India’s Chronic Shortage of Drug Inspectors to Ensure the Production and Distribution of Safe, High-Quality Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Abhay B.; Maigetter, Karen; Jeffery, Roger; Mistry, Nerges F.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Pollock, Allyson M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Good drug regulation requires an effective system for monitoring and inspection of manufacturing and sales units. In India, despite widespread agreement on this principle, ongoing shortages of drug inspectors have been identified by national committees since 1975. The growth of India’s pharmaceutical industry and its large export market makes the problem more acute. Methods: The focus of this study is a case study of Maharashtra, which has 29% of India’s manufacturing units and 38% of its medicines exports. India’s regulations were reviewed, comparing international, national and state inspection norms with the actual number of inspectors and inspections. Twenty-six key informant interviews were conducted to ascertain the causes of the shortfall. Results: In 2009-2010, 55% of the sanctioned posts of drug inspectors in Maharashtra were vacant. This resulted in a shortfall of 83%, based on the Mashelkar Committee’s recommendations. Less than a quarter of the required inspections of manufacturing and sales units were undertaken. The Indian Drugs and Cosmetics Act and its Rules and Regulations make no provisions for drug inspectors and workforce planning norms, despite the growth and increasing complexity of India’s pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion: The Maharashtra Food and Drug Administration (FDA) falls short of the Mashelkar Committee’s recommended workforce planning norms. Legislation and political and operational support are required to produce needed changes PMID:27694680

  18. Correcting India’s Chronic Shortage of Drug Inspectors to Ensure the Production and Distribution of Safe, High-Quality Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay B. Kadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Good drug regulation requires an effective system for monitoring and inspection of manufacturing and sales units. In India, despite widespread agreement on this principle, ongoing shortages of drug inspectors have been identified by national committees since 1975. The growth of India’s pharmaceutical industry and its large export market makes the problem more acute. Methods The focus of this study is a case study of Maharashtra, which has 29% of India’s manufacturing units and 38% of its medicines exports. India’s regulations were reviewed, comparing international, national and state inspection norms with the actual number of inspectors and inspections. Twenty-six key informant interviews were conducted to ascertain the causes of the shortfall. Results In 2009-2010, 55% of the sanctioned posts of drug inspectors in Maharashtra were vacant. This resulted in a shortfall of 83%, based on the Mashelkar Committee’s recommendations. Less than a quarter of the required inspections of manufacturing and sales units were undertaken. The Indian Drugs and Cosmetics Act and its Rules and Regulations make no provisions for drug inspectors and workforce planning norms, despite the growth and increasing complexity of India’s pharmaceutical industry. Conclusion The Maharashtra Food and Drug Administration (FDA falls short of the Mashelkar Committee’s recommended workforce planning norms. Legislation and political and operational support are required to produce needed changes.

  19. 9 CFR 102.5 - U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Veterinary Biological Product... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 102.5 U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License. (a) Authorization to produce each biological product shall be specified on a U.S. Veterinary Biological Product License, issued by...

  20. Production and consumption of biological particles in temperate tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heip, C.H.R.; Goosen, N.K.; Herman, P.M.J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    1995-01-01

    The question is reviewed whether a balance exists between production and consumption of biological particles in temperate tidal estuaries and what the relationships are between the magnitude of production and consumption processes and system carbon metabolism. The production terms considered are pri

  1. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  2. Biocomes: new biological products for sustainable farming and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixidó, N.; Cal, de A.L.; Usall, J.; Guijarro, B.; Larena, I.; Torres, R.; Abadias, M.; Köhl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:
    The growing interest in biological control has been reflected during last decades in a big number of scientific publications, books and symposia. However, biocontrol commercial application at a European level is limited and biological control products are not currently available for

  3. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  4. Production of hydrogen using an anaerobic biological process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Robert; Pelter, Libbie S.; Patterson, John A.

    2016-11-29

    Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods for biological production of hydrogen. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention pertain to a modular energy system and related methods for producing hydrogen using organic waste as a feed stock.

  5. Total synthesis and biological activity of natural product Urukthapelstatin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tantisantisom, Worawan; McAlpine, Shelli R

    2013-07-19

    Herein we report the first total synthesis of the natural product Urkuthaplestatin A (Ustat A) utilizing a convergent synthetic strategy. The characterization and biological activity match those of the previously published natural product. Interestingly, several intermediates, including the linear and serine cyclized precursors, show a 100-fold decrease in cytotoxicity, with IC50's in the low micromolar range. These data indicate that the rigidity and the consecutive aromatic heterocyclic system are responsible for the biological activity.

  6. Recent Developments in Biological Hydrogen Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEBABRATA DAS

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production technology can utilize renewable energy sources like biomass for the generation of hydrogen, the cleanest form of energy for the use of mankind. However, major constraints to the commercialization of these processes include lower hydrogen yields and rates of hydrogen production. To overcome these bottlenecks intensive research work has already been carried out on the advancement of these processes such as the development of genetically modified microorganisms, the improvement of the bioreactor design, molecular engineering of the key enzyme hydrogenases, the development of two stage processes, etc. The present paper explores the recent advancements that have been made till date and also presents the state of the art in molecular strategies to improve the hydrogen production.

  7. Electricity-mediated biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have the ability to produce electricity from the oxidation of organic substrates. They also may use electricity to support chemical reactions that are energetically unfavorable. In the fermentation of sugars, hydrogen can be formed as one of the main products. However, a yield of

  8. Synthetic biological approaches to natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jaclyn M; Tang, Yi

    2012-10-01

    Small molecules produced in Nature possess exquisite chemical diversity and continue to be an inspiration for the development of new therapeutic agents. In their host organisms, natural products are assembled and modified using dedicated biosynthetic pathways. By rationally reprogramming and manipulating these pathways, unnatural metabolites containing enhanced structural features that were otherwise inaccessible can be obtained. Additionally, new chemical entities can be synthesized by developing the enzymes that carry out these complicated chemical reactions into biocatalysts. In this review, we will discuss a variety of combinatorial biosynthetic strategies, their technical challenges, and highlight some recent (since 2007) examples of rationally designed metabolites, as well as platforms that have been established for the production and modification of clinically important pharmaceutical compounds.

  9. Causes of asset shortages in emerging markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqian Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We first illustrate that emerging markets (EMs face a shortage of financial assets, with financial assets not growing as rapidly as domestic savings. An estimation to quantify the asset shortage in EMs for 1995–2008 is then undertaken. A theoretical model is developed to explain why asset shortages occur. We then econometrically estimate the causes of asset shortages, and conclude with policy implications.

  10. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  11. Role of natural product diversity in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2011-06-01

    Through the natural selection process, natural products possess a unique and vast chemical diversity and have been evolved for optimal interactions with biological macromolecules. Owing to their diversity, target affinity, and specificity, natural products have demonstrated enormous potential as modulators of biomolecular function, been an essential source for drug discovery, and provided design principles for combinatorial library development.

  12. 9 CFR 113.3 - Sampling of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonviral Master Seeds requiring cell culture propagation. For Master Seeds isolated or passed in a cell... additional species. For Master Seeds grown in cell culture and intended for use in more than one species, an... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling of biological products....

  13. Hydrogen production by biological processes: a survey of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debabrata [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Biotechnology, Kharagpur (India); Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States); Veziroglu, T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Clean Energy Research Inst., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen is the fuel of the future mainly due to its high conversion efficiency, recyclability and nonpolluting nature. Biological hydrogen production processes are found to be more environment friendly and less energy intensive as compared to thermochemical and electrochemical processes. They are mostly controlled by either photosynthetic or fermentative organisms. Till today, more emphasis has been given on the former processes. Nitrogenase and hydrogenase play very important roles. Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria (hydrogenase negative gene) improves the hydrogen generation. The paper presents a survey of biological hydrogen production processes. The micro-organism and biochemical pathways involved in hydrogen generation processes are presented in some detail. Several developmental works are discussed. Immobilised system is found suitable for the continuous hydrogen production. About 28% of energy can be recovered in the form of hydrogen using sucrose as substrate. Fermentative hydrogen production processes have some edge over the other biological processes. (Author)

  14. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Principal Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, John C.; Hewitt, Paul M.; Brady, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    The research literature on the principal shortage is inconsistent regarding the actual scope of the shortage and a clear articulation of factors contributing to the successful recruitment and retention of today's school leaders. Often, critical data related to the principal shortage are ignored, including the number of younger principals…

  15. Isobutanol: Supply Shortage Lasts for Long in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Supply Shortage of Feedstock In recent years, with the fast increasing demand from downstream sectors and the extension of new facilities for producing oxo-alcohol, China has boosted its production capacity of isobutanol to some extent. In 2006 China had a production capacity of 81 500 t/a with an output of around 60 000 tons.

  16. The Interstellar Production of Biologically Important Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary tasks of the Astrochemistry Laboratory at Ames Research Center is to use laboratory simulations to study the chemical processes that occur in dense interstellar clouds. Since new stars are formed in these clouds, their materials may be responsible for the delivery of organics to new habitable planets and may play important roles in the origin of life. These clouds are extremely cold (less than 50 kelvin), and most of the volatiles in these clouds are condensed onto dust grains as thin ice mantles. These ices are exposed to cosmic rays and ultraviolet (UV) photons that break chemical bonds and result in the production of complex molecules when the ices are warmed (as they would be when incorporated into a star-forming region). Using cryovacuum systems and UV lamps, this study simulates the conditions of these clouds and studies the resulting chemistry. Some of the areas of progress made in 1999 are described below. It shows some of the types of molecules that may be formed in the interstellar medium. Laboratory simulations have already confirmed that many of these compounds are made under these conditions.

  17. Romanian Tourism Facing Labour Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Chivu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main tendencies in the Romanian tourism and their impact on the labour market. The first partof the paper presents the main tendencies in travel and tourism sector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market inthe hotel sector, highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration, financial compensations.The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into the travel and tourism sector in order to better manage the multipledimensions of growth.

  18. ROMANIAN TOURISM FACING LABOUR SHORTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main trends în the Romanian tourism sector andtheir impact on the labour market. The first part of the paper presents the main trends în the travel and tourismsector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market în the hotel sector,highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration,financial compensations. The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into thetravel and tourism sector în order to better manage the multiple dimensions of growth.

  19. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  20. Assessment of biological Hydrogen production processes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, G. D.; Shahavi, M. H.; Neshat, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Energy crisis created a special attention on renewable energy sources. Among these sources; hydrogen through biological processes is well-known as the most suitable and renewable energy sources. In terms of process yield, hydrogen production from various sources was evaluated. A summary of microorganisms as potential hydrogen producers discussed along with advantages and disadvantages of several bioprocesses. The pathway of photo-synthetic and dark fermentative organisms was discussed. In fact, the active enzymes involved in performance of biological processes for hydrogen generation were identified and their special functionalities were discussed. The influential factors affecting on hydrogen production were known as enzymes assisting liberation specific enzymes such as nitrogenase, hydrogenase and uptake hydrogenase. These enzymes were quite effective in reduction of proton and form active molecular hydrogen. Several types of photosynthetic systems were evaluated with intension of maximum hydrogen productivities. In addition dark fermentative and light intensities on hydrogen productions were evaluated. The hydrogen productivities of efficient hydrogen producing strains were evaluated.

  1. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-08-11

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences.

  2. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  3. The structural biology of enzymes involved in natural product glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanteri; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2012-10-01

    The glycosylation of microbial natural products often dramatically influences the biological and/or pharmacological activities of the parental metabolite. Over the past decade, crystal structures of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and attachment of novel sugars found appended to natural products have emerged. In many cases, these studies have paved the way to a better understanding of the corresponding enzyme mechanism of action and have served as a starting point for engineering variant enzymes to facilitate to production of differentially-glycosylated natural products. This review specifically summarizes the structural studies of bacterial enzymes involved in biosynthesis of novel sugar nucleotides.

  4. Biological hydrogen production by moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HP Goorissen; AJM Stams [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research centre Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses on the biological production of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (65-75 C) by anaerobic bacteria. A survey was made to select the best (moderate) thermophiles for hydrogen production from cellulolytic biomass. From this survey we selected Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (a gram-positive bacterium) and Thermotoga elfii (a gram-negative bacterium) as potential candidates for biological hydrogen production on mixtures of C{sub 5}-C{sub 6} sugars. Xylose and glucose were used as model substrates to describe growth and hydrogen production from hydrolyzed biomass. Mixed substrate utilization in batch cultures revealed differences in the sequence of substrate consumption and in catabolites repression of the two microorganisms. The regulatory mechanisms of catabolites repression in these microorganisms are not known yet. (authors)

  5. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations.

  6. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied r

  7. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  8. Logarithmic inventory model with shortage for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedlekar Uttam Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have modeled a business which starts with shortage of deteriorating items. After a duration, managers have freedom to order the stock of assurance of committed customers. There are many products that follow logarithmic demand pattern, so in this paper we incorporate it with the shortage of items at the beginning. A new model is developed to obtain the optimal solution for such type of market situation and have obtained some valuable results. Numerical examples and simulation study is appended along with managerial insights.

  9. Reinvigorating natural product combinatorial biosynthesis with synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Moore, Bradley S; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2015-09-01

    Natural products continue to play a pivotal role in drug-discovery efforts and in the understanding if human health. The ability to extend nature's chemistry through combinatorial biosynthesis--altering functional groups, regiochemistry and scaffold backbones through the manipulation of biosynthetic enzymes--offers unique opportunities to create natural product analogs. Incorporating emerging synthetic biology techniques has the potential to further accelerate the refinement of combinatorial biosynthesis as a robust platform for the diversification of natural chemical drug leads. Two decades after the field originated, we discuss the current limitations, the realities and the state of the art of combinatorial biosynthesis, including the engineering of substrate specificity of biosynthetic enzymes and the development of heterologous expression systems for biosynthetic pathways. We also propose a new perspective for the combinatorial biosynthesis of natural products that could reinvigorate drug discovery by using synthetic biology in combination with synthetic chemistry.

  10. PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE BIOLOGIC PLUM PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Vitanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian plum cultivars Gabrovska, Nevena, Strinava, Guliaeva and Balvanska slava, breeding in the Plum Experimental Station in the town of Dryanovo and the introduced cultivars Stanley, Chachanska lepotitsa, Opal, Malvazinka, Hramova renkloda, Tuleu timpuriu, Althan’s Gage, Pacific, Mirabell de Nancy, Anna Schpet and Jojo, what are high productive and are tolerant to sharka and other important economic plum diseases are suitable for the biologic plum production. The organic fertilization is a basic element of the technology for the biologic plum production. The fertilization with manure and the green manure with a winter green peas and with a peas-rye mix increased the humus content, influenced positive action on the supplying of the plum plants with the main nutrient macro elements, increased the yield and to be able apply successfully in the plum orchards and at not irrigation conditions.

  11. Concerns for Skills Shortages in the 21st Century: A Review into the Construction Industry, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Watson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Construction Industry is now facing skills shortages in all trades. As an industry focused on the skill of its workforce, there is now concern the Australian standard in quality, workmanship, and productivity will inhibit both at national and international level.This research paper addresses the underlying, influential factors concerning skills shortages in the Australian construction industry. The influential factors addressed include funding, training statistics, employer expectations, financial limitations, Industrial Relations and immigration. Given the reference to skills shortages within the industry, and documented in related literature, if skills shortages are to continue to exist, their effect will impact upon the overall performance of construction companies throughout Australia.

  12. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products.

  13. 78 FR 78796 - Supplemental Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products; Correction and Extension of... holders of an approved drug or biological product to change the product labeling to reflect certain types... biological product to change the product labeling to reflect certain types of newly acquired information...

  14. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed towards a shift in the exploitation of actinomycetes biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets.

  15. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...

  16. 76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... market may use shortages as opportunities to hoard scarce drugs or charge exorbitant prices. The Food and... solutions are outside of the FDA's control, the agency has worked cooperatively with manufacturers to... before a shortage becomes a crisis. However, drug manufacturers have not consistently provided the...

  17. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Oblačinska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Oblačinska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  18. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  19. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription... Evaluation and Research (CDER) and Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain... class as a top priority for indexing of product labeling information. FDA is now announcing that...

  20. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  1. The staffing shortage: AHRA responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivi, Penny M

    2002-01-01

    The AHRA Board of Directors formed a Long-Term Staffing Task Force to study the question, "Should AHRA become involved in the resolution(s) of the current staffing crisis, and if so how?" Because the background information that could be gathered was extensive, the Task Force used the following four questions to guide its activity: SENSITIVITY TO MEMBERS' VIEWS: What do we know about the needs, wants and preferences of our members, prospective members and customers relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? FORESIGHT ABOUT FUTURE ENVIRONMENT: What do we know about the current and evolving dynamics of our profession relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? INSIGHT INTO THE ORGANIZATION: What do we know about the strategic position and internal capacity of our organization relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? CONSIDERATION OF OUR CHOICES: What are the ethical implications of our choices relevant to a decision to become involved in activities to resolve the staffing crisis? After considerable investigation and discussion, the Task Force made the following recommendations to the Board: RAISE AWARENESS OF OUR PROFESSION: Expand the number of radiologic technologists in the workforce by increasing the diversity of our students and by changing the traditional method in which we educate students (i.e., full-time, day clinical education). Create a quality monitor useful to the majority of radiology leaders to begin to systematically document the shortage. Support limited licensure and/or create a defined position of "staff extender" for radiologic technology.

  2. 76 FR 66235 - Bar Code Technologies for Drugs and Biological Products; Retrospective Review Under Executive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Biological Products; Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and... ] certain human drug products and biological products to have a bar code. Information submitted can help FDA... technologies for the identification, including the unique identification, of drugs and biological products....

  3. 9 CFR 113.29 - Determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desiccated biological products. 113.29 Section 113.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... biological products. Methods provided in this section must be used when a determination of moisture content in desiccated biological products is prescribed in an applicable Standard Requirement or in the...

  4. 9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dangerous, or harmful biological products. 105.3 Section 105.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products. (a) If at any time it...-Serum-Toxin Act, of any biological product by any person holding a license or permit may be dangerous...

  5. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  6. Nutrient shortage triggers the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway via the GCN2-ATF4 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveroux, Cédric; Sarcinelli, Carmen; Barbet, Virginie; Belfeki, Sofiane; Barthelaix, Audrey; Ferraro-Peyret, Carole; Lebecque, Serge; Renno, Toufic; Bruhat, Alain; Fafournoux, Pierre; Manié, Serge N

    2016-06-03

    The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is a nutrient-sensing metabolic pathway that produces the activated amino sugar UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, a critical substrate for protein glycosylation. Despite its biological significance, little is known about the regulation of HBP flux during nutrient limitation. Here, we report that amino acid or glucose shortage increase GFAT1 production, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP. GFAT1 is a transcriptional target of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) induced by the GCN2-eIF2α signalling pathway. The increased production of GFAT1 stimulates HBP flux and results in an increase in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine protein modifications. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ATF4 provides a link between nutritional stress and the HBP for the regulation of the O-GlcNAcylation-dependent cellular signalling.

  7. Assessment of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria and shrimp production in ponds treated with biological products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Shubhadeep Ghosh; Debasis Sasmal

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of biological products on the levels of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria in shrimp culture systems of West Bengal, India. Methods: The pond water and sediment samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as per standard methods. The bacteria involved in ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation were enumerated by most probable number technique. Results:The semi-intensive and modified extensive shrimp farms used a variety of biological products during various stages of production. No biological products were used in traditional farms. The water and sediment samples of modified extensive system recorded significantly higher mean heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts of ammonia, nitrite and sulphur oxidizers, and nitrate and sulphate reducers varied among the systems. The cycling of nitrogen and sulphur appeared to be affected with the intensification of culture practices. Conclusions:The application of biological products in certain systems helped to maintain the bacteria involved in nitrogen and sulphur cycles and safe levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. An assessment of these metabolically active bacteria in shrimp culture ponds and the application of right kind microbial products would help ameliorate the organic pollution in shrimp aquaculture.

  8. Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnino, S.; Colin, P.; Dei-Cas, E.

    2009-01-01

    recently increased in some areas of the world. Biological risks associated with the consumption of products from both farmed and wild reptile meat and eggs include infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp.). parasites (Spirometra, Trichinella, Gnathostoma, pentastomids), as well...... as intoxications by biotoxins. For crocodiles, Salmonella spp. constitute a significant public health risk due to the high intestinal carrier rate which is reflected in an equally high contamination rate in their fresh and frozen meat. There is a lack of information about the presence of Salmonella spp. in meat...

  9. Nursing the Nursing Shortage Back to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses shortage of nurses, improved compensation, and other benefits for nurses. Discusses effects of institutional reputation. Describes move to retention programs by nurse recruiters. Concludes image of nursing has developed into professional status. (ABL)

  10. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes.

  11. 77 FR 30887 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Test Requirements for Biological Products; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... manufacturers of biological products greater flexibility, as appropriate, and encourages use of the most appropriate and state-of-the-art test methods for assuring the safety of biological products. The rule...

  12. 21 CFR 601.26 - Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or... Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded... for the reclassification of all biological products that have been classified into Category IIIA....

  13. 78 FR 12760 - Guidance for Industry on Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Drug and Biological Products--Implementing the Physician Labeling Rule Content and Format Requirements... Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Implementing the PLR Content and Format Requirements.'' This... for human prescription drug and biological products. The recommendations in this guidance will...

  14. 37 CFR 1.779 - Calculation of patent term extension for a veterinary biological product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a veterinary biological product. 1.779 Section 1.779 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... Calculation of patent term extension for a veterinary biological product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a veterinary biological product is eligible for extension, the...

  15. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product.

  16. Biological productivity and carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Primary production, bacterial production, particulate organic carbon fluxes and organic carbon burial rates were quantified during the summer period of 1999 in the Arctic Ocean via 14C uptake, 3H uptake, 234Th/238U disequilibrium and 210Pbex dating, respectively. The integrated primary production in the water column was as high as 197 mmolC/(m2@d) in the Chukchi shelf and was 3.8 mmolC/(m2@d) in the Canada Basin. These rates are higher than those reported previously. The ratios of bacterial production to primary production in the study region were higher than 0.5, indicating that microbial activity is not depressed but important in cold Arctic waters. 234Th/238U disequilibria were evident at the station in the Canada Basin. The presence of significant 234Th deficiency suggested that scavenging and removal processes are also important to biogeochemical cycles of trace elements in the Arctic Ocean. Particulate organic carbon export flux was estimated to be 1.0 mmolC/(m2@d). Measurements of sediment excess 210Pb profile in the Chukchi shelf allowed us to estimate the amount of organic carbon buried in the bottom sediment, which ranged from 25 to 35 mmolC/(m2@d) and represented about 59%-82% of the mean primary production in the euphotic zone. Overall, our results indicated that the Arctic Ocean has active carbon cycling and is not a biological desert as previously believed. Therefore, the Arctic Ocean may play an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change.

  17. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  18. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-06-16

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage.

  19. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  20. 21 CFR 601.25 - Review procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or suggested... determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or suggested conditions of use. For purposes of reviewing biological products that have...

  1. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  2. Skilled labour shortage : implications, recruitment and workforce planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charette, A. [Canadian Council of Human Resources Association, St. Catherines, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation provides information on how a long-term recruitment strategy can affect the viability of the oil and gas industry, which is currently facing a shortage of skilled labour in Canada. The problem poses a threat to the competitiveness of the industry and the problem will likely worsen unless action is taken now to prevent a crisis in the near future. A survey of business owners in 2002 indicated that 186,000 of 265,000 jobs remained vacant for at least 4 months. As the aging workforce of baby boomers reaches retirement age, the labour shortage is likely to be more pronounced by 2010 to 2015. The consequences of changing labour demographics affect costs, attracting and retaining talented workers, productivity, culture, creativity and competitiveness. figs.

  3. Employment regulation peculiarities in the terms of labour shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail Zalilovich Shaimardanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Current problems and peculiarities of employment due to the growing shortage of manpower are discussed on the example of Sverdlovsk region. The causes of labour shortages and the main features of its overcoming are associated with an increase in economic activity, growing productivity, mitigating structural problems of the labour market and migration replacement. Priority areas for management of regional employment, taking into account the negative effects of demographic factors, are proposed. These trends include the increased interaction of ministries and departments to coordinate actions in the social sphere, science-based development model for monitoring the social and labour sphere (with the situational analysis, monitoring and short-term forecasting, modernization of software on employment in the current conditions and the formation of constantly updatable information database for the migration planning.

  4. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products imported for research and evaluation. 112.9 Section 112.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A...

  5. 77 FR 47397 - Request for Nominations of Specific Drug/Biologic Product(s) That Could Be Brought Before the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Nominations of Specific Drug/Biologic Product(s... invites the public to suggest one or more specific drug or biologic products that could be brought before... Drugs Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for...

  6. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Day, Carolyn; Gilmour, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2006-05-02

    Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  7. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour Stuart

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  8. 9 CFR 118.3 - Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of detained biological... VECTORS DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION § 118.3 Movement of detained biological products; Termination of detention. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, no biological...

  9. 76 FR 52668 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological... announced that a meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee would be held...

  10. 76 FR 13646 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. In...

  11. 77 FR 3780 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics...

  12. Competency development in antibody production in cancer cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.S.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective of this project was to develop a rapid recombinant antibody production technology. To achieve the objective, the authors employed (1) production of recombinant antigens that are important for cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, (2) immunization and specific selection of antibody-producing lymphocytes using the flow cytometry and magnetic bead capturing procedure, (3) construction of single chain antibody library, (4) development of recombinant vectors that target, express, and regulate the expression of intracellular antibodies, and (5) specific inhibition of tumor cell growth in tissue culture. The authors have accomplished (1) optimization of a selection procedure to isolate antigen-specific lymphocytes, (2) optimization of the construction of a single-chain antibody library, and (3) development of a new antibody expression vector for intracellular immunization. The future direction of this research is to continue to test the potential use of the intracellular immunization procedure as a tool to study functions of biological molecules and as an immuno-cancer therapy procedure to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

  13. Biological hydrogen production measured in batch anaerobic respirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Oh, Sang-Eun; Kim, In S; Van Ginkel, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests using heat-shocked mixed cultures with two techniques: an intermittent pressure release method (Owen method) and a continuous gas release method using a bubble measurement device (respirometric method). Under otherwise identical conditions, the respirometric method resulted in the production of 43% more hydrogen gas from glucose than the Owen method. The lower conversion of glucose to hydrogen using the Owen protocol may have been produced by repression of hydrogenase activity from high partial pressures in the gastight bottles, but this could not be proven using a thermodynamic/rate inhibition analysis. In the respirometric method, total pressure in the headspace never exceeded ambient pressure, and hydrogen typically composed as much as 62% of the headspace gas. High conversion efficiencies were consistently obtained with heat-shocked soils taken at different times and those stored for up to a month. Hydrogen gas composition was consistently in the range of 60-64% for glucose-grown cultures during logarithmic growth but declined in stationary cultures. Overall, hydrogen conversion efficiencies for glucose cultures were 23% based on the assumption of a maximum of 4 mol of hydrogen/ mol of glucose. Hydrogen conversion efficiencies were similar for sucrose (23%) and somewhat lower for molasses (15%) but were much lower for lactate (0.50%) and cellulose (0.075%).

  14. Biological removal of cationic fission products from nuclear wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, N; Chirwa, E M N

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is becoming a preferred energy source amidst rising concerns over the impacts of fossil fuel based energy on global warming and climate change. However, the radioactive waste generated during nuclear power generation contains harmful long-lived fission products such as strontium (Sr). In this study, cationic strontium uptake from solution by microbial cultures obtained from mine wastewater is evaluated. A high strontium removal capacity (q(max)) with maximum loading of 444 mg/g biomass was achieved by a mixed sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) culture. Sr removal in SRB was facilitated by cell surface based electrostatic interactions with the formation of weak ionic bonds, as 68% of the adsorbed Sr(2+) was easily desorbed from the biomass in an ion exchange reaction with MgCl₂. To a lesser extent, precipitation reactions were also found to account for the removal of Sr from aqueous solution as about 3% of the sorbed Sr was precipitated due to the presence of chemical ligands while the remainder occurred as an immobile fraction. Further analysis of the Sr-loaded SRB biomass by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed extracellular Sr(2+) precipitation as a result of chemical interaction. In summary, the obtained results demonstrate the prospects of using biological technologies for the remediation of industrial wastewaters contaminated by fission products.

  15. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  16. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  17. Reducing the Special Education Teacher Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Medina, Ricky

    2007-01-01

    New demands and high attrition levels of special education teachers have created a crisis for education and extensive additional stress for special education directors and principals. The critical shortage of highly qualified special education teachers has significantly increased the pressure to hire and retain them. This article discusses factors…

  18. College Labor Shortages in 2018? Part Deux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Paul E.; Sum, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The recent response by Anthony Carnevale et al. to the authors' analysis of the fundamental shortcomings associated with their predictions of widespread college labor shortages focuses on three areas. First, Anthony Carnevale et al. suggest that the authors are educational Luddites by noting in the title of their response that the authors believe…

  19. Food shortages in sub-Saharan Africa and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisi, S E

    1982-12-01

    Food problems faced by sub-Saharan African nations center around the widening gap between food needs and availablity. Food shortages are suggested to originate from poor distribution and as a result of natural disasters; not as a consequence of population growth. Imperialism, colonialism, and neocolonial exploitation has encouraged African economic and cultural backwardness; a situation in which high population growth can have grave consequences. Fertility control is promoted by industrialized governments as a means of solving socioeconomic problems. However, fertility control may not be justified in many African nations which experience high infant mortality and labor intensive agriculture. Although the number of people who can be fed in any circumstance is ultimately finite, Africa's situation could be improved. If presently uninhabitable land was made suitable for settlement, land shortage from overpopulation would not be problematic for a long time. Modernization of agricultural practices could have a substantial impact of food production. At present, innovations are largely associated with the production of export crops which has often necessitated food imports. Food aid for relief in emergencies or for support of regions with chronic shortages is appropriate and beneficial, however, in some cases food aid can be detrimental, e.g., by lowering food prices thus burdening small farmers. Food aid tends to create dependency, not self-sufficiency. Malnutrition and hunger are symptoms of underdevelopment. At the policy level, a food and nutrition strategy should include rural development designed to improve income redistribution, agricultural modernization, and measures to influence the production of various foods to ensure a balanced diet, and nutrition and health intervention programs for vulnerable groups. In addition to overall agricultural development, 2 general recommendations are offered: increased production of staple food stuffs and a concentrated effort to

  20. 27 CFR 40.287 - Remission of tax liability on shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remission of tax liability on shortage. 40.287 Section 40.287 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED...

  1. Silicon shortage: supply constraints limit PV growth until 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, H.; Bradford, T. [Prometheus Inst. (United States)

    2006-10-01

    It is argued that a shortage of refined (polycystalline) silicon will curtail the expansion of the solar photovoltaics industry until about 2008. At present, 94% of PV cells produced worldwide use refined silicon. The problem has arisen because the traditional source, scrap silicon from the electronics industry, is no longer available in sufficient quantities - demand has outstripped supply. Although plans are in place to double the present supply of silicon over the next four years, doubts are expressed over the likelihood of this happening. Currently, there are only seven big companies producing the silicon - production figures for these companies are given. (author)

  2. 75 FR 47605 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. FDA intends...

  3. Development of biological platform for the autotrophic production of biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nymul

    The research described herein is aimed at developing an advanced biofuel platform that has the potential to surpass the natural rate of solar energy capture and CO2 fixation. The underlying concept is to use the electricity from a renewable source, such as wind or solar, to capture CO 2 via a biological agent, such as a microbe, into liquid fuels that can be used for the transportation sector. In addition to being renewable, the higher rate of energy capture by photovoltaic cells than natural photosynthesis is expected to facilitate higher rate of liquid fuel production than traditional biofuel processes. The envisioned platform is part of ARPA-E's (Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy) Electrofuels initiative which aims at supplementing the country's petroleum based fuel production with renewable liquid fuels that can integrate easily with the existing refining and distribution infrastructure (http://arpae. energy.gov/ProgramsProjects/Electrofuels.aspx). The Electrofuels initiative aimed to develop liquid biofuels that avoid the issues encountered in the current generation of biofuels: (1) the reliance of biomass-derived technologies on the inefficient process of photosynthesis, (2) the relatively energy- and resource-intensive nature of agronomic processes, and (3) the occupation of large areas of arable land for feedstock production. The process proceeds by the capture of solar energy into electrical energy via photovoltaic cells, using the generated electricity to split water into molecular hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), and feeding these gases, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from point sources such as a biomass or coal-fired power plant, to a microbial bioprocessing platform. The proposed microbial bioprocessing platform leverages a chemolithoautotrophic microorganism (Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha) naturally able to utilize these gases as growth substrates, and genetically modified to produce a triterpene hydrocarbon fuel

  4. Isotope shortage triggers delays for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Paula

    2009-07-01

    An unplanned shutdown of a nuclear reactor in Canada is disrupting the supply of medical isotopes across North America and forcing some hospitals to cancel or postpone patients' tests. The closure of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Chalk River, Ontario, has also embarrassed Canadian officials, including a senior government minister who was forced to apologize after calling the isotope shortage a "sexy" career challenge.

  5. 75 FR 17929 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... circovirus type 1 (PCV 1) in Rotarix, a U.S. licensed vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and...

  6. 75 FR 2876 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2010 - 2011 influenza season....

  7. 76 FR 44016 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review,...

  8. 76 FR 55397 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... the Laboratory of Method Development, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research...

  9. 77 FR 42319 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... lines derived from human tumors for vaccine manufacture. FDA intends to make background...

  10. 76 FR 3639 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2011-2012 influenza season....

  11. 78 FR 60884 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... of Retroviruses and Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Viral Products, Office of...

  12. 77 FR 63839 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... immunogenicity of an Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. On November...

  13. 78 FR 20663 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... DNA Viruses, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for...

  14. 78 FR 5465 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2013- 2014 influenza season. FDA intends...

  15. 75 FR 61497 - Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Products; Public Hearing; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Approval Pathway for Biosimilar and Interchangeable...'' (biosimilar) to, or ``interchangeable'' with, an FDA-licensed biological product. The purpose of this public... for biological products shown to be biosimilar to, or interchangeable with, an FDA-licensed...

  16. 78 FR 19492 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Formal Meetings Between FDA and Biosimilar Biological Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... and Biosimilar Biological Product Sponsors or Applicants; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Formal Meetings Between the FDA and Biosimilar... biosimilar biological products regulated by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the...

  17. Hydrological structure and biological productivity of the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, U.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Hydrological structure analyses of regions in the tropical Atlantic Ocean have consistently revealed the existence of a typical tropical structure characterized by a nitrate-depleted mixed layer above the thermocline. The important biological...

  18. Find Shortage Areas: HPSA & MUA/P by Address

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool helps you determine if a specific...

  19. 9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics. 113.52 Section 113.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production...

  20. Advancement in bioprocess technology: parallels between microbial natural products and cell culture biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Khetan, Anurag; Malmberg, Li-Hong; Zhou, Weichang; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2017-02-09

    The emergence of natural products and industrial microbiology nearly eight decades ago propelled an era of bioprocess innovation. Half a century later, recombinant protein technology spurred the tremendous growth of biologics and added mammalian cells to the forefront of industrial producing cells in terms of the value of products generated. This review highlights the process technology of natural products and protein biologics. Despite the separation in time, there is a remarkable similarity in their progression. As the new generation of therapeutics for gene and cell therapy emerges, its process technology development can take inspiration from that of natural products and biologics.

  1. Australian heroin seizures and the causes of the 2001 heroin shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggens, John

    2008-08-01

    This paper uses Australian heroin seizure data, along with estimates of the size of the Australian heroin market to evaluate the impact of drug law enforcement on the 2001 Australian heroin shortage from the percentage of the market seized. It also critically examines international heroin production trends and published reports on the causes of the Australian heroin shortage. Its conclusion is that previous studies may have overstated the success of drug law enforcement and that the most likely explanation for Australia's 2001 heroin shortage was a significant decline in heroin production world-wide, due to a general move away from heroin production in the countries of Southeast Asia and the prohibition on opium growing by the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

  2. 9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Only—Not For Sale,” or equivalent. The U.S. Veterinary License legend shall not appear on such labels... product and for maintaining records of the quantities of experimental product prepared, shipped and...

  3. 9 CFR 101.3 - Biological products and related terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., representing a whole culture or a concentrate thereof, with or without the unevaluated growth products, which... toxin or toxic growth product, which has resulted from the growth of bacterial organisms in a culture... product which is either: (1) A suspension of organisms, representing a whole culture or a...

  4. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing.

  5. Metabolic engineering with systems biology tools to optimize production of prokaryotic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Lee, Sang Yup;

    2016-01-01

    for the optimal production of various prokaryotic secondary metabolites: native versus heterologous hosts (e.g., Escherichia coli) and rational versus random approaches. This comparative analysis is followed by discussions on systems biology tools deployed in optimizing the production of secondary metabolites....... The potential contributions of additional systems biology tools are also discussed in the context of current challenges encountered during optimization of secondary metabolite production....

  6. Kinetic study of biological hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, R. [Annamalai Univ., Chidambaram (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Karunanithi, T. [Annamalai Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the kinetics of batch biohydrogen production from glucose. Clostridium pasteurianum was used to produce biohydrogen by dark anaerobic fermentation. The initial substrate concentration, initial pH and temperature were optimized for biohydrogen production. The maximum production of hydrogen under optimum conditions was found to be 5.376 l/l. The kinetic parameters were determined for the optimized medium and conditions in the batch reactor. The by product was expressed as total acidic equivalent. This presentation discussed the logistic equation that was used to model the growth of the organism and described how the kinetic parameters were calculated. The Leudeking piret kinetic model was used to express the hydrogen production and substrate use because it combines both growth associated and non associated contributions. It was concluded the production of biohydrogen can be predicted well using the logistic model for cell growth kinetics and the logistic incorporated Leudeking Piret model for product and substrate utilization kinetics.

  7. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  8. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Jens Christian; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo bios...... in a systems biology setting....

  9. The chemistry and biology of guanidine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinck, Roberto G S; Romminger, Stelamar

    2016-03-01

    The present review discusses the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activities of secondary metabolites bearing a guanidine group. Topics include non-ribosomal peptides, alkaloids, guanidine-bearing terpenes, polyketides and shikimic acid derivatives from natural sources. A critical analysis of some yet underdeveloped aspects of guanidine metabolites is also presented.

  10. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Prieto, S.; Harrison, S.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Inspector shortage in the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varcoe, David

    2002-07-01

    According to an article published by the Scotsman Online, a critical shortage of offshore safety inspectors is placing the lives of thousands of North Sea oil men at risk. Key improvements in the offshore safety regime, which followed the Piper Alpha disaster, are being compromised by the inability of front-line inspectors from the UK government's Health and Safety Executive to police platforms in the UK sector of the North Sea. The present article discusses the safety situation in the petroleum industry of the North Sea.

  12. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on quality of biotechnological/biological products: derivation and characterization of cell substrates used for production of biotechnological/biological products; availability. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q5D Quality of Biotechnological/Biological Products:Derivation and Characterization of Cell Substrates Used for Production of Biotechnological/Biological Products." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH).The document provides broad guidance on appropriate standards for the derivation and characterization of cell substrates used in the production of biotechnological/biological products and recommends information in these areas that should be presented in marketing applications.

  13. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard

    2007-01-01

    Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biological......, beetles and moths; (2) Preventative treatment of bulk commodities against weevils (Sitophilus spp.) and storage mites; (3) Preventative application of egg-parasitoids against moths in packaged products. Development of methods for biological control and of mass production of natural enemies...

  14. Recombinant biologic products versus nutraceuticals from plants - a regulatory choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Pascal M W; Szeto, Tim H; Paul, Mathew J; Teh, Audrey Y-H; Ma, Julian K-C

    2017-01-01

    Biotechnology has transformed the potential for plants to be a manufacturing source of pharmaceutical compounds. Now, with transgenic and transient expression techniques, virtually any biologic, including vaccines and therapeutics, could be manufactured in plants. However, uncertainty over the regulatory path for such new pharmaceuticals has been a deterrent. Consideration has been given to using alternative regulatory paths, including those for nutraceuticals or cosmetic agents. This review will consider these possibilities, and discuss the difficulties in establishing regulatory guidelines for new pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies.

  15. Proposing an Algorithm for R&Q Inventory Control Model with Stochastic Demand Influenced by Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz fattahi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the continuous - review inventory control system has been studied. A new constraint of demand dependent on the average percent of product shortage has been added to the problem. It means that the average demand has a direct relationship with shortage in a period. This constraint, which is related to the costs of credit loss of the organization due to product shortage, has been considered in the inventory model. In this paper, the mathematical model of this problem has been presented and then, two heuristic approaches based on the genetic and simulated annealing algorithms are developed. Computational results indicate that the simulated annealing algorithm can provide better results compare to the genetic algorithm.

  16. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  17. The times of oil shortage are not far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The reduction of oil production means that a sharp rise of oil price will be brought and a keen competition for securing oil resource will happen. The most concern of Korea is how to secure oil, which is the major energy resource as a basis of economic activities. Even though the efforts to develop alternative energy should be continued, and the times to fulfill the energy demand comes someday, just developing alternative energy is not a countermeasure for coming oil shortage within 10 years. In addition to that, we have to change our perception on nuclear plant as another preparing measure. Even many problems, the nuclear plant is necessary to substitute oil with a large amount while developing another alternative energy in the 21st century. Unless we want to live in a perfectly safe country, without nuclear accident, even if curtailing economic size with a mutual agreement of people and submitting a big difficulty, the government should notify the necessity of increasing nuclear plant dependency to people and persuade them to share the risk in order to overcome oil shortage.

  18. Skills shortage - identification of needs for engineering training in longwalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Lugg; Dewen Liu; Rebecca Hill [CRC Mining (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    This report investigates the impacts of the skills shortage on the productivity of longwall faces. The scope is limited to the supervisors and crews that operate, maintain and procure the longwall face equipment. Using a combination of face-to-face interviews and written questionnaires, the industry was canvassed about the impacts of the skills shortage, the current level of skilling and the competence of the workforce to perform its assigned tasks without supervision. The participants also identified the skillsets and levels of understanding required to allow them to work unsupervised, and the preferred delivery methods for training in the identified skills. An Industry Advisory Group was assembled to provide insight and advice to the research team with regards to the survey process and the interpretation of results. The survey data was drawn from face to face interviews from four mines and questionnaires completed by sixteen mines in Queensland and New South Wales. The data is analysed and the results presented along with conclusions and recommendations for future training.

  19. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  20. Biological production of hydroxylated aromatics: Optimization strategies for Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, A.

    2010-01-01

    To replace environmentally unfriendly petrochemical production processes, the demand for bio-based production of organic chemicals is increasing. This thesis focuses on the biological production of hydroxylated aromatics from renewable substrates by engineered P. putida S12 including several cases o

  1. 9 CFR 113.51 - Requirements for primary cells used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for primary cells used for production of biologics. 113.51 Section 113.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.51 Requirements for primary cells used...

  2. Improvement in organ shortage through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarovich, Felix

    2002-06-15

    Given the persisting shortage of organs for transplantation, it is time to consider whether the message that is sent to society to encourage donation is unsuitable. This message is mainly based on altruism and solidarity, and it has failed. Patients die because of the lack of cadaver organs that society refuses to offer; paradoxically, society is denying itself a chance of life. The reasons for this enigma are (1) lack of awareness that transplantation is a common practice; (2) the persistence of the "cult of dead body integrity;" and (3) the myths surrounding transplantation.A pathway to solving this organ shortage may be education, to make society understand their need of organs for transplantation and its role to resolve this necessity. It should focus on youth but must also reach adults, through their children receiving this education, or from the media or other sources. It should erase the concept of integrity of the cadaver and establish that using cadaver organs means sharing and guaranteeing a source of health for humanity.Similarly, a new message should stress that "using" cadaver organs means "sharing a source of health for humankind." Rather than "a gift of life" we should convey the idea of "sharing a social right and obligation" or that "My decision today assures my and my family health tomorrow."

  3. China's water shortage could shake world food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1998-01-01

    This report indicates the global concern about China's water shortages and describes basin supplies, global availability of grain, and reasons for water losses. There is little precise data on how land productivity will be affected by declines in irrigation. Reports from the "China Daily" indicate that the 1995 grain harvest in Shandong province declined by 2.7 million tons (food for 9 million people) due to water failures of the Yellow River. A delegate at the 1998 National People's Congress pointed out that rural villages nationwide had shortages of 30 billion cu. m and losses of 20 million tons of grain production. About 70% of grain harvests rely on irrigation. Water demand for residential use and industrial use is likely to increase and compete with farm use. One unlikely option is to divert irrigation water to cities as needed and import grain. The entire agricultural, energy, and industrial economies need to be made more water efficient. Agriculture will need to produce more water efficient crops and livestock products and less water intensive energy supplies. Another alternative is to divert water from one location to another. Water pricing could reinforce efficiency of use. Use of composting toilets could reduce human residential water demand. Urban capacity building should rely on separate industrial and residential wastewater systems. Investing in technologies for industry can reduce water demand among paper and steel producers. The fastest growing grain market is in North Africa and the Middle East. Trends in principal grain exporting countries with 85% of global exports indicate no growth in grain production for export since 1980.

  4. Synoptic events force biological productivity in Patagonian fjord ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycle of primary productivity of the Patagonian fjords has, to date, been described as a two phase system consisting of a short non productive winter phase (during June and July) and a productive phase extending from late winter (August) to autumn (May). Low levels of primary production, phytoplankton biomass and high concentrations of surface nutrients have been described as characterizing winter conditions while pulsed productivity events typifies the productivity pattern during the extended productive season. Pulsed productivity events characterize coastal waters where inorganic nutrients in surface layers are replenished following periods of intensive utilization by autotrophs. Freshwater input in Patagonian fjords in southern Chile (41-55°S) results in one of the largest estuarine regions worldwide. Here strong haline water column stratification prevents nutrient mixing to the surface layers thus potentially shutting off algal production. Our working hypothesis considered that in order to reconcile the observed pulsed productivity pattern, periodic breaking (associated to surface nutrient replenishment) and re-establishment of estuarine conditions (associated to water column stratification) would be required. Up to now however our understanding of the physical processes that control water column conditions in the Patagonian fjord area has been extremely limited. Here we present evidence linking the passage of synoptic low pressure fronts to pulsed productivity events in the Patagonian fjord area. These front controls and influence local processes of interaction between the fjord and the atmosphere generating a rapid water column response. In the specific case of the Puyuhuapi fjord we have been able to show that such synoptic fronts induce surface flow reversal and water column mixing. Phytoplankton blooming occurs after the passage of the synoptic front once calmer conditions prevail and estuarine conditions are re established. The occurrence of

  5. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...

  6. What drives the biological productivity of the northern Indian Ocean?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Gauns, M.; Sardessai, S.

    .g., Baars, 1994; Lal, 1994; Burkill, 1999; Smith, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001] pro- grams saw a quantum jump in our understanding of the AS productivity. The information that emerged from the JGOFS program underscored the importance of physical forcing...

  7. 75 FR 59729 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... for protective antigen-based anthrax vaccines for a post-exposure prophylaxis indication using...

  8. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Barry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  9. Sustainable Production Process of Biological Mineral Feed Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Zielinska; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Marjana Simonic

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study discussed the problem of accumulation of Zn and Cu in the topsoil as a result of application of mineral feed additives that possess low bioavailability in animal diet. The review considered the production process of mineral feed additives in which a product supplies microelements in highly bioavailable form. Enrichment of natural biomass of edible microalgae with microelement metal ions, which supply microelements of feeding significance in livestock diet, is con...

  10. Some aspects of biological production and fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhargava, R.M.S.

    Region and season-wise biological production in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India has been computed from the data of more than twenty years available at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography...

  11. Chemotherapy drug shortages in pediatric oncology: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, Matthew; Joffe, Steven; Fernandez, Conrad V; Faden, Ruth R; Unguru, Yoram

    2014-03-01

    Shortages of essential drugs, including critical chemotherapy drugs, have become commonplace. Drug shortages cost significant time and financial resources, lead to adverse patient outcomes, delay clinical trials, and pose significant ethical challenges. Pediatric oncology is particularly susceptible to drug shortages, presenting an opportunity to examine these ethical issues and provide recommendations for preventing and alleviating shortages. We convened the Working Group on Chemotherapy Drug Shortages in Pediatric Oncology (WG) and developed consensus on the core ethical values and practical actions necessary for a coordinated response to the problem of shortages by institutions, agencies, and other stakeholders. The interdisciplinary and multiinstitutional WG included practicing pediatric hematologist-oncologists, nurses, hospital pharmacists, bioethicists, experts in emergency management and public policy, legal scholars, patient/family advocates, and leaders of relevant professional societies and organizations. The WG endorsed 2 core ethical values: maximizing the potential benefits of effective drugs and ensuring equitable access. From these, we developed 6 recommendations: (1) supporting national polices to prevent shortages, (2) optimizing use of drug supplies, (3) giving equal priority to evidence-based uses of drugs whether they occur within or outside clinical trials, (4) developing an improved clearinghouse for sharing drug shortage information, (5) exploring the sharing of drug supplies among institutions, and (6) developing proactive stakeholder engagement strategies to facilitate prevention and management of shortages. Each recommendation includes an ethical rationale, action items, and barriers that must be overcome. Implemented together, they provide a blueprint for effective and ethical management of drug shortages in pediatric oncology and beyond.

  12. Sustainable Production Process of Biological Mineral Feed Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zielinska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discussed the problem of accumulation of Zn and Cu in the topsoil as a result of application of mineral feed additives that possess low bioavailability in animal diet. The review considered the production process of mineral feed additives in which a product supplies microelements in highly bioavailable form. Enrichment of natural biomass of edible microalgae with microelement metal ions, which supply microelements of feeding significance in livestock diet, is considered in term of sustainable production. Approach: Production of microalgae-derived products as mineral feed additives requires elaboration of the processes for cultivation of alga, enrichment process and afterwards recovery of the enriched biomass from the solution to obtain liquid free of cells that could be reused in the next process. In this study membrane bioreactor was considered as a method for separation, both in photobioreactor (growth of microorganism as well as in the enrichment process. Results: Effort involved in thermal and chemical separation techniques is higher than that in mechanical techniques. Membrane bioreactors which are usually applied to treat wastewater, both industrial and domestic. This study discussed method to separate a valuable biomass of enriched microalgae and reuse the solution with residual metal ions that can be used once again in the subsequent biosorption process. Conclusion/Recommendation: Taking into consideration care about the environment it is better to apply membrane modules in the production process in terms of sustainable production. The proposed solution assumed the application of membrane modules as a separation step after enrichment process and biomass recovery.

  13. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols.

  14. Synthetic biology tools for bioprospecting of natural products in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkles, Shiela E; Valiante, Vito; Mattern, Derek J; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-04-24

    Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a battery of natural products of often unknown function, synthesized by complex metabolic pathways. Unfortunately, most of these pathways appear silent, many in intractable organisms, and their products consequently unidentified. One basic challenge is the difficulty of expressing a biosynthesis pathway for a complex natural product in a heterologous eukaryotic host. Here, we provide a proof-of concept solution to this challenge and describe how the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway can be expressed in a heterologous host. The method takes advantage of a combination of improved yeast in vivo cloning technology, generation of polycistronic mRNA for the gene cluster under study, and an amenable and easily manipulated fungal host, i.e., Aspergillus nidulans. We achieve expression from a single promoter of the pathway genes to yield a large polycistronic mRNA by using viral 2A peptide sequences to direct successful cotranslational cleavage of pathway enzymes.

  15. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tallant, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  16. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  17. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time as... term of the patent for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product will be extended...

  18. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  19. Improvements in Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production Through Metabolic Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, P. C.; Ghosh, D.; Sabourin-Provost, G.

    2009-07-01

    Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention world-wide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. (Author)

  20. BIOLOGICAL FEATURES AND PRODUCTIVITY OF BLACK-AND-WHITE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochueva Y. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavior, interior and milk yield of the mature Black-and-White cows with various productivity levels, as well as etology of the replacement heifers are researched. The superiority of the high milk yielding cows for the lying duration and eating feed and water is revealed. Reduced variability of vital behavioral actions of animals is found. In addition, high yielding cows has been lower variability in all feeding acts. It was noted that high yielding animals exceeded equal age cows by the level of most interior factors. The differences were significant on the content of hemoglobin, vitamin E, and especially on the content of iron. Positive correlations between some interior design indicators is found. The analysis of lifetime productivity during our research found that high milk yielding cows had highest yields on the first lactation and kept the same level in the next lactations with insignificant variations. The lower productivity animals reached maximal yields on the third lactation with the followed downward trend. Differences between groups in lifetime productivity during research amounted to 16 992 kg. The significant superiority of the heifers with high grown intensity above equal age animals for the duration of feed and water eating, physiological functions and lying. The analysis of variation coefficient is confirmed the observed regularities.

  1. Chemical biology--identification of small molecule modulators of cellular activity by natural product inspired synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübel, Katja; Lessmann, Torben; Waldmann, Herbert

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this tutorial review is to introduce the reader to the concept, synthesis and application of natural product-inspired compound collections as an important field in chemical biology. This review will discuss how potentially interesting scaffolds can be identified (structural classification of natural products), synthesized in an appropriate manner (including stereoselective transformations for solid phase-bound compounds) and tested in biological assays (cell-based screening as well as biochemical in vitro assays). These approaches will provide the opportunity to identify new and interesting compounds as well as new targets for chemical biology and medicinal chemistry research.

  2. Moving toward security: strategies for reducing California's vulnerability to energy shortages. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    This document includes appendices on: California's energy production and distribution system; energy and security, relative to the Persian Gulf; Federal energy emergency authorities; theory of California's gasoline shortages; Complexities of the gasoline shortage system; a critique of DOE report, Domestic and International Energy Emergency Preparedness; NPC report critique; oil allocation supply test; The International Energy Agency, National Commitments and State Contingency Planning; Testimony of Commissioner Gene Varanini before Assembly Revenue and Taxation Committee; Energy Contingency planning for local governments; and Federal emergency natural gas supply laws. (PSB)

  3. Solving shortage in a priceless market: Insights from blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianshu; Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2016-07-01

    Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we study two non-price methods that are often used to alleviate shortage for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them to donate voluntarily. The second method is asking the patient's family or friends to donate in a family replacement (FR) program at the time of shortage. Using 447,357 individual donation records across 8 years from a large Chinese blood bank, we show that both methods are effective in addressing blood shortage in the short run but have different implications for total blood supply in the long run. We compare the efficacy of these methods and discuss their applications under different scenarios to alleviate shortage.

  4. Energies: shortage coming to climate's aid?; Energies: une penurie au secours du climat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, Adolphe [Montpellier Univ. (France)

    2011-09-08

    Since the industrial revolution, energy has been the driving force of the world economic growth. While our energy consumption is increasing day after day, this book tells us that shortage will be reached sooner than announced by some economists, politicians and oil companies. According to many petroleum geologists and independent experts, the oil production peaks would be already reached and the one for coal will be reached between 2030 and 2050. Shortage would also strike several mineral resources as well (like copper). The book tries to foresee what would be the shortage consequences for our societies. From the energy side, the challenge to take up is to save energy and to develop renewable energy sources. From the environment side, the exhaustion of fossil fuels represents a chance to slow down the ambient temperature rise to less than 2 deg. C by 2100. (J.S.)

  5. An EOQ Model for Time Dependent Weibull Deterioration with Linear Demand and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of control and maintenance of production inventories of deteriorating items with and without shortages  has grown in its importance recently. The effect of deterioration is very important in many inventory systems. Deterioration is defined as decay or damage such that the item cannot be used for its original purpose. Methods: In this article order level inventory models have been developed for deteriorating items with linear demand and Weibull deterioration.  In developing the model we have assumed that the production rate and the demand rate are time dependent. The unit production cost is inversely proportional to demand. Inventory-production system has two parameters Weibull deterioration.  Results and conclusions:  Two models have been developed considering without shortage cases and with shortage case where the shortages are completely backlogged. The objective of the model is to develop an optimal policy that minimizes the total average cost. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out to show the effect of changes in the parameter on the optimum total average cost.  

  6. Consequences of a global enzyme shortage of agalsidase beta in adult Dutch Fabry patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Smid; S.M. Rombach; J.M.F.G. Aerts; S. Kuiper; M. Mirzaian; H.S. Overkleeft; B.J.H.M. Poorthuis; C.E.M. Hollak; J.E.M. Groener; G.E. Linthorst

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Enzyme replacement therapy is currently the only approved therapy for Fabry disease. From June 2009 on, viral contamination of Genzyme's production facility resulted in a worldwide shortage of agalsidase beta leading to involuntary dose reductions (approved dose 1 mg/kg/eow, re

  7. A turning point for natural product discovery--ESF-EMBO research conference: synthetic biology of antibiotic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Breitling, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target area for such applications of synthetic biology. The first international conference to explore this subject was held in Spain in October 2011. In four sessions on General Synthetic Biology, Filamentous Fungal Systems, Actinomyces Systems, and Tools and Host Structures, scientists presented the most recent technological and scientific advances, and a final-day Forward Look Plenary Discussion identified future trends in the field.

  8. Time-ordered product expansions for computational stochastic system biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The time-ordered product framework of quantum field theory can also be used to understand salient phenomena in stochastic biochemical networks. It is used here to derive Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for chemical reaction networks; consequently, the SSA can be interpreted in terms of Feynman diagrams. It is also used here to derive other, more general simulation and parameter-learning algorithms including simulation algorithms for networks of stochastic reaction-like processes operating on parameterized objects, and also hybrid stochastic reaction/differential equation models in which systems of ordinary differential equations evolve the parameters of objects that can also undergo stochastic reactions. Thus, the time-ordered product expansion can be used systematically to derive simulation and parameter-fitting algorithms for stochastic systems.

  9. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This two-volume work provides an overview on various state of the art experimental and statistical methods, modeling approaches and software tools that are available to generate, integrate and analyze multi-omics datasets in order to detect biomarkers, genetic markers and potential causal genes...... for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  10. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This two-volume work provides an overview on various state of the art experimental and statistical methods, modeling approaches and software tools that are available to generate, integrate and analyze multi-omics datasets in order to detect biomarkers, genetic markers and potential causal genes...... for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This first volume presents the basic principles...... and (bioinformatic) tools available to model and analyse these data sets along with phenotypes in animal production and health. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal sciences and veterinary medicine as well as to researchers in this discipline....

  11. Preface for special issue on biological products%生物制品专刊序言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文军

    2011-01-01

    生物制品是一类预防,诊断和治疗疫病的特殊制剂.生物制品的研发是融合微生物学、免疫学、分子生物学、细胞学、基因工程及发酵工艺等学科知识的综合技术体现.生物制品产业是整个生物技术产业的核心和热点.近年来,我国在生物制品研发方面取得了较大进步,为促进我国生物制品研究的交流,本期"生物制品"专刊集中展现了我国生物制品研究人员在预防生物制品、诊断制品、治疗生物制品领域所取得的最新进展.%Biological products are a kind of special agents for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. The research and development of biological products come from the combined knowledge of many subjects, such as microbiology,immunology, molecular biology, cytology, genetic engineering and fermentation technology. Biological products industry is the core and the hot spot of the biotechnology industry. In recent years, China has made some advances in biological products research and development. To promote biological products research in China, invited reviews and selected research articles were published in this special issue of “Biological Products”. The reviews and research articles focus on the field of the biological products for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  12. Evidence-based practice in times of drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Mário L; Waignein, Sally; de Haan, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Shortage of oncology drugs is a particularly complicated issue because there are usually limited therapeutic options. Moreover, oncology practice may employ medications for supportive indications which differ from their main usage. This means shortage of oncology drugs is not usually addressed by the major drug shortage guidelines. We have previously shown that, during a shortage crisis, it is possible to make a recommendation on the use of an expired drug supply based on a reasonable estimate of its safety and efficacy. Here, we would like to share further examples on how to deduce potential therapeutic alternatives based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles in the absence of direct clinical evidence in the literature.

  13. Production, Secretion and Biological Activity of Bacillus cereus Enterotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Senesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus behaves as an opportunistic pathogen frequently causing gastrointestinal diseases, and it is increasingly recognized to be responsible for severe local or systemic infections. Pathogenicity of B. cereus mainly relies on the secretion of a wide array of toxins and enzymes and also on the ability to undergo swarming differentiation in response to surface-sensing. In this report, the pathogenicity exerted by B. cereus toxins is described with particular attention to the regulatory mechanisms of production and secretion of HBL, Nhe and CytK enterotoxins.

  14. Development of biological functional material and product from Nelumbo nucifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong

    2008-01-15

    The solvent extracts of Nelumbo nucifera G. were investigated for the activities of antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle and antimicrobial effects to apply as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. The electron donating ability of irradiated NN-L extract was above 85% at the concentration of 50ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 76% at 1,000ppm concentration. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 15% at 1,000ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 18% at 1,000ppm. Anti-wrinkle effect, the elastase inhibition activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 45% at 1,000ppm concentration. All these findings suggested that Nelumbo nucifera G. has a great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient.

  15. SOURCE, PRODUCTION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PICEATANNOL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kukreja*, A. Mishra and A. Tiwari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are group of molecules which contain different families of secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites, are abundantly found in plants and are mostly categorized into two major groups: non-soluble compounds and soluble compounds. Stilbenes which come under the category of soluble compounds of phenolics are small molecules, ranges in their weight from ~200 to 300 g/mol and are found in diverse plants. These compounds are produced in plants via phenylpropanoid pathway. Under unfavourable conditions such as microbial or viral attack, ultraviolet light exposure and disease in plants, stilbenes are synthesized and act as natural agents to protect plants. Piceatannol, a natural stilbene, is found in different plant species and is beneficial for human health. It possesses various pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. This review paper focuses on piceatannol, its sources, chemical synthesis mechanism, production and its useful applications in various diseases.

  16. Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers: an FDA Perspective on Utilization in Biological Product Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Robert N; Grillo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Precision medicine promises to improve both the efficacy and safety of therapeutic products by better informing why some patients respond well to a drug, and some experience adverse reactions, while others do not. Pharmacogenomics is a key component of precision medicine and can be utilized to select optimal doses for patients, more precisely identify individuals who will respond to a treatment and avoid serious drug-related toxicities. Since pharmacogenomic biomarker information can help inform drug dosing, efficacy, and safety, pharmacogenomic data are critically reviewed by FDA staff to ensure effective use of pharmacogenomic strategies in drug development and appropriate incorporation into product labels. Pharmacogenomic information may be provided in drug or biological product labeling to inform health care providers about the impact of genotype on response to a drug through description of relevant genomic markers, functional effects of genomic variants, dosing recommendations based on genotype, and other applicable genomic information. The format and content of labeling for biologic drugs will generally follow that of small molecule drugs; however, there are notable differences in pharmacogenomic information that might be considered useful for biologic drugs in comparison to small molecule drugs. Furthermore, the rapid entry of biologic drugs for treatment of rare genetic diseases and molecularly defined subsets of common diseases will likely lead to increased use of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels in the near future. In this review, we outline the general principles of therapeutic product labeling and discuss the utilization of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels.

  17. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  18. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  19. Thoughts on the "new nursing shortage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, I P

    2000-08-01

    The nursing shortage is a frequently recurring phenomena in the United States and in many developed countries worldwide. It is time that serious consideration be given to the necessary changes that are essential for supplying an adequate nursing force worldwide. This article compares the late 1980s nursing shortage in the United States with the current one and finds that many of the same causes are prevalent. These causes stem from the gender-based history of modern nursing and the cultural- and professional-based problems that nursing has had great difficulty changing and are discussed in this article. The decentralization of health care has also created greater demand for nurses. The nursing component of a hospital's budget representing its largest component has also been targeted by hospital administrations and ownership as a source for supporting other departments or functions at the expense of nursing personnel. Finally, the vast opportunities that have opened up to women since the Civil Rights Act in the 1960s and today's booming economy and high-technology environments make nursing much less attractive and competitive in today's market. Also, the managed care movement has significantly contributed to problems of nursing. Nursing educators have also found that the 3 levels of nursing education has confused today's high school graduates, leading to their rejection of nursing as a career. Thus, efforts are underway in nursing education to correct this problem--one that is beginning to be corrected through role differentiation that is now seen in many hospitals, but most prevalent in so-called "magnet" hospitals. Investigators have done much research--first in distinguishing the difference between magnet and nonmagnet hospitals, and now, regarding patient outcomes from those hospitals. These can lead to the efforts of nursing to come to grips with multiple entry points for a single licensure. However, the problems associated with the barriers to practice

  20. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kummu, Matti; Varis, Olli [Water and Development Research Group, Aalto University (Finland); Ward, Philip J; De Moel, Hans, E-mail: matti.kummu@iki.fi, E-mail: philip.ward@ivm.vu.nl, E-mail: hans.de.moel@ivm.vu.nl, E-mail: olli.varis@tkk.fi [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period 1961-90. Changes in historical water resources availability were simulated with the STREAM model, forced by climate output data of the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model. The water crowding index, i.e. Falkenmark water stress indicator, was used to identify water shortage in 284 sub-basins. Although our results show a few areas with moderate water shortage (1000-1700 m{sup 3}/capita/yr) around the year 1800, water shortage began in earnest at around 1900, when 2% of the world population was under chronic water shortage (<1000 m{sup 3}/capita/yr). By 1960, this percentage had risen to 9%. From then on, the number of people under water shortage increased rapidly to the year 2005, by which time 35% of the world population lived in areas with chronic water shortage. In this study, the effects of changes in population on water shortage are roughly four times more important than changes in water availability as a result of long-term climatic change. Global trends in adaptation measures to cope with reduced water resources per capita, such as irrigated area, reservoir storage, groundwater abstraction, and global trade of agricultural products, closely follow the recent increase in global water shortage.

  1. An adapted F-test for homogeneity of variability in follow-on biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Chow, Shein-Chung; Chi, Eric

    2013-02-10

    In recent years, follow-on biological products (biosimilars) have received much attention from both the biotechnology industry and the regulatory agencies, especially after the passage of the 2010 healthcare reform bill. Unlike the traditional small-molecule drug products, the development of biological products is not only more complicated but also sensitive to small changes (both mean and variation) in procedure/environment during the manufacturing process because of some fundamental differences between drug products and biological products. A small change will have an impact on the quality of the product and consequently the treatment effect. Thus, in addition to the assessment of biosimilarity in average, it was suggested that biosimilarity in variability between biological products should be assessed. In this article, we propose an adapted F-test for homogeneity of variances to assess biosimilarity in variability. We study the performance and concordance of the proposed adapted F-test and compare it with probability-based method by extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  3. Occurrence, pathways and implications of biological production of reactive oxygen species in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Hansel, C. M.; Voelker, B. M.; Lamborg, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) play a critical role in the redox cycling of both toxic (e.g., Hg) and nutrient (e.g., Fe) metals. Despite the discovery of extracellular ROS production in various microbial cultures, including fungi, algae and bacteria, photo-dependent processes are generally considered as the predominant source of ROS in natural waters. Here we show that biological production of ROS is ubiquitous and occurs at a significant rate in freshwater and brackish water environments. Water samples were collected from three freshwater and one brackish water ponds in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, periodically from 2012 to 2014. Production of O2- and H2O2 were measured in dark incubations of natural water using a chemiluminescent and a colorimetric probe, respectively. Rates of biological ROS production were obtained by comparing unfiltered with 0.2-μm filtered samples. The role of biological activity in ROS production was confirmed by the cessation of ROS production upon addition of formaldehyde. In surface water, production rates of O2- ranged from undetectable to 96.0 ± 30.0 nmol L-1 h-1, and production rates of H2O2 varied between 9.9 ± 1.3 nmol L-1 h-1 and 145.6 ± 11.2 nmol L-1 h-1. The maximum production rates of both ROS were observed in mid-summer 2013, which coincides with peak biological activity. ROS production in the water from aphotic zone was greater than in the water from photic zone. Thus, non-light dependent biological processes are likely the major contributors to ROS production in this system. Moreover, O2- production appeared to be enhanced by NADH and inhibited by proteinase-K, suggesting the possible involvement of NADH oxidoreductases in this process. The potential role of different microbial communities in ROS production, and the implications of biological ROS production for mercury speciation will also be discussed.

  4. A turning point for natural product discovery - ESF-EMBO research conference : synthetic biology of antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target are

  5. Blood Banks Face Seasonal Shortages, New Screening Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162722.html Blood Banks Face Seasonal Shortages, New Screening Rules Rare complication of transfusions has led to beefed-up testing requirements To use the ... typically a shortage of both blood and platelets during the holiday season. But, tighter ...

  6. The American Nursing Shortage: Implications for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Janice Nahra

    2012-01-01

    This article examines national employment and program trends in the nursing profession, the nursing shortage in Iowa, and state policy and community college responses in Iowa. During the seven-year period 2001-2008, two Iowa governors convened special task forces to study the nursing shortage and to make recommendations. The policy responses dealt…

  7. Medicine shortages: a commentary on causes and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Swathi; Hedman, Lisa; Forte, Gilles; Hill, Suzanne

    2016-09-29

    Shortages of medicines and vaccines have been reported in countries of all income levels in recent years. Shortages can result from one or multiple causes, including shortages of raw materials, manufacturing capacity problems, industry consolidation, marketing practices, and procurement and supply chain management. Existing approaches to mitigate shortages include advance notice systems managed through medicine regulatory authorities, special programmes that track medicines, and interventions to improve efficiency of the medicine supply chain. Redistribution of supplies at the national level can mitigate some shortages in the short term. International redistribution and exceptional regulatory approvals may be used in limited circumstances, with the understanding that such approaches are complex and may introduce cost and quality risks. If it is necessary to prioritise patients to receive a medicine that is in shortage, evidence-based practice should be used to ensure optimal allocation. Important steps in reducing medicine shortages and their impact include identifying medicines that are most at risk, developing reporting systems to share information on current and emerging shortages, and improving data from medicine supply chains.

  8. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3-C10 alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna N. Lamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel.

  9. The strategic relevance of manufacturing technology: An overall quality concept to promote innovation preventing drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Ponti, Mauro; Bruno, Giorgio; Cois, Giancarlo; D'Arpino, Alessandro; Minghetti, Paola; Mendicino, Francesca Romana; Perioli, Luana; Ricci, Maurizio

    2017-01-10

    Manufacturing is the bridge between research and patient: without product, there is no clinical outcome. Shortage has a variety of causes, in this paper we analyse only causes related to manufacturing technology and we use shortage as a paradigm highliting the relevance of Pharmaceutical Technology. Product and process complexity and capacity issues are the main challenge for the Pharmaceutical Industry Supply chain. Manufacturing Technology should be acknowledged as a R&D step and as a very important matter during University degree in Pharmacy and related disciplines, promoting collaboration between Academia and Industry, measured during HTA step and rewarded in terms of price and reimbursement. The above elements are not yet properly recognised, and manufacturing technology is taken in to consideration only when a shortage is in place. In a previous work, Panzitta et al. proposed to perform a full technology assessment at the Health Technological Assessment stage, evaluating three main technical aspects of a medicine: manufacturing process, physicochemical properties, and formulation characteristics. In this paper, we develop the concept of manufacturing appraisal, providing a technical overview of upcoming challenges, a risk based approach and an economic picture of shortage costs. We develop also an overall quality concept, not limited to GMP factors but broaden to all elements leading to a robust supply and promoting technical innovation.

  10. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design–Build–Test cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2000 to 2016 Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  11. Influence of organic fertilizer Biopro- ferm on ecological, biological and agrochemical properties of soil and winter wheat productivity

    OpenAIRE

    V. Gnydjuk

    2012-01-01

    Results of research on the effect of organic fertilizer Bioproferm obtained by biological fermentation of organic wastes of livestock and poultry facilities, environmental, biological and agrochemical soil properties and productivity of winter wheat

  12. Consequences of a global enzyme shortage of agalsidase beta in adult Dutch Fabry patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollak Carla EM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme replacement therapy is currently the only approved therapy for Fabry disease. From June 2009 on, viral contamination of Genzyme's production facility resulted in a worldwide shortage of agalsidase beta leading to involuntary dose reductions (approved dose 1 mg/kg/eow, reduced dose 0.5 mg/kg/m, or switch to agalsidase alpha (administered dose 0.2 mg/kg/eow. An assessment report from the European Medicines Agency (EMA raised serious concerns about an increase in adverse events at lower dosages of agalsidase beta. We determined the influence of the shortage on clinical event incidence and the most sensitive biochemical marker (lysoGb3 in Dutch Fabry patients. Methods The incidence of clinical events per person per year was calculated from start of agalsidase beta treatment until the shortage, and was compared to the incidence of clinical events during the shortage period. In addition, plasma lysoGb3, eGFR, quality of life (SF-36 and brief pain inventory (BPI questionnaires were analysed. Results All thirty-five Dutch Fabry patients using agalsidase beta (17 males were included. Mean clinical event incidence was unchanged: 0.15 events per person per year before versus 0.15 during the shortage (p = 0.68. In total 28 clinical events occurred in 14 patients during 4.6 treatment years, compared to 7 events in 6 patients during the 1.3 year shortage period. eGFR and BPI scores were not significantly altered. Two SF-36 subscales were significantly but minimally reduced in females. In males, lysoGb3 increased with a median of 8.1 nM (range 2.5 - 29.2 after 1 year of shortage (p = 0.001. Increases in lysoGb3 were found in both patients switching to agalsidase alpha and on a reduced agalsidase beta dose. Antibody status, treatment duration or clinical event incidence showed no clear correlation to lysoGb3 increases. Conclusions No increase in clinical event incidence was found in the adult Dutch Fabry cohort during the agalsidase

  13. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  14. The Use of Alternative Raw Material in Production of Pastry Products as a Progressive Direction in Creating the Products of High Biological Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janа Bachinska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the use of alternative vegetable raw materials in the manufacture of pastry products with high biological value; it presents the results of evaluation of commodity of the developed products and compares them with the main samples presented in Kharkiv trade network. The feasibility of using a mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds in the technology of pastry production to extend the range of confectionery products of high biological value and products with reduced calories has been proved. Adding the mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds to biscuits and cakes positively affected the chemical composition of the ready-made product, saturating it with useful and necessary to human body mineral elements, vitamins, dietary fiber.

  15. 21 CFR 201.56 - Requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... human prescription drug and biological products. 201.56 Section 201.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... human prescription drug and biological products. (a) General requirements. Prescription drug labeling... requirements in §§ 201.56(d) and 201.57. (1) The following categories of prescription drug products are...

  16. Biological Constraints in Tomato Production in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum production is handicapped by damage due to pests and pathogens. Farmers' fields in the western highlands of Cameroon were surveyed during 1993 to 1996 to identify biological constraints in production. Diseases and insect pests are the most important biological limitations in tomato production. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans and early blight caused by Alternaria solani are the most severe diseases, while the melon fruitfly (Dacus cucurbitae is the most prevalent insect pest. Yield losses due to pest damage are high and reach 100 % when the crop is not treated in the wet season. Pest-resistant varieties are not available to farmers. Consequently, growers practise intensive pesticidal spray programmes to limit losses caused by pests and diseases. Results indicate the necessity for the adoption of integrated pest management strategies in tomato production in Cameroon.

  17. A consilience model to describe N2O production during biological N removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Smets, Barth F.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is produced during biological nitrogen conversion in wastewater treatment operations. Complex mechanisms underlie N2O production by autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, which continue to be unravelled. Mathematical models that describe nitric oxide...... (NO) and N2O dynamics have been proposed. Here, a first comprehensive model that considers all relevant NO and N2O production and consumption mechanisms is proposed. The model describes autotrophic NO production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria associated with ammonia oxidation and with nitrite reduction......, followed by NO reduction to N2O. It also considers NO and N2O as intermediates in heterotrophic denitrification in a 4-step model. Three biological NO and N2O production pathways are accounted for, improving the capabilities of existing models while not increasing their complexity. Abiotic contributions...

  18. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  19. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...

  20. Do biological medicinal products pose a risk to the environment?: a current view on ecopharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühler, Thomas C; Andersson, Mikael; Carlin, Gunnar; Johnsson, Ann; Akerblom, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of active pharmaceutical substances in the environment is of growing concern. The vast majority of the compounds in question are of low molecular weight, intended for oral use and designed to tolerate, for example, the digestive enzymes in the upper alimentary tract, the harsh milieus found in the acidic stomach, or the microbe rich intestine. Accordingly, these xenobiotic compounds may, due to their inherent biological activity, constitute a risk to the environment. Biological medicinal products, for example recombinant human insulin or monoclonal antibodies, however, are different. They are primarily made up of oligomers or polymers of amino acids, sugars or nucleotides and are thus readily metabolized. They are therefore generally not considered to pose any risk to the environment. Certain classes of biological medicinal products, however, are associated with specific safety issues. Genetically modified organisms as vectors in vaccines or in gene therapy products have attracted much attention in this regard. Issues include the degree of attenuation of the live recombinant vaccine, replication restrictions of the vaccine vector, alteration of the host and tissue tropism of the vector, the possibility of reversion to virulence, and risk to the ecosystem. In this review we discuss the fate and the potential environmental impact of biological medicinal products following clinical use from an ecopharmacovigilance point of view, and review relevant policy documents and regulatory statements.

  1. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service... methods of use as Veterinary Influenza Vaccines. Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza in animals increase the risk of reassortment and adaption to humans. This technology describes DNA...

  2. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  3. Process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon like material or mixtures thereof by conversion of a suitable substrate using micro-organisms, in which process the said substrate is continuously, anaerobically fermented to

  4. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble m

  5. Microwave-ultrasound combined reactor suitable for atmospheric sample preparation procedure of biological and chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagha, A.; Chemat, S.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    1999-01-01

    A compact apparatus in which a specific position can be irradiated by microwaves (MW) and ultrasound (US) simultaneously has been developed. The MW-US reactor has been designed for atmospheric pressure digestion and dissolution of biological and chemical products. The reactor can treat a range of th

  6. 78 FR 32668 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or for Further Manufacture'' dated June 2013. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of licensed Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  7. [Special considerations for the regulation of biological medicinal products in individualised medicine. More than stratified medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Volkers, P; Scherer, J; Cichutek, K

    2013-11-01

    The term individualised medicine, also called personalised medicine, is commonly used as an equivalent to stratified medicine. However, this is erroneous since quite often it is forgotten that especially biological medicinal products have other aspects of individualization that go beyond mere stratification. The principles of stratified medicine have been applied for biological medicinal products for many years. A historical example is diphtheria antitoxin made from horse serum, while current examples are transfusion of red blood cells and the administration of factor VIII in haemophilia A. The stratifying aspects of these medicinal products are given by the following considerations: diphtheria antitoxin is only administered after a diagnosis of diphtheria and not in other forms of tonsillitis, red blood cells should only be transfused once blood group compatibility as been established and factor VIII replacement is only administered in haemophilia A as opposed to other acquired or hereditary disease of the coagulation system. The peculiarities of biological medicinal products, in particular the inherent variability of the drug, are especially important for autologous cellular medicinal products. In addition to the expected variability of the biological source material there is interindividual variability of patients as cell donors, which make definition of specifications and determination of criteria for pharmaceutical quality and potency tests difficult. Therapy with modified autologous cells, a common and important application of advanced therapy medicinal products, is exemplary for the special considerations that must be made when evaluating pharmaceutical quality, mode of action and toxicological properties of the biological medicine. The clinical investigation of advanced therapy medicinal products with the intent of demonstrating safety and efficacy is particularly challenging because of the complexity of therapy, which often involves invasive interventions

  8. Statistical and regulatory considerations in assessments of interchangeability of biological drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóthfalusi, Lászlo; Endrényi, László; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2014-05-01

    When the patent of a brand-name, marketed drug expires, new, generic products are usually offered. Small-molecule generic and originator drug products are expected to be chemically identical. Their pharmaceutical similarity can be typically assessed by simple regulatory criteria such as the expectation that the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of geometric means of some pharmacokinetic parameters be between 0.80 and 1.25. When such criteria are satisfied, the drug products are generally considered to exhibit therapeutic equivalence. They are then usually interchanged freely within individual patients. Biological drugs are complex proteins, for instance, because of their large size, intricate structure, sensitivity to environmental conditions, difficult manufacturing procedures, and the possibility of immunogenicity. Generic and brand-name biologic products can be expected to show only similarity but not identity in their various features and clinical effects. Consequently, the determination of biosimilarity is also a complicated process which involves assessment of the totality of the evidence for the close similarity of the two products. Moreover, even when biosimilarity has been established, it may not be assumed that the two biosimilar products can be automatically substituted by pharmacists. This generally requires additional, careful considerations. Without declaring interchangeability, a new product could be prescribed, i.e. it is prescribable. However, two products can be automatically substituted only if they are interchangeable. Interchangeability is a statistical term and it means that products can be used in any order in the same patient without considering the treatment history. The concepts of interchangeability and prescribability have been widely discussed in the past but only in relation to small molecule generics. In this paper we apply these concepts to biosimilars and we discuss: definitions of prescribability and interchangeability and

  9. 考虑产能限制及缺货惩罚的MTO投产计划决策%Decision-making Model of Planning Quantity Put into Production for the Make-To-Order Enterprises with Limited Capacity and Shortage Penalty Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华丽; 但斌; 张旭梅

    2013-01-01

    较低的生产重复性使MTO企业的生产系统具有较大随机性,导致其产品投产量计划制定面临易过量或不足的风险.针对这一问题,考虑MTO企业的生产能力限制及其产品合格率的随机性,综合权衡初始投产过量、初始投产不足需补产及缺货等因素导致的总成本损失,以成本损失最小化为目标,建立了产品投产量计划决策模型来解决最优产品投产量计划的获得问题,并进行了相应的理论分析和数值仿真.研究表明:模型可有效求解出最优的产品计划投产量;考虑产能限制和缺货损失可降低企业的综合成本损失;企业产能对综合成本损失的影响同单位缺货成本与欠产再投产的单位产品成本之比有关;提高合格品率中值对降低综合成本损失至关重要.%Because of the low production repeatability and the uncertainty of the products eligibility-rate of the manufacturing enterprises with Make-To-Order mode to some extent,the decision-making of planning quantity put into production for the MTO enterprises becomes more difficult.In order to solve this problem,the paper proposed a decision-making model of planning quantity put into production for the limited capacity MTO enterprises,which aimed at minimize the expected loss of integrated cost,and presented the method to obtain the optimal planning quantity put into production and carried out theoretical analysis and sensitivity analysis of the key parameters.It is shown that the model is effective,the influence of the production capacity on the expected loss of integrated cost lies on the ratio of the excess cost to the shortage cost and improving the median rate of the products eligibility-rate is essential to reducing quantity of planning put-into-production.

  10. Investigation of specificity ensuring of quality of biological medicinal products on example of drugs Cortexin and Retinalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Vetiutneva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological medical products nowadays are one of the most promising area at the pharmaceutical market. Biopharmaceutical market has significant benefits such as fast and effective development of production facilities, the development of more effective and safer medical products. The aim of our research was, on the example of medical products Cortexin and Retinalamin, examine the specifics of quality of biological medicinal products in the chain from production to sale. The objects of study - original biological medicines Cortexin and Retinalamin. Comparative, systematic, analytical methods and reviews were used. Biological medical products have fundamental differences from synthetic medicines, due to their source - alive cells which are usually used in their production process. Each production cycle results in a unique finished pharmaceutical products and minimal differences in the modes of production can significantly effect on the properties of biological medical products. Therefore, even if the physical, chemical and biological properties of the product thoroughly studied and described, it does not guarantee therapeutic equivalence of two biological products which are manufactured in different conditions. One of the most important issues today is the problem of maintaining properties and quality of biological medicines. These issues are actively resolving on the native pharmaceutical market: quality control system are developing and implementing in accordance with international standards in order to maintain maximum efficiency of biological medicines and to protect consumers from defective products. Biological products require special conditions of storage and transportation. In order to save physical, chemical and therapeutic properties, strict compliance with the relevant conditions of packaging, transport and intermediate storage, related to deviations in temperature during transportation and storage is needed. The production process

  11. Composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds polluting the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriyev, M.T.; Rastyannikov, Y.G.; Sotnikov, Y.Y.; Volkov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising method of removal of biologically active compounds such as microorganisms, antibiotics, food and other household waste from industrial waste gases is to destroy them by thermal destruction including burning. In this case, products of thermodestruction enter into the atmosphere along with carbon dioxide and steam and can unfavorably affect the population. Thus, mass spectrometric analyses have determined in the waste gases of antibiotics production aldehydes and ketones (croton- and adipalaldehydes, acetone), alcohols (propanol and butanol), amines, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds was identified by their pyrolysis at 700/sup 0/C for 2 min. in the presence of air. The main components were proteins and amino acids. The products of pyrolysis were analyzed by chromato-mass-spectrometric and gas-chromatographic methods by means of a two-flame thermionic detector. No significant difference between the thermodestruction products of proteins and amino acids was found. Many of detected substances can be not only toxic but also emit strong unpleasant odors. The studies revealed toxic substances that pollute the atmospheric air during removal of biologically-active compounds from waste gases.

  12. Immobilized Biofilm in Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production using Synthetic versus Biological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwan Wongthanate

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production was studied from the vermicelli processing wastewater using synthetic and biological materials as immobilizing substrate employing a mixed culture in a batch reactor operated at the initial pH 6.0 and thermophilic condition (55 ± 1ºC. Maximum cumulative hydrogen production (1,210 mL H2/L wastewater was observed at 5% (v/v addition of ring-shaped synthetic material, which was the ring-shaped hydrophobic acrylic. Regarding 5% (v/v addition of synthetic and biological materials, the maximum cumulative hydrogen production using immobilizing synthetic material of ball-shaped hydrophobic polyethylene (HBPE (1,256.5 mL H2/L wastewater was a two-fold increase of cumulative hydrogen production when compared to its production using immobilizing biological material of rope-shaped hydrophilic ramie (609.8 mL H2/L wastewater. SEM observation of immobilized biofilm on a ball-shaped HBPE or a rope-shaped hydrophilic ramie was the rod shape and gathered into group.

  13. Will Nfld.'s masterplan eradicate the shortage of nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, A

    1989-02-01

    As many Canadian provinces and most parts of the United States are reacting to a serious shortage of nurses, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador has chosen a proactive - rather than reactive - approach to dealing with this critical issue.

  14. What controls biological productivity in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

    2011-06-01

    The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003). Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS) and Canary Current System (Canary CS), we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1) a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2) the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles and fisheries

  15. What controls biological productivity in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003. Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS and Canary Current System (Canary CS, we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS, coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1 a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2 the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles

  16. Energy Policies Cause Unexpected Diesel Shortage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ An unprecedented diesel shortage is sweeping through Chinese cities, as numerous enterprises have to resort to diesel fuel to generate electricity to continue operation during periods of forced power outages.For example, the diesel shortage has recently paralyzed traffic on a pivotal expressway in Northwest China, with trucks waiting in long lines to fill their fuel tanks.China's Ministry of Commerce has recently required the local bureaus to ensure ample supply of fuel amid rising inflation.

  17. New synthetic strategies towards psammaplin A, access to natural product analogues for biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Matthias G J; Leiser, Thomas; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2011-02-07

    New synthetic routes towards the natural product psammaplin A were developed with the particular view to preparing diverse analogues for biological assessment. These routes utilize cheap and commercially available starting materials, and allowed access to psammaplin A analogues not accessible via currently reported methods. Preliminary biological studies revealed these compounds to be the most potent non peptidic inhibitors of the enzyme histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1, class I) discovered so far. Interestingly, psammaplin A and our synthetic analogues show class I selectivity in vitro, an important feature for the design and synthesis of future isoform selective inhibitors.

  18. Establishing a cell biology platform: isolation and preservation of human blood products

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina The use of human primary cells provide researchers in different areas with irrefutable more biologically relevant data than using cell lines or animal blood cells. The work was performed in the scope of the Cell Biology Services @ CEDOC, aiming to provide viable and trustful human primary cells and products. We had three main objectives: protocol optimizations for blood cell isolation, culture and cryopre...

  19. Biodiesel Projects Helpful to Ease Energy Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Nearly 7,000 hectares of biodiesel forest will take shape in the northern province of Hebei in 2008, part of a national campaign to fuel the fast growing economy in a green way. In no more than five years, the Pistacia chinensis Bunge, whose seeds have an oil content of up to 40 percent, will yield five tons of fruit and contribute about two tons of high-quality biological diesel oil,according to the provincial forestry administration.

  20. Prospective analysis of the world lithium market: contribution to the evaluation of supply shortage periods

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamasinoro, Fenintsoa; Ahne, Haby

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Despite the availability a priori of lithium geological resources and an assurance from producers to raise their production capacity in the event of an increase in lithium demand, the French government is not reassured because the lithium world market in general and the French market in particular are not still shielded from a supply shortage. Indeed, due to political or environmental reasons, a possible supply restriction policy could be applied by producers. The pres...

  1. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  2. Biological ensilage additives as pretreatment for maize to increase the biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervaeren, H.; Hostyn, K.; Willems, B. [Howest, PIH, Environmental Science Department, Graaf K. de Goedelaan, 5, 8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Ghekiere, G. [POVLT, Ieperseweg 87, 8800 Rumbeke (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    Several biological ensilage additives were tested on maize substrate for their effect on biogas production and preservation of ODM content. In general, the addition of some biological additives and subsequent storage for 7 weeks could enhance the biogas and biomethane production per ODM when compared to the untreated sample. A common microbial inoculent containing homo-fermentative and hetero-fermentative bacteria (Bonsilage Mais {sup registered}), had no beneficial effect on biogas and biomethane production compared with the non-treated sample (-12.7% and -13.1% per ODM, respectively). More complex additives with hetero- and homo-fermentative activity (Silasil Energy {sup registered}) as well as enzymes (Sil-all 4 x 4 {sup registered}) or bacteria and yeasts (Microferm {sup registered}) did effectively increase the biogas production per ODM (respectively with 11.8, 10.1 and 14.7%). Losses in ODM content were minor in all samples. These results might indicate that more divergent biological additives involving yeasts or enzymes during ensiling are preferred as maize preservation tools for anaerobic digestion instead of a spontaneous ensilage population or to add only homo- and hetero-fermentative strains. The nature of the additive might enhance the hydrolysis step in the anaerobic digestion process by decomposing complex carbohydrate structures. (author)

  3. Econometrics of inventory holding and shortage costs: the case of refined gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis estimates a model of a firm's optimal inventory and production behavior in order to investigate the link between the role of inventories in the business cycle and the microeconomic incentives for holding stocks of finished goods. The goal is to estimate a set of structural cost function parameters that can be used to infer the optimal cyclical response of inventories and production to shocks in demand. To avoid problems associated with the use of value based aggregate inventory data, an industry level physical unit data set for refined motor gasoline is examined. The Euler equations for a refiner's multiperiod decision problem are estimated using restrictions imposed by the rational expectations hypothesis. The model also embodies the fact that, in most periods, the level of shortages will be zero, and even when positive, the shortages are not directly observable in the data set. These two concerns lead us to use a generalized method of moments estimation technique on a functional form that resembles the formulation of a Tobit problem. The estimation results are disappointing; the model and data yield coefficient estimates incongruous with the cost function interpretations of the structural parameters. These is only some superficial evidence that production smoothing is significant and that marginal inventory shortage costs increase at a faster rate than do marginal holding costs.

  4. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Dziuba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specifi c biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may infl uence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  5. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  6. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  7. High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J L; Gruber, N; Brzezinski, M A; Dunne, J P

    2004-01-01

    The ocean's biological pump strips nutrients out of the surface waters and exports them into the thermocline and deep waters. If there were no return path of nutrients from deep waters, the biological pump would eventually deplete the surface waters and thermocline of nutrients; surface biological productivity would plummet. Here we make use of the combined distributions of silicic acid and nitrate to trace the main nutrient return path from deep waters by upwelling in the Southern Ocean and subsequent entrainment into subantarctic mode water. We show that the subantarctic mode water, which spreads throughout the entire Southern Hemisphere and North Atlantic Ocean, is the main source of nutrients for the thermocline. We also find that an additional return path exists in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, where enhanced vertical mixing, perhaps driven by tides, brings abyssal nutrients to the surface and supplies them to the thermocline of the North Pacific. Our analysis has important implications for our understanding of large-scale controls on the nature and magnitude of low-latitude biological productivity and its sensitivity to climate change.

  8. [Microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia. Relevant for each medicinal product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwig, J

    2014-10-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/83 the European Pharmacopoeia is the official Pharmacopoeia of the European Union. Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia is one of the legal pharmacopoeial compendia in Germany. Any licensed medicinal product on the German market complies with the requirements of the compendial monographs, if applicable. Because the general monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia on Dosage Forms, Substances for Pharmaceutical Use and Pharmaceutical Preparations refer to the microbiological and biological methods of the Pharmacopoeia, the methods are relevant for medicinal products, too. This article presents a rough summary of the microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia and is intended to be a stimulus for the reader to better understand the original compendia. The short description of the methods mentioned, here, is a summary from the Pharmacopoeia and the non-official collection of comments on the texts of the European Pharmacopoeia.

  9. [Biologic age as a criterion for work evaluation (exemplified by titanium alloys production)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'eva, R F; Prokopenko, L V

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with results of studies concerning biologic age of workers (males) under occupational hazards of titanium alloys (jeopardy classes 3.3, 3.4.4) in Verkhne-Saldinsky metallurgic production association. Based on mathematic statistic analysis, the authors worked out an equation of multiple regression for ageing pace to forecast the ageing with consideration of age, length of service, occupation. The authors determined occupational groups characterized by premature ageing and increased risk of health disorders.

  10. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  11. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  12. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology. PMID:27274814

  13. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  14. Mimicking/extracting structure and functions of natural products: synthetic approaches that address unexplored needs in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Go

    2015-04-01

    Natural products are often attractive and challenging targets for synthetic chemists, and many have interesting biological activities. However, synthetic chemists need to be more than simply suppliers of compounds to biologists. Therefore, we have been seeking ways to actively apply organic synthetic methods to chemical biology studies of natural products and their activities. In this personal review, I would like to introduce our work on the development of new biologically active compounds inspired by, or extracted from, the structures of natural products, focusing on enhancement of functional activity and specificity and overcoming various drawbacks of the parent natural products.

  15. Current good manufacturing practice in plant automation of biological production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorresteijn, R C; Wieten, G; van Santen, P T; Philippi, M C; de Gooijer, C D; Tramper, J; Beuvery, E C

    1997-01-01

    The production of biologicals is subject to strict governmental regulations. These are drawn up in current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), a.o. by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. To implement cGMP in a production facility, plant automation becomes an essential tool. For this purpose Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) have been developed that control all operations inside a production facility. The introduction of these recipe-driven control systems that follow ISA S88 standards for batch processes has made it possible to implement cGMP regulations in the control strategy of biological production processes. Next to this, an MES offers additional features such as stock management, planning and routing tools, process-dependent control, implementation of software sensors and predictive models, application of historical data and on-line statistical techniques for trend analysis and detection of instrumentation failures. This paper focuses on the development of new production strategies in which cGMP guidelines are an essential part.

  16. Construction of a microbial natural product library for chemical biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Naoki; Takahashi, Shunji; Nogawa, Toshihiko; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-01

    The RIKEN Natural Products Depository (NPDepo) is a public depository of small molecules. Currently, the NPDepo chemical library contains 39,200 pure compounds, half of which are natural products and their derivatives. In order to reinforce the uniqueness of our chemical library, we have improved our strategies for the collection of microbial natural products. Firstly, a microbial metabolite fraction library coupled with an MP (microbial products) plot database provides a powerful resource for the efficient isolation of microbial metabolites. Secondly, biosynthetic studies of microbial metabolites have enabled us to not only access ingenious biosynthetic machineries, but also obtain a variety of biosynthetic intermediates. Our chemical library contributes to the discovery of molecular probes for increasing our understanding of complex biological processes and for eventually developing new drug leads.

  17. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  18. Microbial production of amino acids and derived chemicals: synthetic biology approaches to strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-12-01

    Amino acids are produced at the multi-million-ton-scale with fermentative production of l-glutamate and l-lysine alone being estimated to amount to more than five million tons in the year 2013. Metabolic engineering constantly improves productivities of amino acid producing strains, mainly Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli strains. Classical mutagenesis and screening have been accelerated by combination with intracellular metabolite sensing. Synthetic biology approaches have allowed access to new carbon sources to realize a flexible feedstock concept. Moreover, new pathways for amino acid production as well as fermentative production of non-native compounds derived from amino acids or their metabolic precursors were developed. These include dipeptides, α,ω-diamines, α,ω-diacids, keto acids, acetylated amino acids and ω-amino acids.

  19. An Integrated Vendor-Buyer Cooperative Inventory Model for Items with Imperfect Quality and Shortage Backordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Tzer Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a model to determine an integrated vendor-buyer inventory policy for items with imperfect quality and planned backorders. The production process is imperfect and produces a certain number of defective items with a known probability density function. The vendor delivers the items to the buyer in small lots of equally sized shipments. Upon receipt of the items, the buyer will conduct a 100% inspection. Since each lot contains a variable number of defective items, shortages may occur at the buyer. We assume that shortages are permitted and are completely backordered. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical examples show that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction in comparison to an independent decision by the buyer.

  20. China Struggles to Meet Energy Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李端奇

    2005-01-01

    China is making plans not only to bolster1 energy production to meet everincreasing domestic needs2 but also to cut down on overall energy use in coming years. Headed by Premier Wen Jiabao, China's cabinet3 unveiled its longer-term energy development plan, in which the heart of the program is to be as energy-efficient and environmentally friendly as possible while pursuing4 economic growth between now and 2020.

  1. A synthetic biology approach to self-regulatory recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosits Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant protein production is a process of great industrial interest, with products that range from pharmaceuticals to biofuels. Since high level production of recombinant protein imposes significant stress in the host organism, several methods have been developed over the years to optimize protein production. So far, these trial-and-error techniques have proved laborious and sensitive to process parameters, while there has been no attempt to address the problem by applying Synthetic Biology principles and methods, such as integration of standardized parts in novel synthetic circuits. Results We present a novel self-regulatory protein production system that couples the control of recombinant protein production with a stress-induced, negative feedback mechanism. The synthetic circuit allows the down-regulation of recombinant protein expression through a stress-induced promoter. We used E. coli as the host organism, since it is widely used in recombinant processes. Our results show that the introduction of the self-regulatory circuit increases the soluble/insoluble ratio of recombinant protein at the expense of total protein yield. To further elucidate the dynamics of the system, we developed a computational model that is in agreement with the observed experimental data, and provides insight on the interplay between protein solubility and yield. Conclusion Our work introduces the idea of a self-regulatory circuit for recombinant protein products, and paves the way for processes with reduced external control or monitoring needs. It demonstrates that the library of standard biological parts serves as a valuable resource for initial synthetic blocks that needs to be further refined to be successfully applied in practical problems of biotechnological significance. Finally, the development of a predictive model in conjunction with experimental validation facilitates a better understanding of the underlying dynamics and can be

  2. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Nazarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatment were first determined by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction and their best condition obtained with 1 mm particle size and 90 days pretreatment. Further morphological study on rubberwood with 1 mm particle size pretreated by fungus was performed by FT-IR spectra analysis and SEM observation and the result indicated the ability of this fungus for pretreatment. A study on enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increased sugar yield of 27.67% as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%. The maximum ethanol concentration and yield were 17.9 g/L and 53% yield, respectively, after 120 hours. The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood pretreated by C. subvermispora can be used as an alternative material for the enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

  3. 18 CFR 294.101 - Shortages of electric energy and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1978 PROCEDURES FOR SHORTAGES OF ELECTRIC ENERGY AND CAPACITY UNDER SECTION 206 OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 § 294.101 Shortages of electric energy and capacity. (a) Definition of shortages of electric energy and capacity. For purposes of this section, the term anticipated shortages...

  4. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  5. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study examines the effect of shortages in labor supply on asymmetric cost behavior. Building on the labor demand literature, it is argued that labor supply shortages increase adjustment costs for hiring new employees. Consistent with this explanation, results provide evidence that companies...... facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply...... induce firms to increase selling prices but also to temporarily expect more effort from their current employees. The effect decreases with the length of the labor supply shock and is more pronounced for companies located in less populated regions. Results are robust to alternative explanations...

  6. The nurse manager: job satisfaction, the nursing shortage and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Diane Randall; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2005-07-01

    A critical shortage of registered nurses exists in the United States and this shortage is expected to worsen. It is predicted that unless this issue is resolved, the demand for nursing services will exceed the supply by nearly 30% in 2020. Extensive analysis of this pending crisis has resulted in numerous recommendations to improve both recruitment and retention. The purpose of this article is to clearly outline the issues contributing to this problem, and to provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on job satisfaction as it relates to job turnover and employee retention. To accomplish this, an analysis of the literature using both national and international sources is used to formulate the lessons learned as well as strategies and future courses of action designed to address this shortage.

  7. A review of biological delignification and detoxification methods for lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Future biorefineries will integrate biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, heat and value-added chemicals. Due to its low price and wide distribution, lignocellulosic biomass is expected to play an important role toward this goal. Regarding renewable biofuel production, bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is considered the most feasible option for fossil fuels replacement since these raw materials do not compete with food or feed crops. In the overall process, lignin, the natural barrier of the lignocellulosic biomass, represents an important limiting factor in biomass digestibility. In order to reduce the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose, biological pretreatments have been promoted as sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional physico-chemical technologies, which are expensive and pollute the environment. These approaches include the use of diverse white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes, which disrupt lignin polymers and facilitate the bioconversion of the sugar fraction into ethanol. As there is still no suitable biological pretreatment technology ready to scale up in an industrial context, white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes have also been proposed to overcome, in a separated or in situ biodetoxification step, the effect of the inhibitors produced by non-biological pretreatments. The present work reviews the latest studies regarding the application of different microorganisms or enzymes as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technologies for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This review also points out the main challenges and possible ways to make these technologies a reality for the bioethanol industry.

  8. Organ shortage: the greatest challenge facing transplant medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, David; Kodish, Eric; Tzakis, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The success of organ transplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ disease has yielded a series of ethical quandaries originating from the issue of organ shortage. Scarcity of organs for transplantation necessitates formulation of just and fair allocation policies as well as ethically viable solutions to bridging the vast gap between organ supply and demand. The concept of "triage" provides a useful paradigm in which to contextualize the organ shortage issue. This entails subjugating the welfare of the individual patient for the benefit of the wider community as an ethically justified response to the challenge of scarcity.

  9. A regulatory perspective of clinical trial applications for biological products with particular emphasis on Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David R; McBlane, James W; McNaughton, Graham; Rajakumaraswamy, Nishanthan; Wydenbach, Kirsty

    2013-08-01

    The safety of trial subjects is the tenet that guides the regulatory assessment of a Clinical Trial Authorization application and applies equally to trials involving small molecules and those with biological/biotechnological products, including Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. The objective of a regulator is to ensure that the potential risk faced by a trial subject is outweighed by the potential benefit to them from taking part in the trial. The focus of the application review is to assess whether risks have been identified and appropriate steps taken to alleviate these as much as possible. Other factors are also taken into account during a review, such as regulatory requirements, and emerging non-clinical and clinical data from other trials on the same or similar products. This paper examines the regulatory review process of a Clinical Trial Authorization application from the perspectives of Quality, Non-Clinical and Clinical Regulatory Assessors at the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. It should be noted that each perspective has highlighted specific issues from their individual competence and that these can be different between the disciplines.

  10. The reduction of biological production induced by mesoscale mixing: a modelling study in the Benguela upwelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Hernández-García, Emilio; Garçon, Veronique; López, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies, both based on remote sensed data and coupled models, showed a reduction of biological productivity due to vigorous horizontal mixing in upwelling systems. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we have considered a system of oceanic flow in the Benguela area coupled with a simple biogeochemical model of Nutrient-Phyto-Zooplankton (NPZ) type. For the flow three different surface velocity fields are considered: one derived from satellite altimetry data, and the other two from a regional numerical model at two different spatial resolutions. We computed horizontal particle dispersion in terms of Lyapunov Exponents, and analyzed their correlations with phytoplankton concentrations. Our modelling approach confirms that in the south Benguela, there is a reduction of biological activity when stirring is increased. Two-dimensional offshore advection seems to be the dominant process involved. In the northern area, other factors not taken into account in our simulation are influencing the ecosyst...

  11. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Li, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof...... computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways.......-of-concept chemicals have been made in yeast, only a very small fraction of those has reached commercial-scale production so far. The limiting factor is the high research cost associated with the development of a robust cell factory that can produce the desired chemical at high titer, rate, and yield. Synthetic...

  12. Alien Biochemistries and Their Metabolic By-Products. Lessons from Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S.

    2014-03-01

    While the metabolisms of terran organisms are accessible for study and their byproducts are, for the most part, well known, the "diversity" of terran biology arises (as far as we know) from a single common ancestor, represents only a small fraction of possible chemical difersity, and may reflect only a fraction of the possible chemical diversity that might support Darwinian evolution [1]. This talk will consider laboratory experiments on origins [2] and synthetic biology [3], asking how they might inform us about alternative biochemistries, and whether we have any chance of observing remotely their by-products, recognizing the uncertanties in both our models for "weird life" and our models of abiotic processes in incompletely defined planetary environments.

  13. Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies.

  14. Removal of disinfection by-product formation potentials by biologically assisted GAC treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The object of this paper is to evaluate the removal of disinfection by-products formation potential by artificially intensified biological activated carbon(BAC) process which is developed on the basis of traditional ozone granular activated carbon (GAC). The results show that 23.1% of trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and 68% of haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) can be removed by BAC,respectively. Under the same conditions, the removal rates of the same substances were 12.2% and 13-25 % respectively only by GAC process. Compared with GAC, the high removal rates of the two formed potential substances were due to the increasing of bioactivity of the media and the synergistic capabilities of biological degradation cooperating with activated carbon adsorption of organic compounds. BAC process has some advantages such as long backwashing cycle time, low backwashing intensity and prolonged activated carbon lifetime, etc.

  15. A cell-free expression and purification process for rapid production of protein biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Challise J; Pendleton, Erik D; Sasmor, Henri H; Hicks, William L; Farnum, John B; Muto, Machiko; Amendt, Eric M; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Martin, Rey W; Clark, Lauren G; Anderson, Mark J; Choudhury, Alaksh; Fior, Raffaella; Lo, Yu-Hwa; Griffey, Richard H; Chappell, Stephen A; Jewett, Michael C; Mauro, Vincent P; Dresios, John

    2016-02-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology for rapid and efficient protein production. Cell-free methods are also amenable to automation and such systems have been extensively used for high-throughput protein production and screening; however, current fluidic systems are not adequate for manufacturing protein biopharmaceuticals. In this work, we report on the initial development of a fluidic process for rapid end-to-end production of recombinant protein biologics. This process incorporates a bioreactor module that can be used with eukaryotic or prokaryotic lysates that are programmed for combined transcription/translation of an engineered DNA template encoding for specific protein targets. Purification of the cell-free expressed product occurs through a series of protein separation modules that are configurable for process-specific isolation of different proteins. Using this approach, we demonstrate production of two bioactive human protein therapeutics, erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in yeast and bacterial extracts, respectively, each within 24 hours. This process is flexible, scalable and amenable to automation for rapid production at the point-of-need of proteins with significant pharmaceutical, medical, or biotechnological value.

  16. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  17. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2014-10-15

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a {sup 99}Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated {sup 99}Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major {sup 99}Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease {sup 99}Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity

  18. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum: A systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, R.D.; Batista, J.M.; Touw, K.M.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Krikken, A.M.; Zhao, Z.; Veiga, T.; Klaassen, P.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Daran, J.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Van Gulik, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to pro

  19. The scientific production in health and biological sciences of the top 20 Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zorzetto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian scientific output exhibited a 4-fold increase in the last two decades because of the stability of the investment in research and development activities and of changes in the policies of the main funding agencies. Most of this production is concentrated in public universities and research institutes located in the richest part of the country. Among all areas of knowledge, the most productive are Health and Biological Sciences. During the 1998-2002 period these areas presented heterogeneous growth ranging from 4.5% (Pharmacology to 191% (Psychiatry, with a median growth rate of 47.2%. In order to identify and rank the 20 most prolific institutions in these areas, searches were made in three databases (DataCAPES, ISI and MEDLINE which permitted the identification of 109,507 original articles produced by the 592 Graduate Programs in Health and Biological Sciences offered by 118 public universities and research institutes. The 20 most productive centers, ranked according to the total number of ISI-indexed articles published during the 1998-2003 period, produced 78.7% of the papers in these areas and are strongly concentrated in the Southern part of the country, mainly in São Paulo State.

  20. Studies of the Production of Fungal Polyketides in Aspergillus nidulans by Using Systems Biology Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Grotkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    -methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthase gene and one expressing the 6-MSA synthase gene and overexpressing the native xylulose-5-phosphate phosphoketolase gene (xpkA) for increasing the pool of polyketide precursor levels. The physiology of the recombinant strains and that of a reference wild-type strain were...... that overexpression of xpkA does not directly improve 6-MSA production on glucose, but it is possible, if the metabolic flux through the lower part of glycolysis is reduced, to obtain quite high yields for conversion of sugar to 6-MSA. Systems biology tools were employed for in-depth analysis of the metabolic...

  1. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S.; Dubois, D.; Ekelund, F.; Fliessbach, A.; Gunst, L.; Hedlund, K.; Mäder, P.; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä, H.; Tatin-Froux, F.; Putten, van der W.H.; Scheu, S.

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological param

  2. US Congress considers bill to relieve helium shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    A bill to alleviate the threat of a significant shortage of helium was set to be debated in the US House of Representatives as Physics World went to press with the House's Natural Resources Committee putting the finished touches to the motion.

  3. The Dilemma of Physician Shortage and International Recruitment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Islam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of physician shortage in Canada is widespread. Absolute shortages and relative discrepancies, both specialty-wise and in urban-rural distribution, have been a daunting policy challenge. International Medical Graduates (IMGs have been at the core of mitigating this problem, especially as long as shortage of physicians in rural areas is concerned. Considering such recruitment as historical reality is naïve annotation, but when it is recommended per se, then the indication of interest overweighs the intent of ethically justified solution. Such a recommendation has not only invited policy debate and disagreement, but has also raised serious ethical concerns. Canadian healthcare policy-makers were put into a series of twisting puzzles—recruiting IMGs in mitigating physician shortage was questioned by lack of vision for Canada’s self-sufficiency. In-migration of IMGs was largely attributed to Canada’s point-based physician-friendly immigration system without much emphasizing on IMGs’ home countries’ unfavorable factors and ignoring their basic human rights and choice of livelihood. While policy-makers’ excellence in integrating the already-migrated IMGs into the Canadian healthcare is cautiously appraised, its logical consequence in passively drawing more IMGs is loudly criticised. Even the passive recruitment of IMGs raised the ethical concern of source countries’ (which are often developing countries with already-compromised healthcare system vulnerability. The current paper offers critical insights juxtaposing all these seemingly conflicting ideas and interests within the scope of national and transnational instruments.

  4. Newsvendor problem with random shortage cost under a risk criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Meng; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud H.

    2013-01-01

    We study profit maximization vs risk approaches for the standard newsvendor problem with uncertainty in demand as well as a generalized version with uncertainty in the shortage cost (as often applies in practice). We consider two well-known risk approaches: Value-at-Risk (VaR) included as a constrai

  5. End of the silicon shortage?; Mangelware bald im Ueberfluss?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, J.

    2008-08-29

    Some experts are expecting an end of the silicon shortage even this year, while others assume that the raw material will continue to be in short supply for years to come. One thing can be said for sure, i.e. today's 'big five' will have to share with many new producers in the future. (orig.)

  6. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  7. Addressing the Causes of Chef Shortages in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, John; O'Leary, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the reasons for staff shortages in the UK catering industry and then to decide if further training could help to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives have been achieved by examining the training provisions at a college, and then asking the students, their training staff, employers and employees…

  8. Coder shortage goes straight to the bottom line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An increase in accounts receivable or outstanding days to collect payment could be a sign that you have a shortage of medical coders. Fewer people are choosing the profession because of the growing complexity and heavier workloads. However, experts say hospitals must confront the problem or risk losing millions of dollars in unbilled charges.

  9. The Impending Shortage of Special Education Faculty: A Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. D.; Young, C.; Montrosse, B.; Tyler, N. C.; Robb, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This document highlights the major findings of a four-year study about the supply and demand of special education college and university faculty. The Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment (SEFNA) project concluded its data collection efforts in July of 2011. This national study continued the work of previous efforts that found the shortage of…

  10. Suppressing and enhancing effects of mesoscale dynamics on biological production in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Y. S.; Penven, P.; Aumont, O.; Machu, E.; Moloney, C. L.; Shillington, F.; Maury, O.

    2016-06-01

    We used a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to investigate how the strong eddy activity typical of the Mozambique Channel affects biological production. A numerical experiment was carried out, in which mesoscale dynamics were suppressed by cancelling the nonlinear terms for horizontal momentum in the Naviers-Stokes equation. Mesoscale dynamics were found to be responsible for (1) increased offshore production in the Mozambique Channel as a result of net eddy-induced offshore transport of nutrient-rich coastal waters; (2) decreased shelf production along the central Mozambican and south-west Madagascar coast caused by a reduction in nutrient availability related to the net eddy-induced lateral transport of nutrients; (3) increased coastal production along the northern Mozambican coast caused by eddy-induced nutrient supply. The model results also showed an intensification and shallowing of the subsurface production, related to increased upper layer nutrient concentrations caused by eddy activity. In addition, by driving the detachment of the East Madagascar Current at the southern tip of the island, inertial processes intensify the southern Madagascar upwelling and causes offshore diffusion of the upwelled waters. These results emphasize the complex role played by eddy activity and, more generally, inertial processes on marine ecosystems in this region.

  11. [The pharmaceutical company Choay: an history linked to research and commercialization of biological products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Eugène Choay, when he created his own company in 1911, had already a large experience in pharmaceutical industry obtained with Maison Frère where he discovered the famous Dentol, well known thank to Poulbot's publicity drawings for this product. But, convinced of the future of biological products and Opotherapy, he decided to invest himself in this area with a totally new process for cold desiccation of organs. The success will be there and several pharmacists from Choay family will take care of the company and bring it to the top of its specialty in Opotherapy. At the beginning of the 1970's, Choay in in full development and has the products, the sites and the human resources for the future. In 1975, 4 therapeutic areas are covered by Choay's products: coagulation, inflammation, dermatology and hepatology. After more than 65 years of independence, Choay group will be finally bought partially and then totally by Sanofi. With the support of Sanofi, Choay created, in 1981, their US subsidiary called Choay Laboratories Inc;, after the NDA approval of sub-cutaneous Calciparine by the FDA. In 1985 Fraxiparine, a low molecular weight heparin discovered by Jean Choay's team, is lauched on the market. All these developments represent an outstanding record a longevity which indicates how perceptive was Eugène Choay and his successors when choosing to invest totally in the therapeutic use of hormones and products acting on coagulation factors.

  12. Biological characteristics of marine bacterium S - 9801 strain and its culture conditions of pigment production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎; 何培青; 武洪庆; 温占波; 刘晨临; 李光友

    2002-01-01

    Strain of Flavobacterium sp. (S- 9801), was screened from 207 strains of marine bacteria isolated from the Bohai Sea continental shelf and the Zhujiang Estuary, for its red pigment production. The biological characteristics of strain S- 9801 and culture conditions of pigment production have been checked out in this study. The color of the bacterial colony on 2216E medium was from coccineus to rose bengal. Optimum culture conditions were sodium chloride concentration(g/dm3), 10~30; pH,3~8; temperature, 25~28℃; tryptone and yeast extract as nitrogen sources and gluccse as carbon source. Under optimum conditions, pigment accumulation started after 12 h, reaching a maximum rate of synthesis at 36 h.

  13. Monthly shortage trends for Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Md; Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.

    2009-09-01

    Monthly shortage time trends are analysed for Central and Western Europe by considering more than 100 rain records (European Climate Assessment, ECA, and the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET) covering the whole 20th century. Spells of monthly shortage are defined as consecutive months with amounts lowering the corresponding monthly median. Three annual variables are analysed: the average,, the largest, SM, and the cumulative, CS, monthly shortage. Due to the quite irregular annual evolution of these three variables, the Kendall-tau algorithm instead of a simple linear regression of the series has been applied to evaluate time trends. Positive and negative trends, never exceeding ±4.0 mm/decade, have been obtained for the three variables within the area delimited by 10°W-25°E longitude and 35°N-65°N latitude. The statistical significance at 95% level of local time trends has been assessed with the Mann-Kendall test. Additionally, the field significance of time trends is assessed by Monte Carlo simulations, randomly reproducing magnitudes and signs of time trends. The low number of empirical significant trends induces lack of field significance. A relatively high number of significant local trends (25) is only detected for CS, 6 of them are positive and 19 negative. Given that local significant trends are scattered throughout Central and Western Europe, a single spatial pattern for the monthly shortage should be discarded. Nevertheless, a close revision of local trends (statistically significant or not) manifests that positive values (increasing monthly shortage) are observed in France, a great part of the Iberian Peninsula, Central Europe and Italy.

  14. Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Cristina Facchini, Maria; Marullo, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Bursting bubbles at the ocean-surface produce airborne salt-water spray-droplets, in turn, forming climate-cooling marine haze and cloud layers. The reflectance and ultimate cooling effect of these layers is determined by the spray’s water-uptake properties that are modified through entrainment of ocean-surface organic matter (OM) into the airborne droplets. We present new results illustrating a clear dependence of OM mass-fraction enrichment in sea spray (OMss) on both phytoplankton-biomass, determined from Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The correlation coefficient for OMss as a function of Chl-a increased form 0.67 on a daily timescale to 0.85 on a monthly timescale. An even stronger correlation was found as a function of NPP, increasing to 0.93 on a monthly timescale. We suggest the observed dependence is through the demise of the bloom, driven by nanoscale biological processes (such as viral infections), releasing large quantities of transferable OM comprising cell debris, exudates and other colloidal materials. This OM, through aggregation processes, leads to enrichment in sea-spray, thus demonstrating an important coupling between biologically-driven plankton bloom termination, marine productivity and sea-spray modification with potentially significant climate impacts.

  15. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; Bloem, J;

    2008-01-01

     Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological...... promoting negative environmental impacts of agriculture by reducing internal biological cycles and pest control. On the contrary, organic farming fosters microbial and faunal decomposers and this propagates into the aboveground system via generalist predators thereby increasing conservation biological...... control. However, grain and straw yields were 23% higher in systems receiving mineral fertilizers and herbicides reflecting the trade-off between productivity and environmental responsibility....

  16. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. CONCLUSION: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  17. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  18. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in depressions along the tributary network from these lands devoted to cattle production. The aims of this work were: (i to gather a reliable set of data from different monitoring periods and scales, (ii to search for simple and sensible variables to be used as indicators for surface water quality advising purposes and (iii to corroborate previous biological contamination conceptual models for this region. Concentration of pollution indicators in these ponds was related to mean stocking rates from nearby fields and proved to depend significantly on the accumulated water and sediments. Viable mesophiles and total coliforms were found mainly attached to large sediments rather than in the runoff water phase. Seasonal sampling showed that the time period between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date regarding enterococci proved to be a sensible variable for predicting contamination. Enterococci concentration tended to increase gradually until the next extraordinary runoff event washed away contaminants. The mentioned relationship may be useful for designing early warning surface water contamination programs regarding enterococci dynamics and other related microbial pollutants as well.

  19. The great 2012 Arctic Ocean summer cyclone enhanced biological productivity on the shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlun; Ashjian, Carin; Campbell, Robert; Hill, Victoria; Spitz, Yvette H; Steele, Michael

    2014-01-01

    [1] A coupled biophysical model is used to examine the impact of the great Arctic cyclone of early August 2012 on the marine planktonic ecosystem in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSA). Model results indicate that the cyclone influences the marine planktonic ecosystem by enhancing productivity on the shelves of the Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev seas during the storm. Although the cyclone's passage in the PSA lasted only a few days, the simulated biological effects on the shelves last 1 month or longer. At some locations on the shelves, primary productivity (PP) increases by up to 90% and phytoplankton biomass by up to 40% in the wake of the cyclone. The increase in zooplankton biomass is up to 18% on 31 August and remains 10% on 15 September, more than 1 month after the storm. In the central PSA, however, model simulations indicate a decrease in PP and plankton biomass. The biological gain on the shelves and loss in the central PSA are linked to two factors. (1) The cyclone enhances mixing in the upper ocean, which increases nutrient availability in the surface waters of the shelves; enhanced mixing in the central PSA does not increase productivity because nutrients there are mostly depleted through summer draw down by the time of the cyclone's passage. (2) The cyclone also induces divergence, resulting from the cyclone's low-pressure system that drives cyclonic sea ice and upper ocean circulation, which transports more plankton biomass onto the shelves from the central PSA. The simulated biological gain on the shelves is greater than the loss in the central PSA, and therefore, the production on average over the entire PSA is increased by the cyclone. Because the gain on the shelves is offset by the loss in the central PSA, the average increase over the entire PSA is moderate and lasts only about 10 days. The generally positive impact of cyclones on the marine ecosystem in the Arctic, particularly on the shelves, is likely to grow with increasing

  20. Silicon shortage: ''Industry did not heed the signs''; Siliziumengpass: ''Die Branche hat geschlafen''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, J.

    2005-03-30

    As early as six years ago, experts predicted a shortage of silicon. Now, it has come about. Enhanced production with new production capacities for ultrapure silicon are not in sight until 2006; from 2007, there will also be alternative production processes. (orig.)

  1. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  2. A retrosynthetic biology approach to metabolic pathway design for therapeutic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulon Jean-Loup

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology is used to develop cell factories for production of chemicals by constructively importing heterologous pathways into industrial microorganisms. In this work we present a retrosynthetic approach to the production of therapeutics with the goal of developing an in situ drug delivery device in host cells. Retrosynthesis, a concept originally proposed for synthetic chemistry, iteratively applies reversed chemical transformations (reversed enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the metabolic space starting from a target product to reach precursors that are endogenous to the chassis. So far, a wider adoption of retrosynthesis into the manufacturing pipeline has been hindered by the complexity of enumerating all feasible biosynthetic pathways for a given compound. Results In our method, we efficiently address the complexity problem by coding substrates, products and reactions into molecular signatures. Metabolic maps are represented using hypergraphs and the complexity is controlled by varying the specificity of the molecular signature. Furthermore, our method enables candidate pathways to be ranked to determine which ones are best to engineer. The proposed ranking function can integrate data from different sources such as host compatibility for inserted genes, the estimation of steady-state fluxes from the genome-wide reconstruction of the organism's metabolism, or the estimation of metabolite toxicity from experimental assays. We use several machine-learning tools in order to estimate enzyme activity and reaction efficiency at each step of the identified pathways. Examples of production in bacteria and yeast for two antibiotics and for one antitumor agent, as well as for several essential metabolites are outlined. Conclusions We present here a unified framework that integrates diverse techniques involved in the design of heterologous biosynthetic pathways through a retrosynthetic approach in the reaction signature space

  3. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: quantifying the welfare effects of water shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vat, Marnix; Femke, Schasfoort; Rhee Gigi, Van; Manfred, Wienhoven; Nico, Polman; Joost, Delsman; den Hoek Paul, Van; Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens

    2016-04-01

    It is widely acknowledged that drought management should move from a crisis to a risk-based approach. A risk-based approach to managing water resources requires a sound drought risk analysis, quantifying the probability and impacts of water shortage due to droughts. Impacts of droughts are for example crop yield losses, hydropower production losses, and water shortage for municipal and industrial use. Many studies analyse the balance between supply and demand, but there is little experience in translating this into economic metrics that can be used in a decision-making process on investments to reduce drought risk. We will present a drought risk analysis method for the Netherlands, with a focus on the underlying economic method to quantify the welfare effects of water shortage for different water users. Both the risk-based approach as well as the economic valuation of water shortage for various water users was explored in a study for the Dutch Government. First, an historic analysis of the effects of droughts on revenues and prices in agriculture as well as on shipping and nature was carried out. Second, a drought risk analysis method was developed that combines drought hazard and drought impact analysis in a probabilistic way for various sectors. This consists of a stepwise approach, from water availability through water shortage to economic impact, for a range of drought events with a certain return period. Finally, a local case study was conducted to test the applicability of the drought risk analysis method. Through the study, experience was gained into integrating hydrological and economic analyses, which is a prerequisite for drought risk analysis. Results indicate that the risk analysis method is promising and applicable for various sectors. However, it was also found that quantification of economic impacts from droughts is time-consuming, because location- and sector-specific data is needed, which is not always readily available. Furthermore, for some

  4. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetta, Pietro P. M.; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann; Bergkvist, Göran; Doltra, Jordi; Lopez-Bellido, Rafael J.; Monti, Michele; Pappa, Valentini A.; Reckling, Moritz; Topp, Cairistiona F. E.; Walker, Robin L.; Rees, Robert M.; Watson, Christine A.; James, Euan K.; Squire, Geoffrey R.; Begg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32 to 115 kg ha−1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc.) was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years). BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6–0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping systems in this range were dominated by mixtures of legume and non-legume forages to which inorganic N as fertilizer was normally applied. Forage (e.g., grass and clover), as opposed to grain crops in this range maintained high outputs of biomass and N. In conclusion, BNF through grain and forage legumes has the potential to generate major benefit in terms of reducing or dispensing with the need for mineral N without loss of total output. PMID:27917178

  5. Inventory Model for deteriorating Items with Four level System and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an inventory model for deteriorating items in which shortages are allowed. It is assumed that the production rate is proportional to the demand rate and greater than demand rate. The inventory model is developed by considering four different circumstances. The optimal of the problem is obtained with the help of Mathematica 7 software. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the model for different parameters. Sensitivity analysis of the model has been developed to examine the effect of changes in the values of the different parameters for optimal inventory policy. Truncated Taylor’s series is used for finding closed form optimal solution.

  6. Use of chemicals and biological products in Asian aquacultire and their potential environmental risks: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Satapornvanit, K.; Haque, M.M.; Min, J.; Nguyen, P.T.; Telfer, T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, Asian aquaculture production has intensified rapidly through the adoption of technological advances, and the use of a wide array of chemical and biological products to control sediment and water quality and to treat and prevent disease outbreaks. The use of chemicals in aq

  7. A model of the ocean iron cycle and its influence on biological production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Parekh, P.; Follows, M.

    2003-04-01

    Biological productivity in large regions of the ocean, specifically high nutrient, low chlorophyll regions, is limited by the deficit in iron relative to other nutrients. We have developed a parameterization of the iron cycle of the world's oceans which attempts to explicitly represent the processes by which this deficit in iron occurs. We have implemented this parameterization in the context of the MIT three dimensional global ocean model and examined the consequences for nutrient distributions, new production and primary production. The iron model parameterizes the mechanisms of scavenging of iron onto sinking particles and complexation with an organic ligand and is driven by specified aeolian flux patterns. First, using an idealized representation of export production, limited by light, phosphate and iron, the model reproduces the broad features of the observed ocean phosphate and iron distributions. We replace the simplified export parameterization with an explicit, but highly idealized, ecosystem model. The model represents a simplified food web with two phytoplankton size classes and a single grazer. The base currency for this model is phosphorus, but the larger phytoplankton class (i.e. diatoms) is also limited by silica. Both classes are limited by the availability of iron. The results of this model are also generally consistent with the observed patterns of phosphate and iron. In addition, the model captures the broad features of the distributions and cycles of silica, chlorophyll and primary production. We will also explore the sensitivities of this model to the forcing fields (e.g. aeolian iron flux) and parameter choices of the ecosystem model. This model represents a step towards the explicit representation of the ocean iron cycle, and its biogeochemical influences, in global biogeochemical models.

  8. When do tissues and cells become products? Regulatory oversight of emerging biological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Although therapeutics derived from biological sources have been subjected to regulatory oversight for some time, the products used in transplantation procedures have historically been exempt from this oversight. These products have been viewed as being part of medical practice rather than as the result of mainstream pharmaceutical manufacture. Furthermore, their unique source makes them difficult to assess in traditional regulatory systems based on the tenets of pharmaceutical quality control. With the increasing use of transplantation therapies to both replace dysfunctional organs and to influence genetic and metabolic processes, public health concerns on these therapies have increased. In addition, it is recognized that therapeutic claims for some of these interventions need to be properly assessed. These considerations have led the established regulatory agencies of the developed world to develop new regulatory paradigms for the products of transplantation practice. While a number of concerns have driven these developments, the minimization of infectious disease risk remains the paramount driver for introducing these regulatory systems. More than the regulation of medicines and medical devices manufactured in traditional pharmaceutical modes, the regulation of cell and tissue products is intimately linked to areas of public health policy and funding. This places regulators in a challenging position as they attempt to reconcile their roles as independent assessors with the needs of the overall public health framework. This is particularly difficult when considering measures which may affect access to life saving therapies. Regulators have recognized the need to assess these therapies through systems which incorporate consideration of risk-benefit ratios and include mechanisms for transparent and accountable release of products when full compliance to traditional concepts of manufacturing practice is not possible.

  9. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  10. DNA assembler: a synthetic biology tool for characterizing and engineering natural product gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    The majority of existing antibacterial and anticancer drugs are natural products or their derivatives. However, the characterization and engineering of these compounds are often hampered by limited ability to manipulate the corresponding biosynthetic pathways. Recently, we developed a genomics-driven, synthetic biology-based method, DNA assembler, for discovery, characterization, and engineering of natural product biosynthetic pathways (Shao, Luo, & Zhao, 2011). By taking advantage of the highly efficient yeast in vivo homologous recombination mechanism, this method synthesizes the entire expression vector containing the target biosynthetic pathway and the genetic elements needed for DNA maintenance and replication in individual hosts in a single-step manner. In this chapter, we describe the general guidelines for construct design. By using two distinct biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrate that DNA assembler can perform multiple tasks, including heterologous expression, introduction of single or multiple point mutations, scar-less gene deletion, generation of product derivatives, and creation of artificial gene clusters. As such, this method offers unprecedented flexibility and versatility in pathway manipulations.

  11. Are staffing shortages changing the culture of midwifery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nadine; Gilbert, Arianna; Mander, Rosemary; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    The effects of budgetary changes on midwives' practice environment have raised concerns in many settings. A survey of midwives and student midwives in the UK and Republic of Ireland in 2014 produced 280 responses. Staffing shortages were regarded as underpinning many changes, one of which was that of previously optional 'extra' activities, such as unpaid overtime, becoming mandatory. Shortages were aggravated in less acute areas by the transfer of midwives to more acute settings. One of the fears expressed by midwives was that a permanent change in the culture of midwifery would result. These phenomena are the everyday experiences of practising midwives, but they have failed to be addressed in the documents published by regulatory and review bodies.

  12. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  13. Applying complex models to poultry production in the future--economics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpaz, H; Cohen, M; Fancher, B; Halley, J

    2013-09-01

    The ability to determine the optimal broiler feed nutrient density that maximizes margin over feeding cost (MOFC) has obvious economic value. To determine optimal feed nutrient density, one must consider ingredient prices, meat values, the product mix being marketed, and the projected biological performance. A series of 8 feeding trials was conducted to estimate biological responses to changes in ME and amino acid (AA) density. Eight different genotypes of sex-separate reared broilers were fed diets varying in ME (2,723-3,386 kcal of ME/kg) and AA (0.89-1.65% digestible lysine with all essential AA acids being indexed to lysine) levels. Broilers were processed to determine carcass component yield at many different BW (1.09-4.70 kg). Trial data generated were used in model constructed to discover the dietary levels of ME and AA that maximize MOFC on a per broiler or per broiler annualized basis (bird × number of cycles/year). The model was designed to estimate the effects of dietary nutrient concentration on broiler live weight, feed conversion, mortality, and carcass component yield. Estimated coefficients from the step-wise regression process are subsequently used to predict the optimal ME and AA concentrations that maximize MOFC. The effects of changing feed or meat prices across a wide spectrum on optimal ME and AA levels can be evaluated via parametric analysis. The model can rapidly compare both biological and economic implications of changing from current practice to the simulated optimal solution. The model can be exploited to enhance decision making under volatile market conditions.

  14. Modeling Water Shortage Management Using an Object-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Senarath, S.; Brion, L.; Niedzialek, J.; Novoa, R.; Obeysekera, J.

    2007-12-01

    As a result of the increasing global population and the resulting urbanization, water shortage issues have received increased attention throughout the world . Water supply has not been able to keep up with increased demand for water, especially during times of drought. The use of an object-oriented (OO) approach coupled with efficient mathematical models is an effective tool in addressing discrepancies between water supply and demand. Object-oriented modeling has been proven powerful and efficient in simulating natural behavior. This research presents a way to model water shortage management using the OO approach. Three groups of conceptual components using the OO approach are designed for the management model. The first group encompasses evaluation of natural behaviors and possible related management options. This evaluation includes assessing any discrepancy that might exist between water demand and supply. The second group is for decision making which includes the determination of water use cutback amount and duration using established criteria. The third group is for implementation of the management options which are restrictions of water usage at a local or regional scale. The loop is closed through a feedback mechanism where continuity in the time domain is established. Like many other regions, drought management is very important in south Florida. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) is a finite volume, fully integrated hydrologic model used by the South Florida Water Management District to evaluate regional response to various planning alternatives including drought management. A trigger module was developed for RSM that encapsulates the OO approach to water shortage management. Rigorous testing of the module was performed using historical south Florida conditions. Keywords: Object-oriented, modeling, water shortage management, trigger module, Regional Simulation Model

  15. The Critical Shortage of Military Chaplains: One Possible Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    chaplains, with 80 Regular Army vacancies and 440 openings in the National Guard (NG) and Reserves ( Altamirano , 2007; Groening, 2007). He further states...time they’re going to be deployed” ( Altamirano , 2007). Although there is nothing in the literature to substantiate this, when a NG unit is deployed...Institute. n.d. Retrieved from http://www.aleph-institute.org/index.html . Altamirano , N. “Chaplain shortage severe for Army,” the Washington

  16. Strategies for dealing with the national coding shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Jill

    2010-04-01

    Steps providers should consider to deal with a national coding shortage and implementation of ICD-10 include the following: Concentrate on employee retention (consider retention bonuses; upgrade pay scales; and offer flex-time and flexible work schedules). Begin a training program for ICD-10. Target other healthcare professionals and current employees to transition into coding positions. Collaborate with colleges, high schools, and middle schools to draw prospective students to this career path and your organization.

  17. Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria ROSSI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

  18. Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

    2013-09-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE.

  19. Synthetic biology for production of natural and new-to-nature terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Philipp; Pollier, Jacob; Callewaert, Nico; Goossens, Alain

    2016-07-01

    With tens of thousands of characterized members, terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural compounds that are synthesized by all living organisms. Several terpenoids play primary roles in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity, as pigments or as phytohormones, but most of them function as specialized metabolites that are involved in plant resistance to herbivores or plant-environment interactions. Terpenoids are an essential component of human nutrition, and many are economically important pharmaceuticals, aromatics and potential next-generation biofuels. Because of the often low abundance in their natural source, as well as the demand for novel terpenoid structures with new or improved bioactivities, terpenoid biosynthesis has become a prime target for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. In this review we focus on the creation of new-to-nature or tailor-made plant-derived terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms, in particular by means of combinatorial biosynthesis and the activation of silent metabolism. We reflect on the characteristics of different potential photosynthetic host organisms and recent advances in synthetic biology and discuss their utility for the (heterologous) production of (novel) terpenoids.

  20. Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.

  1. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Weili; He, Shengbing

    2013-09-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable. Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP, the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system. The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2, i.e., BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1. The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated. After the saturation, the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average. Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation. A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria, which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp., was isolated, enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3 x day), the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment. Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective, cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  2. Removal of disinfection by-products formation potential by biologically intensified process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Dong; LI Wei-guang; CUI Fu-yi; HE Xin; ZHANG Jin-song

    2005-01-01

    The removal of disinfection by-products formation potential(DBPFP) in artificially intensified biological activated carbon(IBAC) process which is developed on the basis of traditional ozone granular activated carbon was evaluated. By IBAC removals of 31% and 68% for THMFP and HAAFP were obtained respectively. Under identical conditions, the removals of the same substances were 4% and 32% respectively only by the granular activated carbon(GAC) process. Compared with GAC, the high removal rates of the two formed potential substances were due to the increasing of bioactivity of the media and the synergistic capabilities of biological degradation cooperating with activated carbon adsorption of organic compounds. A clear linear correlation ( R2 = 0.9562 and R2 = 0.9007) between DOC HAAFP removal rate and Empty Bed Contact Time(EBCT) of IBAC process was observed, while that between THMFP removal rate and EBCT of GAC was R2 = 0.9782. In addition certain linear correlations between THMFP, HAAFP and UV254 ( R2 = 0.855 and R2 = 0.7702) were found for the treated water. For IBAC process there are also more advantages such as long backwashing cycle time, low backwashing intensity and prolonging activated carbon lifetime and so on.

  3. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  4. Carboxyethylpyrroles: From Hypothesis to the Discovery of Biologically Active Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Robert G

    2017-01-17

    Our research on the roles of lipid oxidation in human disease is guided by chemical intuition. For example, we postulated that 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of primary amines would be produced through covalent adduction of a γ-hydroxyalkenal generated, in turn, through oxidative fragmentation of docosahexaenoates. Our studies confirmed the natural occurrence of this chemistry, and the biological activities of these natural products and their extensive involvements in human physiology (wound healing) and pathology (age-related macular degeneration, autism, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease, and tumor growth) continue to emerge. This perspective recounts these discoveries and proposes new frontiers where further developments are likely. Perhaps more significantly, it depicts an effective chemistry-based approach to the discovery of novel biochemistry.

  5. Discharge of pharmaceutical products (PPs) through a conventional biological sewage treatment plant: MECs vs PECs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetsier, C M; Spinelli, S; Lin, L; Roig, B; Touraud, E

    2009-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals for human use are consumed in significant quantities and their occurrence in aquatic systems has been reported by a number of authors. In the context of environmental risk assessment, there is an increasing interest in evaluating the discharge of pharmaceutical products to surface waters through sewage treatment plants (STP). This case study was carried out on a conventional biological treatment plant (Alès, France) and focused on a set of eleven drugs representing the main therapeutic classes. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) range from the low ng L(-1) to 1.5 microg L(-1) in effluent and up to few hundred ng L(-1) in receiving surface waters. There is a good agreement between MEC and predicted environmental concentration (PEC) values for seven of the eleven investigated drugs in STP effluent. There is not such a good match between PEC and MEC values in surface waters, and this highlights the limits of this approach, at the local scale.

  6. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  7. The contribution of oxazolidinone frame to the biological activity of pharmaceutical drugs and natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Giovanni; Menendez, Pilar; Monache, Giuliano Delle; Misiti, Domenico; Nevola, Laura; Botta, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    The development of resistance by the antibiotics in the Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria over the last twenty years and continuing today has created a need for new antibiotic classes, which may be unaffected by existing bacterial resistance. The oxazolidin-2-ones represent not only a new class with a novel mechanism of action, but also satisfy the requirement for overcoming the resistance mechanisms. Both linezolid and eperozolid, the first chemical candidates, arose from the piperazine subclass, with the first one being chosen further development because of its enhanced pharmacokinetic properties. The main attractive traits of the oxazolidinone series has encouraged further work in the area, and the patent literature reveals that extensive chemical investigation is currently being made. The unexpected early resistance development emphasizes the need for further exploration of features of the oxazolidinone to eliminate these deficiencies. Recently, several changes, involving the C5 side chain as well the N-phenyl heterocyclic ring, give promise for such improvement. Oxazolidinone antibacterial agents comprise also ketolides, derivatives of macrolides, such as erythromycin A, with a newly formed carbamate cycle, with a largely unexplored potential. The oxazolidinone nucleus does not appear only in the structures of antimicrobial drugs, but a number of biological activities are connected with frameworks including the oxazolidinone ring. A partial list of these activities comprises enzyme inhibitors, agonists and antagonists, with a particular citation for a new generation of selective monoamino oxidase inhibitors (befloxatone). The oxazolidinone moiety was found in the structure of few biologically active natural products, such as (-)-cytoxazone and streptazolin. Moreover, in some cases the oxazolidinone ring has been chosen for the preparation of isosteric aza analogues of natural compounds (podophyllotoxin, pilocarpine) that can be more easily synthesised and more

  8. Physical influence on biological production along the western shelf of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripp, T.; Gammelsrød, T.; Krakstad, J. O.

    2014-02-01

    In September 2009, the R.V. Dr. Fridtjof Nansen surveyed the western coast of Madagascar. Environmental parameters of temperature, salinity, fluorescence and oxygen were profiled with a CTD probe and continuously underway at 5 m utilising a thermosalinograph equipped with a fluorescence sensor. A ship mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) provided current profiles down to 250 m, while estimates of biomass were obtained from acoustics and trawling was used for species identification. In addition, visual whale observations were conducted. The survey revealed three areas that were identified as upwelling regions, namely the Southern Coast (26°S), offshore from Cap St. André (16°S) and near Nosy Be Island (13°S). In these upwelling regions, acoustic estimates, trawling and whale observations indicated high biological productivity. The total acoustic estimate for the whole western coast was as low as 62 000 t, typical for tropical waters. In addition to the upwelling areas, high biological productivity was also found outside river mouths. Ship born wind measurements, as well as re-analysed wind fields, indicated that the southern coast upwelling cell was wind-driven and had a larger extent than reported earlier. The wind conditions were not favourable for upwelling in the two northernmost upwelling cells. Here the ADCP showed high bottom velocities (>1 m s-1) oriented northeast. These currents were probably forced by the migrating eddies in the area as indicated by the remotely sensed Sea Level Anomaly (SLA). Such currents induce bottom friction layer transport oriented towards the coast, thus driving upwelling, although not necessarily penetrating all the way to the surface layer as was the case near Cap St. André.

  9. 75 FR 45207 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  10. 76 FR 68198 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage... designated as primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as... seven health professional types (primary medical care, dental, psychiatric, vision care,...

  11. 78 FR 75959 - Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application...

  12. 78 FR 55778 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  13. 75 FR 26167 - Designation of Medically Underserved Populations and Health Professions Shortage Areas; Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Underserved Populations and Health Professions Shortage Areas; Intent To Form Negotiated Rulemaking Committee... of Medically Underserved Populations (MUPs) and Primary Care Health Professions Shortage Areas (HPSAs... indicators, representing the public's interest in assuring that the areas, populations and entities to...

  14. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting nominations for veterinary service shortage situations for...

  15. 75 FR 3697 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting nominations for veterinary service shortage situations for...

  16. 76 FR 80878 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting nominations of veterinary service shortage situations for...

  17. 77 FR 77008 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... and Agriculture (NIFA) is soliciting nominations of veterinary service shortage situations for...

  18. Power Shortage Likely to Affect Operating Ratio of Non-ferrous Metals Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Since this March,many places in China have been plagued by "power shortage" in low sea-son.Zhejiang,Guangdong,Hunan,Jiangxi and Guizhou have taken electricity rationing measures to cope with electric power shortage.

  19. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: III. Biological efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Methods were developed and incorporated into a previously published computer model to predict ME intake and calculate biological efficiencies in terms of grams of empty BW (EBW) and fat-free matter (FFM) gained/megacalorie of ME consumed from weaning to slaughter. Efficiencies were calculated for steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG, and slaughtered at 300 kg carcass weight, small or greater degree of marbling, and 28% carcass fat. Backgrounding systems were high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, and low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d, and 0 d backgrounding. The high ADG finishing system was more biologically efficient than the low ADG finishing system, and generally backgrounding systems were less biologically efficient than direct finishing after weaning (0 d backgrounding). Large-framed breeds were more efficient at the constant carcass weight and carcass fatness end point, and breeds that achieved the marbling end point at low levels of carcass fatness were more efficient at this end point. Some small-framed breeds gained EBW more efficiently but gained FFM less efficiently than some of the large-framed breeds. Variation in efficiency between genotypes was greatest with 0 d backgrounding and decreased in the other backgrounding systems.

  20. Physicochemical and biological comparison of the first Brazilian biosimilar filgrastim with its reference product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovani M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monique Mantovani,1,2 Cecilia Sulzbacher Caruso,1 Fernanda Dell Antonio Facchini,1 Renata Pascon,1,3 Patrícia Ribeiro Vilaça Cagnacci,1 Vanda Dolabela de Magalhães1 1Department of Biotechnology, Eurofarma Laboratórios SA, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Libbs Farmacêutica Ltda, Embu das Artes, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema, SP, Brazil Abstract: The registration of biosimilars requires comparison studies to reference products to guarantee their safety, purity, efficacy, and potency. In this study, we demonstrate the similarity of a filgrastim produced by Eurofarma (Fiprima® and one produced by Amgen Inc. (commercialized by Hoffman-La Roche Ltd, Granulokine® in terms of drug identity, structure, purity, and bioactivity. The methods used to compare both products were the following: peptide mapping, bidimensional electrophoresis, reduced and nonreduced polyacrylamide electrophoresis, Western blotting, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography, far and near circular dichroism, fluorescence emission, X-ray crystallography, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight, receptor binding, and potency by in vitro cell proliferation. Biosimilarity to Granulokine was demonstrated in terms of identity, structure, purity, and bioactivity. Keywords: filgrastim, biosimilar, biopharmaceutical, G-CSF, comparability, neutropenia

  1. Genes influencing milk production traits predominantly affect one of four biological pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we introduce a method that accounts for false positive and false negative results in attempting to estimate the true proportion of quantitative trait loci that affect two different traits. This method was applied to data from a genome scan that was used to detect QTL for three independent milk production traits, Australian Selection Index (ASI, protein percentage (P% and fat percentage corrected for protein percentage (F% – P%. These four different scenarios are attributed to four biological pathways: QTL that (1 increase or decrease total mammary gland production (affecting ASI only; (2 increase or decrease lactose synthesis resulting in the volume of milk being changed but without a change in protein or fat yield (affecting P% only; (3 increase or decrease protein synthesis while milk volume remains relatively constant (affecting ASI and P% in the same direction; (4 increase or decrease fat synthesis while the volume of milk remains relatively constant (affecting F% – P% only. The results indicate that of the positions that detected a gene, most affected one trait and not the others, though a small proportion (2.8% affected ASI and P% in the same direction.

  2. Desabastecimento de medicamentos: determinantes, conseqüências e gerenciamento Drug shortage: determinants, consequences and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Max Moreira Reis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o desabastecimento de medicamentos como um problema que transcende o aspecto logístico da área de saúde, discutindo suas implicações para a qualidade, segurança e custo da assistência. A cadeia de abastecimento farmacêutico e os fatores que interferem na capilaridade da distribuição e na disponibilidade do medicamento são discutidos. Ressalta a contribuição da comissão de farmácia e terapêutica para a prevenção e gerenciamento do desabastecimento de medicamentos nos estabelecimentos de saúde. Sugestões de medidas para gestão do desabastecimento de medicamentos são apresentadas. Enfatiza-se a necessidade do medicamento ser considerado pelos componentes da cadeia logística um produto de saúde, com tratamento diferenciado dos bens de consumo comuns.The present study analyzes drug shortage as a problem reaching beyond the logistic aspect of the health field and discusses its consequences with respect to quality, safety and cost of health care delivery. The pharmaceutical supply chain and the factors that determine the distribution and availability of drugs are discussed. The contribution of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee in preventing and managing drug shortage in health institutions is stressed and measures for drug shortage management are suggested. Finally it is emphasized that drugs should be considered health products rather than consumer goods and as such be given a different treatment by the supply chain.

  3. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Conference Report: ESF-COST High-Level Research Conference Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catino, Arthur

    2010-12-01

    Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III was the third conference in a series of events sponsored by the European Science Foundation (ESF) and the European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). Scientists came together from within and outside the EU to present cutting-edge developments in chemical synthesis. Research areas included the synthesis of natural products, methods development, isolation/structural elucidation and chemical biology. As our capacity to produce new chemotherapeutic agents relies on chemical synthesis, this year's conference has never been so timely. This report highlights several of the scientific contributions presented during the meeting.

  5. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Dong; Weili Zhou; Shengbing He

    2013-01-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable.Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP,the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system.The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2,i.e.,BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1.The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated.After the saturation,the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average.Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation.A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria,which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp.,was isolated,enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor.When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3·day),the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment.Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective,cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L.

  6. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  7. Regulatory and information support for evaluation of biological productivity of Ukrainian forests and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakyda, Petro; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Lakyda, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Stabilization and preservation of the planet's climate system today is regarded as one of the most important global political-economic, environmental and social problems of mankind. Rising concentration of carbon dioxide in the planet's atmosphere due to anthropogenic impact is the main reason leading to global climate change. Due to the above mentioned, social demands on forests are changing their biosphere role and function of natural sink of greenhouse gases becomes top priority. It is known that one of the most essential components of biological productivity of forests is their live biomass. Absorption, long-term sequestration of carbon and generation of oxygen are secured by its components. System research of its parametric structure and development of regulatory and reference information for assessment of aboveground live biomass components of trees and stands of the main forest-forming tree species in Ukraine began over twenty-five years ago at the department of forest mensuration and forest inventory of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, involving staff from other research institutions. Today, regulatory and reference materials for evaluation of parametric structure of live biomass are developed for trees of the following major forest-forming tree species of Ukraine: Scots pine of natural and artificial origin, Crimean pine, Norway spruce, silver fir, pedunculate oak, European beech, hornbeam, ash, common birch, aspen and black alder (P.I. Lakyda et al., 2011). An ongoing process on development of similar regulatory and reference materials for forest stands of the abovementioned forest-forming tree species of Ukraine is secured by scientists of departments of forest management, and forest mensuration and forest inventory. The total experimental research base is 609 temporary sample plots, where 4880 model trees were processed, including 3195 model trees with estimates of live biomass components. Laboratory studies conducted

  8. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  9. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Huchard, Elise; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important reproductive

  10. NEWS Nonferrous Metals Shortage Expected in China for Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China has become the largest nonferrous metalsconsumer country in the world. Along with thehigh-speed development of industrialization,China’s demand for nonferrous metals is grow-ing with more dependence on the internationalmarket supply and more shortages are expectedfor the years to come.Statistics show that with constant and high-speed economic development,China’s refinedmetals consumption grew from 4.5 million tonsin 1995 to 12 million tons in 2003,increasingby almost 2.7 times over a period of nine years.And with direct import of fabricated materials

  11. ASTM lights the way for tissue engineered medical products standards: jump start for combination medical products that restore biological function of human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G L; Stocum, D L

    2001-01-01

    Everybody hopes for better health and restoration of impaired bodily function, and now that hope is illuminated by the promise of powerful biological tools that make human cells grow and replace human tissue. ASTM Committee F04 on Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices is taking the lead by defining some of those tools as standards that can be used for the development, production, testing, and regulatory approval of medical products.

  12. Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleas, G J; Diamandis, E P; Goldberg, D M

    1997-01-01

    Wine has been part of human culture for 6,000 years, serving dietary and socio-religious functions. Its production takes place on every continent, and its chemical composition is profoundly influenced by enological techniques, the grape cultivar from which it originates, and climatic factors. In addition to ethanol, which in moderate consumption can reduce mortality from coronary heart disease by increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inhibiting platelet aggregation, wine (especially red wine) contains a range of polyphenols that have desirable biological properties. These include the phenolic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, gentisic, ferulic, and vanillic acids), trihydroxy stilbenes (resveratrol and polydatin), and flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin). They are synthesized by a common pathway from phenylalanine involving polyketide condensation reactions. Metabolic regulation is provided by competition between resveratrol synthase and chalcone synthase for a common precursor pool of acyl-CoA derivatives. Polymeric aggregation gives rise, in turn to the viniferins (potent antifungal agents) and procyanidins (strong antioxidants that also inhibit platelet aggregation). The antioxidant effects of red wine and of its major polyphenols have been demonstrated in many experimental systems spanning the range from in vitro studies (human low-density lipoprotein, liposomes, macrophages, cultured cells) to investigations in healthy human subjects. Several of these compounds (notably catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol) promote nitric oxide production by vascular endothelium; inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane in platelets and leukotriene in neutrophils, modulate the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins in whole animals and human cell lines, and arrest tumour growth as well as inhibit carcinogenesis in different experimental models. Target mechanisms to account for these effects include inhibition of phospholipase A2 and cyclo

  13. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  14. Asymmetric synthesis and biological activities of natural product (+)-balasubramide and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Jianzu; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Yunjie; Zhang, Luyong; Ding, Li; Xuan, Yining; Pang, Tao; Lin, Hansen

    2016-01-01

    The natural product (+)-balasubramide (3j) and its derivatives (3a-3i) were synthesized using a two-step asymmetric synthesis, and the biological activities of 3a-3j were determined in vitro. Methyl (2S,3R)-(+)-3-phenyloxirane-2-carboxylate (1h), the asymmetric synthesis of which was described in a previous paper, was selected as the starting material. Compounds 3a-3j were evaluated for their neuroprotective, antioxidative, and anti-neuroinflammatory effects. (+)-Balasubramide and its derivatives with different electronegative groups in the 6-phenyl ring produced little neuroprotection and antioxidation, but induced potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in BV-2 microglial cells (with the exception of 3g). Compound 3c, with a trifluoromethyl group in its 6-phenyl ring, was a particularly potent anti-neuroinflammatory agent. These results demonstrated that the electronegativity of the 6-phenyl ring of (+)-balasubramide is an important determinant of its inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation. More electronegative substituents result in more potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects. Moreover, cytotoxicity assays indicated no significant effects of the tested compounds.

  15. Testing for phylogenetic signal in biological traits: the ubiquity of cross-product statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoine, Sandrine; Ricotta, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate rates of evolution, to establish tests of correlation between two traits, or to investigate to what degree the phylogeny of a species assemblage is predictive of a trait value so-called tests for phylogenetic signal are used. Being based on different approaches, these tests are generally thought to possess quite different statistical performances. In this article, we show that the Blomberg et al. K and K*, the Abouheif index, the Moran's I, and the Mantel correlation are all based on a cross-product statistic, and are thus all related to each other when they are associated to a permutation test of phylogenetic signal. What changes is only the way phylogenetic and trait similarities (or dissimilarities) among the tips of a phylogeny are computed. The definitions of the phylogenetic and trait-based (dis)similarities among tips thus determines the performance of the tests. We shortly discuss the biological and statistical consequences (in terms of power and type I error of the tests) of the observed relatedness among the statistics that allow tests for phylogenetic signal. Blomberg et al. K* statistic appears as one on the most efficient approaches to test for phylogenetic signal. When branch lengths are not available or not accurate, Abouheif's Cmean statistic is a powerful alternative to K*.

  16. Biological Denitrification of High Nitrate Processing Wastewaters from Explosives Production Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyplik, Paweł; Marecik, Roman; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Olejnik, Anna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2012-05-01

    Wastewater samples originating from an explosives production plant (3,000 mg N l(-1) nitrate, 4.8 mg l(-1) nitroglycerin, 1.9 mg l(-1) nitroglycol and 1,200 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand) were subjected to biological purification. An attempt to completely remove nitrate and to decrease the chemical oxygen demand was carried out under anaerobic conditions. A soil isolated microbial consortium capable of biodegrading various organic compounds and reduce nitrate to atmospheric nitrogen under anaerobic conditions was used. Complete removal of nitrates with simultaneous elimination of nitroglycerin and ethylene glycol dinitrate (nitroglycol) was achieved as a result of the conducted research. Specific nitrate reduction rate was estimated at 12.3 mg N g(-1) VSS h(-1). Toxicity of wastewater samples during the denitrification process was studied by measuring the activity of dehydrogenases in the activated sludge. Mutagenicity was determined by employing the Ames test. The maximum mutagenic activity did not exceed 0.5. The obtained results suggest that the studied wastewater samples did not exhibit mutagenic properties.

  17. Effect of salinity on N₂O production during shortcut biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mu; Liu, Tiantian; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Xiao, Han

    2014-05-01

    Three identical SBR adapted to different salinity were applied to investigate the characteristics of the treatment performance and N2O production [Formula: see text] during shortcut biological nitrogen removal from landfill leachate under various operating parameters. Increase of salinity might deteriorate the activity of the microorganisms leading to the increase of [Formula: see text] , however, the system could be gradually adapted to the inhibition and alleviate the detrimental effect to some extent. The system acclimated to high salinity provided better performance under high salinity shock and a lower possibility of [Formula: see text] , while a sudden decrease in salinity can cause a temporary increase in [Formula: see text] . High salinity strengthened the influence of high ammonia nitrogen concentration and low DO concentration on [Formula: see text] while the strengthening effect was unconspicuous at high DO concentration. The anoxic phase did not produce a significant amount of N2O even at the lowest C/N ratio of 0.5 and was less susceptible to salinity. Characterization of the biomass composition using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the relative proportion of Nitrosomonas europaea was increased with the increase of the salinity, which may be an important factor for the strengthening effect of salinity on [Formula: see text] .

  18. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher T; Lavekar, Gandhidas; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2011-03-14

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this, we compared their structures with those of drugs from DrugBank and we constructed a structural similarity network. Information on the traditional therapeutic use of the plants was integrated in the network in order to provide further evidence for the predicted biologically active natural compounds. We hereby present a number of examples where the traditional medicinal use of the plant matches with the medicinal use of the drug that is structurally similar to a plant component. With this approach, we have brought to light a number of obscure compounds of natural origin (e.g. kanugin, norruffscine, isoazadirolide) that could provide the basis and inspiration for further lead development. Apart from the identification of novel natural leads in drug discovery, we envisage that this integrated in silico ethnopharmacology approach could find applications in the elucidation of the molecular basis of Ayurveda medicine and in drug repurposing.

  19. Petroleum: a shortage after 2015?; Petrole: la penurie a partir de 2015?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaullier, V.

    1997-08-01

    This article confronts the opinions of 2 scientists about the possibility of petroleum shortage in a near future. Graig Bond Hatfield a geologist from Toledo university (Usa) predicts a sharp crisis during the next century due to the declining production of most present oil fields and the continuous huge increase in energy demand from the developing world. Olivier Appert from the French institute of petroleum (IFP) thinks that the petroleum production will be sustained by technological progress. New exploitation techniques will enable to extract up to 50% of the petroleum contained in any oil field instead of the present 35%.According to Appert 80% of worldwide oil resources are not yet exploited because of political reasons. (A.C.)

  20. Metabolic and Kidney Diseases in the Setting of Climate Change, Water Shortage, and Survival Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard J; Stenvinkel, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal, Carlos; Song, Zhilin; Bankir, Lise; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2016-08-01

    Climate change (global warming) is leading to an increase in heat extremes and coupled with increasing water shortage, provides a perfect storm for a new era of environmental crises and potentially, new diseases. We use a comparative physiologic approach to show that one of the primary mechanisms by which animals protect themselves against water shortage is to increase fat mass as a means for providing metabolic water. Strong evidence suggests that certain hormones (vasopressin), foods (fructose), and metabolic products (uric acid) function as survival signals to help reduce water loss and store fat (which also provides a source of metabolic water). These mechanisms are intricately linked with each other and stimulated by dehydration and hyperosmolarity. Although these mechanisms were protective in the setting of low sugar and low salt intake in our past, today, the combination of diets high in fructose and salty foods, increasing temperatures, and decreasing available water places these survival signals in overdrive and may be accelerating the obesity and diabetes epidemics. The recent discovery of multiple epidemics of CKD occurring in agricultural workers in hot and humid environments may represent harbingers of the detrimental consequences of the combination of climate change and overactivation of survival pathways.

  1. Coordinating vendor-buyer decisions for imperfect quality items considering trade credit and fully backlogged shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Aditi; Gautam, Prerna; Jaggi, Chandra K.

    2016-03-01

    Supply chain management has become a critical issue for modern business environments. In today's world of cooperative decision-making, individual decisions in order to reduce inventory costs may not lead to an overall optimal solution. Coordination is necessary among participants of supply chain to achieve better performance. There are legitimate and important efforts from the vendor to enhance the relation with buyer; one such effort is offering trade credit which has been a driver of growth and development of business between them. The cost of financing is a core consideration in effective financial management, in general and in context of business. Also, due to imperfect production a vendor may produce defective items which results in shortages. Motivated with these aspects, an integrated vendor-buyer inventory model is developed for imperfect quality items with allowable shortages; in which the vendor offers credit period to the buyer for payment. The objective is to minimize the total joint annual costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer by using integrated decision making approach. The expected total annual integrated cost is derived and a solution procedure is provided to find the optimal solution. Numerical analysis shows that the integrated model gives an impressive cost reduction, in comparison to independent decision policies by the vendor and the buyer.

  2. Biologically Induced Hydrogen Production Drives High Rate/High Efficiency Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate from Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Lu, Yang; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg; Freguia, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Electron-transfer pathways occurring in biocathodes are still unknown. We demonstrate here that high rates of acetate production by microbial electrosynthesis are mainly driven by an electron flux from the electrode to carbon dioxide, occurring via biologically induced hydrogen, with (99±1)% elec

  3. Shortage management in power transmission networks; Engpassmanagement im Uebertragungsnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G. [VDE, Inst. fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft an der Technischen Univ. Wien (Austria)

    2002-08-01

    Deregulation of the electricity market has raised co-ordination problems of power plant and network operation, which may lead to short-term power shortage. This danger is made even more acute by large-area power trading and a reluctance to make investments. Regionally balancing of power generation and sufficient 380 kW networks will make power supply more reliable. Measures to ensure short-term power shortage management by network operators are presented. [German] Die Deregulierung der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft hat zu einer Aufspaltung in die Geschaeftsbereiche Erzeugung, Uebertragung, Verteilung und Handel gefuehrt. Die Koordinierung des Kraftwerks- und Netzbetriebs ist hierdurch erschwert worden, was sich im Besonderen bei kurzfristigen Engpaessen bemerkbar macht. Der weitraeumigere Stromhandel und die deutliche Zurueckhaltung bei den Investitionen erhoeht zukuenftig die Gefahr von Engpaessen. Durch eine regional ausgeglichene Erzeugungsbilanz und ausreichend verstaerkte 380-kV-Netze ist auch zukuenftig eine sichere Versorgung moeglich. Insbesondere fuer das kurzfristige Engpassmanagement sollten die Netzbetreiber mit verbesserten Massnahmepaketen ausgestattet werden. (orig.)

  4. Careers : the next generation addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    This article described the activities of CAREERS: The Next Generation, a group formed 20 years ago to address anticipated labour shortages in Alberta. The group has reached out to over 350 schools and 225,000 students in the province in order to promote trades, forestry, and health services careers. The province has had a shortage of at 150,000 skilled workers in both trades and technical jobs in the petroleum industry. CAREERS now has many partners in the oil and gas industry, and has recently launched an initiative involving a basic apprenticeship model designed for young people to explore different trades. CAREERS is now focusing its efforts on high schools in order to promote trades amongst students. The Registered Apprenticeship Program (RAP) allows high school students to gain up to a year's worth of hours towards a journeyman status in the trade of their choice. CAREERS is now developing programs for the province's health services and has just completed a 3-year health care pilot program. A study has shown that 87 per cent of the students involved in the program plan to continue on to a career in the health services field. CAREERS is now involved in an Aboriginal Youth Initiative designed to bring career education and workplace learning opportunities to young people across the province. 2 figs.

  5. The change in values that drives the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    In the 21st century we are eagerly trying to recruit candidates into the nursing profession in order to provide safe care to patients and address the national nursing shortage. There are fewer and fewer individuals who retain the value of helping others for purely altruistic reasons. It is only when a recruitment and retention plan is tied to the values and motivators of the modern employee that health care agencies can hope to address the shortages in staffing. Providing motivation for a nursing care giving role which is physically difficult, psychologically draining, and frequently demanding time beyond the 8 hours of a shift, requires a consideration of the values held by 21st century adults. Nevertheless, when values held by the modern day job seeker are considered enticing strategies can be designed and can lead to job satisfaction and stability among employees. As employees realize that LPNs fill vital roles in the health care team and can assist in responding to RN vacancies, it is essential that employers of LPNs be fully cognizant of values that are prevalent in our society and respond to these values in terms of agency recruitment and retention policy.

  6. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  7. Skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry: The nexus between certification, quality of work output and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola O. Windapo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Construction human resource management.Research purpose: The study examines the skilled labour supply in the South African construction industry and determines whether there is a relationship between trade certification, quality of work output and scarce labour skills.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the investigation is based on the view of scholars that a skilled labour shortage is preponderant in the South African construction industry even though there is a high level of youth unemployment in South Africa and that the perceived skills shortage contributes to a decrease in productivity and product quality.Research design, approach and method: The paper reviews relevant literature and employs a mixed method research approach in collecting empirical data from contracting companies within the Western Cape Province of South Africa that are listed on the Construction Industry Development Board contractor register.Main findings: The study demonstrated that there is no shortage of manpower, but there is a shortage of qualified or skilled tradesmen, such as electricians, plumbers, welders, fitters and carpenters, whose professions are more technical and require formal training and certification. The level of supply of skilled tradesmen is attributed to the lack of high-quality basic education, the state of the economy, compulsory certification of tradesmen and an ageing workforce. It was also found that there is a significant relationship between skilled labour shortages and the requirement that labour be certified and that work output is unsatisfactory when there is no certification requirement.Practical/managerial implications: Based on these findings, the study concludes that skilled labour shortages and poor work output quality continue to be experienced in the South African construction industry when workers are unable to obtain formal certification for informal work experience acquired through years of practice on

  8. Doing Gener in Brazilian Biology: Obstacles and Prejudices on Knowledge Production within the FAFESP Genome Proyect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição da Costa, Maria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the participation of women scientist in knowledge production within the Genome Project sponsored by FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation. Between 1997 and 2003, FAPESP invested approximately 33 million euros to develop the FAPESP Genome Project (PGF, generating major changes in Molecular Biology in Brazil: institutions devoted to fostering science and technology have been investing large sum of money; bioinformatics became one of the fields with great demand for professionals, and the results of the Xylella Genome Project, first organism sequenced in Brazil, were published in several international scientific journals including Nature, and Brazil became the first country to develop genome projects outside USA, Europe and Japan. As a consequence of this process, women scientists were loosing space as “spokespersons of this new science”, playing secondary roles at the project.Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la participación de las mujeres en la producción de conocimiento del proyecto genoma financiado por la FAPESP (Fundación de Apoyo a la Investigación del Estado de São Paulo. Entre 1997 y 2003, FAPESP invirtió aproximadamente 33 millones de euros en el desarrollo del Proyecto Genoma Fapesp (PGF, provocando importantes cambios en la Biología Molecular brasileña: las instituciones de fomento a la investigación comenzaron a promoverla con grandes financiaciones; la bioinformática se tornó uno de los campos con mayor demanda de profesionales y, por fin, los resultados del Proyecto Genoma de la Xylella Fastidiosa, primer organismo vivo secuenciado en Brasil, se publicaron en revistas científicas internacionales, como Nature. Con ello se convierte en el primer país fuera de la tríada EUA-Europa-Japón en desarrollar proyectos genoma. Como consecuencia del proceso, las mujeres están perdiendo espacio como “portavoces de esta nueva ciencia”, ocupando papeles secundarios en el

  9. Transcriptional changes in the nuc-2A mutant strain of Neurospora crassa cultivated under conditions of phosphate shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Diana E; Silveira, Henrique C S; Peres, Nalu T A; Sanches, Pablo R; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M; Rossi, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanism that controls the response to phosphate shortage in Neurospora crassa involves four regulatory genes -nuc-2, preg, pgov, and nuc-1. Phosphate shortage is sensed by the nuc-2 gene, the product of which inhibits the functioning of the PREG-PGOV complex. This allows the translocation of the transcriptional factor NUC-1 into the nucleus, which activates the transcription of phosphate-repressible phosphatases. The nuc-2A mutant strain of N. crassa carries a loss-of-function mutation in the nuc-2 gene, which encodes an ankyrin-like repeat protein. In this study, we identified transcripts that are downregulated in the nuc-2A mutant strain. Functional grouping of these expressed sequence tags allowed the identification of genes that play essential roles in different cellular processes such as transport, transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, metabolism, protein synthesis, protein fate, and development. These results reveal novel aspects of the phosphorus-sensing network in N. crassa.

  10. Predictive Analyses of Biological Effects of Natural Products: From Plant Extracts to Biomolecular Laboratory and Computer Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gambari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Year by year, the characterization of the biological activity of natural products is becoming more competitive and complex, with the involvement in this research area of experts belonging to different scientific fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology and bioinformatics. These fields are becoming of great interest for several high-impact scientific journals, including eCAM. The available literature in general, and a survey of reviews and original articles recently published, establishes that natural products, including extracts from medicinal plants and essential oils, retain interesting therapeutic activities, including antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and differentiating properties. In this commentary, we focus attention on interest in networks based on complementary activation and comparative evaluation of different experimental strategies applied to the discovery and characterization of bioactive natural products. A representative flow chart is shown in the paper.

  11. Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Baltazar, Fátima; Almeida-Aguiar, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The health industry has always used natural products as a rich, promising, and alternative source of drugs that are used in the health system. Propolis, a natural resinous product known for centuries, is a complex product obtained by honey bees from substances collected from parts of different plants, buds, and exudates in different geographic areas. Propolis has been attracting scientific attention since it has many biological and pharmacological properties, which are related to its chemical composition. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to characterize and understand the diverse bioactivities of propolis and its isolated compounds, as well as to evaluate and validate its potential. Yet, there is a lack of information concerning clinical effectiveness. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential of propolis for the development of new drugs by presenting published data concerning the chemical composition and the biological properties of this natural compound from different geographic origins. PMID:26106433

  12. Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva-Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health industry has always used natural products as a rich, promising, and alternative source of drugs that are used in the health system. Propolis, a natural resinous product known for centuries, is a complex product obtained by honey bees from substances collected from parts of different plants, buds, and exudates in different geographic areas. Propolis has been attracting scientific attention since it has many biological and pharmacological properties, which are related to its chemical composition. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to characterize and understand the diverse bioactivities of propolis and its isolated compounds, as well as to evaluate and validate its potential. Yet, there is a lack of information concerning clinical effectiveness. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential of propolis for the development of new drugs by presenting published data concerning the chemical composition and the biological properties of this natural compound from different geographic origins.

  13. Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Baltazar, Fátima; Almeida-Aguiar, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The health industry has always used natural products as a rich, promising, and alternative source of drugs that are used in the health system. Propolis, a natural resinous product known for centuries, is a complex product obtained by honey bees from substances collected from parts of different plants, buds, and exudates in different geographic areas. Propolis has been attracting scientific attention since it has many biological and pharmacological properties, which are related to its chemical composition. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to characterize and understand the diverse bioactivities of propolis and its isolated compounds, as well as to evaluate and validate its potential. Yet, there is a lack of information concerning clinical effectiveness. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential of propolis for the development of new drugs by presenting published data concerning the chemical composition and the biological properties of this natural compound from different geographic origins.

  14. Optimizing nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.; Lee, Carson Odell

    Addition of phosphate or trace metals or better management e.g. in terms of anmonium load can improve the nitrification rate and efficiency in biological rapid sand filters.......Addition of phosphate or trace metals or better management e.g. in terms of anmonium load can improve the nitrification rate and efficiency in biological rapid sand filters....

  15. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low-oxygen Proterozoic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Bryant, Donald A; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane-derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co-occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low-oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic photosynthesis

  16. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low‐oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well‐preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane‐derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O 2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co‐occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low‐oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic

  17. Changes in biological productivity along the northwest African margin over the past 20,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradtmiller, Louisa I.; McGee, David; Awalt, Mitchell; Evers, Joseph; Yerxa, Haley; Kinsley, Christopher W.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    The intertropical convergence zone and the African monsoon system are highly sensitive to climate forcing at orbital and millennial timescales. Both systems influence the strength and direction of the trade winds along northwest Africa and thus directly impact coastal upwelling. Sediment cores from the northwest African margin record upwelling-related changes in biological productivity connected to changes in regional and hemispheric climate. We present records of 230Th-normalized biogenic opal and Corg fluxes using a meridional transect of four cores from 19°N-31°N along the northwest African margin to examine changes in paleoproductivity since the last glacial maximum. We find large changes in biogenic fluxes synchronous with changes in eolian fluxes calculated using end-member modeling, suggesting that paleoproductivity and dust fluxes were strongly coupled, likely linked by changes in wind strength. Opal and Corg fluxes increase at all sites during Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas, consistent with an overall intensification of the trade winds, and changes in the meridional flux gradient indicate a southward wind shift at these times. Biogenic fluxes were lowest, and the meridional flux gradients were weakest during the African Humid Period when the monsoon was invigorated due to precessional changes, with greater rainfall and weaker trade winds over northwest Africa. These results expand the spatial coverage of previous paleoproxy studies showing similar changes, and they provide support for modeling studies showing changes in wind strength and direction consistent with increased upwelling during abrupt coolings and decreased upwelling during the African Humid Period.

  18. What controls biological production in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of net primary production (NPP in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the wind-driven upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of NPP to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003. Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS and Canary Current System (Canary CS, we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of NPP to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the two upwelling systems using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS, coupled to a nitrogen-based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD ecosystem model. Using identical ecological/biogeochemical parameters, our coupled model simulates a level of NPP in the California CS that is 50 % smaller than that in the Canary CS, in agreement with observationally based estimates. We find this much lower NPP in the California CS despite phytoplankton in this system having nearly 20 % higher nutrient concentrations available to fuel their growth. This conundrum can be explained by: (1 phytoplankton having a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS; a consequence of more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2 the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS, which permit a larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing NPP. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be a result of the wider continental shelves and the lower mesoscale activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and reducing the spatial decoupling between new and export production in the Canary CS. Our results suggest that climate change

  19. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP have consistently demonstrated that ischemic donor organs can be recovered to a transplantable state through continuous perfusion. MP can also provide dynamic quantitative assessments of the extent of ischemia, in addition to predicting the likelihood of organ recovery. Continued endeavors to translate MP into clinical use and eventually incorporate it into routine donor organ care will have a significant impact on the quality and availability of transplantable donor organs.

  20. Wanted-nurses. Ethical issues and the nursing shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlen, Judith A

    2004-01-01

    The persistent nursing shortage is challenging the values and beliefs of the nursing profession and causing nurses to ask how they can fulfill their ethical responsibilities to patients when there are an insufficient number and a maldistribution of nurses. Nurses are expressing job dissatisfaction, experiencing moral distress, and wondering about their inability to provide quality patient care. In this article, the author addresses the commitment to care for patients and the ethical dilemma with which nurses are grappling: caring for self versus caring for others. Recommendations for possible action include reenvisioning the profession of nursing, empowering nurses, providing support, and restructuring the work environment. Taken together, these actions have the potential to reduce the moral distress that nurses are experiencing and to enable them to honor their commitment to patient care.

  1. Rey project helps stave off Tehran power shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    Power shortages caused by Tehran refineries and a growing consumer demand have been relieved by a new gas turbine plant, one of the world's largest to operate on natural gas, at Shahr Rey. Iran's high energy-demand growth (35 percent a year and 18 percent with enforced rationing) prompted a consortium of Iranian and Italian firms to invest in the seven-unit turnkey installation of plant, substation, transmission line, and extension of the existing switchyard. Nearly completed in one year, the plant will meet energy demands without causing any disruption to industry or commerce. Fiat Termomeccania-Nuclear e Turbogas SpA (Fiat TTG) provided the gas turbines and mechanical works; Gruppo Industrie Elettromeccaniche per Impiante All'Estro (GIE), the electrical installations; and Ehdas, the civil engineering contractor.

  2. Essentials of neophyte mentorship in relation to the faculty shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jackie A; Zsohar, Helen

    2007-04-01

    Given the nursing faculty shortage, innovative strategies are needed to attract and retain talented individuals in the academic setting. Mentoring programs have a positive effect on nursing clinicians turned educators. A successful mentoring relationship guides the neophyte educator into a successful teaching career through better adjustment and professional academic advancement. Ten essential ingredients of effective mentoring programs are presented based on the lived experience of a protégé and mentor and a review of mentoring literature. Positive outcomes of successful mentoring programs for the neophyte educator include a collegial relationship with the mentor, improved job satisfaction in a faculty role, improved quality of nursing education, and retention in the nursing education profession.

  3. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J. [Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  4. Isolation, biological activity, synthesis, and medicinal chemistry of the pederin/mycalamide family of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosey, R Adam; Floreancig, Paul E

    2012-09-01

    This review highlights the broad range of science that has arisen from the isolation of pederin, the mycalamides, theopederins, and onnamides, and psymberin. Specific topics include structure determination, biological activity, synthesis, and analog preparation and analysis.

  5. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep

    2014-01-01

    have been more systematized with high-throughput techniques through inspections of correlations among components of the primary and secondary metabolisms at the genome scale. Moreover, up-to-date information on the genome of Streptomyces species with emphasis on their secondary metabolism has been...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  6. An ethical framework for responding to drug shortages in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jill C; Smith, Laurie D; Gordon, Bruce G; Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-06-01

    The frequency of drug shortages has increased considerably over the last decade. Important ethical issues arise whenever the supply of an effective drug is insufficient to meet demand. Using the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, institutions can guide prioritization of drug distribution before a shortage occurs to avoid unfair and unethical distribution of resources. This analysis will give a historical context for drug shortages, identify, and explore the central ethical concerns raised by drug shortages, and propose an ethical framework for addressing them in the context of pediatric oncology.

  7. The future of the nurse shortage: will wage increases close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Given, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the U.S. media have been reporting a shortage of registered nurses (RNs). In theory, labor-market shortages are self-correcting; wage increases will bring labor markets into equilibrium, and policy intervention is not necessary. In this paper we develop a simple forecasting model and ask the question: How high must RN wages rise in the future to end the RN shortage? We find that inflation-adjusted wages must increase 3.2-3.8 percent per year between 2002 and 2016, with wages cumulatively rising up to 69 percent, to end the shortage. Total RN expenditures would more than double by 2016.

  8. 3rd congress on applied synthetic biology in Europe (Costa da Caparica, Portugal, February 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Miguel

    2017-03-25

    The third meeting organised by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) on advances in Applied Synthetic Biotechnology in Europe (ASBE) was held in Costa da Caparica, Portugal, in February 2016. Abundant novel applications in synthetic biology were described in the six sessions of the meeting, which was divided into technology and tools for synthetic biology (I, II and III), bionanoscience, biosynthetic pathways and enzyme synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering and chemical manufacturing. The meeting presented numerous methods for the development of novel synthetic strains, synthetic biological tools and synthetic biology applications. With the aid of synthetic biology, production costs of chemicals, metabolites and food products are expected to decrease, by generating sustainable biochemical production of such resources. Also, such synthetic biological advances could be applied for medical purposes, as in pharmaceuticals and for biosensors. Recurrent, linked themes throughout the meeting were the shortage of resources, the world's transition into a bioeconomy, and how synthetic biology is helping tackle these issues through cutting-edge technologies. While there are still limitations in synthetic biology research, innovation is propelling the development of technology, the standardisation of synthetic biological tools and the use of suitable host organisms. These developments are laying a foundation to providing a future where cutting-edge research could generate potential solutions to society's pressing issues, thus incentivising a transition into a bioeconomy.

  9. Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papoutsakis, Elefterios [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This is the final project report for project "Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production" for the funding period of 9/1/12 to 2/28/2015 (three years with a 6-month no-cost extension) OVERVIEW AND PROJECT GOALS The bottleneck of achieving higher rates and titers of toxic metabolites (such as solvents and carboxylic acids that can used as biofuels or biofuel precursors) can be overcome by engineering the stress response system. Thus, understanding and modeling the response of cells to toxic metabolites is a problem of great fundamental and practical significance. In this project, our goal is to dissect at the molecular systems level and build models (conceptual and quantitative) for the stress response of C. acetobutylicum (Cac) to its two toxic metabolites: butanol (BuOH) and butyrate (BA). Transcriptional (RNAseq and microarray based), proteomic and fluxomic data and their analysis are key requirements for this goal. Transcriptional data from mid-exponential cultures of Cac under 4 different levels of BuOH and BA stress was obtained using both microarrays (Papoutsakis group) and deep sequencing (RNAseq; Meyers and Papoutsakis groups). These two sets of data do not only serve to validate each other, but are also used for identification of stress-induced changes in transcript levels, small regulatory RNAs, & in transcriptional start sites. Quantitative proteomic data (Lee group), collected using the iTRAQ technology, are essential for understanding of protein levels and turnover under stress and the various protein-protein interactions that orchestrate the stress response. Metabolic flux changes (Antoniewicz group) of core pathways, which provide important information on the re-allocation of energy and carbon resources under metabolite stress, were examined using 13C-labelled chemicals. Omics data are integrated at different levels and scales. At the metabolic-pathway level, omics data are integrated into a 2nd generation genome

  10. Photolytic transformation products and biological stability of the hydrological tracer Uranine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, Lukasz, E-mail: gutowski@leuphana.de; Olsson, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.olsson@leuphana.de; Lange, Jens, E-mail: jens.lange@hydrology.uni-freiburg.de; Kümmerer, Klaus, E-mail: Klaus.Kuemmerer@uni.leuphana.de

    2015-11-15

    Among many fluorescence tracers, Uranine (sodium fluorescein, UR) has most widely been used in hydrological research. Extensive use of UR for tracing experiments or commercial use might cause a potential risk of long-term environmental contamination. As any organic substance released to the environment, also UR is subjected to chemical and physical reactions that can be chemical, biological and photolysis processes. These processes transform the parent compound (PC) and have not been extensively investigated for UR. This study applies two OECDs (301 D and 301 F) tests and a screening water sediment test (WST) to investigate the biodegradability of the PC. Photolysis in water was explored by Xe lamp irradiation. Subsequently, the biodegradability of the photolysis mixtures was examined. The primary elimination of UR was monitored and structures of its transformation products (TPs) were elucidated by HPLC–FLD–MS/MS. UR was found not readily biodegradable, although small degradation rates could be observed in the OECD 301 D and WST. HPLC–FLD analysis showed high primary elimination of the tracer during photolysis. However, the low degree of mineralization found indicates that the UR was not fully degraded, instead transformed to TPs. A total of 5 photo-TPs were identified. According to MS/MS data, chemical structures could be proposed for all identified photo-TPs. Likewise the parent compound it was demonstrated that photo-TPs were largely recalcitrant to microbial degradation. Although we did not find indications for toxicity, target-oriented studies on the environmental impact of these photo-TPs are warranted. Results obtained in this study show that deeper investigations are necessary to fully understand fate and risk connected to the use of UR. - Highlights: • Uranine (UR) was not biodegraded in water and water-sediment system (WST). • Only small degradation rate occurred in OECD 301 D and WST. • Photolysis leads to incomplete mineralization of UR.

  11. Modeling Nitrous Oxide Production during Biological Nitrogen Removal via Nitrification and Denitrification: Extensions to the General ASM Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N2O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N2O...... dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data...... on N2O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO2– participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among...

  12. Seasonal variability in biological carbon biomass standing stocks and production in the surface layers of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.; Jyothibabu, R.; Gauns, M.; Jayraj, E.A.

    is leading, apparently, to consequent low BP and, secondary production. Ubiquitous and abundant heterotrophic bacteria are key players in ocean biology and, are important components of marine biomass39. They form food for protozoa, invertebrate larvae...B. The water column microfauna in the size range of 20-200 µm, the microzooplankton, can be called operators of microbial loop in the marine environment. All protozoa, invertebrate larvae, early stages of mesozooplankton <200µm fall in this category...

  13. Modeling nitrous oxide production during biological nitrogen removal via nitrification and denitrification: extensions to the general ASM models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F

    2011-09-15

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N(2)O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N(2)O dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data on N(2)O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO(2)(-) participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among the four denitrification steps, the last one (N(2)O reduction to N(2)) seems to be inhibited first when O(2) is present. Overall, N(2)O production can account for 0.1-25% of the consumed N in different nitrification and denitrification systems, which can be well simulated by the proposed model. In conclusion, we provide a modeling structure, which adequately captures N(2)O dynamics in autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification driven biological N removal processes and which can form the basis for ongoing refinements.

  14. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  15. Bacterial production, primary production, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biological analysis of fish, and massive fish length data from the EVRIKA and other platforms in the Antarctic from 23 February 1980 to 09 December 1988 (NODC Accession 9600039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacterial production, primary production, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biological analysis of fish, and massive fish length data were collected from the EVRIKA and...

  16. Studies on chemical modification and biology of a natural product, gambogic acid (III): determination of the essential pharmacophore for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Lu, Na; Yang, Qian; Gong, Dandan; Lin, Changjun; Zhang, Shenglie; Xi, Meiyang; Gao, Yuan; Wei, Libing; Guo, Qinglong; You, Qidong

    2011-04-01

    Caged 4-oxa-tricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]dec-2-one structural motifs are found in Garcinia natural products that demonstrate anti-tumor activity. Gambogic acid (GA, 1), the most abundant caged Garcinia xanthones, has been reported to be a promising anti-cancer agent. To identify the essential pharmacophore for its anti-tumor activity, a series of GA analogues that address potential key structural features for biological activity were synthesized, among which compound 11a displayed comparable in vitro anti-tumor activity as GA. Mechanistic studies on 11a determined that the compound induces apoptosis as well as arrests the G2/M phase of the cell cycle in HepG2 cells. The determination of the essential part of the scaffold found in GA to maintain anti-tumor effects, and the SAR based on the caged pharmacophore are reported and will provide key information for future anti-cancer drug development studies.

  17. Towards a European definition for a drug shortage: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi eDe Weerdt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug shortages are currently on the rise. In-depth investigation of the problem is necessary, however, a variety of definitions for ‘drug shortages’ are formulated in legislations, by different organisations, authorities and other initiatives. For international comparison, the underlying definition for drug shortages is important to allow appropriate interpretation of national databases and the results of scientific studies. The objective is to identify the different elements which should be considered in a uniform definition for drug shortages in the European Union and to detect the different conditions for reporting drug shortages.Methods: Definitions of drug shortages were searched in the scientific databases as well as in the grey literature. Similar topics were identified and organisations were contacted to formulate the reasoning underlying the definitions.Results: Over 20 different definitions for drug shortages were identified. A distinction is made between general definitions of drug shortages and definitions used for the reporting of drug shortages. Differences and similarities are observed in the elements within the definitions, e.g. when does a supply problem become a drug shortage, permanent and/or temporally shortages, the typology and time frame of a drug shortage. The moment a supply problem is considered as a shortage, can be defined at four levels: (i demand side, (ii supply side, (iii delivery of a drug and (iv availability of a drug. Permanent discontinuations of drugs are not always covered in definitions for drug shortages. Some definitions only consider those drugs used for the treatment of serious diseases or drugs for which no alternative is available. Different time frames were observed, varying between one day and 20 days.Conclusion: Obtaining a uniform definition for drug shortages is important as well as identifying which conditions are preferable to report drug shortages in order to facilitate

  18. Medicine shortages in Australia: causes, impact and management strategies in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee Xi; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-10-01

    Background Medicine shortages are an ongoing global problem. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) dedicated a website for monitoring of medicine shortages in Australia in May 2014, as part of the Medicine Shortage Information Initiative. This study aimed to explore the views of pharmacists regarding medicine shortages in the community setting and the impact of the TGA website in Australia. Setting Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. Method Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists. Data collected were analysed thematically utilising the framework analysis method. Main outcome measure Qualitative analysis conducted using the framework approach. Results Findings clearly indicated that medicine shortages were experienced on a regular basis, but most participants were unaware of the TGA website. Medicine shortages reportedly impacted both pharmacists and consumers; and various workarounds were undertaken to manage the issue. The "price disclosure policy" was found to be a prominent contributing factor in emerging shortages. Suggestions were made for ways to improve the growing occurrence of shortages. Conclusion Overall, the study found that there was a lack of familiarity with the TGA website, despite experiencing regular shortages of medicines in practice. Also highlighted, was the importance of pharmacists prioritising patient care over business decisions. To reduce prescribing of out-of-stock medicines notifying doctors about shortages was also considered important, to allow for early action to be taken at higher levels of the supply chain. Findings of this study may help direct future policy-making around the world, as medicine shortages is a problem shared by healthcare providers in most countries around the world.

  19. Biological control of soilborne diseases in organic potato production using hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed, particularly in organic production, where control options are limited. Selected biocontrol organisms, including two naturally-occurring hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani (Rhs1a1 ...

  20. Biological control of soilborne diseases in organic potato production as affected by varying environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed, particularly in organic production, where control options are limited. Selected biocontrol organisms, including two naturally-occurring hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani (Rhs1a1 ...

  1. Vital signs: labour shortage holds drilling short of record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-11-06

    At the beginning of the year 2000 the petroleum industry expected to drill 16,000 new wells during the the year. The Petroleum Services Association of Canada is now forecasting a final year-2000 total of less than 15,500 wells. The shortfall reflects continuing difficulties with labour shortages in the field, most especially in experienced drilling personnel. For 2001, the Petroleum Services Association of Canada is forecasting 16,699 completions Canada-wide. Nearly half of Alberta's total of 11,861 are expected to be in the gas-prone southeastern and east-central regions of the province. British Columbia is expected to be up to 899 completions, about 12 per cent over 2000. Although shortage of qualified labour was the principal reason for the reduced number of completions in 2000, unfavourable weather conditions during much of the summer drilling season, plus heated merger and acquisition activity throughout the industry also played a part. Rig utilization was 63 per cent , five per cent below expectations. On the brighter side, even these lower-than-expected figures are up dramatically from 1999 when just 272 rigs in a fleet of 591 were at work, for a dismal rate of only 46 per cent. Oil completions are double of what they were in 1999 (3,304 wells against 1,538) while gas wells are up 26 per cent (at 5,263 completion compared to 4,157 in 1999). Drilling success rate in 2000 was close to 85 per cent, up from 82.4 per cent last year. Non-frontier success rate was highest in Saskatchewan, with close to 93 per cent of wells drilled finding either oil or gas. The rate of success was 83 per cent in Alberta, 78 per cent in Manitoba, and 51 per cent in British Columbia. Average depth of all wells was 1,102 metres, marginally up from 1,084 metres in 1999. Largest well depth increases were experienced in British Columbia (up to 1,583 metres from 1,276 metres) as producers chased progressively deeper natural gas horizons. 2 tabs.

  2. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues.

  3. PRESSURE OF WATER SHORTAGE ON AGRICULTURE IN ARID REGION OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin

    2003-01-01

    The arid areas in China are mainly located in North China and Northwest China. The North China is themain region for food production. There is 31.19% of the total farmland and 26. 01% of the total population, but only6. 14% of the available water resources of China. Groundwater is over pumped (6. 53 × 109m3 every year) in the regionsof Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province, so water supply could not meet the water demand there. The distribution of wa-ter in Northwest China is uneven, some inland rivers and lakes are dried up, and desertification has expanded since riverwater in the upper and middle reaches is diverted for irrigation. Up to 2050, population will be up to 1.6 × 109 in Chi-na, and industry will be developed fast, therefore 50% of the water supply will be used by industry and resident, andwater for agriculture will be decreased year by year. In the coming 50 years, water demand for agriculture will be in-creased by 5.6 × 109m3 in the Huanghe (Yellow) River valley, and by 1.7 × 109m3 in the Northwest China. It will beimpossible for the Huanghe River to meet the water demand, because it always dried up in the cold half year since 1984.To avoid water shortage of agriculture in the arid regions, it is necessary to divert water from the Changjiang (Yangtze)River in the south of China, and to use water efficiently. It is the best way to use drip irrigation in agriculture, recyclewater in industry and resident use, and control water pollution. Otherwise water shortage in the arid regions will restrictthe development of agriculture in China.

  4. Exploiting plug-and-play synthetic biology for drug discovery and production in microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Bovenberg, Roel; Takano, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    One of the most promising applications of synthetic biology is the biosynthesis of new drugs from secondary metabolites. Here, we survey a wide range of strategies that control the activity of biosynthetic modules in the cell in space and time, and illustrate how these strategies can be used to desi

  5. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...

  6. The Difference of Chemical Components and Biological Activities of the Crude Products and the Salt-Processed Product from Semen Cuscutae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Xu, Hefang; Zhao, Baosheng; Li, Shasha; Li, Tingting; Xu, Xinfang; Zhang, Tianjiao; Lin, Ruichao; Li, Jian; Li, Xiangri

    2016-01-01

    Semen Cuscutae is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used to nourish kidney in China for thousands of years. The crude product of semen Cuscutae (CP) and its salt-processed product (SPP) are separately used in clinic for their different effects. The study was designed to investigate the influence of processing from semen Cuscutae on chemical components and biological effects. The principal component analysis and quantitative analysis were used to study the differences of the chemical components. The effects of nourishing kidney were detected to compare the differences between the CP and SPP. The PCA results showed that the obvious separation was achieved in the CP and SPP samples. The results of quantitative analysis showed that quercetin and total flavonoids had significantly increased after salt processing while hyperoside had decreased. The comparison of CP and SPP on biological activities showed that both of them could ameliorate the kidney-yang deficiency syndrome by restoring the level of sex hormone, improving the immune function and antioxidant effect. However, SPP was better in increasing the level of T and the viscera weight of testicle and epididymis, improving the antioxidant effect. The results suggested that salt processing changed its chemical profile, which in turn enhanced its biological activities.

  7. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  8. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Si, M S

    2010-01-01

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4% to 72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As far as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of ...

  9. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M S; Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.ed [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that, depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4%-72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of the laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As long as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of the transition frequencies, but not whether the demagnetization can happen or not.

  10. Water shortage risk assessment using spatiotemporal flow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsin-I.; Su, Ming-Daw; Wu, Yii-Chen; Cheng, Ke-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Paddy irrigation practices in Taiwan utilize complicated water conveyance networks which draw streamflows from different tributaries. Characterizing and simulating streamflow series is thus an essential task for irrigation risk assessment and planning mitigation measures. It generally involves modeling the temporal variation and spatial correlation of streamflow data at different sites. Like many other environmental variables, streamflows are asymmetric and non-Gaussian. Such properties exacerbate the difficulties in spatiotemporal modeling of streamflow data. A stochastic spatiotemporal simulation approach capable of generating non-Gaussian ten-day period streamflow data series at different sites is presented in this paper. Historical flow data from different flow stations in southern Taiwan were used to exemplify the application of the proposed model. Simulated realizations of the spatiotemporal anisotropic multivariate Pearson type III distribution were validated by comparing parameters and spatiotemporal correlation characteristics of the simulated data and the observed streamflow data. Risks of irrigation water shortage were estimated and the effect of mitigation measures was assessed using the simulated data.

  11. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays as results of the turbulent crisis, economies are confronted with the effects of the financial crisis, consequently many European states members are faced with strategic challenges in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market. These problems are encountered in several traditional industries affected too rapidly by the technological advance. Along to these aspects, there are other difficulties for employers and employees as well, such as structural changes in job offering in various sectors or disparity in the employees; age categories – because of high unemployment rates in youth for instance. These are complemented by fewer job opportunities for young individuals (eventually, graduates for the tertiary sector of formal education that fit according to their specializations or even new type of skills’ demand – much oriented on the digitalization. The paper intends to presents some empirical aspects raised from the statistical evidence useful to point out critical aspects in the domestic and eventually, European approach to entreprice policy, in developing proper curricula to empower the academic institutions to provide knowledge, to foster skills for current enrolled students. On short term already, the future workforce needs to be prepared for the digitalization of the professional activity, regardless the specific domain of work and, in this view; companies should be in the position to manage this potential crisis of the labour market.

  12. 42 CFR 5.3 - Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas. 5.3 Section 5.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS DESIGNATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONAL(S) SHORTAGE AREAS § 5.3 Procedures for designation of health professional(s)...

  13. When Shortage Coexists with Surplus of Teachers: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Pinson, Halleli

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between pre-service teacher education polices and the supply and demand of minority teachers. It problematizes the recent reports on teacher shortages in Israel, which tend to focus on the shortage of Jewish teachers while dealing with the surplus of Arab teachers only tangentially. Specifically, this article…

  14. Malawi - Public Works Programme : Conditional Cash Transfers as an Emergency Response to a National Food Shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mandala, Charles; Magwira, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports that in the 2004-2005 growing season, Malawi experienced a drought which affected farm produce and subsequently led to country-wide food shortages. Due to the food shortage, the Malawi Government implemented a Public Works Programme -- Conditional Cash Transfers (PWP-CCT) to transfer cash income to vulnerable households to enable them buy food and agricultural inputs for...

  15. Reporting the "Exodus": News Coverage of Teacher Shortage in Australian Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries, including Australia, struggle to recruit and retain adequate numbers of school teachers. Over the past decade every Australian state has experienced teacher shortages and, at various times, there has been a national shortfall of qualified teaching staff. This paper considers the reporting of teacher shortage in four…

  16. 78 FR 38718 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as of May 11, 2013, available on the Health Resources... assignment of National Health Service Corps (NHSC) personnel to provide primary care, ] dental, or...

  17. 77 FR 38838 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ..., Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as of April 1... National Health Service Corps (NHSC) personnel to provide primary care, dental, or mental health...

  18. A Microeconomic Model of the Personnel Shortage in Public Rehabilitation Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jared C.; Millington, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a well-documented, growing shortage of rehabilitation counseling professionals in the public sector. Using microeconomics principles, a theoretical model is offered to account for the personnel shortage and propose potential solutions to recruit and retain rehabilitation counselors in the public sector. Suggestions for rehabilitation…

  19. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume......–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions...... of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32 to 115 kg ha−1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc.) was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over...

  20. How does the entering of copper nanoparticles into biological wastewater treatment system affect sludge treatment for VFA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jingyang

    2014-10-15

    Usually the studies regarding the effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), which are released to wastewater treatment plant, on sludge anaerobic treatment in the literature have been conducted by directly adding NPs to sludge treatment system. Actually, NPs must enter into the wastewater treatment facility from influent before sludge being treated. Thus, the documented results can not reflect the real situations. During sludge anaerobic treatment for producing volatile fatty acids (VFA, the preferred carbon source for wastewater biological nutrient removal), it was found in this study that the entering of CuNPs to biological wastewater treatment system had no significant effect on sludge-derived VFA generation, while direct addition of CuNPs to sludge fermentation reactor caused a much lower VFA production, when compared to the control test. Further investigation revealed that the entering of CuNPs into wastewater biological treatment system improved sludge solubilization due to the decline of sludge particle size and the increase of sludge microorganism cells breakage. In addition, there was no obvious influence on hydrolysis, while significant inhibition was observed on acidification, resulting in the final VFA production similar to the control. When CuNPs were directly added to the fermentation system, the solubilization was little influenced, however the hydrolysis and acidification were seriously inhibited, causing the ultimate VFA generation decreased. Therefore, selecting proper method close to the real situation is vital to accurately assess the toxicity of nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation.

  1. Assessment of the scientific-technological production in molecular biology in Brazil (1996-2007): the contribution of genomics programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Rogério; Gamba, Estêvão C

    2011-06-01

    Several genome sequencing programs were launched in Brazil by the end of the nineties and the early 2000s.The most important initiatives were supported by the ONSA program (http://watson.fapesp.br/onsa/Genoma3.htm) and aimed at gaining domain in genomic technology and bringing molecular biology to the state of art. Two main sets of data were collected in the 1996-2007 period to evaluate the results of these genome programs: the scientific production (Scopus and Web of Science databases) and the register of patents (US Patent and Trademark Office), both related to the progress of molecular biology along this period. In regard to the former, Brazil took a great leap in comparison to 17 other developed and developing countries, being only surpassed by China. As to the register of patents in the area of molecular biology, Brazil's performance lags far behind most of the countries focused in the present study, confirming the Brazilian long-standing tendency of poor achievements in technological innovations when compared with scientific production. Possible solutions to surpass this inequality are discussed.

  2. Assessment of serious water shortage in the Icelandic water resource system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Water resources are economically important and environmentally extremely vulnerable. The electrical power system in Iceland is hydropower based and due to the country's isolation, power import is not an option as elsewhere in Europe. In the hydropower system, a water shortage is met by flow...... there will be a shortage of electrical power. This is politically acceptable as long as it only touches heavy industries but not power deliveries to the common market. Empty or near empty reservoirs cause power shortage that will be felt by homeowners and businesses, until spring thaw sets in and inflow to the reservoirs...... begins. If such a power shortage event occurs, it will cause heavy social problems and a political decision making will follow. It is commonly agreed, that management methods leading to such a disastrous event as a general power shortage in the whole country, are not acceptable. It is therefore very...

  3. MODIS vegetation products as proxies of photosynthetic potential: a look across meteorological and biologic driven ecosystem productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Restrepo-Coupe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A direct relationship between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP measured by the eddy covariance (EC method and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation indices (VIs has been observed in many temperate and tropical ecosystems. However, in Australian evergreen forests, and particularly sclerophyll woodlands, MODIS VIs do not capture seasonality of GEP. In this study, we re-evaluate the connection between satellite and flux tower data at four contrasting Australian ecosystems, through comparisons of ecosystem photosynthetic activity (GEP and potential (e.g. ecosystem light use efficiency and quantum yield with MODIS vegetation satellite products, including VIs, gross primary productivity (GPPMOD, leaf area index (LAIMOD, and fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPARMOD. We found that satellite derived greenness products constitute a measurement of ecosystem structure (e.g. leaf area index – quantity of leaves and function (e.g. leaf level photosynthetic assimilation capacity – quality of leaves, rather than productivity. Our results show that in primarily meteorological-driven (e.g. photosynthetic active radiation, air temperature and/or precipitation and relatively aseasonal vegetation photosynthetic potential ecosystems (e.g. evergreen wet sclerophyll forests, there were no statistically significant relationships between GEP and satellite derived measures of greenness. In contrast, for phenology-driven ecosystems (e.g. tropical savannas, changes in the vegetation status drove GEP, and tower-based measurements of photosynthetic activity were best represented by VIs. We observed the highest correlations between MODIS products and GEP in locations where key meteorological variables and vegetation phenology were synchronous (e.g. semi-arid Acacia woodlands and low correlation at locations where they were asynchronous (e.g. Mediterranean ecosystems. Eddy covariance data offer much more than validation and

  4. International Conference on Harmonisation; draft guidance on specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for biotechnological/biological products--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a draft guidance entitled "Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Biotechnological/Biological Products". The draft guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The draft guidance provides guidance on general principles for the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for biotechnological and biological products. The draft guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a uniform set of international specifications for biotechnological and biological products to support new marketing applications.

  5. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for biotechnological/biological products. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Biotechnological/Biological Products." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides guidance on general principles for the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for biotechnological and biological products. The guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a uniform set of international specifications for biotechnological and biological products to support new marketing applications.

  6. MODIS vegetation products as proxies of photosynthetic potential along a gradient of meteorologically and biologically driven ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Huete, Alfredo; Davies, Kevin; Cleverly, James; Beringer, Jason; Eamus, Derek; van Gorsel, Eva; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Meyer, Wayne S.

    2016-10-01

    A direct relationship between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) estimated by the eddy covariance (EC) method and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices (VIs) has been observed in many temperate and tropical ecosystems. However, in Australian evergreen forests, and particularly sclerophyll and temperate woodlands, MODIS VIs do not capture seasonality of GEP. In this study, we re-evaluate the connection between satellite and flux tower data at four contrasting Australian ecosystems, through comparisons of GEP and four measures of photosynthetic potential, derived via parameterization of the light response curve: ecosystem light use efficiency (LUE), photosynthetic capacity (Pc), GEP at saturation (GEPsat), and quantum yield (α), with MODIS vegetation satellite products, including VIs, gross primary productivity (GPPMOD), leaf area index (LAIMOD), and fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPARMOD). We found that satellite-derived biophysical products constitute a measurement of ecosystem structure (e.g. leaf area index - quantity of leaves) and function (e.g. leaf level photosynthetic assimilation capacity - quality of leaves), rather than GEP. Our results show that in primarily meteorological-driven (e.g. photosynthetic active radiation, air temperature, and/or precipitation) and relatively aseasonal ecosystems (e.g. evergreen wet sclerophyll forests), there were no statistically significant relationships between GEP and satellite-derived measures of greenness. In contrast, for phenology-driven ecosystems (e.g. tropical savannas), changes in the vegetation status drove GEP, and tower-based measurements of photosynthetic activity were best represented by VIs. We observed the highest correlations between MODIS products and GEP in locations where key meteorological variables and vegetation phenology were synchronous (e.g. semi-arid Acacia woodlands) and low correlation at locations where they were asynchronous (e

  7. Biological sand filters: low-cost bioremediation technique for production of clean drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrheal-related diseases amounts to approximately 2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water. Most of them are children under 5 years of age-250 deaths an hour from microbiologically contaminated water. There is conclusive evidence that one low-cost household bioremediation intervention, biological sand filters, are capable of dramatically improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. This unit will describe this relatively new and proven bioremediation technology's ability to empower at-risk populations to use naturally occurring biology and readily available materials as a sustainable way to achieve the health benefits of safe drinking water.

  8. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces species continue to attract attention as a source of novel medicinal compounds. Despite a long history of studies on these microorganisms, they still have many biochemical mysteries to be elucidated. Investigations of novel secondary metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters have been more systematized with high-throughput techniques through inspections of correlations among components of the primary and secondary metabolisms at the genome scale. Moreover, up-to-date information on the genome of Streptomyces species with emphasis on their secondary metabolism has been collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species.

  9. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium...... removal compared to a control without addition. Subsequently, another water works was investigated in full-scale, where copper influent concentrations were below 0.05 μg Cu L-1 and nitrification was incomplete. Copper dosing of less than 5 μg Cu L-1 to a full-scale filter stimulated ammonium removal...

  10. Biological sand filters: low-cost bioremediation technique for production of clean drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrheal-related diseases amounts to ∼2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water. Most of them are children under 5 years of age--250 deaths an hour from microbiologically contaminated water. There is conclusive evidence that one low-cost household bioremediation intervention, use of biological sand filters, is capable of dramatically improving the microbiological quality of drinking water. This unit will describe this relatively new and proven bioremediation technology's ability to empower at-risk populations to use naturally occurring biological principles and readily available materials as a sustainable way to achieve the health benefits of safe drinking water.

  11. The application of residual oats flour in bread production in order to improve its quality and biological value of protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. High nutritional value of residual oat flour, which is a by-product in the production β-D-glucan concentration BETAVEN, was the reason to make a trial to apply it in the production of wheat and wheat-rye bread. The aim of the study was to establish a formulation for wheat and wheat-rye bread, in which part of wheat flour would be replaced by residual oat flour (at the level 20% of wheat flour, and to check the influence of this additive on sensory and nutritional properties of the products, with special consideration to content and biological value of the proteins. Material and methods. The material consisted of wheat flour, rye flour and residual oat flour, as well as loaves, baked with these flours. The quality of the obtained loaves was analysed taking into account: organoleptic assessment, loaf mass and volume, moisture content crumb and texture profile of the crumb. In the studied raw materials and bread, the following components were determined according to AOAC methods: protein content, fat, fiber and ash. In addition, composition of amino acids was assessed. Basing on the amino acid composition, Chemical Score (CS and Exogenic Amino Acid Index (EAAI were calculated, applying WHO/FAO protein standard (1991. Results. Bread with the share of residual oats flour received high consumer acceptance (37 points, comparable to control bread (38 points despite of lower volume. The applied amounts of oats flour did not influence moisture content and texture profile during storage. Wheat and wheat-rye loaves with the share of residual oats flour were characterised by a significantly higher level of dietary fiber, fat and protein, in comparison to control bread. It was found that biological activity of protein in wheat-rye bread was significantly higher (CS = 53.5, EAAI = 91.5 in comparison to wheat bread (CS = 47.9, EAAI = 89.9. The share of oats flour caused an increase in biological value of all bread types – wheat-oats (CS = 52

  12. Biological control with Trichogramma pretiosum increases organic maize productivity by 19.4%

    OpenAIRE

    de Lourdes Corrêa Figueiredo, Maria; Cruz, Ivan; da Silva, Rafael Braga; Foster, John Edward

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractSpodoptera frugiperda is a major pest causing maize yield loss in Brazil. There is therefore a need for control methods, notably for organic farming because classical pesticides are not allowed. A potential solution for organic maize is to apply the biological control agent Trichogramma pretiosum to reduce S. frugiperda populations. Here, we tested the application of one, two, or three releases of T. pretiosum. We measured plant damage ratings, egg masses paras...

  13. Biological Hydrogen Production: Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    energy intensive and completely dependent on fossil fuel: CH4 + H20-^CO + 3H2 (1) Hydrogen can also be produced by electrolysis , splitting water into...the WWTP discharge waters using the same biological process as used to generate hydrogen. Two reactor configurations were used, including a...hydrogen and simultaneously capture nitrogen and phosphorus. Two reactor configurations were tested as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

  14. Energy balance of biofuel production from biological conversion of crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, Jose R

    2016-04-01

    Crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, has gained significant attention as a carbon source for biofuel production. This study evaluated the energy balance of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol production from 3.48 million L of crude glycerol (80% w/v). The conversion efficiency (energy output divided by energy invested) was 1.16, 0.22, 0.27, and 0.40 for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol respectively. It was found that the use of crude glycerol for biodiesel production was an energy gain process, with a positive energy balance and conversion efficiency of greater than 1. The energy balance revealed a net energy gain of 5226 GJ per 1 million kg biodiesel produced. Production of hydrogen, biogas and ethanol from crude glycerol were energy loss processes. Therefore, the conversion of crude glycerol to lipids and subsequently to biodiesel is suggested to be a better option compared to hydrogen, biogas, or ethanol production with respect to energy balance.

  15. Biological iron oxidation by Gallionella spp. in drinking water production under fully aerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, W W J M; Dinkla, I J T; Rietveld, L C; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-01

    Iron oxidation under neutral conditions (pH 6.5-8) may be a homo- or heterogeneous chemically- or a biologically-mediated process. The chemical oxidation is supposed to outpace the biological process under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7-8). The iron oxidation kinetics and growth of Gallionella spp. - obligatory chemolithotrophic iron oxidizers - were assessed in natural, organic carbon-containing water, in continuous lab-scale reactors and full-scale groundwater trickling filters in the Netherlands. From Gallionella cell numbers determined by qPCR, balances were made for all systems. The homogeneous chemical iron oxidation occurred in accordance with the literature, but was retarded by a low water temperature (13 °C). The contribution of the heterogeneous chemical oxidation was, despite the presence of freshly formed iron oxyhydroxides, much lower than in previous studies in ultrapure water. This could be caused by the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) on the iron oxide surfaces. In the oxygen-saturated natural water with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.7, Gallionella spp. grew uninhibited and biological iron oxidation was an important, and probably the dominant, process. Gallionella growth was not even inhibited in a full-scale filter after plate aeration. From this we conclude that Gallionella spp. can grow under neutral pH and fully aerated conditions when the chemical iron oxidation is retarded by low water temperature and inhibition of the autocatalytic iron oxidation.

  16. Production of High Viscosity Chitosan from Biologically Purified Chitin Isolated by Microbial Fermentation and Deproteinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkalak Ploydee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce high viscosity chitosan from shrimp chitin prepared by using a two-step biological treatment process: decalcification and deproteinization. Glucose was fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus L7 to lactic acid. At a pH of 3.9±0.1, the calcium carbonate of the shells was solubilized in 48 hours. The amounts of residual calcium in the form of ash (1.4±0.5% and crude protein (23.2±2.5% were further eliminated by the activity of proteolytic Bacillus thuringiensis SA. After decalcification and deproteinization of the shrimp shells, residual calcium and crude protein of shrimp chitin flakes were 1.7±0.4% and 3.8±1.3%, respectively. Chitin was deacetylated with 50% NaOH at 121°C for 5 hours. After deacetylation, the chitosan had residual calcium, crude protein content, and degree of acetylation of 1.6±0.6%, 0.4±0.3%, and 83.2±1.5%, respectively. The viscosity of chitosan prepared from chitin extracted by this two-step biological process was 1,007±14.7 mPa·s, whereas chitosan prepared from chemically processed chitin had a viscosity of 323±15.6   mPa·s, indicating that biologically purified chitin gave chitosan with a high quality.

  17. Evaluation of biological attributes of soil type latossol under agroecological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil attributes have shown to be good indicators of soil changes as a result of the management function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using cover crops, as well as planting and tillage systems on the biological attributes of a yellowish red latosol soil. Soil samples were taken at 0 to 0.10 m depth, seven days before the bean harvest. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, basal soil respiration, metabolic ratio and total enzyme activity were evaluated in this study. The best agroecological management was achieved under the association of the ground cover with millet and in direct seeding because they showed higher soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content and lower metabolic quotient, being pork bean the best plant coverage. All biological soil attributes were sensitive to the tillage system, which showed the best results of the total enzyme activity and of the soil metabolic quotient which resulted to be the most efficient.

  18. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  19. Gene Discovery for Synthetic Biology: Exploring the Novel Natural Product Biosynthetic Capacity of Eukaryotic Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, E C; Saalbach, G; Field, R A

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic microalgae are an incredibly diverse group of organisms whose sole unifying feature is their ability to photosynthesize. They are known for producing a range of potent toxins, which can build up during harmful algal blooms causing damage to ecosystems and fisheries. Genome sequencing is lagging behind in these organisms because of their genetic complexity, but transcriptome sequencing is beginning to make up for this deficit. As more sequence data becomes available, it is apparent that eukaryotic microalgae possess a range of complex natural product biosynthesis capabilities. Some of the genes concerned are responsible for the biosynthesis of known toxins, but there are many more for which we do not know the products. Bioinformatic and analytical techniques have been developed for natural product discovery in bacteria and these approaches can be used to extract information about the products synthesized by algae. Recent analyses suggest that eukaryotic microalgae produce many complex natural products that remain to be discovered.

  20. Biologic Activities of Honeybee Products Obtained From Different Phytogeographical Regions of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide Doğan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee products are rich in phenolic compounds, which effect as natural antioxidants. These compounds may be attached as indicators in studies into the floral and geographical origin of the natural bee products. In this study, we aimed to determine average total antioxidant capacity, average total oxidant capacity and average oxidative stress index of natural bee products obtained from different regions of Turkey. Collected honeybee samples were kept at +4o C until extracted. Natural bee products were extracted with specific methods and antioxidant capacities were defined with in vitro analyses and data were compared. As a result, the highest average total antioxidant capacities were observed in propolis and pollen samples. Total antioxidant capacities of honeybee products collected from various regions demonstrated differences (P<0.05 because of different phytogeographical characteristics of regions of Turkey.

  1. The Biological Diversity and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds by Stem-Inhabiting Endophytic Fungi of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Rundell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes colonize every major lineage of land plants without causing apparent harm to their hosts. Despite their production of interesting and potentially novel compounds, endophytes—particularly those inhabiting stem tissues—are still a vastly underexplored component of microbial diversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of over 1500 fungal endophyte isolates collected from three Ecuadorian ecosystems: lowland tropical forest, cloud forest, and coastal dry forest. We sought to determine whether Ecuador’s fungal endophytes are hyperdiverse, and whether that biological diversity is reflected in the endophytes’ chemical diversity. To assess this chemical diversity, we analyzed a subset of isolates for their production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, a representative class of natural products. This study yielded a total of 1526 fungal ITS sequences comprising some 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, resulting in a non-asymptotic OTU accumulation curve and characterized by a Fisher’s α of 120 and a Shannon Diversity score of 7.56. These figures suggest that the Ecuadorian endophytes are hyperdiverse. Furthermore, the 113 isolates screened for VOCs produced more than 140 unique compounds. These results present a mere snapshot of the remarkable biological and chemical diversity of stem-inhabiting endophytic fungi from a single neotropical country.

  2. Biological hydrogen production from sucrose and sugar beet by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, John [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Bakker, Robert; Vrieje, Truus de; Claassen, Pieternel [Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Koukios, Emmanuel [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen production needs to be based on renewable resources in order to be sustainable. Sugar beet is an ideal raw material for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU and possibly in the USA due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in these areas. In this work, the fermentative production of hydrogen from sucrose of analytical grade and sugar beet extract by pure cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated, under uncontrolled and controlled conditions. In the first case, growth of pure cultures of C. saccharolyticus on sucrose derived from sugar beet was compared to growth of the microorganism on sucrose of analytical grade. The production of hydrogen and organic acids (acetate and lactate) from sugar beet was largely equal to or slightly higher than the production of the control. In the second case, fermentation of sugar beet extract at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen yield was slightly higher on sugar beet extract. In particular, hydrogen yields of 2.9 and 3.0 mol/mol hexose were determined in fermentations of sucrose and sugar beet extract, respectively, corresponding to 73% and 75% of the theoretical value of 4 mol hydrogen/mol hexose. Acetic acid was the main product and very low production of lactic acid was observed. (orig.)

  3. Inhibitory effects of butyrate on biological hydrogen production with mixed anaerobic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xian-Jun; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-01-01

    In this study batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of butyrate addition on hydrogen production from glucose by using anaerobic mixed cultures. Experimental results showed that addition of butyrate at 4.18 and 6.27 g/l only slightly inhibited hydrogen production, and addition of butyrate at 8.36-12.54 g/l imposed a moderate inhibitory effect on hydrogen production. At addition of 25.08 g/l, butyrate had a strong inhibitory influence on substrate degradation and hydrogen production. The distribution of the volatile fatty acids produced from the acidogeneisis of glucose was significantly influenced by the addition of butyrate. The inhibition of butyrate addition on hydrogen production was described well by a non-competitive and non-linear inhibition model, with the maximum hydrogen production rate of 59.3 ml/g-SS/h, critical added butyrate concentration of 25.08 g/l, and inhibition degree of 0.323, respectively. The C(I,50) values (the butyrate concentration at which bioactivity is reduced by 50%) for hydrogen production rate and yield were estimated as 19.39 and 20.78 g/l of added butyrate, respectively.

  4. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of the tetramic acid based natural product harzianic acid and its stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Alan R; Vinale, Francesco; Lorito, Matteo; Westwood, Nicholas J

    2015-02-06

    The bioactive natural product harzianic acid was prepared for the first time in just six steps (longest linear sequence) with an overall yield of 22%. The identification of conditions to telescope amide bond formation and a Lacey-Dieckmann reaction into one pot proved important. The three stereoisomers of harzianic acid were also prepared, providing material for comparison of their biological activity. While all of the isomers promoted root growth, improved antifungal activity was unexpectedly associated with isomers in the enantiomeric series opposite that of harzianic acid.

  5. Enhanced biological production off Chennai triggered by October 1999 super cyclone (Orissa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Jyothibabu, R.; Sunil, V.; Revichandran, C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The results of physical forcings on primary production, its variation and associated hydrography of the southwestern Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon (July) and post-cyclone period (November) of 1999 were studied as a part of Marine...

  6. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  7. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low‐oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Donald A Bryant; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well‐preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and m...

  8. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  9. THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN ABDOMINAL SURGERY AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of new approaches to the prevention of infectious complications of bacterial nature after the high-technology operations in the abdominal surgery, first of all, after liver transplantation. At- tention is drawn to the first positive results of randomized studies on the use of biological preparations - probi- otics, prebiotics and synbiotics in patients after liver transplantation. The authors prove the prospects of further development of this subject based on successful model experiments on animals and various operational interven- tions in abdominal surgery. 

  10. Biologically active components of soybeans and soy protein products: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans provide a source of low-cost protein with good nutritional and physico-chemical properties. Recently, soybean has received much attention because of its potential role in preventing and treating several diseases including cancer and other human chronic diseases. Health benefits of soy diet are attributed to the minor soybean constituents (calledphytochemicals. Soybean contains a variety of phytochemicals with demonstrated anticancer activity, including bioactive proteins andpolypeptides (trypsin inhibitors and the most recently discoveredpeptide lunasin, isofl avones, phytic acid, phytosterols and saponins. The present review provides an overview of recent knowledge about biologically active components of soybean.

  11. Drug Shortages: Patients and Health Care Providers Are All Drawing the Short Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, François; de Denus, Simon; Nguyen, Angela; Nattel, Stanley; Bussières, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Drug shortages have been reported for > 35 years. Attention to this problem increased recently after the Sandoz crisis, in which a warning letter by the Food and Drug Administration caused supply changes that suspended the availability of numerous medications. The frequency of drug shortages has increased recently. In 2011-2012 alone, Canadian supply shortages occurred for > 1000 drugs (including 150 for cardiovascular diseases). These shortages lasted for an average of 4-5 months, increasing the workload for health care providers, producing impaired health, stress, and anxiety for patients, and increasing the risk of errors. The critical importance of drug shortages is increasingly recognized by members of the public, and health care providers must sometimes make major efforts to minimize their adverse consequences. Although data are limited, such efforts come at a price that patients and the health care system should not have to bear; they divert pharmacists and physicians from their already busy clinical duties and often require complex and risky adjustments in medical regimens. If drug shortages are here to stay, clinicians, drug manufacturers, and relevant organizations should work together to increase accountability for drug availability and adaptation to shortages, and to create more effective tools with which to anticipate and respond to critical supply fluctuations.

  12. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L(-1) for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  13. The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Gordon M; Katz, Flora; Newman, David J; Rosenthal, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    The discovery and development of novel, biologically active agents from natural sources, whether they be drugs, agrochemicals or other bioactive entities, involve a high level of interdisciplinary as well as international collaboration. Such collaboration, particularly at the international level, requires the careful negotiation of collaborative agreements protecting the rights of all parties, with special attention being paid to the rights of host (source) country governments, communities and scientific organizations. While many biodiversity-rich source countries currently might not have the necessary resources for in-country drug discovery and advanced development, they provide valuable opportunities for collaboration in this endeavor with research organizations from more high-income nations. This chapter discusses the experiences of the US National Cancer Institute and the US government-sponsored International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program in the establishment of international agreements in the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity's objectives of promoting fair and equitable collaboration with multiple parties in many countries, and includes some specific lessons of value in developing such collaborations.

  14. The nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on skills migration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills.Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used.Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA.Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy.Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.

  15. Reproductive biology and nectar production of the Mexican endemic Psittacanthus auriculatus (Loranthaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated mistletoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Crespo, M J; Ornelas, J F; Martén-Rodríguez, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Lara, C

    2016-01-01

    Many mistletoe species produce 'bird'-pollinated flowers; however, the reproductive biology of the majority of these species has not been studied. Psittacanthus auriculatus is a Mexican endemic mistletoe, most common in open, dry mesquite grassland. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of P. auriculatus is essential for understanding species formation and diversification of Psittacanthus mistletoes, but it is currently poorly understood. Thus, we studied floral biology and phenology, nectar production and breeding system and pollination of this species. The hermaphroditic red-pink flowers open from the middle to the tip and petals are curly, but remain partially fused forming a floral tube of ca. 20-mm long. Flowers are partially protandrous, produce large amounts of nectar, last 2 days, and stigma receptivity is highest during the second day. We recorded hummingbirds (Cynanthus latirostris, Hylocharis leucotis, Amazilia beryllina, A. violiceps, Calothorax lucifer, Archilochus colubris) and less commonly butterflies (Agraulis vanillae, Anteos clorinde, Papilio multicaudatus, Phocides urania, Phoebis sennae) as floral visitors. P. auriculatus flowers are self-compatible. However, this mistletoe is an obligate animal-pollinated species, as the sensitive stigma avoids self-pollination. Under natural conditions, reproductive success was higher than in manually selfed or cross-pollinated flowers, likely due to the traplining foraging behaviour of hummingbirds. We suggest that the apparent efficient foraging behaviour of hummingbirds maintains gene flow among P. auriculatus, promoting outcrossing.

  16. Estimation of calcium, magnesium, cadmium, and lead in biological samples from paralyzed quality control and production steel mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Shah, Faheem

    2015-06-01

    The determination of trace and toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of essential trace and toxic elements cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), and magnesium (Mg) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of male paralyzed production (PPW) and quality control workers (PQW) of a steel mill, age ranged (35-55 years). For comparison purposes, healthy age-matched exposed referent subjects (EC), working in steel mill and control subjects (NEC), who were not working in industries and lived far away from the industrial areas, were selected as control subjects. The concentrations of electrolytes and toxic elements in biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of PPW and PQW as compared to NEC and EC (p urine samples of PPW and PQW. The results show the need for immediate improvements in workplace, ventilation, and industrial hygiene practices.

  17. Sputtering effect of low-energy ions on biological target: The analysis of sputtering product of urea and capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lili [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, Xue [Rice Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nongke South Road 40, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Yuejin, E-mail: yjwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles. Recent years, ion implantation was successfully applied to biological research based on the fragments sputtering and form open paths in cell structure caused by ion sputtering. In this study, we focused on urea and chilli pepper pericarp samples implanted with N{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. To investigate the sputtering effect, we designed a collecting unit containing a disk sample and a glass pipe. The urea content and capsaicin content recovered from glass pipes were adopted to represent the sputtering product. The result of urea showed that the sputtering effect is positively correlated with the ion energy and dose, also affected by the ion type. The result of capsaicin was different from that of urea at 20 keV and possibly due to biological complex composition and structure. Therefore the sputtering yield depended on both the parameters of incident ions and the state of target materials. The sputtering yield of urea was also simulated by computational method achieved through the TRIM program. The trajectories of primary and recoiled atoms were calculated on the basis of the binary collision approximation using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results were much higher than the calculated results. The possible explanation is that in the physical model the target were assumed as a disordered lattice and independent atoms, which is much less complicated than that of the biological models.

  18. Sputtering effect of low-energy ions on biological target: The analysis of sputtering product of urea and capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Xu, Xue; Wu, Yuejin

    2013-08-01

    Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles. Recent years, ion implantation was successfully applied to biological research based on the fragments sputtering and form open paths in cell structure caused by ion sputtering. In this study, we focused on urea and chilli pepper pericarp samples implanted with N+ and Ar+ ions. To investigate the sputtering effect, we designed a collecting unit containing a disk sample and a glass pipe. The urea content and capsaicin content recovered from glass pipes were adopted to represent the sputtering product. The result of urea showed that the sputtering effect is positively correlated with the ion energy and dose, also affected by the ion type. The result of capsaicin was different from that of urea at 20 keV and possibly due to biological complex composition and structure. Therefore the sputtering yield depended on both the parameters of incident ions and the state of target materials. The sputtering yield of urea was also simulated by computational method achieved through the TRIM program. The trajectories of primary and recoiled atoms were calculated on the basis of the binary collision approximation using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results were much higher than the calculated results. The possible explanation is that in the physical model the target were assumed as a disordered lattice and independent atoms, which is much less complicated than that of the biological models.

  19. [Employee participation by patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthritis. Biologicals may have an effect on the loss of productivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Annelies; ter Wee, Marieke M

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the various types of spondylarthritis (SpA) contribute significantly to employee disability. Each of these inflammatory diseases has a great impact on physical and mental health, thereby restricting one's ability to participate in one's social roles. This may result in decreased productivity during working hours (sickness presenteeism), absenteeism and eventually, disablement, with financial consequences for the patient as well as society. By incorporating biologicals into treatment strategies, the health of patients with RA and SpA can be better regulated; however, the cost of such treatment has risen considerably. There are indications that part of these high treatment expenditures can be regained by improved employee productivity of these patients.

  20. Metal and metalloid containing natural products and a brief overview of their applications in biology, biotechnology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel A; Kouremenos, Konstantinos A; Beale, David J; Callahan, Damien L; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-02-01

    Bioinorganic natural product chemistry is a relatively unexplored but rapidly developing field with enormous potential for applications in biology, biotechnology (especially in regards to nanomaterial development, synthesis and environmental cleanup) and biomedicine. In this review the occurrence of metals and metalloids in natural products and their synthetic derivatives are reviewed. A broad overview of the area is provided followed by a discussion on the more common metals and metalloids found in natural sources, and an overview of the requirements for future research. Special attention is given to metal hyperaccumulating plants and their use in chemical synthesis and bioremediation, as well as the potential uses of metals and metalloids as therapeutic agents. The potential future applications and development in the field are also discussed.

  1. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PRODUCTS UPON THE GERMINATION CAPACITIES OF SMOOTH BROME SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The carrying out of uniform forage crops represents an important technological loop for all agricultural species. The uniformity of these crops is caused especially by seed germination capacity, respectively by plant emergence capacity, depending upon the climatic and technological conditions. With regards to the researches carried out in this direction, we present here the influence exerted by some biologically-active products, used through extra-root application during plant vegetation period, upon seeds submitted to germination. The observations performed on smooth brome seeds have led to the conclusion that the per cent of germinated seeds ranges from 82%, in the untreated control variant, to 87.67% in the variant treated with the product Stimupro.

  2. Exceptionally High Rates of Biological Hydrogen Production by Biomimetic In Vitro Synthetic Enzymatic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Jin; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-11-02

    Hydrogen production by water splitting energized by biomass sugars is one of the most promising technologies for distributed green H2 production. Direct H2 generation from NADPH, catalysed by an NADPH-dependent, soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase (SH1) is thermodynamically unfavourable, resulting in slow volumetric productivity. We designed the biomimetic electron transport chain from NADPH to H2 by the introduction of an oxygen-insensitive electron mediator benzyl viologen (BV) and an enzyme (NADPH rubredoxin oxidoreductase, NROR), catalysing electron transport between NADPH and BV. The H2 generation rates using this biomimetic chain increased by approximately five-fold compared to those catalysed only by SH1. The peak volumetric H2 productivity via the in vitro enzymatic pathway comprised of hyperthermophilic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconolactonase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, NROR, and SH1 was 310 mmol H2 /L h(-1) , the highest rate yet reported. The concept of biomimetic electron transport chains could be applied to both in vitro and in vivo H2 production biosystems and artificial photosynthesis.

  3. Biological hydrogen production of the genus Clostridium: Metabolic study and mathematical model simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wu, Yi-Ru; Ren, Wei-Jie; Hsiao, Chia-Jung; Li, Shiue-Lin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Whang, Liang-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center (SERC), National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China)

    2007-08-15

    The biochemical hydrogen potential (BHP) tests were conducted to investigate the metabolism of glucose fermentation and hydrogen production performance of four Clostridial species, including C. acetobutylicum M121, C. butyricum ATCC19398, C. tyrobutyricum FYa102, and C. beijerinckii L9. Batch experiments showed that all the tested strains fermented glucose, reduced medium pH from 7.2 to a value between 4.6 and 5.0, and produced butyrate (0.37-0.67 mmol/mmol-glucose) and acetate (0.34-0.42 mmol/mmol-glucose) as primary soluble metabolites. Meanwhile, a significant amount of hydrogen gas was produced accompanied with glucose degradation and acid production. Among the strains examined, C. beijerinckii L9 had the highest hydrogen production yield of 2.81 mmol/mmol-glucose. A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the metabolism of glucose fermentation of those Clostridium species in the batch cultures. The model, in general, was able to accurately describe the profile of glucose degradation as well as production of biomass, butyrate, acetate, ethanol, and hydrogen observed in the batch tests. In the glucose re-feeding experiments, the C. tyrobutyricum FYa102 and C. beijerinckii L9 isolates fermented additional glucose during re-feeding tests, producing a substantial amount of hydrogen. In contrast, C. butyricum ATCC19398 was unable to produce more hydrogen despite additional supply of glucose, presumably due to the metabolic shift from acetate/butyrate to lactate/ethanol production. (author)

  4. Chemo- and site-selective derivatizations of natural products enabling biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Omar; Romo, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive natural products and derivatives remain an enduring starting point for the discovery of new cellular targets for disease intervention and lead compounds for the development of new therapeutic agents. The former goal is accomplished through the synthesis of bioactive cellular probes from natural products, enabling insights into the mechanism of action of these natural products by classical affinity chromatography or more recent proteome profiling methods. However, the direct and selective modification of native natural products for these purposes remains a challenge due to the structural complexity and the wide functional group diversity found in these natural substances. The lack of selective synthetic methods available to directly manipulate unprotected complex small molecules, in particular to perform structure-activity relationship studies and prepare appropriate cellular probes, has recently begun to be addressed, benefitting from the broader emerging area of chemoselective synthetic methodology. Thus, new reagents, catalysts and reaction processes are enabling both chemo- and site-selective modifications of complex, native natural products. In this review, we describe selected recent examples of these functionalization strategies in this emerging area.

  5. Prospects of utilization of sugar beet carbohydrates for biological hydrogen production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, J.A.; Koukios, E.G. [Bioresource Technology Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens, GR-15700 (Greece); Bakker, R.R.; De Vrije, T.; Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Urbaniec, K. [CERED Centre of Excellence, Warsaw University of Technology, Jachowicza 2/4, 09-402 Plock (Poland)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen can be produced through dark anaerobic fermentation using carbohydrate-rich biomass, and through photofermentation using the organic acids produced from dark fermentation. Sugar beet is an ideal energy crop for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in the area. In this work, various aspects of cultivating sugar beet in the EU for biohydrogen were highlighted, with special focus on The Netherlands and Greece. Moreover, fermentation of sugar beet juice with Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was performed, and was found comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen production was 10% higher on sugar beet juice. A conservative estimate of the annual hydrogen potential in the EU was made (300x10{sup 6} kg hydrogen), considering the utilization of sugar beet pulp in hydrogen production.

  6. Biological hydrogen production from probiotic wastewater as substrate by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Biohydrogen production from probiotic wastewater using mixed anaerobic consortia is reported in this paper. Batch tests are carried out in a 5.0 L batch reactor under constant mesophillic temperature (37 C). The maximum hydrogen yield 1.8 mol-hydrogen/mol-carbohydrate is obtained at an optimum pH of 5.5 and substrate concentration 5 g/L. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 168 ml/h. The hydrogen content in the biogas is more than 65% and no significant methane is observed throughout the study. In addition to hydrogen, acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol are found to be the main by-products in the metabolism of hydrogen fermentation. (author)

  7. Kinetics of biological hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koku, Harun; Eroglu, I. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gunduz, U.; Yucel, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Biology; Turker, L. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-04-01

    The kinetics and the effects of various parameters on hydrogen production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001 were investigated in a batch column photobioreactor. In particular, the effect of the inoculum age and the implementation of a light-dark cycle illumination scheme for emulating natural sunlight have been investigated in detail. The possibility of using yeast extract to replace the rather expensive vitamin mixture in the medium was also studied. The results show that hydrogen production is decreased when the initially inoculated bacteria have a high culture age. Exposure of the bacterial culture to light-dark cycles increased the amount of hydrogen compared to continuous illumination, all other parameters remaining the same. Similarly, the use of yeast extract to replace the vitamins increased the growth and hydrogen production rates, however, with a slight reduction in the total amount of gas produced and the hydrogen fraction in the evolved gas. (Author)

  8. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  9. Effect of biological pretreatment of Agropyron elongatum 'BAMAR' on biogas production by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalak, Justyna; Kasprzycka, Agnieszka; Martyniak, Danuta; Tys, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of three different moisture contents (MC), at 45% MC, 65% MC, 75% MC, on the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during fungi treatment by Flammulina velutipes of Agropyron elongatum 'BAMAR' and on biogas production. The analysis of chemical composition shown that F. velutipes had greater selectivity for lignin biodegradation with the highest hemicellulose and lignin removal at 29.1% and 35.4%, respectively, and lowest cellulose removal (20.48%) at 65% MC. F. velutipes cultivated at 65% MC increased biogas production of 398.07Ndm(3)kg(-1)VS(-1), which was 120% higher than the untreated sample. These treatment conditions resulted in 134% more methane yield compared with untreated sample. The results of this study suggested that A. elongatum is a potential biomass for biogas production in agriculture biogas plant and white-rot fungus F. velutipes provides an effective methods for improve biodegradation of A. elongatum.

  10. Combined sulphur cycle based system of hydrogen production and biological treatment of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Li Wei; Lei, Lei; Ningbo, Yang; Wei, Yan

    2009-11-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate continuous hydrogen production with lower cost and sulphate-rich wastewater treatment. In this paper, both anaerobic bio-treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater and hydrogen production were applied to construct a laboratory-scale combined sulphur cycle based system. The system consisted of two reactors, which were a photocatalytic reactor and an anaerobic bioreactor, respectively. In the anaerobic bioreactor, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted SO4(2-) to S(2-). The produced S(2-) yielded by SRB was further used as a sacrificial reagent to produce H2 in the photocatalytic reactor. Then, S(2-) was changed into SO4(2-), which returned to the anaerobic bioreactor for treatment again. The present study highlighted an advantage compared with the conventional method, in that no extra S(2-) was added to the photocatalytic reactor, which reduced the total cost and realized continuous hydrogen production. The average COD removal efficiency was 79.6%.

  11. Effects of different culture conditions on biological potential and metabolites production in three Penicillium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Ćirić, Ana; Stojković, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is well known for its importance in drug and food production. Certain species are produced on an industrial scale for the production of antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) or for insertion in food (e.g. cheese). In the present work, three Penicillium species, part of the natural mycobiota growing on various food products were selected - P. ochrochloron, P. funiculosum and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium. The objective of our study was to value these species from the point of view of production of bioactive metabolites. The species were obtained after inoculation and growth in Czapek and Malt media. Both mycelia and culture media were analyzed to monitor the production of different metabolites by each fungus and their release to the culture medium. The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and tocopherols were determined. Antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, as also the antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, organic acids and tocopherols extracts. Rhamnose, xylose, fructose and trehalose were found in all the mycelia and culture media; the prevailing organic acids were oxalic and fumaric acids, and protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most common phenolic acids; γ-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E isoform. Generally, the phenolic extracts corresponding to the mycelia samples revealed higher antioxidant activity. Concerning the antimicrobial activity there were some fluctuations, however all the studied species revealed activity against the tested strains. Therefore, the in-vitro bioprocesses can be an alternative for the production of bioactive metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Carbon, oxygen and biological productivity in the Southern Ocean in and out the Kerguelen plume: CARIOCA drifter results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merlivat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerguelen Plateau region in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean supports annually a large-scale phytoplankton bloom which is naturally fertilized with iron. As part of the second Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study expedition (KEOPS2 in austral spring (October–November 2011, one Carioca buoy was deployed east of the Kerguelen plateau. It drifted eastward downstream in the Kerguelen plume. Hourly surface measurements of pCO2, O2 and ancillary observations were collected between 1 November 2011 to 12 February 2012 with the aim of characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of the biological Net Community Production (NCP downstream the Kerguelen plateau, assess the impact of iron-induced productivity on the biological carbon consumption and consequently on the CO2 flux exchanged at the air–sea interface. The trajectory of the buoy until mid-December was within the longitude range, 72–83° E, close to the polar front and then in the polar frontal zone, PFZ, until 97° E. From 17 November to 16 December, the buoy drifted within the Kerguelen plume following a filament carrying dissolved iron, DFe, for a total distance of 700 km. In the first part of the trajectory, the ocean surface waters are a sink for CO2 and a source for CO2, with fluxes of respective mean values equal to −8 and +38 mmol CO2 m−2 d−1. Eastward, as the buoy escapes the iron enriched filament, the fluxes are in opposite direction, with respective mean values of +5 and −48 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. These numbers clearly indicate the strong impact of biological processes on the biogeochemistry in the surface waters within the Kerguelen plume in November-mid-December, while it is undetectable eastward in the PFZ from mid-December to mid-February. While the buoy follows the Fe enriched filament, simultaneous observations of dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC, and dissolved oxygen, O2, highlight biological events lasting from 2 to 4 days. Stoichiometric

  13. BIOFILM FORMATION ON THE SURFACE OF MATERIALS AND MEDICAL PRODUCTS BY NOSOCOMIAL STRAINS ISOLATED FROM THE BIOLOGICAL SUBSTRATES OF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Nemets

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the ability of hospital-associated strains isolated from the biological substrates of patients oper- ated on under extracorporeal circulation, to form biofilms on the surface of medical materials and products. Materials and methods. The formation of biofilms of strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the biological substrates of patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation, on different surfaces (politetraftorotilen, medical poly- ethylene, Polyoxybutirate-to-valerate, silicone, polyvinyl chloride, was studied by a modified method for the surface of the medical materials and products. Results. The influence of the material nature, as well as hydrophi- lization of the surface, on the ability of hospital-associated strains, isolated from the biological substrates of pa- tients operated on under extracorporeal circulation, to form biofilms is studied. It is shown that that certain strains exhibit an increased tendency to biofilm formation on more hydrophobic surfaces, e. g., Acinetobacter spp. At the same time the activity of Staphylococcus aureus on silicon surface (hydrophobic surface is minimal. Other strains almost equally form biofilms on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces e.g. Serratia liquefaciens. It was also shown that the surface hydrophilization of PEG to 50% for all the studied strains leads to dramatic reduc- tion of biofilm formation. Conclusion. The tendency to form biofilms of a particular hospital-associated strain is individual and depends on the nature of the medical material and physical-chemical characteristics of its surface. Hydrophilization of the surface of the medical material is accompanied by a lowered risk of biofilm formation. 

  14. The Jordan Romero Case; A Biological Super Athlete or a Product of the Sport Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kipreos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many questions have arisen in regards to Jordan Romero’s climbing actions, in terms of ethics and legality. Although, he has already successfully climbed most of the highest summits, his last expedition to climb mountain Everest, has found strong opposition and criticism. Jordan’s decision to climb Everest, at the age of 13, comes into contradiction with the convention on Human Rights, the International Public Law, the climbing rules and regulations of Nepal, and the Law of U.S.A. What should also be put into reference is the fact that Romero’s pursuit violates the Article No. 1 in the Declaration of Tyrol 2002 (Mountaineering, which defines individual responsibility for the activities of the climber. This paper outlines the legal and ethical aspects of Jordan’s venture, taking into account the biological hazards.

  15. Reduction of Biological Sludge Production Applying an Alternating Oxic/anoxic Process in Water Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Anna Laura; Panigutti, Maximiliano; Battistoni, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Alternating oxic/anoxic process, applied for the main objective of the improvement of nitrogen performances, was studied in terms of secondary effect of biomass reduction. The process was carried out in one real water resource recovery facility and the data were compared with the previous conventional period when a conventional process was adopted. The main mechanism of the process for the sludge minimization is recognized in the metabolic uncoupling. In fact, an increase of the specific oxygen uptake rate in the biological reactor was recorded stimulated by the change of the oxidation reduction potential environment. Moreover, the heterotrophic growth yield was measured equal to 0.385 kgVSS/kgCOD. The global percentage of reduction was tested with the mass balance of solids. The process is able to decrease the observed sludge yield up to 20%. The specific energy consumption was evaluated.

  16. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  17. Training mechanical engineering students to utilize biological inspiration during product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Hugh A; Gershon, Alan L; Golden, Ira; Gupta, Satyandra K; Gyger, Lawrence S; Magrab, Edward B; Spranklin, Brent W

    2007-12-01

    The use of bio-inspiration for the development of new products and devices requires new educational tools for students consisting of appropriate design and manufacturing technologies, as well as curriculum. At the University of Maryland, new educational tools have been developed that introduce bio-inspired product realization to undergraduate mechanical engineering students. These tools include the development of a bio-inspired design repository, a concurrent fabrication and assembly manufacturing technology, a series of undergraduate curriculum modules and a new senior elective in the bio-inspired robotics area. This paper first presents an overview of the two new design and manufacturing technologies that enable students to realize bio-inspired products, and describes how these technologies are integrated into the undergraduate educational experience. Then, the undergraduate curriculum modules are presented, which provide students with the fundamental design and manufacturing principles needed to support bio-inspired product and device development. Finally, an elective bio-inspired robotics project course is present, which provides undergraduates with the opportunity to demonstrate the application of the knowledge acquired through the curriculum modules in their senior year using the new design and manufacturing technologies.

  18. Synthesis and biological properties of macrolactam analogs of the natural product macrolide (-)-A26771B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Sophie; Lépine, Renaud; Thys, Amber; Baron, Anne; Roche, Didier

    2011-08-15

    Promising synthetic derivatives of macrolactone natural product (-)-A26771B have been designed and synthesized both from semisynthesis and total synthesis. Further optimization led to the first synthesis of macrolactam analogs of (-)-A26771B with improved antibacterial activity and metabolic stability.

  19. Biological evaluation of tubulysin A: A potential anticancer and antiangiogenic natural product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Hollingshead, Melinda; Holbeck, Susan; Schauer-Vukašinović, Vesna; Camalier, Richard F.; Dömling, Alexander; Agarwal, Seema

    2006-01-01

    Tubulysin A (tubA) is a natural product isolated from a strain of myxobacteria that has been shown to depolymerize microtubules and induce mitotic arrest. The potential of tubA as an anticancer and antiangiogenic agent is explored in the present study. tubA shows potent antiproliferative activity in

  20. Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.